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Discovery Medicine

Jagadeesh K Venkatesan, Céline Falentin-Daudré, Amélie Leroux, Véronique Migonney, Magali Cucchiarini
Injuries occurring in orthopedic tissues do not completely heal if left untreated due to their imperfect self abilities for spontaneous repair. As most of the current clinical treatments often fail to fully restore the damaged tissues, there is a critical need to develop potent alternatives to activate the processes of repair in sites of orthopedic lesions. In this regard, combining gene therapy approaches with tissue engineering procedures to generate therapeutic gene vector-guided delivery systems, especially those based on mechanically stable solid scaffolds, is an attractive strategy to provide off-the-shelf compounds for the convenient spatiotemporal expression of candidate agents in orthopedic tissue defects...
April 2018: Discovery Medicine
Soumyadip Das, Saba Haq, Suresh Ramakrishna
Ran-binding protein in the microtubule-organizing center (RanBPM) is an evolutionarily conserved, nucleocytoplasmic scaffolding protein involved in various cellular processes and several signal transduction pathways. RanBPM has a crucial role in mediating disease pathology by interacting with diverse proteins to regulate their functions. Previously, we compiled diverse cellular functions of RanBPM. Since then the functions of RanBPM have increased exponentially. In this article, we have updated the functions of RanBPM through its manifold interactions that have been investigated to date, according to their roles in protein stability, transcriptional activity, cellular development, neurobiology, and the cell cycle...
April 2018: Discovery Medicine
Yanli He, Xiulian Li, Cui Hao, Pengjiao Zeng, Meng Zhang, Yong Liu, Yajing Chang, Lijuan Zhang
Grifola frondosa, a species of Basidiomycotina, is an edible medicinal mushroom with a large fruiting body characterized by overlapping caps. The β-glucan is the major biologically active component in G. frondosa polysaccharide (GFP) or D-fraction, which has been studied extensively for nearly 30 years. GFP was approved as an adjunctive therapeutic drug in China for treating cancers in 2010. In this article, based on the search results of Chinese VIP, CNKI, and Wanfang databases, 105 independent animal studies were summarized...
April 2018: Discovery Medicine
Xiangfang Meng, Wei Ding, Xijun Wu, Pingwei Di
In clinical practice, the vertebral arteries of a patient are often found to be not equal in size and the basilar artery may not be situated in the center. Our observational study showed that vertebral dominance and basilar bending are common, and their occurrence is related to advanced age and hypertension. The right vertebral dominance tends to coincide with left basilar bending, and, vice versa, the left vertebral dominance tends to coincide with right basilar bending. The left vertebral dominance is more common than the right dominance...
April 2018: Discovery Medicine
Sayad Navid Alavi, Vaia Florou, Gabriel Tinoco, Jonathan C Trent, Breelyn A Wilky
Soft tissue sarcomas (STS) are a heterogeneous group of over 100 histologically and genetically distinct mesenchymal tumors. Standard of care for metastatic STS has historically relied on anthracycline-based chemotherapy regimens. Although effective for some patients, conventional chemotherapeutic agents used in STS are associated with substantial toxicity and also are not equally effective in all histologic subtypes of sarcoma. Pazopanib is an orally active antiangiogenic drug that is approved for non-adipogenic sarcomas after failure of at least one line of previous chemotherapy, and has a relatively favorable toxicity profile...
March 2018: Discovery Medicine
Xiaolong Song, Huiyan Qu, Yong Wang, Tianshu Yang, Jingfeng Rong, Hua Zhou
Stem cells are a promising solution for the treatment of heart failure due to their ability to repopulate injured myocardium and restore cardiac function. However, many hindrances (such as low survival/viability and integration of transplanted cells, poor homing and cardiac differentiation efficiency, and inadequate cell retention and engraftment) compromise the full regenerative potential provided by stem cells. Therefore, it is necessary to optimize stem cell/progenitor therapy to improve clinical efficacy...
March 2018: Discovery Medicine
Nan Li, Deping Han, Jia Sun, Yumeng Li, Jin Zhang, Yali Zhang, Meng Liu, Renjia Peng, Haoxun Wang, Zhongmian Zhang, Jian Wang, Zongwen Liu, Jun Ma
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are thought to play a critical immunosuppressive role in tumorigenesis. In this project, we aimed to investigate subset alteration of MDSCs in gastric cancer (GC), and the effects of epirubicin (EPI) and paclitaxel (TAX) on MDSCs. The frequencies of MDSC subsets in peripheral blood were observed by using flow cytometry after treatment with EPI- or TAX- based chemotherapy in GC patients. After treatment with EPI or TAX in vitro, the subsets, apoptosis, cell cycle, and MAPK and NF-κB protein expressions of mouse bone marrow MDSCs were analyzed...
March 2018: Discovery Medicine
Chenyue Zhang, Shu Dong, Lei Wang, Songlin Yu, Yuwei Zheng, Yanyan Geng, Xiaoheng Shen, Haifeng Ying, Yuanbiao Guo, Jinming Yu, Qinglong Deng, Zhiqiang Meng, Zhaoshen Li, Hao Chen, Yehua Shen, Qiwen Chen
OBJECTIVE: We conducted a multicenter cohort study to investigate the prognostic value of some commonly-used laboratory indices in advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). METHODS: A multicenter cohort study was conducted from 2004 to 2013. The associations between laboratory indices and prognosis of advanced PDAC were examined. RESULTS: This cohort consisted of 553 females (36.2%) and 973 males (63.8%). Patients at cancer stage III and IV were 595 (39...
March 2018: Discovery Medicine
Brittany L Adler, Lisa Christopher-Stine
The inflammatory myopathies, which include dermatomyositis, polymyositis, and the immune-mediated necrotizing myopathies, are a heterogeneous group of autoimmune diseases that manifest with muscle, skin, or lung damage. Collectively, these autoimmune diseases result from loss of tolerance to a select group of self-antigens, although the precise mechanism through which this occurs is not known. Infection, malignancy, and certain medications including statins and the immune checkpoint inhibitors used in cancer therapy have been identified as potential immunologic triggers of the inflammatory myopathies...
February 2018: Discovery Medicine
Cristhiam Mauricio Rojas-Hernandez, Thein Hlaing Oo
"Anemias beyond iron, vitamin B12, and folate deficiencies" covers a wide array of everything which lies beyond commonly seen anemias caused by deficiencies of three micronutrients. Although anemias due to deficiencies of iron, B12, and folate are common in daily practice and account for at least one-third of anemia etiologies in older adults, it is not uncommon to encounter other nutritional and toxin-induced underproduction anemias. The combination of thorough clinical examination, careful peripheral blood smear review, and judicious selection of supporting laboratory studies is typically sufficient to make an assertive diagnosis of those cases...
February 2018: Discovery Medicine
Jian Jing, Youhe Gao
As a noninvasive and easily available biological fluid, the urine is becoming an important source for disease biomarker study. Change is essential for the usefulness of a biomarker. Without homeostasis mechanisms, urine can accommodate more changes, especially in the early stages of diseases. In this review, we summarize current status and discuss perspectives on the discovery of urine biomarkers in the early stages of diseases. We emphasize the advantages of urine biomarkers compared to plasma biomarkers for the diagnosis of diseases at early stages, propose a urine biomarker research roadmap, and highlight a novel membrane storage technique that enables large-scale urine sample collection and storage efficiently and economically...
February 2018: Discovery Medicine
Bing-Xi Yan, Yu-Xin Zheng, Wei Li, Jia-Qi Chen, Jiong Zhou, Sui-Qing Cai, Min Zheng, Xiao-Yong Man
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) have been shown to keep angiogenesis activation and inhibition in balance in normal and pathological conditions. In this study, we examined the expression of VEGF and PEDF in keratinocytes and fibroblasts from normal and psoriatic skin to evaluate their potential roles and interactions in the development of psoriasis. The expression of VEGF and PEDF was detected in normal and psoriatic skin ex vivo and in co-cultured keratinocytes and fibroblasts in vitro, and increased in keratinocytes and fibroblasts from psoriatic skin compared with those cells from normal skin...
February 2018: Discovery Medicine
Van Anh Trinh, Jocelyn Joseph, Wen-Jen Hwu
Since their approval by regulatory agencies worldwide, the anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), as monotherapy or in combination with ipilimumab, have become the standard frontline therapy for advanced BRAF-wild-type melanoma and an eminent rival to targeted therapy in the first-line setting for unresectable BRAF-mutated melanoma. Mature survival data from randomized phase 3 trials have emerged, confirming their position in the current treatment schema for advanced melanoma. Recently, the clinical utility of anti-PD-1 agents has extended into other disease settings, such as resected high-risk melanomas, non-cutaneous subtypes, and brain metastases...
January 2018: Discovery Medicine
Jennie A Hamilton, Hui-Chen Hsu, John D Mountz
Type I interferons (IFNs) have a prominent role in many aspects of normal innate and adaptive immunity and autoimmunity. However, cell-type specific information about type I IFN expression and autocrine/paracrine signaling is sparse and mostly focused on non-lymphocyte and non-immune cell populations. A major function of B cells is cytokine production, but surprisingly, type I IFN production by B cells in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has not been thoroughly investigated. This is due, in part, to the established view that plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are the primary source of pathogenic type I IFN in lupus...
January 2018: Discovery Medicine
Bei-Bei Yang, Hua Xiao, Xiao-Jie Li, Min Zheng
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of etanercept (ETN) plus methotrexate (MTX) in patients with rhupus without using corticosteroids. METHODS: Twenty rhupus patients [meeting the criteria for both rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)] who had never been treated with corticosteroids, DMARDs, or biological agents with a 28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28) >3.2 and lupus nephritis determined from histopathological specimens were enrolled...
January 2018: Discovery Medicine
Chen Wang, Xing-Fei Yu
In recent decades, the incidence rate of breast cancer has increased dramatically worldwide and has become one of the most prevalent cancers in women. According to the global data provided by the WHO, there were more than 1.7 million new cases of breast cancer in 2012, accounting for 25% of all reported cancer cases and 15% of all reported deaths among females. To most young patients, especially those younger than 40 years of age, chemotherapy should be taken into consideration as a treatment modality, even if the tumor size is small or without lymphatic metastasis...
January 2018: Discovery Medicine
Uma Maheswari Selvaraj, Ann M Stowe
Stroke, which occurs during a loss of blood flow to the brain, is a global disease that accounts for 10% of yearly mortality. But stroke is also a leading cause of long-term adult disability, with recovery continuing for months to years after initial stroke onset. This long-term functional recovery from stroke encompasses changes in neuronal structure and function, and occurs throughout the post-stroke brain. Much less understood is whether the adaptive immune cells that infiltrated the brain during acute post-stroke neuroinflammation remain long-term, and if their presence supports or hinders functional recovery...
December 2017: Discovery Medicine
Marie Beitelshees, Andrew Hill, Pooya Rostami, Charles H Jones, Blaine A Pfeifer
Over time, there has been a growing interest in the application of gene therapy within the healthcare industry as demonstrated by the nearly 3,000 clinical trials associated with gene therapy that are listed in However, there are various difficulties associated with gene therapy that have limited the realization of licensed gene therapies to only a handful of treatments. Furthermore, efforts to develop gene therapeutics have been narrowly focused and most clinical trials have sought to develop treatments for cancer (64...
December 2017: Discovery Medicine
Khusbu Keyal, Xin Liao, Guodong Liu, Shuai Yang, Fang Wang
Vitrectomy is considered the standard therapy for the treatment of posterior segment disease; however, after a significant improvement of the visual acuity, there is a reduction in visual acuity due to cataract formation, which requires further surgery. Nuclear sclerotic cataract (NSC) is the most common type of cataract seen after vitrectomy. The pathogenesis of post-vitrectomy NSC is unclear; several hypotheses have been formulated without any conclusions. In order to correct post-vitrectomy NSC, phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation is performed...
December 2017: Discovery Medicine
Yong Gao, Xin-Hong Liao, Yan Ma, Lu Lu, Li-Yan Wei, Xue Yan
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate the feasibility and performance of a two-step scoring system of ultrasound imaging in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 75 patients with 888 consecutive histopathologically verified lesions were included in this study. Step 1, an initial 5-point scoring system was developed based on conventional transrectal ultrasound (TRUS). Step 2, a final scoring system was evaluated according to contrast-enhanced transrectal ultrasound (CE-TRUS)...
December 2017: Discovery Medicine
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