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Discovery Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906408/the-potential-for-liquid-biopsies-in-head-and-neck-cancer
#1
Matthew E Spector, Janice L Farlow, Catherine T Haring, J Chad Brenner, Andrew C Birkeland
Head and neck cancers consist of a heterogeneous group of cancers that are difficult to treat successfully. Limited screening options result in patients being diagnosed at advanced stages at presentation, and difficulty with treatment options and post-treatment surveillance can lead to poor outcomes. In this setting, tools for early and precise detection of disease will be highly valuable. Liquid biopsies, or use of analytes in blood, saliva, and other body fluid samples, provide new avenues for cancer screening with the potential for early detection, treatment modification, and surveillance of head and neck cancers...
May 2018: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906407/crosstalk-between-the-immune-system-and-neural-pathways-in-interstitial-cystitis-bladder-pain-syndrome
#2
Kevin Duh, Michael G Funaro, William DeGouveia, Sonia Bahlani, Dominic Pappas, Souhel Najjar, Inna Tabansky, Robert Moldwin, Joel N H Stern
Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome (IC/BPS) is a condition causing intense pelvic pain and urinary symptoms. While it is thought to affect millions of people and significantly impair quality of life, difficulty with diagnosis and a lack of reliably effective treatment options leave much progress to be made in managing this condition. We describe what is currently known about the immunological and neurological basis of this disease, focusing on the interactions between the immune and nervous system...
May 2018: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906406/the-malignancy-index-in-plasma-samples-as-a-prostate-cancer-biomarker
#3
Antonio M Serafin, Angela Chinhengo, Pedro Fernandez, John M Akudugu
No unambiguous role of the involvement of uroplasminogen activator (uPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) in prostate cancer has emerged, with current evidence suggesting that neither biomarker is likely of significant clinical value, save as an overall contributor. In this study, we attempt to discriminate prostate cancer from non-cancer in a cohort of plasma samples, using the Imubind ELISA assay. In this cohort, PAI-1 levels are higher in prostate cancer patients than healthy donors; uPA levels are higher in healthy donors than prostate cancer patients; and the uPA/PAI-1 ratio is higher in healthy donors than in prostate cancer patients...
May 2018: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906405/dermatologic-manifestations-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-review
#4
Uma Keyal, Yeqiang Liu, Anil Kumar Bhatta
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic relapsing disease of the gastrointestinal tract with unknown etiology and pathogenesis. It includes Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Approximately one-third of the patients with IBD are seen to develop extraintestinal manifestations, among which cutaneous manifestations are the most common and should be managed in close collaboration with a dermatologist. Depending upon the nature of the association, skin conditions associated with IBD can be listed under 4 categories: specific, reactive, secondary to malnutrition or malabsorption, and secondary to drug therapy...
May 2018: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906404/collagen-1a1-col1a1-promotes-metastasis-of-breast-cancer-and-is-a-potential-therapeutic-target
#5
Jing Liu, Jia-Xin Shen, Hua-Tao Wu, Xiao-Li Li, Xiao-Fen Wen, Cai-Wen Du, Guo-Jun Zhang
PURPOSE: Extracellular matrix (ECM) is an important component of tumor microenvironment and plays critical roles in cancer development and metastasis, in which collagen is the major structural protein. Collagen type I alpha 1 (COL1A1) is reportedly associated with the development of several human diseases. However, the functions and mechanisms of cellular expression of COL1A1 in breast cancer remain unknown. The purpose of this study is to investigate the cellular expression of COL1A1 in breast cancer cells and patients, and its role in the development and metastasis of breast cancer...
May 2018: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723490/controlled-release-of-gene-therapy-constructs-from-solid-scaffolds-for-therapeutic-applications-in-orthopedics
#6
Jagadeesh K Venkatesan, Céline Falentin-Daudré, Amélie Leroux, Véronique Migonney, Magali Cucchiarini
Injuries occurring in orthopedic tissues do not completely heal if left untreated due to their imperfect self abilities for spontaneous repair. As most of the current clinical treatments often fail to fully restore the damaged tissues, there is a critical need to develop potent alternatives to activate the processes of repair in sites of orthopedic lesions. In this regard, combining gene therapy approaches with tissue engineering procedures to generate therapeutic gene vector-guided delivery systems, especially those based on mechanically stable solid scaffolds, is an attractive strategy to provide off-the-shelf compounds for the convenient spatiotemporal expression of candidate agents in orthopedic tissue defects...
April 2018: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723489/scaffolding-protein-ranbpm-and-its-interactions-in-diverse-signaling-pathways-in-health-and-disease
#7
Soumyadip Das, Saba Haq, Suresh Ramakrishna
Ran-binding protein in the microtubule-organizing center (RanBPM) is an evolutionarily conserved, nucleocytoplasmic scaffolding protein involved in various cellular processes and several signal transduction pathways. RanBPM has a crucial role in mediating disease pathology by interacting with diverse proteins to regulate their functions. Previously, we compiled diverse cellular functions of RanBPM. Since then the functions of RanBPM have increased exponentially. In this article, we have updated the functions of RanBPM through its manifold interactions that have been investigated to date, according to their roles in protein stability, transcriptional activity, cellular development, neurobiology, and the cell cycle...
April 2018: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723488/grifola-frondosa-polysaccharide-a-review-of-antitumor-and-other-biological-activity-studies-in-china
#8
Yanli He, Xiulian Li, Cui Hao, Pengjiao Zeng, Meng Zhang, Yong Liu, Yajing Chang, Lijuan Zhang
Grifola frondosa, a species of Basidiomycotina, is an edible medicinal mushroom with a large fruiting body characterized by overlapping caps. The β-glucan is the major biologically active component in G. frondosa polysaccharide (GFP) or D-fraction, which has been studied extensively for nearly 30 years. GFP was approved as an adjunctive therapeutic drug in China for treating cancers in 2010. In this article, based on the search results of Chinese VIP, CNKI, and Wanfang databases, 105 independent animal studies were summarized...
April 2018: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723487/clinical-investigation-and-characterization-of-vertebrobasilar-dolichoectasia-and-vertebral-artery-dominance
#9
Xiangfang Meng, Wei Ding, Xijun Wu, Pingwei Di
In clinical practice, the vertebral arteries of a patient are often found to be not equal in size and the basilar artery may not be situated in the center. Our observational study showed that vertebral dominance and basilar bending are common, and their occurrence is related to advanced age and hypertension. The right vertebral dominance tends to coincide with left basilar bending, and, vice versa, the left vertebral dominance tends to coincide with right basilar bending. The left vertebral dominance is more common than the right dominance...
April 2018: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29641974/a-precision-medicine-approach-in-sarcoma-identification-of-patients-who-may-benefit-from-early-use-of-pazopanib
#10
Sayad Navid Alavi, Vaia Florou, Gabriel Tinoco, Jonathan C Trent, Breelyn A Wilky
Soft tissue sarcomas (STS) are a heterogeneous group of over 100 histologically and genetically distinct mesenchymal tumors. Standard of care for metastatic STS has historically relied on anthracycline-based chemotherapy regimens. Although effective for some patients, conventional chemotherapeutic agents used in STS are associated with substantial toxicity and also are not equally effective in all histologic subtypes of sarcoma. Pazopanib is an orally active antiangiogenic drug that is approved for non-adipogenic sarcomas after failure of at least one line of previous chemotherapy, and has a relatively favorable toxicity profile...
March 2018: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29641973/what-can-we-do-to-optimize-stem-and-progenitor-cell-therapy-for-heart-failure
#11
Xiaolong Song, Huiyan Qu, Yong Wang, Tianshu Yang, Jingfeng Rong, Hua Zhou
Stem cells are a promising solution for the treatment of heart failure due to their ability to repopulate injured myocardium and restore cardiac function. However, many hindrances (such as low survival/viability and integration of transplanted cells, poor homing and cardiac differentiation efficiency, and inadequate cell retention and engraftment) compromise the full regenerative potential provided by stem cells. Therefore, it is necessary to optimize stem cell/progenitor therapy to improve clinical efficacy...
March 2018: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29641972/subtypes-of-mdscs-in-mechanisms-and-prognosis-of-gastric-cancer-and-are-inhibited-by-epirubicin-and-paclitaxel
#12
Nan Li, Deping Han, Jia Sun, Yumeng Li, Jin Zhang, Yali Zhang, Meng Liu, Renjia Peng, Haoxun Wang, Zhongmian Zhang, Jian Wang, Zongwen Liu, Jun Ma
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are thought to play a critical immunosuppressive role in tumorigenesis. In this project, we aimed to investigate subset alteration of MDSCs in gastric cancer (GC), and the effects of epirubicin (EPI) and paclitaxel (TAX) on MDSCs. The frequencies of MDSC subsets in peripheral blood were observed by using flow cytometry after treatment with EPI- or TAX- based chemotherapy in GC patients. After treatment with EPI or TAX in vitro, the subsets, apoptosis, cell cycle, and MAPK and NF-κB protein expressions of mouse bone marrow MDSCs were analyzed...
March 2018: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29641971/prognostic-values-of-common-clinical-parameters-in-advanced-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-a-large-multicenter-cohort-study-of-ten-years
#13
Chenyue Zhang, Shu Dong, Lei Wang, Songlin Yu, Yuwei Zheng, Yanyan Geng, Xiaoheng Shen, Haifeng Ying, Yuanbiao Guo, Jinming Yu, Qinglong Deng, Zhiqiang Meng, Zhaoshen Li, Hao Chen, Yehua Shen, Qiwen Chen
OBJECTIVE: We conducted a multicenter cohort study to investigate the prognostic value of some commonly-used laboratory indices in advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). METHODS: A multicenter cohort study was conducted from 2004 to 2013. The associations between laboratory indices and prognosis of advanced PDAC were examined. RESULTS: This cohort consisted of 553 females (36.2%) and 973 males (63.8%). Patients at cancer stage III and IV were 595 (39...
March 2018: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579414/triggers-of-inflammatory-myopathy-insights-into-pathogenesis
#14
Brittany L Adler, Lisa Christopher-Stine
The inflammatory myopathies, which include dermatomyositis, polymyositis, and the immune-mediated necrotizing myopathies, are a heterogeneous group of autoimmune diseases that manifest with muscle, skin, or lung damage. Collectively, these autoimmune diseases result from loss of tolerance to a select group of self-antigens, although the precise mechanism through which this occurs is not known. Infection, malignancy, and certain medications including statins and the immune checkpoint inhibitors used in cancer therapy have been identified as potential immunologic triggers of the inflammatory myopathies...
February 2018: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579413/the-unusual-nutritional-and-toxin-related-underproduction-anemias-approaching-the-riddle-beyond-iron-cobalamin-and-folate
#15
Cristhiam Mauricio Rojas-Hernandez, Thein Hlaing Oo
"Anemias beyond iron, vitamin B12, and folate deficiencies" covers a wide array of everything which lies beyond commonly seen anemias caused by deficiencies of three micronutrients. Although anemias due to deficiencies of iron, B12, and folate are common in daily practice and account for at least one-third of anemia etiologies in older adults, it is not uncommon to encounter other nutritional and toxin-induced underproduction anemias. The combination of thorough clinical examination, careful peripheral blood smear review, and judicious selection of supporting laboratory studies is typically sufficient to make an assertive diagnosis of those cases...
February 2018: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579412/urine-biomarkers-in-the-early-stages-of-diseases-current-status-and-perspective
#16
Jian Jing, Youhe Gao
As a noninvasive and easily available biological fluid, the urine is becoming an important source for disease biomarker study. Change is essential for the usefulness of a biomarker. Without homeostasis mechanisms, urine can accommodate more changes, especially in the early stages of diseases. In this review, we summarize current status and discuss perspectives on the discovery of urine biomarkers in the early stages of diseases. We emphasize the advantages of urine biomarkers compared to plasma biomarkers for the diagnosis of diseases at early stages, propose a urine biomarker research roadmap, and highlight a novel membrane storage technique that enables large-scale urine sample collection and storage efficiently and economically...
February 2018: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579411/comparative-expression-of-pedf-and-vegf-in-human-epidermal-keratinocytes-and-dermal-fibroblasts-from-normal-skin-to-psoriasis
#17
Bing-Xi Yan, Yu-Xin Zheng, Wei Li, Jia-Qi Chen, Jiong Zhou, Sui-Qing Cai, Min Zheng, Xiao-Yong Man
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) have been shown to keep angiogenesis activation and inhibition in balance in normal and pathological conditions. In this study, we examined the expression of VEGF and PEDF in keratinocytes and fibroblasts from normal and psoriatic skin to evaluate their potential roles and interactions in the development of psoriasis. The expression of VEGF and PEDF was detected in normal and psoriatic skin ex vivo and in co-cultured keratinocytes and fibroblasts in vitro, and increased in keratinocytes and fibroblasts from psoriatic skin compared with those cells from normal skin...
February 2018: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466692/anti-programmed-cell-death-1-pd-1-monoclonal-antibodies-in-treating-advanced-melanoma-a-clinical-update
#18
Van Anh Trinh, Jocelyn Joseph, Wen-Jen Hwu
Since their approval by regulatory agencies worldwide, the anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), as monotherapy or in combination with ipilimumab, have become the standard frontline therapy for advanced BRAF-wild-type melanoma and an eminent rival to targeted therapy in the first-line setting for unresectable BRAF-mutated melanoma. Mature survival data from randomized phase 3 trials have emerged, confirming their position in the current treatment schema for advanced melanoma. Recently, the clinical utility of anti-PD-1 agents has extended into other disease settings, such as resected high-risk melanomas, non-cutaneous subtypes, and brain metastases...
January 2018: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466691/role-of-production-of-type-i-interferons-by-b-cells-in-the-mechanisms-and-pathogenesis-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#19
Jennie A Hamilton, Hui-Chen Hsu, John D Mountz
Type I interferons (IFNs) have a prominent role in many aspects of normal innate and adaptive immunity and autoimmunity. However, cell-type specific information about type I IFN expression and autocrine/paracrine signaling is sparse and mostly focused on non-lymphocyte and non-immune cell populations. A major function of B cells is cytokine production, but surprisingly, type I IFN production by B cells in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has not been thoroughly investigated. This is due, in part, to the established view that plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are the primary source of pathogenic type I IFN in lupus...
January 2018: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466690/safety-and-efficacy-of-etanercept-methotrexate-combination-therapy-in-patients-with-rhupus-an-observational-study-of-non-glucocorticoid-treatment-for-rheumatic-diseases
#20
Bei-Bei Yang, Hua Xiao, Xiao-Jie Li, Min Zheng
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of etanercept (ETN) plus methotrexate (MTX) in patients with rhupus without using corticosteroids. METHODS: Twenty rhupus patients [meeting the criteria for both rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)] who had never been treated with corticosteroids, DMARDs, or biological agents with a 28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28) >3.2 and lupus nephritis determined from histopathological specimens were enrolled...
January 2018: Discovery Medicine
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