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Electrolyte & Blood Pressure: E & BP

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042904/central-diabetes-insipidus-linked-to-rathke-s-cleft-cyst-polyuria-in-a-17-year-old-girl
#1
Ha Yeon Kim, Seung Jin Lee, Eun Hui Bae, Seong Kwon Ma, Soo Wan Kim
A 17-year-old girl presented with polyuria (7 L/day) and polydipsia for one year. Initial urine osmolality was 113mOsm/kg H2O. Following 6 h of fluid restriction, serum plasma osmolality reached 300mOsm/kg H2O, whereas urine osmolality was 108mOsm/kg H2O. Urine osmolality was increased by 427% from 108 to 557mOsm/kg after vasopressin challenge. The patient was diagnosed with central diabetes insipidus, possibly derived from the atypical occupation of a Rathke's cleft cyst at the pituitary stalk following magnetic resonance imaging with enhancement...
September 2017: Electrolyte & Blood Pressure: E & BP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042903/renal-tubular-acidosis-in-patients-with-primary-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome
#2
Su Woong Jung, Eun Ji Park, Jin Sug Kim, Tae Won Lee, Chun Gyoo Ihm, Sang Ho Lee, Ju-Young Moon, Yang Gyun Kim, Kyung Hwan Jeong
Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is characterized by lymphocytic infiltration of the exocrine glands resulting in decreased saliva and tear production. It uncommonly involves the kidneys in various forms, including tubulointerstitial nephritis, renal tubular acidosis, Fanconi syndrome, and rarely glomerulonephritis. Its clinical symptoms include muscle weakness, periodic paralysis, and bone pain due to metabolic acidosis and electrolyte imbalance. Herein, we describe the cases of two women with pSS whose presenting symptoms involve the kidneys...
September 2017: Electrolyte & Blood Pressure: E & BP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042902/unusual-case-of-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-in-a-patient-with-anti-glomerular-basement-membrane-antibody-glomerulonephritis-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#3
Boram Cha, Dae Young Kim, Hyunil Jang, Seun Deuk Hwang, Huck Jei Choi, Moon-Jae Kim
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is characterized by a clinical and radiological entity with the sudden onset of seizures, headache, altered consciousness, and visual disturbances in patients with the findings of reversible vasogenic subcortical edema without infarction. Hypertension, renal disease, and autoimmune disease are co-morbid conditions of PRES. Nevertheless, there have only been a few case reports of PRES in a patient with anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody glomerulonephritis (anti-GBM GN)...
September 2017: Electrolyte & Blood Pressure: E & BP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042901/vitamin-d-and-hypertension
#4
REVIEW
Hye Yun Jeong, Kyung Mi Park, Mi Jung Lee, Dong Ho Yang, Sang Hoon Kim, So-Young Lee
Vitamin D has the pleiotropic effects in multiple organ systems, and vitamin D deficiency was suggested to be associated with high blood pressure according to previous reports. Several interventional studies have examined the effect of vitamin D supplementation on high blood pressure patients, but the results have been inconsistent. In this article, we examined the literature that have proposed a mechanism involving vitamin D in the regulation of blood pressure and review previous observational and interventional studies that have shown the relationship between vitamin D and hypertension among various populations...
September 2017: Electrolyte & Blood Pressure: E & BP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275387/a-case-of-isolated-glycosuria-mediated-by-an-slc5a2-gene-mutation-and-characterized-by-postprandial-heavy-glycosuria-without-salt-wasting
#5
Kyeong Min Kim, Soon Kil Kwon, Hye-Young Kim
Familial renal glycosuria (FRG) is an inherited disorder characterized by persistent glycosuria in the absence of hyperglycemia. It is caused by mutations in the sodium-glucose co-transporter, leading to increase in the renal excretion of glucose and sodium. However, there have been no studies on the role of fasting and postprandial changes in the urinary sodium excretion in patients with FRG. We report a case of renal glycosuria, which was confirmed by a SLC5A2 mutation via gene sequencing, and compared the postprandial urinary glucose and sodium excretion...
December 2016: Electrolyte & Blood Pressure: E & BP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275386/a-case-report-of-syndrome-of-inappropriate-antidiuretic-hormone-induced-by-pregabalin
#6
Youn Joo Jung, Dong-Young Lee, Hae Won Kim, Hyun Sun Park, Beom Kim
The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) is the most common cause of euvolemic hyponatremia, and many medications have been associated with SIADH. Pregabalin is a drug used for the treatment of neuropathic pain, though common adverse effects include central nervous system disturbance, peripheral edema, and weight gain. However, hyponatremia caused by pregabalin has been rarely reported. Here we report a patient with pregabalin-induced hyponatremia who met the criteria for SIADH; after discontinuation of the drug, his condition rapidly improved...
December 2016: Electrolyte & Blood Pressure: E & BP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275385/severe-hypernatremia-caused-by-acute-exogenous-salt-intake-combined-with-primary-hypothyroidism
#7
Woo Jin Jung, Su Min Park, Jong Man Park, Harin Rhee, Il Young Kim, Dong Won Lee, Soo Bong Lee, Eun Young Seong, Ihm Soo Kwak, Sang Heon Song
This report describes a case of severe hypernatremia with a serum sodium concentration of 188.1mmol/L caused by exogenous salt intake. A 26-year-old man diagnosed with Crohn's disease 5 years previously visited our clinic due to generalized edema and personality changes, with aggressive behavior. He had compulsively consumed salts, ingesting approximately 154 g of salt over the last 4 days. Despite careful fluid management that included not only hypotonic fluid therapy for 8 hours but also hypertonic saline administration, his serum sodium level decreased sharply at 40...
December 2016: Electrolyte & Blood Pressure: E & BP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275384/genetic-variations-of-tyrosine-hydroxylase-in-the-pathogenesis-of-hypertension
#8
REVIEW
Yu Ho Lee, Yang Gyun Kim, Ju-Young Moon, Jin Sug Kim, Kyung-Hwan Jeong, Tae Won Lee, Chun-Gyoo Ihm, Sang Ho Lee
One of the major pathophysiological features of primary hypertension is an inappropriate activation of the sympathetic nervous system, which is mediated by excessive synthesis and secretion of catecholamine into the blood. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), a rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of catecholamine, has been highlighted because genetic variations of TH could alter the activity of the sympathetic nervous system activity and subsequently contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension. Here, we discuss the role of TH as a regulator of sympathetic activity and review several studies that investigated the relationship between genetic variations of TH and hypertension...
December 2016: Electrolyte & Blood Pressure: E & BP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27453715/a-pedigree-with-c-179-cytosine-to-threonine-missense-mutation-of-slc12a3-gene-presenting-gitelman-s-syndrome
#9
Yaerim Kim, Seong Sik Kang, Woo Yeong Park, Kyubok Jin, Dae-Kwang Kim, Seungyeup Han
A 42-year-old man came to the hospital presenting chest discomfort and general weakness. He had come to the hospital with the same symptoms 3 months ago and 12 years prior. His laboratory test showed hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia and hypocalciuria. The arterial blood gas analysis showed hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis. He had an ultrasonography guided renal biopsy, the result was normal at light microscopy and immunofluorescence microscopy. However, a special stain for Na-Cl cotransporter was weakly expressed compared with the control...
June 2016: Electrolyte & Blood Pressure: E & BP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27453714/hypokalemic-hypertension-leading-to-a-diagnosis-of-autosomal-dominant-polycystic-kidney-disease
#10
Wasawat Vutthikraivit, Montira Assanatham, Chutintorn Sriphrapradang
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common inherited renal disease. Hypertension is common and occurs before decline in renal function. However, the coexistence of hypertension and hypokalemia is rare in ADPKD patients. We report on a 32-year-old woman with secondary aldosteronism. Magnetic resonance imaging of the renal arteries revealed multiple cysts of varying sizes in both the kidneys and the liver, compatible with ADPKD. Increased reninangiotensin-aldosterone system activity was secondary to cyst expansion...
June 2016: Electrolyte & Blood Pressure: E & BP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27453713/a-rare-case-of-polyneuropathy-and-monoclonalgammopathy-with-recurrent-acute-kidney-injury
#11
Eun Jung Kim, Dong Ho Shin, Hee Jung Jeon, So Yon Rhee, Eun Sook Nam, Ji Young Park, Jieun Oh
POEMS syndrome is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome and there are few reports of polyneuropathy and monoclonal gammopathy associated with kidney dysfunction. Here, we report a case of POEMS syndrome with recurrent acute kidney injury (AKI). A 52-year-old man presented with bilateral aggravating paresthesia and latermotor weakness of the lower extremities accompanied by repeated elevation of serum creatinine. The patient was finally diagnosed with POEMS syndrome on the basis of fulfilling the two mandatory major criteria (polyneuropathy and monoclonal gammopathy), one other major criterion (sclerotic bone lesion), and several minor criteria...
June 2016: Electrolyte & Blood Pressure: E & BP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27453712/confronting-practical-problems-for-initiation-of-on-line-hemodiafiltration-therapy
#12
REVIEW
Yang Wook Kim, Sihyung Park
Conventional hemodialysis, which is based on the diffusive transport of solutes, is the most widely used renal replacement therapy. It effectively removes small solutes such as urea and corrects fluid, electrolyte and acid-base imbalance. However, solute diffusion coefficients decreased rapidly as molecular size increased. Because of this, middle and large molecules are not removed effectively and clinical problem such as dialysis amyloidosis might occur. Online hemodiafiltration which is combined by diffusive and convective therapies can overcome such problems by removing effectively middle and large solutes...
June 2016: Electrolyte & Blood Pressure: E & BP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26848305/spinning-induced-rhabdomyolysis-eleven-case-reports-and-review-of-the-literature
#13
Daejin Kim, Eun-Jung Ko, HyeJeong Cho, Su Hyung Park, Sang Hwan Lee, Nam-Gil Cho, So-Young Lee, Hye Yun Jeong, Dong Ho Yang
Non-traumatic exertional rhabdomyolysis (exRML) occurs in individuals with normal muscles when the energy supplied to the muscle is insufficient. Here, we report 11 cases of spinning-induced rhabdomyolysis and review related literature. Spinning is a kind of indoor bicycle sport. The 11 patients who were diagnosed with exRML and admitted to CHA Bundang Medical Center were female and their ages ranged from 15 to 46 years. Two to three days prior to the presentation, the patients had attended a spinning class for the first time...
December 2015: Electrolyte & Blood Pressure: E & BP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26848304/a-case-report-of-familial-renal-hypouricemia-confirmed-by-genotyping-of-slc22a12-and-a-literature-review
#14
Hyung Oh Kim, Chun-Gyoo Ihm, Kyung Hwan Jeong, Hyun Joon Kang, Jae-Min Kim, Hyung Suk Lim, Jin Sug Kim, Tae Won Lee
A 24-year-old male visited our hospital because of pain in both flanks. His biochemistry profile showed an elevated serum creatinine level and low serum uric acid level. History taking revealed that he had undertaken exercise prior to the acute kidney injury (AKI) event, and he stated that family members had a history of urolithiasis. His renal profile improved after hydration and supportive care during hospitalization. Although the patient was subsequently admitted again due to AKI, his status recovered with similar treatment...
December 2015: Electrolyte & Blood Pressure: E & BP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26848303/high-water-intake-and-progression-of-chronic-kidney-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Hoon Young Choi, Hyeong Cheon Park, Sung Kyu Ha
Impact of water intake on the courses of chronic kidney and urinary tract diseases, such as urolithiasis, urinary tract infections, chronic kidney diseases (CKD), autosomal dominant polycystic kidney diseases and bladder cancer, has recently been studied. It still remains controversial whether increased water intake slows the progression of CKD or not. However, high water intake suppresses plasma levels of arginine vasopressin (AVP), which is expected to be beneficial for the preservation of the kidney function...
December 2015: Electrolyte & Blood Pressure: E & BP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26848302/hypertension-in-chronic-glomerulonephritis
#16
REVIEW
Chun-Gyoo Ihm
Chronic glomerulonephritis (GN), which includes focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and proliferative forms of GN such as IgA nephropathy, increases the risk of hypertension. Hypertension in chronic GN is primarily volume dependent, and this increase in blood volume is not related to the deterioration of renal function. Patients with chronic GN become salt sensitive as renal damage including arteriolosclerosis progresses and the consequent renal ischemia causes the stimulation of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system(RAAS)...
December 2015: Electrolyte & Blood Pressure: E & BP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26240598/a-case-of-osmotic-demyelination-presenting-with-severe-hypernatremia
#17
Min Jee Han, Do Hyoung Kim, Young Hwa Kim, In Mo Yang, Joon Hyung Park, Moon Ki Hong
Osmotic demyelination syndrome is a demyelinating disorder associated with rapid correction of hyponatremia. But, it rarely occurs in acute hypernatremia, and it leads to permanent neurologic symptoms and is associated with high mortality. A 44-year-old woman treated with alternative medicine was admitted with a history of drowsy mental status. Severe hypernatremia (197mEq/L) with hyperosmolality (415mOsm/kgH2O) was evident initially and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a high signal intensity lesion in the pons, consistent with central pontine myelinolysis...
June 2015: Electrolyte & Blood Pressure: E & BP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26240597/abdominal-obesity-and-mortality-in-continuous-ambulatory-peritoneal-dialysis-patients
#18
Haifeng Jin, Jun Young Shin, Seung Ho Lee, Joon Ho Song, Moon-Jae Kim, Seoung Woo Lee
BACKGROUND: The relationship between abdominal obesity (AO) and mortality in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients is controversial. METHODS: The prevalence of AO in 84 PD patients was assessed in a cross-section manner and followed up for 9 years at a single center. AO was defined as a waist circumference (WC) of more than 90 cm in males or more than 80 cm in females. The patients were classified as either with AO(AO group) or without AO(nAO group). RESULTS: The AO group was older, contained more diabetics, more females, and had higher Charlson comorbidity index (aCCI) scores, BMI, and triglyceride and lower serum creatinine than the non-AO subjects...
June 2015: Electrolyte & Blood Pressure: E & BP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26240596/loop-diuretics-in-clinical-practice
#19
REVIEW
Se Won Oh, Sang Youb Han
Diuretics are commonly used to control edema across various clinical fields. Diuretics inhibit sodium reabsorption in specific renal tubules, resulting in increased urinary sodium and water excretion. Loop diuretics are the most potent diuretics. In this article, we review five important aspects of loop diuretics, in particular furosemide, which must be considered when prescribing this medicine: (1) oral versus intravenous treatment, (2) dosage, (3) continuous versus bolus infusion, (4) application in chronic kidney disease patients, and (5) side effects...
June 2015: Electrolyte & Blood Pressure: E & BP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26240595/salt-sensitivity-and-hypertension-a-paradigm-shift-from-kidney-malfunction-to-vascular-endothelial-dysfunction
#20
REVIEW
Hoon Young Choi, Hyeong Cheon Park, Sung Kyu Ha
Hypertension is a complex trait determined by both genetic and environmental factors and is a major public health problem due to its high prevalence and concomitant increase in the risk for cardiovascular disease. With the recent large increase of dietary salt intake in most developed countries, the prevalence of hypertension increases tremendously which is about 30% of the world population. There is substantial evidence that suggests some people can effectively excrete high dietary salt intake without an increase in arterial BP, and another people cannot excrete effectively without an increase in arterial BP...
June 2015: Electrolyte & Blood Pressure: E & BP
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