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Discovery Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875674/gene-therapy-approaches-for-the-treatment-of-retinal-disorders
#1
Lolita Petit, Claudio Punzo
There is an impelling need to develop effective therapeutic strategies for patients with retinal disorders. Gleaning from the large quantity of information gathered over the past two decades on the mechanisms governing degeneration of the retina, it is now possible to devise innovative therapies based on retinal gene transfer. Different gene-based approaches are under active investigation. They include strategies to correct the specific genetic defect in inherited retinal diseases, strategies to delay the onset of blindness independently of the disease-causing mutations, and strategies to reactivate residual cells at late stages of the diseases...
October 2016: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875673/recent-advances-in-engineered-t-cell-therapies-targeting-b-cell-malignancies
#2
Nathan Singh
Immunotherapy using engineered autologous T cells has been attempted for decades, but clinical trials have only recently demonstrated efficacy. The combination of enhanced manufacturing techniques, highly efficient engineering, appropriate target selection and synthetic receptors with potent T cell activating domains has led to the development of highly-active cellular therapy products. B-cell malignancies have served as the paradigmatic diseases to initially evaluate and subsequently hone engineered T cells targeting cancer...
October 2016: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875672/young-premenopausal-women-with-breast-cancer-especially-estrogen-receptor-negative-are-at-significantly-increased-risk-for-subsequent-ovarian-cancer
#3
Steven Lehrer, Peter H Rheinstein, Sheryl Green, Kenneth E Rosenzweig
BACKGROUND: There is a modest risk of second cancers, among them ovarian cancer, after breast cancer. For BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers, the risk increases substantially. We have analyzed the risk of ovarian cancer after breast cancer based on patient age and the estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) characteristics of the breast tumor. METHODS: The study population was assembled using records from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program of the National Cancer Institute...
October 2016: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875671/immune-mediated-brain-pathology-from-autoantibodies-to-microglia
#4
Jacquelyn Nestor, Adriana Gata-Garcia, Yoshiyuki Arinuma, Yuichiro Fujieda, Czeslawa Kowal, Betty Diamond
Cells and molecules of the immune system contribute to brain pathology as well as to brain homeostasis. We suggest that there are numerous anti-brain antibodies that can cause acute neuronal dysfunction if they penetrate brain parenchyma. Many of these acute immune-mediated insults may alter the homeostatic mechanisms in the brain and initiate pathologic events that no longer depend on the presence of the inciting antibody, but rather on microglial cell activation. This paradigm, if correct, suggests that there may be two potential moments of therapeutic intervention...
October 2016: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875670/efficacy-of-carfilzomib-in-the-treatment-of-relapsed-and-or-refractory-multiple-myeloma-a-meta-analysis-of-data-from-clinical-trials
#5
Runzhe Chen, Baoan Chen, Xiaoping Zhang, Chong Gao
OBJECTIVE: Recently, carfilzomib has become a promising therapeutic approach for relapsed and (or) refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM), but no study has summarized the overall effect of carfilzomib in RRMM. To explore the role of carfilzomib, we performed a meta-analysis of all known prospective clinical trials to assess the efficacy of carfilzomib in patients with RRMM. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A systematic review of publications was performed on December 15, 2015...
October 2016: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875669/cancer-screening-of-asymptomatic-individuals-using-18f-fdg-pet-ct-in-china-a-retrospective-study
#6
Jianjing Tong, Yaru Zou, Jie Jiang, Wen Shi, Ranjun Tao, Jing Ye, Yiming Lu, Xufeng Jiang, Weiqing Wang
BACKGROUND: In recent years, the application of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) for voluntary cancer screening of asymptomatic individuals is becoming more and more popular in China. However, the utility of such screening is still controversial. METHODS: This study enrolled a total of 1,572 asymptomatic individuals who underwent FDG PET/CT as a part of cancer screening program in Shanghai Ruijin Hospital, between January 2010 and December 2014...
October 2016: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875668/use-of-a-perclose-proglide-device-for-percutaneous-endovascular-aortic-aneurysm-repair-in-a-general-hospital-experience
#7
Chih-Hsien Lee, Jau-Kang Huang, Ten-Fang Yang
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of percutaneous endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) with a Perclose ProGlide device compared with endovascular aortic repair with surgical cutdown of common femoral artery in patients at a general hospital. METHODS: A retrospective clinical study was conducted using data on 10 patients with elective EVAR, 7 patients with percutaneous EVAR, and 9 patients with consecutive rupture abdominal aortic aneurysm treated with emergency EVAR from January 2010 to December 2014...
October 2016: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755970/engineered-bifunctional-proteins-and-stem-cells-next-generation-of-targeted-cancer-therapeutics
#8
Sung Hugh Choi, Khalid Shah
Redundant survival signaling pathways and their crosstalk within tumor and/or between tumor and their microenvironment are key impediments to developing effective targeted therapies for cancer. Therefore developing therapeutics that target multiple receptor signaling pathways in tumors and utilizing efficient platforms to deliver such therapeutics are critical to the success of future targeted therapies. During the past two decades, a number of bifunctional multi-targeting antibodies, fusion proteins, and oncolytic viruses have been developed and various stem cell types have been engineered to efficiently deliver them to tumors...
September 2016: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755969/a-new-perspective-on-delivery-of-red-near-infrared-light-therapy-for-disorders-of-the-brain
#9
Nathan S Hart, Melinda Fitzgerald
Red-near-infrared light has been used for a range of therapeutic purposes. However, clinical trials of near-infrared laser light for treatment of stroke were abandoned after failing interim futility analyses. Lack of efficacy has been attributed to sub-optimal treatment parameters and low penetrance of light to affected brain regions. Here, we assess penetrance of wavelengths from 450-880 nm in human post-mortem samples, and demonstrate that human skin, skull bone and brain transmits therapeutically relevant quantities of light from external sources at wavelengths above 600nm...
September 2016: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755968/association-of-lipids-with-age-related-macular-degeneration
#10
Junhui Shen, Jianfeng He, Fang Wang
In the past decades, much investigation has been done on the role of lipids in the development and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The lipids involved in those research studies had included PUFAs, phospholipids, sphingolipids, cholesterol, lipid protein, etc. There are a large number of clinical research studies on the association of PUFAs with the development and progression of AMD. The relationship between cholesterol level and AMD has been explored for decades and much data and analysis results have been obtained...
September 2016: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755967/circulating-tumor-cells-in-pancreatic-cancer-patients-efficacy-in-diagnosis-and-value-in-prognosis
#11
Zhi-Bo Xie, Lie Yao, Chen Jin, De-Liang Fu
Detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) has become widely used as a liquid biopsy for many patients. In pancreatic cancer patients, there have been a number of published reports on the efficacy of CTCs in the diagnosis and prognosis of pancreatic cancer, and in the evaluation of response to treatment. We systematically reviewed the diagnosis efficiency and prognostic value of CTCs reported in the literature. We found that the frequency of CTCs is rare, limited to a certain degree by the current enrichment and detection methodologies...
September 2016: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755966/cause-of-cancer-and-chronic-inflammatory-diseases-and-the-implications-for-treatment
#12
Radka Saldova
Many pathogens exist in metabolically inactive, non-culturable, cell-wall-deficient (CWD) forms that allow them to survive in conditions not conducive for growth. These forms were found in both cancer and chronic inflammatory autoimmune diseases. This review presents several novel concepts about how chronic inflammatory response and cancer develops from CWD infection, involvement and role of the immune system and other 'omics' systems and how to better diagnose, treat and even cure these conditions. This concept shows that CWD forms of intracellular microbes could also be evolutionary advantageous spreading through the host without using the classical replication route...
September 2016: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755965/rapid-diagnosis-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-using-a-haptoglobin-elisa-assay-based-on-aal-coated-magnetic-beads
#13
Shuxin Shang, Lu Sun, Wei Li, Xue Qin, Shu Zhang, Yinkun Liu
Fucosylated glycans play a critical role in cell biology processes during the occurrence and development of tumor, such as cell signal transduction, cellular differentiation, ligand-receptor interactions, and metastasis formation. Fucosylated haptoglobin (Hp) was reported to be increased in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we aimed to develop a convenient and sensitive AAL@Magbeads-based Hp ELISA assay to rapidly detect fucosylated Hp in 270 serum samples from HCC patients and normal controls...
September 2016: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755964/hsf1-promotes-the-inhibition-of-emt-associated-migration-by-low-glucose-via-directly-regulating-snail1-expression-in-hcc-cells
#14
Denghe Liu, Lu Sun, Xue Qin, Tianhua Liu, Shu Zhang, Yinkun Liu, Shan Li, Kun Guo
OBJECTIVE: Reprogramming energy metabolism has been defined as the ninth hallmark of cancer; glucose deprivation might be a novel, feasible and effective approach for cancer treatment. However, the comprehensive illustration of behavior alteration of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells induced by glucose restriction is lacking and associated molecular mechanism is still unclear. METHODS: Three human HCC cell lines were cultured with normal control (25.0 mM D-glucose) and low glucose (5...
September 2016: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27585233/regulatory-t-cell-based-therapies-for-autoimmunity
#15
Benjamine Arellano, David J Graber, Charles L Sentman
Autoimmune disorders are long-term diseases that adversely affect the quality of life for patients, and they are one of the top ten leading causes of death. While each autoimmune disorder is unique, they all are caused by a breakdown of tolerance against endogenous proteins. This leads to auto-inflammatory events that promote the destruction of organs in a humoral and cellular immune mediated manner. Treatment options for autoimmunity can involve the use of chemical and biologic agents that suppress inflammation...
August 2016: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27585232/the-rnaissance-period
#16
David Boczkowski, Smita K Nair
The concept that RNA has played a major role in the evolution of life stems from the "RNA World" hypothesis. This role of RNA was not immediately appreciated. Similarly, the scientific community has just recently begun to recognize the true potential of RNA as the drug of choice for gene therapy, cellular reprogramming and vaccination. While it is perhaps the most unstable of the three most commonly used biotherapeutics, the others being DNA and protein, the advantages that using RNA presents are now being realized at a high rate...
August 2016: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27585231/immune-checkpoint-blockade-in-lung-cancer
#17
Aswin Somasundaram, Mark A Socinski, Liza C Villaruz
Immunotherapy has revolutionized the therapeutic landscape of advanced lung cancer. The adaptive immune system has developed a sophisticated method of tumor growth control, but T-cell activation is regulated by various checkpoints. Blockade of the immune checkpoints with therapies targeting the PD-1 pathway, such as nivolumab and pembrolizumab, has been validated as a therapeutic approach in non-small cell lung cancer. Newer therapies and novel combinations are also being evaluated, and the use of biomarkers in conjunction with these drugs is an area of active investigation...
August 2016: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27585230/novel-mechanisms-and-treatment-approaches-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#18
Jessica Brian, Krissy Doyle-Thomas, Danielle Baribeau, Evdokia Anagnostou
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by marked heterogeneity in biology, expression, and response to treatment. The past decade has yielded considerable progress in understanding the underlying biological mechanisms, in characterizing the earliest behavioral phenotype(s), and in developing and evaluating effective treatments for ASD. This review highlights recent research advances in genetics and neuroimaging, as well as in novel behavioral and psychopharmacological treatment approaches, arguing for the value of trans-disciplinary initiatives to move the field forward exponentially...
August 2016: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27585229/a-derangement-of-the-brain-wound-healing-process-may-cause-some-cases-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Steven Lehrer, Peter H Rheinstein
A derangement of brain wound healing may cause some cases of Alzheimer's disease. Wound healing, a highly complex process, has four stages: hemostasis, inflammation, repair, and remodeling. Hemostasis and the initial phases of inflammation in brain tissue are typical of all vascularized tissue, such as skin. However, distinct differences arise in brain tissue during the later stages of inflammation, repair, and remodeling, and closely parallel the changes of Alzheimer's disease. Our hypothesis -- Alzheimer's disease is brain wound healing gone awry at least in some cases -- could be tested by measuring progression with biomarkers for the four stages of wound healing in humans or appropriate animal models...
August 2016: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27585228/role-of-lncrna-activated-by-transforming-growth-factor-beta-in-the-progression-of-hepatitis-c-virus-related-liver-fibrosis
#20
Na Fu, Xuemin Niu, Yang Wang, Huijuan Du, Baoyu Wang, Jinghua Du, Ya Li, Rongqi Wang, Yuguo Zhang, Suxian Zhao, Dianxing Sun, Liang Qiao, Yuemin Nan
Long non-coding RNA (LncRNA)-activated by transforming growth factor-beta (LncRNA-ATB) is a key regulator of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signaling pathway, and is positively correlated with the development of liver cirrhosis and vascular invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the role of LncRNA-ATB in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related liver fibrosis remains largely unknown. In the present study, we confirmed a high expression level of LncRNA-ATB in the liver tissues and plasma samples of patients with HCV-related hepatic fibrosis, and the plasma level of LncRNA-ATB was significantly correlated with liver fibrosis stages...
August 2016: Discovery Medicine
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