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Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS

Summaiya Baloch, Muhammad Kamran Taj, Imran Taj, Ghulam Muhammad, Abdul Aziz, Wajid Ali, Firdous Bugti, Nasir Ahmed Rind, Farooq Shehzad, Saeed Ahmed Essote
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Pneumococcal diseases remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Streptococcus Pneumoniae causing pneumonia in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan in children under 5 years of age and older adults. Therefore; the present research was design to study the different microbiological aspects of Streptococcus pneumoniae. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 480 sputum samples were collected from pneumonia patient at different government hospitals of Quetta...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
Ahmed M S Hussein, Mona M Hussein, Manal F Salama, Ibrahim M Hamed, Karem Aly Fouda, Rasha S Mohamed
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: School children especially in Egypt need a safe meal which is able to meet their daily nutrient needs and ameliorate cognition. So, the current study aimed to evaluate formula prepared as cookies to be served as a meal for primary school children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Wheat, roasted chickpea, milk protein concentrate, cinnamon and brewer's yeast were used to prepare cookies which have been exposed to sensory, chemical and biological evaluation...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
Fatma A M Hassan, K E Ali, Mona A M Abd, El-Gawad, N S Abd Rabou, Hoda S El-Sayed, Aboelfetoh M Abdalla
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Moringa oleifera oil is composed of highly unsaturated fatty acids containing 80.4% polyunsaturated, mainly oleic acids 67.9% and had a low acid value and low free fatty acids composition, so it is acceptable for edible application. The objective of study was the feasibility of using Moringa oleifera oil in manufacture of cheese compared with other oils (olive, sun flower) and the effect of using Moringa oleifera oil in chemically; organoleptically and microbial content in cheese...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
Anatolii Pomortsev, Nikolay Dorofeev, Lada Sokolova, Svetlana Zorina, Natalia Katysheva
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The spring growth of winter cereals depends on the viability of the crowns as it is the key organ of the spring renewal of leaves, stems and roots. After the plants out of wintering, the impact of stressful conditions in the spring period negatively affects the viability of the crowns of winter cereals. The study was aimed at studying the physiological and biochemical reactions of the crowns of winter triticale, depending on the moisture level of the soil after wintering...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
Diah Tri Widayati, Pradita Iustitia Sitaresmi, Sigit Bintara, Budi Prasetyo Widyobroto
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In goats, weak estrus behavior is potentially caused by a decline in reproductive efficiency. In the present study, aim was to measure the vaginal pH to determine the accuracy of lust detection in Saanen Etawah crossbreed goats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirteen Saanen Etawah crossbred does (Capra hircus) with body condition score of 2-3 were used. The dose were fed concentrate, provided forage and water ad libitum. The experiment was conducted during the natural estrous cycle...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
Wael Fathy Shehata, Mohei El-Din Solliman Mohamed, Heba Allah Adel Mohasseb, Abdullatif Ali Al-Khateeb, Mohammed Ibrahim Aldaej, Saleh Mobarak Alturki
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Presently, determination of optimum protocol for callus induction of any plant is an important issue in tissue culture technology. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to find out an optimum protocol for callus induction from in vitro cultured jojoba by determining the optimum explant and the best growth regulators mixture for callus induction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study used three variant explants namely the leaf disks, seeds and nodal segments for callus formation...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
Ikpesu Thomas Ohwofasa, Juliana Okwena Pondei
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Herbal medicines are getting more importance in the treatment of infections ailments because most of the synthetic drugs have side effects. A large proportion of the developing countries populations depend on herbal remedy for their physical and psychological health needs depend. Hence, the anti-bacterial activity of the mixture of the extracts of Solenostemon monostachyus and Vernonia amygdalina, common medicinal plants use in Africa, Asia and Europe on some Gram-negative bacteria was investigated...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
Sahar Y Al-Okbi, Doha A Mohamed, Eman E Abd-Elhady, Ahmed M S Hussein, Enas S K Al-Siedy
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is accused as inducer of both cardiovascular and chronic liver diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of combined freeze dried orange juice with its dried pulp supplemented with methionine, as functional food, in comparison to orange bioactive constituents, as parallel formula, in NAFLD rat model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Proximate composition, dietary fibers, minerals, total phenolics, fatty acids and phytosterols were determined in the orange functional food...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
Sahar Y Al-Okbi, Ahmed M S Hussein, Hagar F H Elbakry, Karem Aly Fouda, Khaled F Mahmoud, Mohamed E Hassan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Dyslipidemia is a major health problem that may lead to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). In the present research, a biological experiment was run on dyslipidemic rats to study the health benefits of the volatile oils (VOs) of fennel and rosemary in its original and nano-form using chitosan as carrier. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were divided into 6 groups; normal control, dyslipidemic control and 4 test groups with dyslipidemia and treated by VOs of fennel and rosemary and their respective nano-forms separately...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
Muddasir Basheer, Seema Rai, Hindole Ghosh, Younis Ahmad Hajam
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common heterogeneous endocrinological and metabolic disorder in women of reproductive age which leads to infertility/subfertility. The present study was commenced to elucidate the therapeutic efficacy of melatonin in the pathogenesis of letrozole induced polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in Wistar rat. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Letrozole was administered orally (1 mg kg-1) to induce PCOS condition in Wistar female rats for a period of 2-3 weeks followed by a dose of melatonin (200 µg/100 g b...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
Ashwag Yosef Shami, Abdulhadi Almasri
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Infecting agents (e.g., bacteria, fungi, virus and parasite) have comprised high levels of multidrug resistance (MDR) with increased morbidity and mortality; so the main aim of this study was to investigate and demonstrate the antimicrobial activity of deer musk on multidrug-resistance bacteria and to proof that musk had a bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects against MDR bacteria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Deer musk evaluated 11 multi-drug resistance (MDR) species were selected, namely, Staphylococcus capitis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumanni, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Serratia marcescens, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pyogenes and Enterococcus faecalis the MDR strain were tested by means of disk diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) by the time-kill method recommendation by CLSI...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
Chandrima Emtia, Kazuro Ohno
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Flower resources are prerequisites for survival and reproduction of aphidophagous hoverflies adults. It is, therefore, necessary to evaluate their foraging behavior with regards to different flowering species in order to utilize hoverflies to enhance conservation biological control (CBC) of aphids. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The foraging behavior of the female hoverfly, Sphaerophoria macrogaster (Thomson) was observed in coriander (Coriandrum sativum Linnaeus) and blue salvia (Salvia farinacea Bentham) flower patches using a focal sampling method combined with continuous recording...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
Eliton Chivandi, Davison Moyo, Rachael Dangarembizi, Kennedy H Erlwanger
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The sub-saharan livestock feed industry depends on imported soyabean meal (SBM) as a dietary protein source in feeds thus making livestock production costly. This calls for the search and development of local dietary protein sources. Using Sprague Dawley rats to model monogastric animals, this study evaluated the potential of Ximenia caffra kernel meal (XCKM) to substitute SBM as a dietary protein source in feeds. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five diets were formulated wherein XCKM replaced SBM on a crude protein basis at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
Gamal A M Younis, Rania H AbdElgawad, Rasha M Elkenany, Amira F Glal
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Avian mycoplasmosis, particularly Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is one of the infectious diseases associated with economic losses in Egyptian poultry industry. Thus, this study was aimed to determine the prevalence, serological identification, molecular characterization, sequencing and minimum inhibitory concentration of M. gallisepticum isolated from diseased broilers in Egypt. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 351 samples (227 tissue samples "tracheas and air sacs" and 124 tracheal swabs) and 71 sera were collected from diseased broilers...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
Adilson Ricken Schuelter, Elcio Friske, Kaian Albino Corazza Kaefer, Jonatas Marcolin, Mayara Fabiana da Silva, Eliane Gruska Vendruscolo, Ivan Schuster
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: With the advent of high-scale genotyping platforms, association studies have become important tools for finding genomic regions of interest in breeding programs, due to the fact that their improved more accuracy than the other tools. The aim of this work was to map genomic regions associated with grain maturation in common maize strains. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For linkage disequilibrium mapping, 72 strains were previously genotyped for SNP markers on the 650K platform and their respective genotypic values were predicted for male and female flowering and area below the moisture curve...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
Nazieh I Al Khalaileh
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a fungal metabolite produced in feed and could be transmitted to food chain through animal and considered as one of the potent carcinogenic compound. This study aimed to evaluate the levels of Ochratoxin A in both poultry feed and meat in Jordan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: About 129 samples representing feed, corn and poultry meat were collected from different location of Jordan market and evaluated for Ochratoxin A by ELISA...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
Kamilu Ayo Fasasi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Honeybees explore their environment in search of nectar and pollens including water whose sources are contaminated by variety of microbes. This has both negative and positive economic implications on health status of honeybees, the consumers of the products including the quality of the products. Hence, the study was designed to investigate the effect of geographical locations on the occurrence and diversity of microbiota on the external integument and the digestive gut of adult worker honeybees, Apis mellifera adansonii...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
Mohammad I Al-Daej
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Quality of vegetable and fruit crops play an important role for economical use of resources by the consumers. Among the various vegetable crops, tomato is used in different forms such as fresh and for the preparation of different byproducts. The main objective of this study was to carry out line and tester analysis of heterosis and combing ability of tomato fruit traits. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study was carried at Agricultural and Veterinary Training and Research Station, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia during 2012 and 2014...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
Dalia Goda Ibrahim Gabr
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Pollen morphology is one of the significant tools in solving some taxonomic problems on the family, generic or specific level and has become part of the multidisciplinary and collaborative approach in plant systematic and evolution. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate and describe the pollen morphology of 10 species belongs to 9 genera and five tribes of Brassicaceae from eastern region of Saudi Arabia by using light and scanning electron microscope. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To study the pollen morphology for ten species representing 9 genera and 5 tribes of Brassicaceae the Light Microscope (LM) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
Hussah I Algwaiz
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: There have been a number of reported drawbacks and efficacy issues regarding the use of bleaching agents in the plant industry. This study was conducted to determine the cytological effects of the bleaching agent (Quneex) on the plant cells and plant DNA using the Allium cepa assay. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It was subjected sixteen root meristems of A. cepa to different concentrations of the bleaching agent (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5%) with different periods of time (6, 12 and 24 h)...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
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