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Journal of Integrative Plant Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429873/sucrose-transporters-and-plasmodesmal-regulation-in-passive-phloem-loading
#1
Johannes Liesche
An essential step for the distribution of carbon throughout the whole plant is the loading of sugars into the phloem in source organs. In many plants, accumulation of sugars in the sieve element-companion cell (SE-CC) complex is mediated and regulated by active processes. However, for poplar and many other tree species, a passive symplasmic mechanism of phloem loading has been proposed, characterized by symplasmic continuity along the pre-phloem pathway and the absence of active sugar accumulation in the SE-CC complex...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429400/the-circadian-clock-component-lhy-tells-a-plant-when-to-respond-photosynthetically-to-light-in-nature
#2
Youngsung Joo, Variluska Fragoso, Felipe Yon, Ian T Baldwin, Sang-Gyu Kim
The circadian clock is known to increase plant growth and fitness, and thought to prepare plants for photosynthesis at dawn and dusk; whether this happens in nature was unknown. We transformed the native tobacco, Nicotiana attenuata to silence two core clock components, NaLHY (irLHY) and NaTOC1 (irTOC1). We characterized growth and light-and dark-adapted photosynthetic rates (Ac ) throughout a 24 h day in empty vector-transformed (EV), irLHY, and irTOC1 plants in the field, and in NaPhyA-and NaPhyB1-silenced plants in the glasshouse...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429397/natural-hybridization-and-reproductive-isolation-between-two-primula-species
#3
LETTER
Yanping Xie, Xingfu Zhu, Yongpeng Ma, Jianli Zhao, Li Li, Qingjun Li
Natural hybridization frequently occurs in plants and can facilitate gene flow between species, possibly resulting in species refusion. However, various reproductive barriers block the formation of hybrids and maintain species integrity. Here, we conducted a field survey to examine natural hybridization and reproductive isolation (RI) between sympatric populations of Primula secundiflora and P. poissonii using ten nuclear simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci. Although introgressive hybridization occurred, species boundaries between P...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422432/ja-but-not-ja-ile-is-the-cell-nonautonomous-signal-activating-ja-mediated-systemic-defenses-to-herbivory-in-nicotiana-attenuata
#4
Tohir A Bozorov, Son Truong Dinh, Ian T Baldwin
The whole-plant activation of defense responses to wounding and herbivory requires systemic signaling in which jasmonates (JAs) play a pivotal role. To examine the nature of the slower cell- nonautonomous as compared to the rapid cell-autonomous signal in mediating systemic defenses in Nicotiana attenuata, reciprocal stem grafting-experiments were used with plants silenced the JA biosynthetic gene ALLENE OXIDE CYCLASE (irAOC) or plants transformed to create JA sinks by ectopically expressing Arabidopsis JA-O-methyltransferase (ovJMT)...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418178/unfolded-protein-response-activation-compensates-er-associated-degradation-deficiency-in-arabidopsis
#5
Qingliang Li, Hai Wei, Lijing Liu, Xiaoyuan Yang, Xiansheng Zhang, Qi Xie
Abiotic stresses often disrupt protein folding and induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. There is a sophisticated ER quality control (ERQC) system to mitigate the effects of malfunctioning proteins and maintain ER homeostasis. The accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER activates the unfolded protein response (UPR) to enhance ER protein folding and the degradation of misfolded proteins mediate by ER-associated degradation (ERAD). That ERQC reduces abiotic stress damage has been well studied in mammals and yeast...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332291/arabidopsis-forehead-associated-domain-protein-3-negatively-regulates-peroxisome-division
#6
LETTER
Mintu Desai, Ronghui Pan, Jianping Hu
Peroxisomes are ubiquitous and dynamic eukaryotic organelles capable of altering their abundance in response to environmental and developmental cues, yet the regulatory mechanism of plant peroxisome division/proliferation is unclear. To identify transcriptional regulators of the peroxisome division factor gene PEX11b, we performed a nuclear pull-down experiment and identified Arabidopsis Forehead-Associated Domain Protein 3 (FHA3) as a novel protein that binds to the promoter of PEX11b. Our data supported the conclusion that, in contrast to the previously identified HY5 HOMOLOG (HYH) protein that promotes the transcription of PEX11b, FHA3 is a negative regulator of PEX11b expression and peroxisome division...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328106/the-plant-vascular-system-from-resource-allocation-inter-organ-communication-and-defense-to-evolution-of-the-monocot-cambium
#7
EDITORIAL
William J Lucas, Chun-Ming Liu
In recent years, considerable attention has been paid to exploring the complex gene regulatory networks involved in the development of the plant vascular system. Such information is crucial to our understanding of the molecular and cellular events which give rise to the integrated tissues of the xylem and phloem, leading to the formation of structurally continuous conduits that interconnect various organs of the plant. Vascular development begins in the embryo to form progenitor cells, and upon germination, these progenitor cells and their decedents in the shoot and root meristems will form phloem and xylem, and the cambium...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304135/transport-of-chemical-signals-in-systemic-acquired-resistance
#8
REVIEW
Archana Singh, Gah-Hyun Lim, Pradeep Kachroo
Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a form of broad-spectrum resistance induced in response to local infections that protects uninfected parts against subsequent secondary infections by related or unrelated pathogens. SAR signaling requires two parallel branches, one regulated by salicylic acid (SA), and the other by azelaic acid (AzA) and glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P). AzA and G3P function downstream of the free radicals nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). During SAR, SA, AzA, and G3P accumulate in the infected leaves, but only a small portion of these is transported to distal uninfected leaves...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304127/molecular-regulation-of-sucrose-catabolism-and-sugar-transport-for-development-defence-and-phloem-function
#9
REVIEW
Jun Li, Limin Wu, Ryan Foster, Yong-Ling Ruan
Sucrose (Suc) is the major end product of photosynthesis in mesophyll cells of most vascular plants. It is loaded into phloem of mature leaves for long-distance translocation to non-photosynthetic organs where it is unloaded for diverse uses. Clearly, Suc transport and metabolism is central to plant growth and development and the functionality of the entire vascular system. Despite of vast information in the literature about the physiological roles of individual sugar metabolic enzymes and transporters, there is a lack of systematic evaluation about their molecular regulation from transcriptional to post-translational levels...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304126/transcript-profiling-of-a-novel-plant-meristem-the-monocot-cambium
#10
Matthew Zinkgraf, Suzanne Gerttula, Andrew Groover
While monocots lack the ability to produce a vascular cambium or woody growth, some monocot lineages evolved a novel lateral meristem, the monocot cambium, which supports secondary radial growth of stems. In contrast to the vascular cambium found in woody angiosperm and gymnosperm species, the monocot cambium produces secondary vascular bundles, which have an amphivasal organization of tracheids encircling a central strand of phloem. Currently there is no information concerning the molecular genetic basis of the development or evolution of the monocot cambium...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296205/the-fungal-umsrt1-and-maize-zmsut1-sucrose-transporters-battle-for-plant-sugar-resources
#11
Anke Wittek, Ingo Dreyer, Khaled A S Al-Rasheid, Norbert Sauer, Rainer Hedrich, Dietmar Geiger
The biotrophic fungus Ustilago maydis causes the corn smut disease inducing tumor formation in its host Zea mays. Upon infection, the fungal hyphae invaginate the plasma membrane of infected maize cells establishing an interface where pathogen and host are separated only by their plasma membranes. At this interface the fungal and maize sucrose transporters, UmSrt1 and ZmSUT1, compete for extracellular sucrose in the corn smut/maize pathosystem. Here we biophysically characterized ZmSUT1 and UmSrt1 in Xenopus oocytes with respect to their voltage-, pH- and substrate-dependence and determined affinities towards protons and sucrose...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294536/acetylglutamate-kinase-is-required-for-both-gametophyte-function-and-embryo-development-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#12
Jie Huang, Dan Chen, Hailong Yan, Fei Xie, Ying Yu, Liyao Zhang, Mengxiang Sun, Xiongbo Peng
The specific functions of the genes encoding arginine biosynthesis enzymes in plants are not well characterized. We report the isolation and characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana N-acetylglutamate kinase (NAGK), which catalyzes the second step of arginine biosynthesis. NAGK is a plastid-localized protein and is expressed in most developmental processes in Arabidopsis. Heterologous expression of the Arabidopsis NAGK gene in a NAGK-deficient Escherichia coli strain fully bacterial growth on arginine-deficient medium...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296168/plant-xylem-hydraulics-what-we-understand-current-research-and-future-challenges
#13
Martin D Venturas, John S Sperry, Uwe G Hacke
Herein we review the current state-of-the-art of plant hydraulics in the context of plant physiology, ecology, and evolution, focusing on current and future research opportunities. We explain the physics of water transport in plants and the limits of this transport system, highlighting the relationships between xylem structure and function. We describe the great variety of techniques existing for evaluating xylem resistance to cavitation. We address several methodological issues and their connection with current debates on conduit refilling and exponential shape vulnerability curves...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296149/implications-of-nitrogen-phloem-loading-for-carbon-metabolism-and-transport-during-arabidopsis-development
#14
James P Santiago, Mechthild Tegeder
Metabolite transport processes and primary metabolism are highly interconnected. This study examined the importance of source-to-sink nitrogen partitioning, and associated nitrogen metabolism, for carbon capture, transport and usage. Specifically, Arabidopsis aap8 (AMINO ACID PERMEASE 8) mutant lines were analyzed to resolve the consequences of reduced amino acid phloem loading for source leaf carbon metabolism, sucrose phloem transport and sink development during vegetative and reproductive growth phase. Results showed that decreased amino acid transport had a negative effect on sink development of aap8 lines throughout the life cycle leading to an overall decrease in plant biomass...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276639/what-actually-is-the-m%C3%A3-nch-hypothesis-a-short-history-of-assimilate-transport-by-mass-flow
#15
REVIEW
Michael Knoblauch, Winfried S Peters
In the 1920ies, the German forestry scientists Ernst Münch postulated that photo-assimilate transport is a mass flow driven by osmotically-induced pressure gradients between source organs (high turgor) and sink organs (lower turgor). Two crucial components of Münch's hypothesis, the translocation by mass flow from sources to sinks and the osmotic mechanism of pressure flow, were established notions at the time, but had been developed by two institutionally separated groups of scholars. A conceptual separation of whole-plant biology from cellular physiology had followed the institutional separation of forestry science from botany in German-speaking central Europe during the so-called Humboldtian reforms, and was reinforced by the delayed institutionalization of plant physiology as an academic discipline...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267270/a-zinc-finger-protein-interacted-with-cyclophilin-affects-root-development-via-iaa-pathway-in-rice
#16
Peng Cui, Hongbo Liu, Songlin Ruan, Basharat Ali, Rafaqat Ali Gill, Huasheng Ma, Zhifu Zheng, Weijun Zhou
The plant hormone auxin plays a crucial role in lateral root development. To better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying lateral root formation, an auxin-responsive gene OsCYP2 (Os02g0121300) was characterized from rice. Compared to the wild type, OsCYP2-RNAi lines exhibited distinctive defects in lateral root development. Yeast two-hybrid and GST pull-down results confirmed that OsCYP2 interacted with a C2HC-type zinc finger protein (OsZFP, Os01g0252900) which is located in the rice nucleus. T2 OsZFP-RNAi lines had significantly fewer lateral roots than did wild type plants, which suggests a role for OsCYP2 and OsZFP in regulating lateral root development...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263025/poly-adp-ribose-polymerases-regulate-cell-division-and-development-in-arabidopsis-roots
#17
Caifeng Liu, Qiao Wu, Weiwei Liu, Zongyin Gu, Wenjing Wang, Ping Xu, Hong Ma, Xiaochun Ge
Root organogenesis involves cell division, differentiation and expansion. The molecular mechanisms regulating root development are not fully understood. In this study, we identified poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) as new players in root development. PARP catalyzes poly (ADP-ribosyl)ation of proteins by repeatedly adding ADP-ribose units onto proteins using nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+) ) as the donor. We found that inhibition of PARP activities by 3-aminobenzomide (3-AB) increased the growth rates of both primary and lateral roots, leading to a more developed root system...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225199/bik1-cooperates-with-bak1-to-regulate-constitutive-immunity-and-cell-death-in-arabidopsis
#18
LETTER
Jun Liu, Sufen Chen, Lijuan Chen, Qi Zhou, Menglong Wang, Dongru Feng, Jian-Feng Li, Jinfa Wang, Hong-Bin Wang, Bing Liu
In Arabidopsis, both the membrane-anchored Receptor-like kinase (RLK) BAK1 and the Receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase (RLCK) BIK1 are important mediators of transmembrane signal transduction that regulate plant development and immunity. Little attention, however, has been paid to their genetic association. This study found the bak1 bik1 double mutant of Arabidopsis displayed a severe dwarfism phenotype due to constitutive immunity and cell death in developing plants. These data suggest that BIK1 cooperates with BAK1 to regulate constitutive immunity and cell death...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206710/sucrose-transporter2-contributes-to-maize-growth-development-and-crop-yield
#19
Kristen A Leach, Thu M Tran, Thomas L Slewinski, Robert B Meeley, David M Braun
During daylight, plants produce excess photosynthates, including sucrose, which is temporarily stored in the vacuole. At night, plants remobilize sucrose to sustain metabolism and growth. Based on homology to other sucrose transporter (SUT) proteins, we hypothesized the maize (Zea mays) SUCROSE TRANSPORTER2 (ZmSUT2) protein functions as a sucrose/H(+) symporter on the vacuolar membrane to export transiently stored sucrose. To understand the biological role of ZmSut2, we examined its spatial and temporal gene expression, determined the protein subcellular localization, and characterized loss-of-function mutations...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198146/tonoplast-targeting-of-vha-a3-relies-on-a-rab5-mediated-but-rab7-independent-vacuolar-trafficking-route
#20
LETTER
Qiang-Nan Feng, Yan Zhang, Sha Li
Vacuolar trafficking routes and their regulators have recently draw lots of attention in plant cell biology. A recent study reported the discovery of a plant-specific vacuolar trafficking route, i.e. a direct ER-to-vacuole route, through analysis of VHA-a3 subcellular targeting, a key component for the tonoplast V-ATPases. Our recent findings showed that VHA-a3 targets to the tonoplast through a Rab5-mediated but Rab7-independent pathway, shedding new lights on the unconventional vacuolar trafficking route in plant cells...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
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