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Purinergic Signalling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626320/uric-acid-levels-are-associated-with-endothelial-dysfunction-and-severity-of-coronary-atherosclerosis-during-a-first-episode-of-acute-coronary-syndrome
#1
Mélanie Gaubert, Marion Marlinge, Marine Alessandrini, Marc Laine, Laurent Bonello, Julien Fromonot, Jennifer Cautela, Franck Thuny, Jeremie Barraud, Giovanna Mottola, Pascal Rossi, Emmanuel Fenouillet, Jean Ruf, Régis Guieu, Franck Paganelli
The role of serum uric acid in coronary artery disease has been extensively investigated. It was suggested that serum uric acid level (SUA) is an independent predictor of endothelial dysfunction and related to coronary artery lesions. However, the relationship between SUA and severity of coronary atherosclerosis evaluated via endothelial dysfunction using peripheral arterial tone (PAT) and the reactive hyperhemia index (RHI) has not been investigated during a first episode of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The aim of our study was to address this point...
April 6, 2018: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619754/the-involvement-of-purinergic-signalling-in-obesity
#2
REVIEW
Geoffrey Burnstock, Daniela Gentile
Obesity is a growing worldwide health problem, with an alarming increasing prevalence in developed countries, caused by a dysregulation of energy balance. Currently, no wholly successful pharmacological treatments are available for obesity and related adverse consequences. In recent years, hints obtained from several experimental animal models support the notion that purinergic signalling, acting through ATP-gated ion channels (P2X), G protein-coupled receptors (P2Y) and adenosine receptors (P1), is involved in obesity, both at peripheral and central levels...
April 4, 2018: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541926/p2x-7-receptor-and-klotho-expressions-in-diabetic-nephropathy-progression
#3
A M Rodrigues, R S Serralha, C Farias, G R Punaro, M J S Fernandes, Elisa Mieko Suemitsu Higa
Diabetes mellitus is characterized by increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to high levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and the activation of purinergic receptors (P2X7 ), which results in cell death. Klotho was recently described as a modulator of oxidative stress and as having anti-apoptotic properties, among others. However, the roles of P2X7 and klotho in the progression of diabetic nephropathy are still unclear. In this context, the aim of the present study was to characterize P2X7 and klotho in several stages of diabetes in rats...
March 14, 2018: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516286/npp1-is-responsible-for-potent-extracellular-atp-hydrolysis-as-ntpdase1-in-primary-cultured-murine-microglia
#4
Hye Min Lim, Woon Heo, Jung Woo Han, Min Goo Lee, Joo Young Kim
The movement of microglia is regulated mainly by P1 and P2 purinergic receptors, which are activated by various nucleotides and their metabolites. Recently, such purinergic signalling has been spotlighted because of potential roles in the pathophysiologies of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders. To understand the characteristics of microglia in relation of P1 and P2 signalling, we investigated the ectoenzymes expressed in microglia. At first, we profiled the expression of all known ectoenzymes in cultured microglia...
March 7, 2018: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492786/functional-coupling-between-adenosine-a-1-receptors-and-g-proteins-in-rat-and-postmortem-human-brain-membranes-determined-with-conventional-guanosine-5-o-3-35-s-thio-triphosphate-35-s-gtp%C3%AE-s-binding-or-35-s-gtp%C3%AE-s-immunoprecipitation-assay
#5
Yuji Odagaki, Masakazu Kinoshita, Toshio Ota, J Javier Meana, Luis F Callado, Isao Matsuoka, Jesús A García-Sevilla
Adenosine signaling plays a complex role in multiple physiological processes in the brain, and its dysfunction has been implicated in pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia and affective disorders. In the present study, the coupling between adenosine A1 receptor and G-protein was assessed by means of two [35 S]GTPγS binding assays, i.e., conventional filtration method and [35 S]GTPγS binding/immunoprecipitation in rat and human brain membranes. The latter method provides information about adenosine A1 receptor-mediated Gαi-3 activation in rat as well as human brain membranes...
February 28, 2018: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290027/n-terminal-tagging-of-human-p2x7-receptor-disturbs-calcium-influx-and-dye-uptake
#6
Karin Dreisig, Nikolaj Pagh Kristensen, Maja Wallentin Dommer, Niklas Rye Jørgensen, Birgitte Rahbek Kornum
The P2X7 receptor is a frequently studied member of the purinergic receptor family signalling via channel opening and membrane pore formation. Fluorescent imaging is an important molecular method for studying cellular receptor expression and localization. Fusion of receptors to fluorescent proteins might cause major functional changes and requires careful functional evaluation such as has been done for the rat P2X7 receptor. This study examines fusion constructs of the human P2X7 receptor. We assessed surface expression, channel opening with calcium influx, and pore formation using YO-PRO-1 dye uptake in response to BzATP stimulation in transfected cells...
March 2018: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236227/loss-of-vascular-expression-of-nucleoside-triphosphate-diphosphohydrolase-1-cd39-in-hypertension
#7
Charlotte Roy, Julie Tabiasco, Antoine Caillon, Yves Delneste, Jean Merot, Julie Favre, Anne Laure Guihot, Ludovic Martin, Daniele C Nascimento, Bernhard Ryffel, Simon C Robson, Jean Sévigny, Daniel Henrion, Gilles Kauffenstein
Ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-1, the major vascular/immune ectonucleotidase, exerts anti-thrombotic and immunomodulatory actions by hydrolyzing extracellular nucleotides (danger signals). Hypertension is characterized by vascular wall remodeling, endothelial dysfunction, and immune infiltration. Here our aim was to investigate the impact of arterial hypertension on CD39 expression and activity in mice. Arterial expression of CD39 was determined by reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR in experimental models of hypertension, including angiotensin II (AngII)-treated mice (1 mg/kg/day, 21 days), deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt mice (1% salt and uninephrectomy, 21 days), and spontaneously hypertensive rats...
March 2018: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29086245/myeloid-p2y2-receptor-promotes-acute-inflammation-but-is-dispensable-for-chronic-high-fat-diet-induced-metabolic-dysfunction
#8
Samantha E Adamson, Garren Montgomery, Scott A Seaman, Shayn M Peirce-Cottler, Norbert Leitinger
The purinergic receptor P2Y2 binds ATP to control chemotaxis of myeloid cells, and global P2Y2 receptor knockout mice are protected in models of acute inflammation. Chronic inflammation mediated by macrophages and other immune cells in adipose tissue contributes to the development of insulin resistance. Here, we investigate whether mice lacking P2Y2 receptors on myeloid cells are protected against acute and chronic inflammation. Wild-type mice were transplanted with either wild-type or P2Y2 receptor null bone marrow and treated with a sublethal dose of endotoxin as a model of acute inflammation, or fed a high-fat diet to induce obesity and insulin resistance as a model of chronic inflammation...
March 2018: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349673/pharmacological-dissection-of-the-cellular-mechanisms-associated-to-the-spontaneous-and-the-mechanically-stimulated-atp-release-by-mesentery-endothelial-cells-roles-of-thrombin-and-trpv
#9
M Verónica Donoso, Felipe Hernández, Tania Villalón, Claudio Acuña-Castillo, J Pablo Huidobro-Toro
Endothelial cells participate in extracellular ATP release elicited by mechanosensors. To characterize the dynamic interactions between mechanical and chemical factors that modulate ATP secretion by the endothelium, we assessed and compared the mechanisms participating in the spontaneous (basal) and mechanically stimulated secretion using primary cultures of rat mesentery endothelial cells. ATP/metabolites were determined in the cell media prior to (basal) and after cell media displacement or a picospritzer buffer puff used as mechanical stimuli...
January 19, 2018: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332180/cd39-adenosinergic-axis-in-renal-pathophysiology-and-therapeutics
#10
REVIEW
Bellamkonda K Kishore, Simon C Robson, Karen M Dwyer
Extracellular ATP interacts with purinergic type 2 (P2) receptors and elicits many crucial biological functions. Extracellular ATP is sequentially hydrolyzed to ADP and AMP by the actions of defined nucleotidases, such as CD39, and AMP is converted to adenosine, largely by CD73, an ecto-5'-nucleotidase. Extracellular adenosine interacts with P1 receptors and often opposes the effects of P2 receptor activation. The balance between extracellular ATP and adenosine in the blood and extracellular fluid is regulated chiefly by the activities of CD39 and CD73, which constitute the CD39-adenosinergic axis...
January 13, 2018: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322373/epac-is-required-for-exogenous-and-endogenous-stimulation-of-adenosine-a-2b-receptor-for-inhibition-of-angiotensin-ii-induced-collagen-synthesis-and-myofibroblast-differentiation
#11
Sarawuth Phosri, Kwanchai Bunrukchai, Warisara Parichatikanond, Vilasinee H Sato, Supachoke Mangmool
Angiotensin II (Ang II) plays an important role on the pathogenesis of cardiac fibrosis. Prolong and overstimulation of angiotensin II type 1 receptor with Ang II-induced collagen synthesis and myofibroblast differentiation in cardiac fibroblasts, leading to cardiac fibrosis. Although adenosine and its analogues are known to have cardioprotective effects, the mechanistic by which adenosine A2 receptors (A2 Rs) inhibit Ang II-induced cardiac fibrosis is not clearly understood. In the present study, we examined the effects of exogenous adenosine and endogenous adenosine on Ang II-induced collagen and myofibroblast differentiation determined by α-smooth muscle action (α-SMA) overexpression and their underlying signal transduction...
January 10, 2018: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022161/pom-1-inhibits-p2-receptors-and-exhibits-anti-inflammatory-effects-in-macrophages
#12
Gabriela Pimenta-Dos-Reis, Eduardo José Lopes Torres, Paula Gabriela Quintana, Lincon Onorio Vidal, Bárbara Andréa Fortes Dos Santos, Chuan-Sheng Lin, Norton Heise, Pedro Muanis Persechini, Julieta Schachter
Extracellular nucleotides can modulate the immunological response by activating purinergic receptors (P2Rs) on the cell surface of macrophages, dendritic, and other immune cells. In particular, the activation of P2X7R can induce release of cytokines and cell death as well as the uptake of large molecules through the cell membrane by a mechanism still poorly understood. Polyoxotungstate-1 (POM-1) has been proposed as a potent inhibitor of ecto-nucleotidases, enzymes that hydrolyze extracellular nucleotides, regulating the activity of P2Rs...
December 2017: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956227/various-n-glycoforms-differentially-upregulate-e-ntpdase-activity-of-the-ntpdase3-cd39l3-ecto-enzymatic-domain
#13
Alexander H Zhong, Z Gordon Jiang, Richard D Cummings, Simon C Robson
The GDA1/CD39 ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphosphohydrolase (E-NTPDase) superfamily is a group of eight heavily glycosylated ecto-enzymes that hydrolyze extracellular nucleosides di- and tri-phosphates in the presence of divalent cations, to generate the monophosphate derivatives. This catalytic process differentially regulates a complex array of purinergic signaling responses. NTPDase3/CD39L3is dominantly expressed in pancreatic islet cells, where it may regulate insulin secretion, and has seven N-linked glycosylation sites with four close to five highly conserved domains called "apyrase conserved regions" (ACRs)...
December 2017: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929376/divergent-coronary-flow-responses-to-uridine-adenosine-tetraphosphate-in-atherosclerotic-apoe-knockout-mice
#14
Bunyen Teng, Hicham Labazi, Changyan Sun, Yan Yang, Xiaorong Zeng, S Jamal Mustafa, Zhichao Zhou
Uridine adenosine tetraphosphate (Up4 A) exerts potent relaxation in porcine coronary arteries that is reduced following myocardial infarction, suggesting a crucial role for Up4 A in the regulation of coronary flow (CF) in cardiovascular disorders. We evaluated the vasoactive effects of Up4 A on CF in atherosclerosis using ApoE knockout (KO) mice ex vivo and in vivo. Functional studies were conducted in isolated mouse hearts using the Langendorff technique. Immunofluorescence was performed to assess purinergic P2X1 receptor (P2X1 R) expression in isolated mouse coronary arteries...
December 2017: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905300/p2x7r-antagonism-after-subfailure-overstretch-injury-of-blood-vessels-reverses-vasomotor-dysfunction-and-prevents-apoptosis
#15
Weifeng Luo, Daniel Feldman, Reid McCallister, Colleen Brophy, Joyce Cheung-Flynn
Human saphenous vein (HSV) is harvested and prepared prior to implantation as an arterial bypass graft. Injury and the response to injury from surgical harvest and preparation trigger cascades of molecular events and contribute to graft remodeling and intimal hyperplasia. Apoptosis is an early response after implantation that contributes the development of neointimal lesions. Here, we showed that surgical harvest and preparation of HSV leads to vasomotor dysfunction, increased apoptosis and downregulation of the phosphorylation of the anti-apoptotic protein, Niban...
December 2017: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879644/adenosine-reduces-reactive-oxygen-species-and-interleukin-8-production-by-trichomonas-vaginalis-stimulated-neutrophils
#16
Amanda Piccoli Frasson, Camila Braz Menezes, Gustavo Krumel Goelzer, Simone Cristina Baggio Gnoatto, Solange Cristina Garcia, Tiana Tasca
Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellated protozoan that affects the human urogenital tract causing 276.4 million new infections a year. The parasite elicits a vaginal mucosal infiltration of immune cells, especially neutrophils which are considered to be primarily responsible for cytological change observed at the infection site as well as the major contributor in the inflammatory response against the parasite. Extracellular nucleotides and their nucleosides are signaling compounds involved in several biological processes, including inflammation and immune responses...
December 2017: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875249/from-the-7th-joint-italian-german-purine-club-meeting-to-european-purine-club-meetings
#17
EDITORIAL
Felicita Pedata
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840511/nanoparticle-encapsulated-emodin-decreases-diabetic-neuropathic-pain-probably-via-a-mechanism-involving-p2x3-receptor-in-the-dorsal-root-ganglia
#18
Lin Li, Xuan Sheng, Shanhong Zhao, Lifang Zou, Xinyao Han, Yingxin Gong, Huilong Yuan, Liran Shi, Lili Guo, Tianyu Jia, Shuangmei Liu, Bing Wu, Zhihua Yi, Hui Liu, Yun Gao, Guilin Li, Guodong Li, Chunping Zhang, Hong Xu, Shangdong Liang
Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is the most common complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). More than 90% of all cases of DM belong to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Emodin is the main active component of Radix et rhizoma rhei and has anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-ulcerogenic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer effects. Nanoparticle encapsulation of drugs is beneficial for drug targeting and bioavailability as well as for lowering drug toxicity side effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of nanoparticle-encapsulated emodin (nano emodin) on diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP) mediated by the Purin 2X3 (P2X3) receptor in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG)...
December 2017: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828576/bone-turnover-is-altered-in-transgenic-rats-overexpressing-the-p2y2-purinergic-receptor
#19
Maria Ellegaard, Cansu Agca, Solveig Petersen, Ankita Agrawal, Lars Schack Kruse, Ning Wang, Alison Gartland, Jens-Erik Beck Jensen, Niklas Rye Jørgensen, Yuksel Agca
It is now widely recognized that purinergic signaling plays an important role in the regulation of bone remodeling. One receptor subtype, which has been suggested to be involved in this regulation, is the P2Y2 receptor (P2Y2R). In the present study, we investigated the effect of P2Y2R overexpression on bone status and bone cell function using a transgenic rat. Three-month-old female transgenic Sprague Dawley rats overexpressing P2Y2R (P2Y2R-Tg) showed higher bone strength of the femoral neck. Histomorphometry showed increase in resorptive surfaces and reduction in mineralizing surfaces...
December 2017: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823092/inhibition-of-p2x7-receptors-improves-outcomes-after-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats
#20
Xiaofeng Liu, Zhengqing Zhao, Ruihua Ji, Jiao Zhu, Qian-Qian Sui, Gillian E Knight, Geoffrey Burnstock, Cheng He, Hongbin Yuan, Zhenghua Xiang
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability for people under the age of 45 years worldwide. Neuropathology after TBI is the result of both the immediate impact injury and secondary injury mechanisms. Secondary injury is the result of cascade events, including glutamate excitotoxicity, calcium overloading, free radical generation, and neuroinflammation, ultimately leading to brain cell death. In this study, the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) was detected predominately in microglia of the cerebral cortex and was up-regulated on microglial cells after TBI...
December 2017: Purinergic Signalling
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