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Purinergic Signalling

Anna Bin, Valentina Caputi, Michela Bistoletti, Monica Montopoli, Rocchina Colucci, Luca Antonioli, Sara De Martin, Ignazio Castagliuolo, Genny Orso, Cristina Giaroni, Patrizia Debetto, Maria Cecilia Giron
Adenosine is a versatile signaling molecule recognized to physiologically influence gut motor functions. Both the duration and magnitude of adenosine signaling in enteric neuromuscular function depend on its availability, which is regulated by the ecto-enzymes ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73), alkaline phosphatase (AP), and ecto-adenosine deaminase (ADA) and by dipyridamole-sensitive equilibrative transporters (ENTs). Our purpose was to assess the involvement of CD73, APs, ecto-ADA in the formation of AMP-derived adenosine in primary cultures of ileal myofibroblasts (IMFs)...
September 29, 2018: Purinergic Signalling
Stephanie Kuhn, Katrin Splith, Cindy Ballschuh, Linda Feldbrügge, Felix Krenzien, Georgi Atanasov, Christian Benzing, Hans-Michael Hau, Cornelius Engelmann, Thomas Berg, Jan Schulte Am Esch, Johann Pratschke, Simon C Robson, Moritz Schmelzle
Plasma microparticles (MP) bear functional active ectonucleotidases of the CD39 family with implications in vascular inflammation. MP appear to be able to fuse with cells and transfer genetic information. Here, we tested whether levels of different immunomodulatory microRNAs (miRs) in plasma MP are modulated by CD39 after experimental hepatectomy. We further investigated whether horizontal transfer of miR-142-3p between mononuclear (MNC) and endothelial cells via MP is regulated by purinergic signaling. Partial hepatectomy was performed in C57BL/6 wild type and Cd39 null mice...
September 22, 2018: Purinergic Signalling
Jesús Pintor
The recent discovery of the photoreceptor melanopsin in lens epithelial cells has opened the possibility of modulating this protein by light stimulation. Experiments carried out on New Zealand white rabbits have demonstrated that the release of ATP from the lens to the aqueous humor can be reduced either when a yellow filter or a melanopsin antagonist is used. Compared to control (1.10 ± 0.15 μM ATP), the application of a yellow filter (λ465-480) reduced ATP in the aqueous humor 70%, while the melanopsin antagonist AA92593 reduced the presence of ATP 63% (n = 5), an effect which was also obtained with the PLC inhibitor U73122...
September 20, 2018: Purinergic Signalling
Daniela F Passos, Viviane M Bernardes, Jean L G da Silva, Maria R C Schetinger, Daniela Bitencourt Rosa Leal
Infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), which has devastating effects on the host immune system. HIV entry into host cells and subsequent viral replication induce a proinflammatory response, hyperactivating immune cells and leading them to death, disfunction, and exhaustion. Adenosine is an immunomodulatory molecule that suppresses immune cell function to protect tissue integrity. The anti-inflammatory properties of adenosine modulate the chronic inflammation and immune activation caused by HIV...
August 10, 2018: Purinergic Signalling
Tomasz Grygorowicz, Beata Dąbrowska-Bouta, Lidia Strużyńska
Purinergic P2X receptors, when activated under pathological conditions, participate in induction of the inflammatory response and/or cell death. Both neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration represent hallmarks of multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. In the current study, we examined whether P2X7R is expressed in brain microvasculature of rats subjected to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and explore possible relationships with blood-brain barrier (BBB) protein-claudin-5 after administration of P2X7R antagonist-Brilliant Blue G (BBG)...
August 8, 2018: Purinergic Signalling
Seema Ali, Jeremy Turner, Samuel J Fountain
Adipose tissue contains self-renewing multipotent cells termed mesenchymal stromal cells. In situ, these cells serve to expand adipose tissue by adipogenesis, but their multipotency has gained interest for use in tissue regeneration. Little is known regarding the repertoire of receptors expressed by adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (AD-MSCs). The purpose of this study was to undertake a comprehensive analysis of purinergic receptor expression. Mesenchymal stromal cells were isolated from human subcutaneous adipose tissue and confirmed by flow cytometry...
August 7, 2018: Purinergic Signalling
Ya-Feng Zhou, Xiao-Ming Ying, Xiao-Fen He, Sheng-Yun Shou, Jun-Jun Wei, Zhao-Xia Tai, Xiao-Mei Shao, Yi Liang, Fang Fang, Jian-Qiao Fang, Yong-Liang Jiang
Painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) is a common and troublesome diabetes complication. Protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated dorsal root ganglia (DRG) P2X3 receptor upregulation is one important mechanism underlying PDN. Accumulating evidence demonstrated that electroacupuncture (EA) at low frequency could effectively attenuate neuropathic pain. Our previous study showed that 2-Hz EA could relieve pain well in PDN. The study aimed to investigate whether 2-Hz EA relieves pain in PDN through suppressing PKC-mediated DRG P2X3 receptor upregulation...
August 7, 2018: Purinergic Signalling
Jingjing Guo, Xuan Sheng, Yu Dan, Yurong Xu, Yuanruohan Zhang, Huihong Ji, Jiayue Wang, Zixi Xu, Hongyu Che, Guodong Li, Shangdong Liang, Guilin Li
Diabetes as a chronic epidemic disease with obvious symptom of hyperglycemia is seriously affecting human health globally due to the diverse diabetic complications. Diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (DCAN) is a common complication of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes and incurs high morbidity and mortality. However, the underlying mechanism for DCAN is unclear. It is well known that purinergic signaling is involved in the regulation of cardiovascular function. In this study, we examined whether the P2Y12 receptor could mediate DCAN-induced sympathetic reflexes...
August 6, 2018: Purinergic Signalling
Parichat Sureechatchaiyan, Alexandra Hamacher, Nicole Brockmann, Bjoern Stork, Matthias U Kassack
Ovarian cancer is the deadliest gynecologic cancer due to lack of early effective diagnosis and development of resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy. Several studies reported that adenosine concentrations are higher in tumor microenvironment than in non-tumor tissue. This finding inspired us to study the role of adenosine in ovarian cancer cells and to investigate if adenosine pathways offer new treatment options urgently needed to prevent or overcome chemoresistance. The ovarian cancer cell lines HEY, A2780, and its cisplatin-resistant subline A2780CisR were used in this study...
August 4, 2018: Purinergic Signalling
Geoff Burnstock
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Purinergic Signalling
Tali Fishman Jacob, Vijay Singh, Mudit Dixit, Tamar Ginsburg-Shmuel, Begoña Fonseca, Jesus Pintor, Moussa B H Youdim, Dan T Major, Orly Weinreb, Bilha Fischer
Extracellular nucleotides can regulate the production/drainage of the aqueous humor via activation of P2 receptors, thus affecting the intraocular pressure (IOP). We evaluated 5-OMe-UDP(α-B), 1A, a potent P2Y6-receptor agonist, for reducing IOP and treating glaucoma. Cell viability in the presence of 1A was measured using [3-(4, 5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl) 2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide] (MTT) assay in rabbit NPE ciliary non-pigmented and corneal epithelial cells, human retinoblastoma, and liver Huh7 cells...
September 2018: Purinergic Signalling
Ruihua Ji, Jiao Zhu, Dan Wang, Qian-Qian Sui, Gillian E Knight, Geoffrey Burnstock, Hongbin Yuan, Zhenghua Xiang
With immunohistochemical and Western blot techniques, P2X1 receptors were detected in the whole mouse gastrointestinal tract and pancreatic islets of mouse and human. (1) δ Cells containing somatostatin (SOM) in the stomach corpus, small intestines, distal colon, pancreatic islets of both mouse and human express P2X1 receptors; (2) strong immunofluorescence of P2X1 receptors was detected in smooth muscle fibers and capillary networks of the villus core of mouse intestine; and (3) P2X1 receptor-immunoreactive neurons were also detected widely in both mouse myenteric and submucosal plexuses, all of which express SOM...
September 2018: Purinergic Signalling
María J Pérez de Lara, Ana Guzmán-Aranguez, Rosa Gómez-Villafuertes, Javier Gualix, María Teresa Miras-Portugal, Jesús Pintor
The pathogenesis of glaucoma involves numerous intracellular mechanisms including the purinergic system contribution. Furthermore, the presence and release of nucleotides and dinucleotides during the glaucomatous damage and the maintenance of degradation machinery through ecto-nucleotidase activity are participating in the modulation of the suitable extracellular complex balance. The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4 A) and the pattern of ecto-nucleotidase activity expression in glaucomatous retinas during the progress the pathology...
September 2018: Purinergic Signalling
Hitoshi Tanigawa, Futoshi Toyoda, Kosuke Kumagai, Noriaki Okumura, Tsutomu Maeda, Hiroshi Matsuura, Shinji Imai
Extracellular ATP regulates various cellular functions by engaging multiple subtypes of P2 purinergic receptors. In many cell types, the ionotropic P2X7 receptor mediates pathological events such as inflammation and cell death. However, the importance of this receptor in chondrocytes remains largely unexplored. Here, we report the functional identification of P2X7 receptor in articular chondrocytes and investigate the involvement of P2X7 receptors in ATP-induced cytotoxicity. Chondrocytes were isolated from rabbit articular cartilage, and P2X7 receptor currents were examined using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique...
September 2018: Purinergic Signalling
Geoff Burnstock
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 6, 2018: Purinergic Signalling
Camila Marques-da-Silva, Mariana M Chaves, Maria Luiza Thorstenberg, Vanessa R Figliuolo, Flávia S Vieira, Suzana P Chaves, José Roberto Meyer-Fernandes, Bartira Rossi-Bergmann, Luiz Eduardo Baggio Savio, Robson Coutinho-Silva
Leishmania amazonensis is the etiologic agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis, an immune-driven disease causing a range of clinical symptoms. Infections caused by L. amazonensis suppress the activation and function of immune cells, including macrophages, dendritic cells, and CD4+ T cells. In this study, we analyzed the course of infection as well as the leishmanicidal effect of intralesional UTP treatment in L. amazonensis-infected BALB/c mice. We found that UTP treatment reduced the parasitic load in both footpad and lymph node sites of infection...
June 2018: Purinergic Signalling
Mélanie Gaubert, Marion Marlinge, Marine Alessandrini, Marc Laine, Laurent Bonello, Julien Fromonot, Jennifer Cautela, Franck Thuny, Jeremie Barraud, Giovanna Mottola, Pascal Rossi, Emmanuel Fenouillet, Jean Ruf, Régis Guieu, Franck Paganelli
The role of serum uric acid in coronary artery disease has been extensively investigated. It was suggested that serum uric acid level (SUA) is an independent predictor of endothelial dysfunction and related to coronary artery lesions. However, the relationship between SUA and severity of coronary atherosclerosis evaluated via endothelial dysfunction using peripheral arterial tone (PAT) and the reactive hyperhemia index (RHI) has not been investigated during a first episode of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The aim of our study was to address this point...
June 2018: Purinergic Signalling
Geoffrey Burnstock, Daniela Gentile
Obesity is a growing worldwide health problem, with an alarming increasing prevalence in developed countries, caused by a dysregulation of energy balance. Currently, no wholly successful pharmacological treatments are available for obesity and related adverse consequences. In recent years, hints obtained from several experimental animal models support the notion that purinergic signalling, acting through ATP-gated ion channels (P2X), G protein-coupled receptors (P2Y) and adenosine receptors (P1), is involved in obesity, both at peripheral and central levels...
June 2018: Purinergic Signalling
A M Rodrigues, R S Serralha, C Farias, G R Punaro, M J S Fernandes, Elisa Mieko Suemitsu Higa
Diabetes mellitus is characterized by increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to high levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and the activation of purinergic receptors (P2X7 ), which results in cell death. Klotho was recently described as a modulator of oxidative stress and as having anti-apoptotic properties, among others. However, the roles of P2X7 and klotho in the progression of diabetic nephropathy are still unclear. In this context, the aim of the present study was to characterize P2X7 and klotho in several stages of diabetes in rats...
June 2018: Purinergic Signalling
Hye Min Lim, Woon Heo, Jung Woo Han, Min Goo Lee, Joo Young Kim
The movement of microglia is regulated mainly by P1 and P2 purinergic receptors, which are activated by various nucleotides and their metabolites. Recently, such purinergic signalling has been spotlighted because of potential roles in the pathophysiologies of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders. To understand the characteristics of microglia in relation of P1 and P2 signalling, we investigated the ectoenzymes expressed in microglia. At first, we profiled the expression of all known ectoenzymes in cultured microglia...
June 2018: Purinergic Signalling
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