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Purinergic Signalling

Muhammad Rafehi, Joachim C Burbiel, Isaac Y Attah, Aliaa Abdelrahman, Christa E Müller
The Gq protein-coupled, ATP- and UTP-activated P2Y2 receptor is a potential drug target for a range of different disorders, including tumor metastasis, inflammation, atherosclerosis, kidney disorders, and osteoporosis, but pharmacological studies are impeded by the limited availability of suitable antagonists. One of the most potent and selective antagonists is the thiouracil derivative AR-C118925. However, this compound was until recently not commercially available and little is known about its properties...
October 20, 2016: Purinergic Signalling
David Reigada, Rosa María Navarro-Ruiz, Marcos Javier Caballero-López, Ángela Del Águila, Teresa Muñoz-Galdeano, Rodrigo M Maza, Manuel Nieto-Díaz
Reducing cell death during the secondary injury is a major priority in the development of a cure for traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). One of the earliest processes that follow SCI is the excitotoxicity resulting from the massive release of excitotoxicity mediators, including ATP, which induce an excessive and/or prolonged activation of their receptors and a deregulation of the calcium homeostasis. Diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) is an endogenous purinergic agonist, present in both extracellular and intracellular fluids, with promising cytoprotective effects in different diseases including neurodegenerative processes...
October 19, 2016: Purinergic Signalling
Diego Dal Ben, Anna Marchenkova, Ajiroghene Thomas, Catia Lambertucci, Andrea Spinaci, Gabriella Marucci, Andrea Nistri, Rosaria Volpini
Blocking membrane currents evoked by the activation of purinergic P2X3 receptors localized on nociceptive neurons represents a promising strategy for the development of agents useful for the treatment of chronic pain conditions. Among compounds endowed with such antagonistic action, 2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-ATP (TNP-ATP) is an ATP analogue, whose inhibitory activity on P2X receptors has been previously reported. Based on the results of molecular modelling studies performed with homology models of the P2X3 receptor, novel adenosine nucleotide analogues bearing cycloalkyl or arylalkyl substituents replacing the trinitrophenyl moiety of TNP-ATP were designed and synthesized...
October 18, 2016: Purinergic Signalling
Jesenia Acurio, Kurt Herlitz, Felipe Troncoso, Claudio Aguayo, Patricio Bertoglia, Carlos Escudero
We aim to investigate whether A2A/nitric oxide-mediated regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression is impaired in feto-placental endothelial cells from late-onset pre-eclampsia. Cultures of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human placental microvascular endothelial cells (hPMECs) from normal and pre-eclamptic pregnancies were used. Assays by using small interference RNA (siRNA) for A2A were performed, and transfected cells were used for estimation of messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of VEGF, as well as for cell proliferation and angiogenesis in vitro...
September 30, 2016: Purinergic Signalling
Kevin J Ashton, Melissa E Reichelt, S Jamal Mustafa, Bunyen Teng, Catherine Ledent, Lea M D Delbridge, Polly A Hofmann, R Ray Morrison, John P Headrick
Influences of adenosine 2A receptor (A2AR) activity on the cardiac transcriptome and genesis of endotoxemic myocarditis are unclear. We applied transcriptomic profiling (39 K Affymetrix arrays) to identify A2AR-sensitive molecules, revealed by receptor knockout (KO), in healthy and endotoxemic hearts. Baseline cardiac function was unaltered and only 37 A2AR-sensitive genes modified by A2AR KO (≥1.2-fold change, <5 % FDR); the five most induced are Mtr, Ppbp, Chac1, Ctsk and Cnpy2 and the five most repressed are Hp, Yipf4, Acta1, Cidec and Map3k2...
September 30, 2016: Purinergic Signalling
Jian Li, Xiangnan Li, Xin Jiang, Mei Yang, Rui Yang, Geoffrey Burnstock, Zhenghua Xiang, Hongbin Yuan
Microglia are critical in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain. In this study, we investigated the role of microvesicles (MVs) in neuropathic pain induced by spinal nerve ligation (SNL) in rats. First, we found that MVs shed from microglia were increased in the cerebrospinal fluid and dorsal horn of the spinal cord after SNL. Next, MVs significantly reduced paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) and paw withdrawal latency (PWL). In addition, the P2X7-p38 pathway was related to the bleb of MVs after SNL. Interleukin (IL)-1β was found to be significantly upregulated in the package of MVs, and PWT and PWL increased following inhibition with shRNA-IL-1β...
September 28, 2016: Purinergic Signalling
Aurora R Barros-Barbosa, Fátima Ferreirinha, Ângela Oliveira, Marina Mendes, M Graça Lobo, Agostinho Santos, Rui Rangel, Julie Pelletier, Jean Sévigny, J Miguel Cordeiro, Paulo Correia-de-Sá
Refractoriness to existing medications of up to 80 % of the patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) prompts for finding new antiepileptic drug targets. The adenosine A2A receptor emerges as an interesting pharmacological target since its excitatory nature partially counteracts the dominant antiepileptic role of endogenous adenosine acting via inhibitory A1 receptors. Gain of function of the excitatory A2A receptor has been implicated in a significant number of brain pathologies commonly characterized by neuronal excitotoxicity...
September 20, 2016: Purinergic Signalling
Daniel T Thomaz, Tharine A Dal-Cim, Wagner C Martins, Maurício Peña Cunha, Débora Lanznaster, Andreza F de Bem, Carla I Tasca
Guanosine, the endogenous guanine nucleoside, prevents cellular death induced by ischemic events and is a promising neuroprotective agent. During an ischemic event, nitric oxide has been reported to either cause or prevent cell death. Our aim was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of guanosine against oxidative damage in hippocampal slices subjected to an in vitro ischemia model, the oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD) protocol. We also assessed the participation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzymes activity on the neuroprotection promoted by guanosine...
September 9, 2016: Purinergic Signalling
Débora Guerini Souza, Bruna Bellaver, Larissa Daniele Bobermin, Diogo Onofre Souza, André Quincozes-Santos
Guanosine, a guanine-based purine, has been shown to exert beneficial roles in in vitro and in vivo injury models of neural cells. Guanosine is released from astrocytes and modulates important astroglial functions, including glutamatergic metabolism, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. Astrocytes are crucial for regulating the neurotransmitter system and synaptic information processes, ionic homeostasis, energy metabolism, antioxidant defenses, and the inflammatory response. Aging is a natural process that induces numerous changes in the astrocyte functionality...
September 1, 2016: Purinergic Signalling
Carola Ledderose, Marco M Hefti, Yu Chen, Yi Bao, Thomas Seier, Linglin Li, Tobias Woehrle, Jingping Zhang, Wolfgang G Junger
In neutrophils, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release and autocrine purinergic signaling regulate coordinated cell motility during chemotaxis. Here, we studied whether similar mechanisms regulate the motility of breast cancer cells. While neutrophils and benign human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) form a single leading edge, MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells possess multiple leading edges enriched with A3 adenosine receptors. Compared to HMEC, MDA-MB-231 cells overexpress the ectonucleotidases ENPP1 and CD73, which convert extracellular ATP released by the cells to adenosine that stimulates A3 receptors and promotes cell migration with frequent directional changes...
August 30, 2016: Purinergic Signalling
Veena Roberts, B Lu, J Chia, P J Cowan, K M Dwyer
Chronic kidney disease has multiple etiologies, but its single, hallmark lesion is renal fibrosis. CD39 is a key purinergic enzyme in the hydrolysis of ATP and increased CD39 activity on regulatory T cells (Treg) is protective in adriamycin-induced renal fibrosis. We examined the effect of overexpression of human CD39 on the development of renal fibrosis in the unilateral ureteric obstructive (UUO) model, a model widely used to study the molecular and cellular factors involved in renal fibrosis. Mice overexpressing human CD39 (CD39Tg) and their wild-type (WT) littermates were subjected to UUO; renal histology and messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of adenosine receptors and markers of renal fibrosis were examined up to 14 days after UUO...
August 26, 2016: Purinergic Signalling
Andre Kraus, Steffen Grampp, Margarete Goppelt-Struebe, Rainer Schreiber, Karl Kunzelmann, Dorien J M Peters, Jens Leipziger, Gunnar Schley, Johannes Schödel, Kai-Uwe Eckardt, Bjoern Buchholz
Polycystic kidney diseases are characterized by numerous renal cysts that continuously enlarge resulting in compression of intact nephrons and tissue hypoxia. Recently, we have shown that hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α promotes secretion-dependent cyst expansion, presumably by transcriptional regulation of proteins that are involved in calcium-activated chloride secretion. Here, we report that HIF-1α directly activates expression of the purinergic receptor P2Y2R in human primary renal tubular cells. In addition, we found that P2Y2R is highly expressed in cyst-lining cells of human ADPKD kidneys as well as PKD1 orthologous mouse kidneys...
August 26, 2016: Purinergic Signalling
Martha de Oliveira Bravo, Juliana Lott Carvalho, Felipe Saldanha-Araujo
Adenosine is an important molecule that exerts control on the immune system, by signaling through receptors lying on the surface of immune cells. This nucleotide is produced, in part, by the action of the ectoenzymes CD39 and CD73. Interestingly, these proteins are expressed on the cell surface of regulatory T-cells (Tregs) and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs)-two cell populations that have emerged as potential therapeutic tools in the field of cell therapy. In fact, the production of adenosine constitutes a mechanism used by both cell types to control the immune response...
August 25, 2016: Purinergic Signalling
Marta Boccazzi, Davide Lecca, Davide Marangon, Fabio Guagnini, Maria P Abbracchio, Stefania Ceruti
Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs, also called NG2 cells) are scattered throughout brain parenchyma, where they function as a reservoir to replace lost or damaged oligodendrocytes, the myelin-forming cells. The hypothesis that, under some circumstances, OPCs can actually behave as multipotent cells, thus generating astrocytes and neurons as well, has arisen from some in vitro and in vivo evidence, but the molecular pathways controlling this alternative fate of OPCs are not fully understood. Their identification would open new opportunities for neuronal replace strategies, by fostering the intrinsic ability of the brain to regenerate...
August 20, 2016: Purinergic Signalling
Yongxin Liang, Haichen Chu, Yanan Jiang, Li Yuan
Morphine creates a neuroinflammatory response and enhances release of the proinflammatory cytokines like interleukin-1β (IL-1β), which compromises morphine analgesia as well as induces morphine tolerance. In this study, we attempted to investigate the mechanisms of morphine induced IL-1β synthesis and release. Microglial cells were treated with morphine (100 μM) once daily for 3 days. Control groups underwent the same procedure but received sterile saline injection instead of morphine. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and P2X4 receptor (P2X4R) signaling were analyzed using Western blot; immunofluorescence was used to detect the signaling of CD68; real-time RT-PCR and ELISA kit was used to measure the messenger RNA and protein synthesis and release level of IL-1β...
August 9, 2016: Purinergic Signalling
Lauren C Strazzulla, Bruce N Cronstein
There is growing recognition that bone serves important endocrine and immunologic functions that are compromised in several disease states. While many factors are known to affect bone metabolism, recent attention has focused on investigating the role of purinergic signaling in bone formation and regulation. Adenosine is a purine nucleoside produced intracellularly and extracellularly in response to stimuli such as hypoxia and inflammation, which then interacts with P1 receptors. Numerous studies have suggested that these receptors play a pivotal role in osteoblast, osteoclast, and chondrocyte differentiation and function...
July 29, 2016: Purinergic Signalling
Gennady G Yegutkin, Cindy Guerrero-Toro, Erkan Kilinc, Kseniya Koroleva, Yevheniia Ishchenko, Polina Abushik, Raisa Giniatullina, Dmitriy Fayuk, Rashid Giniatullin
Extracellular ATP is suspected to contribute to migraine pain but regulatory mechanisms controlling pro-nociceptive purinergic mechanisms in the meninges remain unknown. We studied the peculiarities of metabolic and signaling pathways of ATP and its downstream metabolites in rat meninges and in cultured trigeminal cells exposed to the migraine mediator calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Under resting conditions, meningeal ATP and ADP remained at low nanomolar levels, whereas extracellular AMP and adenosine concentrations were one-two orders higher...
September 2016: Purinergic Signalling
Sheenah Bryant, Nisha Shrestha, Paul Carnig, Samuel Kosydar, Philip Belzeski, Charles Hanna, Daniel Fologea
Lysenin, a pore-forming protein extracted from the coelomic fluid of the earthworm Eisenia foetida, manifests cytolytic activity by inserting large conductance pores in host membranes containing sphingomyelin. In the present study, we found that adenosine phosphates control the biological activity of lysenin channels inserted into planar lipid membranes with respect to their macroscopic conductance and voltage-induced gating. Addition of ATP, ADP, or AMP decreased the macroscopic conductance of lysenin channels in a concentration-dependent manner, with ATP being the most potent inhibitor and AMP the least...
September 2016: Purinergic Signalling
Carmen Corciulo, Tuere Wilder, Bruce N Cronstein
Bone homeostasis is a finely regulated mechanism involving different molecular pathways including adenosine signaling. The aim of this study is to determine the bone phenotype of adenosine A2B receptor knockout (A2BRKO) mice and to measure their ability to form new bone. Moreover, we analyzed the functionality of osteoclasts and osteoblasts from A2BRKO mice. Microcomputed tomography (μCT) analysis revealed a decrease of bone substance, bone mineral density, and trabecular number in A2BRKO mice compared to the WT mice at the same age...
September 2016: Purinergic Signalling
Karin Dreisig, Birgitte Rahbek Kornum
The P2Y11 receptor is a member of the purinergic receptor family. It has been overlooked, somewhat due to the lack of a P2ry11 gene orthologue in the murine genome, which prevents the generation of knockout mice, which have been so helpful for defining the roles of other P2Y receptors. Furthermore, some of the studies reported to date have methodological shortcomings, making it difficult to determine the function of P2Y11 with certainty. In this review, we discuss the lack of a murine "P2Y11-like receptor" and highlight the limitations of the currently available methods used to investigate the P2Y11 receptor...
September 2016: Purinergic Signalling
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