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Biology Letters

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903781/correction-to-agonistic-urban-birds-elevated-territorial-aggression-of-urban-song-sparrows-is-individually-consistent-within-a-breeding-period
#1
Scott Davies, Kendra B Sewall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903780/evidence-for-an-optimal-level-of-connectivity-for-establishment-and-colonization
#2
Thibaut Morel-Journel, Camille Piponiot, Elodie Vercken, Ludovic Mailleret
Dispersal is usually associated with the spread of invasive species, but it also has two opposing effects, one decreasing and the other increasing the probability of establishment. Indeed, dispersal both slows population growth at the site of introduction and increases the likelihood of surrounding habitat being colonized. The connectivity of the introduction site is likely to affect dispersal, and, thus, establishment, according to the dispersal behaviour of individuals. Using individual-based models and microcosm experiments on minute wasps, we demonstrated the existence of a hump-shaped relationship between connectivity and establishment in situations in which individual dispersal resembled a diffusion process...
November 2016: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903779/exercise-physiology-and-sports-science-must-be-considered-in-evolutionary-theories-regarding-human-performance-a-reply-to-postma-2016
#3
James M Smoliga, Gerald S Zavorsky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903778/correction-to-violence-in-the-prehistoric-period-of-japan-the-spatio-temporal-pattern-of-skeletal-evidence-for-violence-in-the-jomon-period
#4
Hisashi Nakao, Kohei Tamura, Yui Arimatsu, Tomomi Nakagawa, Naoko Matsumoto, Takehiko Matsugi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903777/repeated-evolution-of-viviparity-in-phrynosomatid-lizards-constrained-interspecific-diversification-in-some-life-history-traits
#5
J Jaime Zúñiga-Vega, Jesualdo A Fuentes-G, Alison G Ossip-Drahos, Emília P Martins
In vertebrates, viviparity has evolved independently multiple times, apparently increasing morphological diversification and speciation rates as a consequence. We tested whether the evolution of viviparity has also increased diversification of life-history traits by estimating evolutionary rates of lizards from the North American family Phrynosomatidae. Using modern phylogenetic comparative methods, we compared these rates between oviparous and viviparous species, and found no support for this hypothesis. Instead, we found higher evolutionary rates for oviparous species in some life-history traits...
November 2016: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903776/social-bond-strength-influences-vocally-mediated-recruitment-to-mobbing
#6
Julie M Kern, Andrew N Radford
Strong social bonds form between individuals in many group-living species, and these relationships can have important fitness benefits. When responding to vocalizations produced by groupmates, receivers are expected to adjust their behaviour depending on the nature of the bond they share with the signaller. Here we investigate whether the strength of the signaller-receiver social bond affects response to calls that attract others to help mob a predator. Using field-based playback experiments on a habituated population of wild dwarf mongooses (Helogale parvula), we first demonstrate that a particular vocalization given on detecting predatory snakes does act as a recruitment call; receivers were more likely to look, approach and engage in mobbing behaviour than in response to control close calls...
November 2016: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903775/why-we-should-not-dismiss-a-relationship-between-attractiveness-and-performance-a-comment-on-smoliga-zavorsky-2015
#7
Erik Postma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881767/daylight-saving-time-can-decrease-the-frequency-of-wildlife-vehicle-collisions
#8
William A Ellis, Sean I FitzGibbon, Benjamin J Barth, Amanda C Niehaus, Gwendolyn K David, Brendan D Taylor, Helena Matsushige, Alistair Melzer, Fred B Bercovitch, Frank Carrick, Darryl N Jones, Cathryn Dexter, Amber Gillett, Martin Predavec, Dan Lunney, Robbie S Wilson
Daylight saving time (DST) could reduce collisions with wildlife by changing the timing of commuter traffic relative to the behaviour of nocturnal animals. To test this idea, we tracked wild koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in southeast Queensland, where koalas have declined by 80% in the last 20 years, and compared their movements with traffic patterns along roads where they are often killed. Using a simple model, we found that DST could decrease collisions with koalas by 8% on weekdays and 11% at weekends, simply by shifting the timing of traffic relative to darkness...
November 2016: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881766/bridging-the-gap-parkour-athletes-provide-new-insights-into-locomotion-energetics-of-arboreal-apes
#9
Lewis G Halsey, Samuel R L Coward, Susannah K S Thorpe
The tree canopy is an energetically challenging environment to traverse. Along with compliant vegetation, gaps in the canopy can prove energetically costly if they force a route-extending detour. Arboreal apes exhibit diverse locomotion strategies, including for gap crossing. Which one they employ in any given scenario may be influenced by the energy costs to do so, which are affected by the details of the immediate environment in combination with their body size. Measuring energetics of arboreal apes is not tractable; thus our knowledge in this area is limited...
November 2016: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881765/improved-homeothermy-and-hypothermia-in-african-lions-during-gestation
#10
Paul D Trethowan, Tom Hart, Andrew J Loveridge, Anna Haw, Andrea Fuller, David W Macdonald
Mammals use endogenously produced heat to maintain a high and relatively constant core body temperature (Tb). How they regulate their Tb during reproduction might inform us as to what thermal conditions are necessary for optimal development of offspring. However, few studies have measured Tb in free-ranging animals for sufficient periods of time to encounter reproductive events. We measured Tb continuously in six free-ranging adult female African lions (Panthera leo) for approximately 1 year. Lions reduced the 24 h amplitude of Tb by about 25% during gestation and decreased mean 24 h Tb by 1...
November 2016: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881764/zebrafish-embryonic-development-is-induced-by-carp-sperm
#11
Thomas A Delomas, Konrad Dabrowski
Haploid gynogenetic screens increase the efficiency of forward genetic screens and linkage analysis in fish. Typically, UV-irradiated zebrafish sperm is used to activate zebrafish oocytes for haploid screens. We describe the use of UV-irradiated common carp sperm to activate haploid gynogenetic zebrafish development. Carp × zebrafish hybrids are shown to have a characteristic set of features during embryonic development and exhibit functional development of several tissues (muscle, heart and nervous system)...
November 2016: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881763/the-effects-of-tradition-on-problem-solving-by-two-wild-populations-of-bearded-capuchin-monkeys-in-a-probing-task
#12
Raphael Moura Cardoso, Eduardo B Ottoni
The effects of culture on individual cognition have become a core issue among cultural primatologists. Field studies with wild populations provide evidence on the role of social cues in the ontogeny of tool use in non-human primates, and on the transmission of such behaviours over generations through socially biased learning. Recent experimental studies have shown that cultural knowledge may influence problem solving in wild populations of chimpanzees. Here, we present the results from a field experiment comparing the performance of bearded capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) from two wild savannah populations with distinct toolkits in a probing task...
November 2016: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881762/bacteria-facilitate-prey-retention-by-the-pitcher-plant-darlingtonia-californica
#13
David W Armitage
Bacteria are hypothesized to provide a variety of beneficial functions to plants. Many carnivorous pitcher plants, for example, rely on bacteria for digestion of captured prey. This bacterial community may also be responsible for the low surface tensions commonly observed in pitcher plant digestive fluids, which might facilitate prey capture. I tested this hypothesis by comparing the physical properties of natural pitcher fluid from the pitcher plant Darlingtonia californica and cultured 'artificial' pitcher fluids and tested these fluids' prey retention capabilities...
November 2016: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881761/where-in-the-air-aerial-habitat-use-of-nocturnally-migrating-birds
#14
Kyle G Horton, Benjamin M Van Doren, Phillip M Stepanian, Andrew Farnsworth, Jeffrey F Kelly
The lower atmosphere (i.e. aerosphere) is critical habitat for migrant birds. This habitat is vast and little is known about the spatio-temporal patterns of distribution and abundance of migrants in it. Increased human encroachment into the aerosphere makes understanding where and when migratory birds use this airspace a key to reducing human-wildlife conflicts. We use weather surveillance radar to describe large-scale height distributions of nocturnally migrating birds and interpret these distributions as aggregate habitat selection behaviours of individual birds...
November 2016: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881760/changes-in-composition-and-abundance-of-functional-groups-of-arctic-fungi-in-response-to-long-term-summer-warming
#15
József Geml, Tatiana A Semenova, Luis N Morgado, Jeffrey M Welker
We characterized fungal communities in dry and moist tundra and investigated the effect of long-term experimental summer warming on three aspects of functional groups of arctic fungi: richness, community composition and species abundance. Warming had profound effects on community composition, abundance, and, to a lesser extent, on richness of fungal functional groups. In addition, our data show that even within functional groups, the direction and extent of response to warming tend to be species-specific and we recommend that studies on fungal communities and their roles in nutrient cycling take into account species-level responses...
November 2016: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881759/effects-of-sea-ice-cover-on-satellite-detected-primary-production-in-the-arctic-ocean
#16
Mati Kahru, Zhongping Lee, B Greg Mitchell, Cynthia D Nevison
The influence of decreasing Arctic sea ice on net primary production (NPP) in the Arctic Ocean has been considered in multiple publications but is not well constrained owing to the potentially large errors in satellite algorithms. In particular, the Arctic Ocean is rich in coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) that interferes in the detection of chlorophyll a concentration of the standard algorithm, which is the primary input to NPP models. We used the quasi-analytic algorithm (Lee et al 2002 Appl. Opti...
November 2016: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852943/co-adjustment-of-yolk-antioxidants-and-androgens-in-birds
#17
Mathieu Giraudeau, Simon Ducatez
Mothers can shape the developmental trajectory of their offspring through the transmission of resources such as hormones, antioxidants or immunoglobulins. Over the last two decades, an abundant literature on maternal effects in birds has shown that several of these compounds (i.e. androgens, glucocorticoids and antioxidants) often influence the same offspring phenotypic traits (i.e. growth, immunity or oxidative stress levels), making interaction effects between egg components a likely scenario. However, the potential interactive effects of maternally transmitted compounds on offspring development and potential co-adjustment of these compounds within an egg are still poorly understood...
November 2016: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852942/goffin-s-cockatoos-make-the-same-tool-type-from-different-materials
#18
Alice M I Auersperg, Stefan Borasinski, Isabelle Laumer, Alex Kacelnik
Innovative tool manufacture is rare and hard to isolate in animals. We show that an Indonesian generalist parrot, the Goffin's cockatoo, can flexibly and spontaneously transfer the manufacture of stick-type tools across three different materials. Each material required different manipulation patterns, including substrates that required active sculpting for achieving a functional, elongated shape.
November 2016: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852941/cryptic-lineages-hybridize-for-worker-production-in-the-harvester-ant-messor-barbarus
#19
Victoria Norman, Hugo Darras, Christopher Tranter, Serge Aron, William O H Hughes
The reproductive division of labour between queen and worker castes in social insects is a defining characteristic of eusociality and a classic example of phenotypic plasticity. Whether social insect larvae develop into queens or workers has long been thought to be determined by environmental cues, i.e. larvae are developmentally totipotent. Contrary to this paradigm, several recent studies have revealed that caste is determined by genotype in some ant species, but whether this is restricted to just a few exceptional species is still unclear...
November 2016: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852940/mood-and-personality-interact-to-determine-cognitive-biases-in-pigs
#20
Lucy Asher, Mary Friel, Kym Griffin, Lisa M Collins
Cognitive bias has become a popular way to access non-human animal mood, though inconsistent results have been found. In humans, mood and personality interact to determine cognitive bias, but to date, this has not been investigated in non-human animals. Here, we demonstrate for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, in a non-human animal, the domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus), that mood and personality interact, impacting on judgement. Pigs with a more proactive personality were more likely to respond optimistically to unrewarded ambiguous probes (spatially positioned between locations that were previously rewarded and unrewarded) independent of their housing (or enrichment) conditions...
November 2016: Biology Letters
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