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BMC Veterinary Research

Andrew Bates, Rory O'Brien, Simon Liggett, Frank Griffin
BACKGROUND: Johne's disease is a major production limiting disease of dairy cows. The disease is chronic, progressive, contagious and widespread; there is no treatment and there is no cure. Economic losses arise from decreased productivity through reduced growth, milk yield and fertility and capital losses due to premature culling or death. This study attempts to address the effect of subclinical JD on milk production under New Zealand pastoral dairy farming conditions using a new testing approach...
March 14, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
S Bertolini, A Rosamilia, C Caruso, C Maurella, F Ingravalle, A Quasso, P L Acutis, M Pitti, L Masoero, G Ru
BACKGROUND: Caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1) causes neonatal mortality and reproductive failure in goats. Despite its impact on herd reproductive performance, few studies have investigated the risk factors associated with CpHV-1 infection. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify potential herd- and host-level risk factors associated with CpHV-1 prevalence in a goat population with heterogeneous seropositivity for CpHV-1. RESULTS: Blood samples and individual data from 4542 goats were collected from 255 herds in Piedmont, Italy...
March 14, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Jie Tong, Ying Yu, Linlin Zheng, Chong Zhang, Yabin Tu, Yonggang Liu, Jianan Wu, Hai Li, Shujie Wang, Chenggang Jiang, En-Min Zhou, Gang Wang, Xuehui Cai
BACKGROUND: The highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) has been responsible for several viral attacks in the Asian porcine industry, since the first outbreak in China in 2006. During the early stages of the HP-PRRSV infection, high levels of proinflammatory cytokines are noted in the host peripheral blood, which are accompanied by severe lesions in the lungs and immune system organs; these are considered as the greatest contributors to the overall disease burden...
March 14, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Nguyen Van Diep, Masuo Sueyoshi, Junzo Norimine, Takuya Hirai, Ohnmar Myint, Angeline Ping Ping Teh, Uda Zahli Izzati, Naoyuki Fuke, Ryoji Yamaguchi
BACKGROUND: Since late 2013, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has reemerged in Japan and caused severe economic losses to the swine industry. Although PEDV vaccines have been used widely, the disease has swept rapidly across the county, and is commonly observed in PED-vaccinated farms, and has recurred in domestic herds. To better understand PEDVs responsible for the reemerging outbreaks in Japan, full-length spike (S), membrane (M), and nucleocapsid (N) genes of 45 PEDVs collected in Japan during 2013-2016, were sequenced and analyzed...
March 14, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Luís Belo, Isa Serrano, Eva Cunha, Carla Carneiro, Luis Tavares, L Miguel Carreira, Manuela Oliveira
BACKGROUND: Most of surgical site infections (SSI) are caused by commensal and pathogenic agents from the patient's microbiota, which may include antibiotic resistant strains. Pre-surgical asepsis of the skin is one of the preventive measures performed to reduce SSI incidence and also antibiotic resistance dissemination. However, in veterinary medicine there is no agreement on which biocide is the most effective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two pre-surgical skin asepsis protocols in dogs...
March 14, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Steffen Ortmann, Ad Vos, Antje Kretzschmar, Nomusa Walther, Christiane Kaiser, Conrad Freuling, Ivana Lojkic, Thomas Müller
BACKGROUND: Oral vaccination of the small Indian mongoose against rabies has been suggested as a potential tool to eliminate mongoose-mediated rabies on several Caribbean islands. A recently developed oral rabies virus vaccine strain, SPBN GASGAS, has already been shown to be efficacious in this reservoir species. Since, all available oral rabies vaccines are based on replication-competent viruses and vaccine baits are distributed unsupervised in the environment, enhanced safety standards for such vaccine types are required...
March 13, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Eduardo Casas, Guohong Cai, Larry A Kuehn, Karen B Register, Tara G McDaneld, John D Neill
BACKGROUND: High throughput sequencing allows identification of small non-coding RNAs. Transfer RNA Fragments are a class of small non-coding RNAs, and have been identified as being involved in inhibition of gene expression. Given their role, it is possible they may be involved in mediating the infection-induced defense response in the host. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify 5' transfer RNA fragments (tRF5s) associated with a serum antibody response to M. bovis in beef cattle...
March 13, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Beatriz Vidondo, Bernhard Voelkl
BACKGROUND: Livestock herds are interconnected with each other via an intricate network of transports of animals which represents a potential substrate for the spread of epidemic diseases. We analysed four years (2012-2015) of daily bovine transports to assess the risk of disease transmission and identify times and locations where monitoring would be most effective. Specifically, we investigated how the seasonal dynamics of transport networks, driven by the alpine summering and traditional cattle markets, affect the risk of epidemic outbreaks...
March 13, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Alexander Grahofer, Jeanette Bannoehr, Heiko Nathues, Petra Roosje
BACKGROUND: Scabies is a contagious skin disease rarely described in miniature pigs. To the best of the authors' knowledge, a zoonotic transfer from infected pet pigs to humans has not been reported previously. CASE PRESENTATION: This case report describes the infestation with Sarcoptes scabiei mites in two miniature pigs presenting with unusual clinical signs, and disease transmission to a child. Two 7-month-old male castrated miniature pig siblings were examined...
March 13, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Selena Tinga, Stanley E Kim, Scott A Banks, Stephen C Jones, Brian H Park, Antonio Pozzi, Daniel D Lewis
BACKGROUND: Cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) insufficiency is a degenerative condition that is a common cause of pelvic limb lameness and osteoarthritis in dogs. Surgical therapies developed to treat dogs with naturally occurring CrCL insufficiency aim to address the resultant instability, but the in-vivo alterations in stifle kinematics associated with CrCL insufficiency have not been accurately defined. The objective of this study was to quantify the 3-dimensional femorotibial joint kinematics of dogs with naturally occurring cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) insufficiency during ambulation...
March 12, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Marianne Kaiser, Magdalena Jacobson, Pia Haubro Andersen, Poul Bækbo, José Joaquin Cerón, Jan Dahl, Damián Escribano, Stine Jacobsen
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of postpartum dysgalactia syndrome (PDS) in sows is not fully elucidated and affected sows often present vague clinical signs. Accurate and timely diagnosis is difficult, and PDS is often recognized with a delay once piglets begin to starve. Increased rectal temperature of the sow is an important diagnostic parameter, but it may also be influenced by a number of other parameters and is thus difficult to interpret. Inflammatory markers may be important adjuncts to the clinical assessment of sows with PDS, but such markers have only been studied to a limited extent...
March 12, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Francesco Macrì, Simona Di Pietro, Cyndi Mangano, Michela Pugliese, Giuseppe Mazzullo, Nicola M Iannelli, Vito Angileri, Simona Morabito, Massimo De Majo
BACKGROUND: In veterinary medicine, contrast-enhanced ultrasonography allowed the accurate quantification of liver, splenic and kidney vascularization in healthy dogs and the differentiation between malignant and benign hepatic, renal, and splenic nodules in dogs and cats based on perfusion patterns. The utility of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in other applications is still under study. The aim of this study was to develop diagnostic criteria by contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in 8 client-owned adult dogs affected by urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma with definitive diagnosis made by cytopathologic evaluation after suction biopsy...
March 12, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Xóchitl Zambrano-Estrada, Brianda Landaverde-Quiroz, Andrés A Dueñas-Bocanegra, Marco A De Paz-Campos, Gerardo Hernández-Alberto, Benjamín Solorio-Perusquia, Manuel Trejo-Mandujano, Laura Pérez-Guerrero, Evangelina Delgado-González, Brenda Anguiano, Carmen Aceves
BACKGROUND: Mammary cancer has a high incidence in canines and is an excellent model of spontaneous carcinogenesis. Molecular iodine (I2 ) exerts antineoplastic effects on different cancer cells activating re-differentiation pathways. In co-administration with anthracyclines, I2 impairs chemoresistance installation and prevents the severity of side effects generated by these antineoplastic drugs. This study is a random and double-blind protocol that analyzes the impact of I2 (10 mg/day) in two administration schemes of Doxorubicin (DOX; 30 mg/m2) in 27 canine patients with cancer of the mammary gland...
March 12, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Joanna L Kaplan, Catherine T Gunther-Harrington, Jessie S Sutton, Joshua A Stern
BACKGROUND: The teratogenic effects of immunomodulatory and certain antimicrobial therapies are described in small rodents and humans. While the described teratogenic effects in small rodents have been extrapolated to make conclusions about its use in the pregnant dam, teratogenic effects of prednisone and doxycycline have not yet been reported in the dog. Here we report and describe midline defects observed in a litter of golden retriever puppies exposed to mid-gestational immunosuppressive and antimicrobial therapy...
March 12, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
S Jo Moore, Catherine E Vrentas, Soyoun Hwang, M Heather West Greenlee, Eric M Nicholson, Justin J Greenlee
BACKGROUND: The Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) prion protein gene (PRNP) is polymorphic at codon 132, with leucine (L132) and methionine (M132) allelic variants present in the population. In elk experimentally inoculated with the chronic wasting disease (CWD) agent, different incubation periods are associated with PRNP genotype: LL132 elk survive the longest, LM132 elk are intermediate, and MM132 elk the shortest. The purpose of this study was to investigate potential mechanisms underlying variations in incubation period in elk of different prion protein genotypes...
March 9, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Srdjan Cirovic, Robert Lloyd, Jelena Jovanovik, Holger A Volk, Clare Rusbridge
BACKGROUND: Syringomyelia is a pathological condition in which fluid-filled cavities (syringes) form and expand in the spinal cord. Syringomyelia is often linked with obstruction of the craniocervical junction and a Chiari malformation, which is similar in both humans and animals. Some brachycephalic toy breed dogs such as Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCS) are particularly predisposed. The exact mechanism of the formation of syringomyelia is undetermined and consequently with the lack of clinical explanation, engineers and mathematicians have resorted to computer models to identify possible physical mechanisms that can lead to syringes...
March 9, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Sara Andrés-Lasheras, Inma Martín-Burriel, Raúl Carlos Mainar-Jaime, Mariano Morales, Ed Kuijper, José L Blanco, Manuel Chirino-Trejo, Rosa Bolea
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is recognised as an emerging disease in both humans and some animal species. During the past few years, insights into human CDI epidemiology changed and C. difficile is also considered as an emerging community-acquired pathogen. Certain ribotypes (RT) are possibly associated with zoonotic transmission. The objective of this study was to assess the presence of C. difficile in a population of pets and to characterise the isolates. RESULTS: Faecal samples from a total of 90 diarrhoeic dogs and 24 from exotic animal species (both diarrhoeic and non-diarrhoeic) were analysed...
March 9, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Maozhi Hu, Weixin Zhao, Hongying Li, Jie Gu, Qiuxiang Yan, Xiaohui Zhou, Zhiming Pan, Guiyou Cui, Xinan Jiao
BACKGROUND: Enhancing caspase-1 activation in macrophages is helpful for the clearance of intracellular bacteria in mice. Our previous studies have shown that EscI, an inner rod protein of type III system in E. coli can enhance caspase-1 activation. The purpose of this study was to further analyze the prospect of EscI in the vaccine design. RESULTS: A recombinant Salmonella expressing SspH2-EscI fusion protein using the promotor of Salmonella effector SspH2, X4550(pYA3334-P-SspH2-EscI), was constructed...
March 9, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
J S Lawson, H M Syme, C P D Wheeler-Jones, J Elliott
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common in geriatric cats, and the most prevalent pathology is chronic tubulointerstitial inflammation and fibrosis. The cell type predominantly responsible for the production of extra-cellular matrix in renal fibrosis is the myofibroblast, and fibroblast to myofibroblast differentiation is probably a crucial event. The cytokine TGF-β1 is reportedly the most important regulator of myofibroblastic differentiation in other species. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterise renal fibroblasts from cadaverous kidney tissue of cats with and without CKD, and to investigate the transcriptional response to TGF-β1...
March 9, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Zora Váradyová, Dominika Mravčáková, Michal Babják, Magdalena Bryszak, Ľubomíra Grešáková, Klaudia Čobanová, Svetlana Kišidayová, Iveta Plachá, Alžbeta Königová, Adam Cieslak, Sylwester Slusarczyk, Lukasz Pecio, Mariusz Kowalczyk, Marián Várady
BACKGROUND: The gastrointestinal parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus is a pathogenic organism resistant to several anthelmintics. This study assessed the efficacy of a medicinal herbal mixture (Herbmix) and organic zinc, as an essential trace element for the proper functioning of both unspecific and specific immune defensive mechanisms, against experimental infections with H. contortus in lambs. All lambs were infected orally with approximately 5000 third-stage larvae of a strain of H...
March 9, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
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