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Biology Letters

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424317/the-williams-syndrome-prosociality-gene-gtf2i-mediates-oxytocin-reactivity-and-social-anxiety-in-a-healthy-population
#1
Tanya L Procyshyn, Jason Spence, Silven Read, Neil V Watson, Bernard J Crespi
The neurohormone oxytocin plays a central role in human social behaviour and cognition, and oxytocin dysregulation may contribute to psychiatric disorders. However, genetic factors influencing individual variation in the oxytocinergic system remain poorly understood. We genotyped 169 healthy adults for a functional polymorphism in GTF2I (general transcription factor II-I), a gene associated with high prosociality and reduced social anxiety in Williams syndrome, a condition reported to involve high oxytocin levels and reactivity...
April 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404823/noise-affects-resource-assessment-in-an-invertebrate
#2
Erin P Walsh, Gareth Arnott, Hansjoerg P Kunc
Anthropogenic noise is a global pollutant, affecting animals across taxa. However, how noise pollution affects resource acquisition is unknown. Hermit crabs (Pagurus bernhardus) engage in detailed assessment and decision-making when selecting a critical resource, their shell; this is crucial as individuals in poor shells suffer lower reproductive success and higher mortality. We experimentally exposed hermit crabs to anthropogenic noise during shell selection. When exposed to noise, crabs approached the shell faster, spent less time investigating it, and entered it faster...
April 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404822/sperm-as-moderators-of-environmentally-induced-paternal-effects-in-a-livebearing-fish
#3
Jonathan P Evans, Rowan A Lymbery, Kyle S Wiid, Md Moshiur Rahman, Clelia Gasparini
Until recently, paternal effects-the influence of fathers on their offspring due to environmental factors rather than genes-were largely discarded or assumed to be confined to species exhibiting paternal care. It is now recognized that paternal effects can be transmitted through the ejaculate, but unambiguous evidence for them is scarce, because it is difficult to isolate effects operating via changes to the ejaculate from maternal effects driven by female mate assessment. Here, we use artificial insemination to disentangle mate assessment from fertilization in guppies, and show that paternal effects can be transmitted to offspring exclusively via ejaculates...
April 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404821/a-hypervariable-mitochondrial-protein-coding-sequence-associated-with-geographical-origin-in-a-cosmopolitan-bloom-forming-alga-heterosigma-akashiwo
#4
Aiko Higashi, Satoshi Nagai, Sergio Seone, Shoko Ueki
Geographical distributions of phytoplankton species can be defined by events on both evolutionary time and shorter scales, e.g. recent climate changes. Additionally, modern industrial activity, including the transport of live fish and spat for aquaculture and aquatic microorganisms in ship ballast water, may aid the spread of phytoplankton. Obtaining a reliable marker is key to gaining insight into the phylogeographic history of a species. Here, we report a hypervariable mitochondrial gene in the cosmopolitan bloom-forming alga, Heterosigma akashiwo We compared the entire mitochondrial genome sequences of seven H...
April 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404820/increased-food-availability-raises-eviction-rate-in-a-cooperative-breeding-mammal
#5
C Dubuc, S English, N Thavarajah, B Dantzer, S P Sharp, H C Spence-Jones, D Gaynor, T H Clutton-Brock
In group-living mammals, the eviction of subordinate females from breeding groups by dominants may serve to reduce feeding competition or to reduce breeding competition. Here, we combined both correlational and experimental approaches to investigate whether increases in food intake by dominant females reduces their tendency to evict subordinate females in wild meerkats (Suricata suricatta). We used 20 years of long-term data to examine the association between foraging success and eviction rate, and provisioned dominant females during the second half of their pregnancy, when they most commonly evict subordinates...
April 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404819/deimatism-a-neglected-component-of-antipredator-defence
#6
REVIEW
Kate D L Umbers, Sebastiano De Bona, Thomas E White, Jussi Lehtonen, Johanna Mappes, John A Endler
Deimatic or 'startle' displays cause a receiver to recoil reflexively in response to a sudden change in sensory input. Deimatism is sometimes implicitly treated as a form of aposematism (unprofitability associated with a signal). However, the fundamental difference is, in order to provide protection, deimatism does not require a predator to have any learned or innate aversion. Instead, deimatism can confer a survival advantage by exploiting existing neural mechanisms in a way that releases a reflexive response in the predator...
April 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404818/quantitative-abilities-in-a-reptile-podarcis-sicula
#7
Maria Elena Miletto Petrazzini, Isabel Fraccaroli, Francesco Gariboldi, Christian Agrillo, Angelo Bisazza, Cristiano Bertolucci, Augusto Foà
The ability to identify the largest amount of prey available is fundamental for optimizing foraging behaviour in several species. To date, this cognitive skill has been observed in all vertebrate groups except reptiles. In this study we investigated the spontaneous ability of ruin lizards to select the larger amount of food items. In Experiment 1, lizards proved able to select the larger food item when presented with two alternatives differing in size (0.25, 0.50, 0.67 and 0.75 ratio). In Experiment 2 lizards presented with two groups of food items (1 versus 4, 2 versus 4, 2 versus 3 and 3 versus 4 items) were unable to select the larger group in any contrast...
April 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381636/enhanced-rock-weathering-biological-climate-change-mitigation-with-co-benefits-for-food-security
#8
David J Beerling
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381635/perceptions-of-enhanced-weathering-as-a-biological-negative-emissions-option
#9
Nick F Pidgeon, Elspeth Spence
This paper addresses the social acceptability of enhanced weathering, a technology that would involve spreading silicate particles over terrestrial surfaces in order to boost the biological processes that currently sequester CO2 as part of the earth's natural carbon cycle. We present the first exploration of British attitudes towards enhanced weathering, using an online survey (n = 935) of a representative quota sample of the public. Baseline awareness of weathering was extremely low. Many respondents remained undecided or neutral about risks, although more people support than oppose weathering...
April 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381634/negative-co2-emissions-via-enhanced-silicate-weathering-in-coastal-environments
#10
REVIEW
Filip J R Meysman, Francesc Montserrat
Negative emission technologies (NETs) target the removal of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere, and are being actively investigated as a strategy to limit global warming to within the 1.5-2°C targets of the 2015 UN climate agreement. Enhanced silicate weathering (ESW) proposes to exploit the natural process of mineral weathering for the removal of CO2 from the atmosphere. Here, we discuss the potential of applying ESW in coastal environments as a climate change mitigation option. By deliberately introducing fast-weathering silicate minerals onto coastal sediments, alkalinity is released into the overlying waters, thus creating a coastal CO2 sink...
April 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381633/simulating-carbon-capture-by-enhanced-weathering-with-croplands-an-overview-of-key-processes-highlighting-areas-of-future-model-development
#11
REVIEW
Lyla L Taylor, David J Beerling, Shaun Quegan, Steven A Banwart
Enhanced weathering (EW) aims to amplify a natural sink for CO2 by incorporating powdered silicate rock with high reactive surface area into agricultural soils. The goal is to achieve rapid dissolution of minerals and release of alkalinity with accompanying dissolution of CO2 into soils and drainage waters. EW could counteract phosphorus limitation and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in tropical soils, and soil acidification, a common agricultural problem studied with numerical process models over several decades...
April 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381632/accelerating-the-carbon-cycle-the-ethics-of-enhanced-weathering
#12
REVIEW
H Lawford-Smith, A Currie
Enhanced weathering, in comparison to other geoengineering measures, creates the possibility of a reduced cost, reduced impact way of decreasing atmospheric carbon, with positive knock-on effects such as decreased oceanic acidity. We argue that ethical concerns have a place alongside empirical, political and social factors as we consider how to best respond to the critical challenge that anthropogenic climate change poses. We review these concerns, considering the ethical issues that arise (or would arise) in the large-scale deployment of enhanced weathering...
April 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381631/climate-change-mitigation-potential-benefits-and-pitfalls-of-enhanced-rock-weathering-in-tropical-agriculture
#13
REVIEW
David P Edwards, Felix Lim, Rachael H James, Christopher R Pearce, Julie Scholes, Robert P Freckleton, David J Beerling
Restricting future global temperature increase to 2°C or less requires the adoption of negative emissions technologies for carbon capture and storage. We review the potential for deployment of enhanced weathering (EW), via the application of crushed reactive silicate rocks (such as basalt), on over 680 million hectares of tropical agricultural and tree plantations to offset fossil fuel CO2 emissions. Warm tropical climates and productive crops will substantially enhance weathering rates, with potential co-benefits including decreased soil acidification and increased phosphorus supply promoting higher crop yields sparing forest for conservation, and reduced cultural eutrophication...
April 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381630/potential-of-global-croplands-and-bioenergy-crops-for-climate-change-mitigation-through-deployment-for-enhanced-weathering
#14
REVIEW
Ilsa B Kantola, Michael D Masters, David J Beerling, Stephen P Long, Evan H DeLucia
Conventional row crop agriculture for both food and fuel is a source of carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) to the atmosphere, and intensifying production on agricultural land increases the potential for soil C loss and soil acidification due to fertilizer use. Enhanced weathering (EW) in agricultural soils-applying crushed silicate rock as a soil amendment-is a method for combating global climate change while increasing nutrient availability to plants. EW uses land that is already producing food and fuel to sequester carbon (C), and reduces N2O loss through pH buffering...
April 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356412/dynamic-masquerade-with-morphing-three-dimensional-skin-in-cuttlefish
#15
Deanna Panetta, Kendra Buresch, Roger T Hanlon
Masquerade is a defence tactic in which a prey resembles an inedible or inanimate object thus causing predators to misclassify it. Most masquerade colour patterns are static although some species adopt postures or behaviours to enhance the effect. Dynamic masquerade in which the colour pattern can be changed is rare. Here we report a two-step sensory process that enables an additional novel capability known only in cuttlefish and octopus: morphing three-dimensional physical skin texture that further enhances the optical illusions created by coloured skin patterns...
March 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356411/jewelled-spiders-manipulate-colour-lure-geometry-to-deceive-prey
#16
Thomas E White
Selection is expected to favour the evolution of efficacy in visual communication. This extends to deceptive systems, and predicts functional links between the structure of visual signals and their behavioural presentation. Work to date has primarily focused on colour, however, thereby understating the multicomponent nature of visual signals. Here I examined the relationship between signal structure, presentation behaviour, and efficacy in the context of colour-based prey luring. I used the polymorphic orb-web spider Gasteracantha fornicata, whose yellow- or white-and-black striped dorsal colours have been broadly implicated in prey attraction...
March 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356410/why-men-trophy-hunt
#17
REVIEW
Chris T Darimont, Brian F Codding, Kristen Hawkes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356409/embracing-interactions-in-ocean-acidification-research-confronting-multiple-stressor-scenarios-and-context-dependence
#18
REVIEW
Kristy J Kroeker, Rebecca L Kordas, Christopher D G Harley
Changes in the Earth's environment are now sufficiently complex that our ability to forecast the emergent ecological consequences of ocean acidification (OA) is limited. Such projections are challenging because the effects of OA may be enhanced, reduced or even reversed by other environmental stressors or interactions among species. Despite an increasing emphasis on multifactor and multispecies studies in global change biology, our ability to forecast outcomes at higher levels of organization remains low. Much of our failure lies in a poor mechanistic understanding of nonlinear responses, a lack of specificity regarding the levels of organization at which interactions can arise, and an incomplete appreciation for linkages across these levels...
March 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356408/biological-responses-of-sharks-to-ocean-acidification
#19
REVIEW
Rui Rosa, Jodie L Rummer, Philip L Munday
Sharks play a key role in the structure of marine food webs, but are facing major threats due to overfishing and habitat degradation. Although sharks are also assumed to be at relatively high risk from climate change due to a low intrinsic rate of population growth and slow rates of evolution, ocean acidification (OA) has not, until recently, been considered a direct threat. New studies have been evaluating the potential effects of end-of-century elevated CO2 levels on sharks and their relatives' early development, physiology and behaviour...
March 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330978/editor-s-note-on-putting-fossils-in-trees-special-issue
#20
April M Wright
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Biology Letters
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