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Journal of Bioethical Inquiry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470503/stigma-and-self-stigma-in-addiction
#1
Steve Matthews, Robyn Dwyer, Anke Snoek
Addictions are commonly accompanied by a sense of shame or self-stigmatization. Self-stigmatization results from public stigmatization in a process leading to the internalization of the social opprobrium attaching to the negative stereotypes associated with addiction. We offer an account of how this process works in terms of a range of looping effects, and this leads to our main claim that for a significant range of cases public stigma figures in the social construction of addiction. This rests on a social constructivist account in which those affected by public stigmatization internalize its norms...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429203/regulating-the-new-a-consideration-of-crispr-and-approaches-to-professional-standards-of-practitioners-of-chinese-medicine-in-australia-and-accessing-the-ndis
#2
Barry R Furrow, Bernadette J Richards
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 20, 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353127/testicular-tissue-cryopreservation-and-ethical-considerations-a-scoping-review
#3
Angel Petropanagos
Testicular tissue cryopreservation (TTCP) aims to preserve the future option of genetic reproduction for prepubescent cancer patients who are at risk of infertility as a result of their cancer therapies. This technology is experimental and currently only offered in the research context. As TTCP moves towards becoming more widely available, it is imperative that healthcare providers recognize the complex ethical issues surrounding this technology. This scoping review study identifies and assesses the range and depth of ethical concerns related to this testicular tissue cryopreservation technology...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324205/levels-of-intervention-how-are-they-used-in-quebec-hospitals
#4
Marjolaine Frenette, Jocelyne Saint-Arnaud, Karim Serri
In order to promote better practices and communication around end-of-life decision-making, several Canadian hospitals in the province of Quebec have developed a tool called "Levels of Intervention" (LOI). No work to date has been published demonstrating improvement since these forms were implemented. The purpose of the present study was to obtain information about the use of LOI forms across Quebec hospitals and to identify gaps in practice as well as areas for improvement. A retrospective study was undertaken of 299 charts of patients who had died in three Quebec hospitals with a LOI ordered...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321561/ethics-and-epistemology-in-big-data-research
#5
Wendy Lipworth, Paul H Mason, Ian Kerridge, John P A Ioannidis
Biomedical innovation and translation are increasingly emphasizing research using "big data." The hope is that big data methods will both speed up research and make its results more applicable to "real-world" patients and health services. While big data research has been embraced by scientists, politicians, industry, and the public, numerous ethical, organizational, and technical/methodological concerns have also been raised. With respect to technical and methodological concerns, there is a view that these will be resolved through sophisticated information technologies, predictive algorithms, and data analysis techniques...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299587/how-sex-selection-undermines-reproductive-autonomy
#6
Tamara Kayali Browne
Non-medical sex selection is premised on the notion that the sexes are not interchangeable. Studies of individuals who undergo sex selection for non-medical reasons, or who have a preference for a son or daughter, show that they assume their child will conform to the stereotypical roles and norms associated with their sex. However, the evidence currently available has not succeeded in showing that the gender traits and inclinations sought are caused by a "male brain" or a "female brain". Therefore, as far as we know, there is no biological reason why parents cannot have the kind of parenting experience they seek with a child of any sex...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299586/race-research-and-the-ethics-of-belief
#7
Jonathan Anomaly
On most accounts, beliefs are supposed to fit the world rather than change it. But believing can have social consequences, since the beliefs we form underwrite our actions and impact our character. Because our beliefs affect how we live our lives and how we treat other people, it is surprising how little attention is usually given to the moral status of believing apart from its epistemic justification. In what follows, I develop a version of the harm principle that applies to beliefs as well as actions. In doing so, I challenge the often exaggerated distinction between forming beliefs and acting on them...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281090/against-cursory-treatments-in-ethics-of-medical-migration-from-underserved-countries
#8
Yusuf Yuksekdag
In a recent paper, Mpofu, Sen Gupta, and Hays (2016) attempt to outline the obligations of recruiting high-income countries (HICs) and would-be emigrant health workers (HWs) to tackle the effects of mass exodus of health workers from underserved regions. They reconstruct (i) Rawlsian and Kantian global justice approaches to argue for moral obligations of HICs and (ii) an individual justice approach to point to non-enforceable social responsibilities of HWs to assist their compatriots. This critical commentary demonstrates that the argumentation within their individual justice approach is problematic on the basis of three reasons: (1) their discussion under-theorizes and undervalues individual rights and more specifically the right to exit, (2) their argumentation in the latter part, even if problematically, does rather point to moral obligations in lieu of social responsibilities of HWs, and (3) they overlook many other important freedoms, interests, and values pertinent to the issue of retention...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265798/the-role-of-a-hospital-ethics-consultation-service-in-decision-making-for-unrepresented-patients
#9
Andrew M Courtwright, Joshua Abrams, Ellen M Robinson
Despite increased calls for hospital ethics committees to serve as default decision-makers about life-sustaining treatment (LST) for unrepresented patients who lack decision-making capacity or a surrogate decision-maker and whose wishes regarding medical care are not known, little is known about how committees currently function in these cases. This was a retrospective cohort study of all ethics committee consultations involving decision-making about LST for unrepresented patients at a large academic hospital from 2007 to 2013...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247203/discovering-the-neural-nature-of-moral-cognition-empirical-theoretical-and-practical-challenges-in-bioethical-research-with-electroencephalography-eeg
#10
Nils-Frederic Wagner, Pedro Chaves, Annemarie Wolff
In this article we critically review the neural mechanisms of moral cognition that have recently been studied via electroencephalography (EEG). Such studies promise to shed new light on traditional moral questions by helping us to understand how effective moral cognition is embodied in the brain. It has been argued that conflicting normative ethical theories require different cognitive features and can, accordingly, in a broadly conceived naturalistic attempt, be associated with different brain processes that are rooted in different brain networks and regions...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247202/ethical-and-regulatory-challenges-with-autologous-adult-stem-cells-a-comparative-review-of-international-regulations
#11
Tamra Lysaght, Ian H Kerridge, Douglas Sipp, Gerard Porter, Benjamin J Capps
Cell and tissue-based products, such as autologous adult stem cells, are being prescribed by physicians across the world for diseases and illnesses that they have neither been approved for or been demonstrated as safe and effective in formal clinical trials. These doctors often form part of informal transnational networks that exploit differences and similarities in the regulatory systems across geographical contexts. In this paper, we examine the regulatory infrastructure of five geographically diverse but socio-economically comparable countries with the aim of identifying similarities and differences in how these products are regulated and governed within clinical contexts...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247201/autonomy-and-reproductive-rights-of-married-ikwerre-women-in-rivers-state-nigeria
#12
Chitu Womehoma Princewill, Ayodele Samuel Jegede, Tenzin Wangmo, Anita Riecher-Rössler, Bernice Simone Elger
A woman's lack of or limited reproductive autonomy could lead to adverse health effects, feeling of being inferior, and above all being unable to adequately care for her children. Little is known about the reproductive autonomy of married Ikwerre women of Rivers State, Nigeria. This study demonstrates how Ikwerre women understand the terms autonomy and reproductive rights and what affects the exercise of these rights. An exploratory research design was employed for this study. A semi-structured interview schedule was used to conduct thirty-four in-depth interviews and six focus group discussions with purposively sampled educated, semi-educated, and uneducated Ikwerre women in monogamous or polygynous marriages...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236152/the-ninth-circle-who-and-what-do-we-trust-in-today-s-world
#13
EDITORIAL
Michael Ashby
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 24, 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144901/investigating-public-trust-in-expert-knowledge-narrative-ethics-and-engagement
#14
Silvia Camporesi, Maria Vaccarella, Mark Davis
"Public Trust in Expert Knowledge: Narrative, Ethics, and Engagement" examines the social, cultural, and ethical ramifications of changing public trust in the expert biomedical knowledge systems of emergent and complex global societies. This symposium was conceived as an interdisciplinary project, drawing on bioethics, the social sciences, and the medical humanities. We settled on public trust as a topic for our work together because its problematization cuts across our fields and substantive research interests...
March 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063105/the-moral-of-the-tale-stories-trust-and-public-engagement-with-clinical-ethics-via-radio-and-theatre
#15
Deborah Bowman
Trust is frequently discussed with reference to the professional-patient relationship. However, trust is less explored in relation to the ways in which understanding of, and responses to, questions of ethics are discussed by both the "public" and "experts." Public engagement activity in healthcare ethics may invoke "trust" in analysing a moral question or problem but less frequently conceives of trust as integral to "public engagement" itself. This paper explores the relationship between trust and the ways in which questions of healthcare ethics are identified and negotiated by both "experts" and the public...
March 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005251/investigating-trust-expertise-and-epistemic-injustice-in-chronic-pain
#16
Daniel Z Buchman, Anita Ho, Daniel S Goldberg
Trust is central to the therapeutic relationship, but the epistemic asymmetries between the expert healthcare provider and the patient make the patient, the trustor, vulnerable to the provider, the trustee. The narratives of pain sufferers provide helpful insights into the experience of pain at the juncture of trust, expert knowledge, and the therapeutic relationship. While stories of pain sufferers having their testimonies dismissed are well documented, pain sufferers continue to experience their testimonies as being epistemically downgraded...
March 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975156/how-should-we-respond-to-non-dominant-healing-practices-the-example-of-homeopathy
#17
Ben Gray
The debate around the ethics of homeopathy in recent issues of the journal has been approached as a binary question; is homeopathy ethical or not? This paper suggests that this is an unhelpful question and instead discusses a framework to establish the extent to which the dominant (medical) culture should tolerate non-dominant health practices such as homeopathy. This requires a sophisticated understanding of the placebo effect, a critical evaluation of what evidence is available, a consideration of the harm that the non-dominant practice might cause, and a consideration of how this might be affected by the culture of the patient...
March 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224271/the-perfect-womb-promoting-equality-of-fetal-opportunity
#18
Evie Kendal
This paper aims to address how artificial gestation might affect equality of opportunity for the unborn and any resultant generation of "ectogenetic" babies. It will first explore the current legal obstacles preventing the development of ectogenesis, before looking at the benefits of allowing this technology to control fetal growth and development. This will open up a discussion of the treatment/enhancement divide regarding the use of reproductive technologies, a topic featured in various bioethical debates on the subject...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220355/dutch-protocols-for-deliberately-ending-the-life-of-newborns-a-defence
#19
Matthew Tedesco
The Groningen Protocol, introduced in the Netherlands in 2005 and accompanied by revised guidelines published in a report commissioned by the Royal Dutch Medical Association in 2014, specifies conditions under which the lives of severely ill newborns may be deliberately ended. Its publication came four years after the Netherlands became the first nation to legalize the voluntary active euthanasia of adults, and the Netherlands remains the only country to offer a pathway to protecting physicians who might engage in deliberately ending the life of a newborn (DELN)...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205104/prestidigitation-vs-public-trust-or-how-we-can-learn-to-change-the-conversation-and-prevent-powers%C3%A2-from-organizing-the-discontent
#20
EDITORIAL
Leigh E Rich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
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