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Biology Letters

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794278/research-papers-gender-bias-and-peer-review
#1
EDITORIAL
Rick Battarbee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794277/modulation-of-social-space-by-dopamine-in-drosophila-melanogaster-but-no-effect-on-the-avoidance-of-the-drosophila-stress-odorant
#2
Robert W Fernandez, Adesanya A Akinleye, Marat Nurilov, Omar Feliciano, Matthew Lollar, Rami R Aijuri, Janis M O'Donnell, Anne F Simon
Appropriate response to others is necessary for social interactions. Yet little is known about how neurotransmitters regulate attractive and repulsive social cues. Using genetic and pharmacological manipulations in Drosophila melanogaster, we show that dopamine is contributing the response to others in a social group, specifically, social spacing, but not the avoidance of odours released by stressed flies (dSO). Interestingly, this dopamine-mediated behaviour is prominent only in the day-time, and its effect varies depending on tissue, sex and type of manipulation...
August 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794276/a-test-for-paedomorphism-in-domestic-pig-cranial-morphology
#3
Allowen Evin, Joseph Owen, Greger Larson, Mélanie Debiais-Thibaud, Thomas Cucchi, Una Strand Vidarsdottir, Keith Dobney
Domestic animals are often described as paedomorphic, meaning that they retain juvenile characteristics into adulthood. Through a three-dimensional landmark-based geometric morphometric analysis of cranial morphology at three growth stages, we demonstrate that wild boar (n = 138) and domestic pigs (n = 106) (Sus scrofa) follow distinct ontogenetic trajectories. With the exception of the size ratio between facial and neurocranial regions, paedomorphism does not appear to be the primary pattern describing the observed differences between wild and domestic pig cranial morphologies...
August 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794275/did-true-frogs-dispersify
#4
Kin Onn Chan, Rafe M Brown
The interplay between range expansion and concomitant diversification is of fundamental interest to evolutionary biologists, particularly when linked to intercontinental dispersal and/or large scale extinctions. The evolutionary history of true frogs has been characterized by circumglobal range expansion. As a lineage that survived the Eocene-Oligocene extinction event (EOEE), the group provides an ideal system to test the prediction that range expansion triggers increased net diversification. We constructed the most densely sampled, time-calibrated phylogeny to date in order to: (i) characterize tempo and patterns of diversification; (ii) assess the impact of the EOEE; and (iii) test the hypothesis that range expansion was followed by increased net diversification...
August 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794274/stable-isotope-analyses-of-feather-amino-acids-identify-penguin-migration-strategies-at-ocean-basin-scales
#5
Michael J Polito, Jefferson T Hinke, Tom Hart, Mercedes Santos, Leah A Houghton, Simon R Thorrold
Identifying the at-sea distribution of wide-ranging marine predators is critical to understanding their ecology. Advances in electronic tracking devices and intrinsic biogeochemical markers have greatly improved our ability to track animal movements on ocean-wide scales. Here, we show that, in combination with direct tracking, stable carbon isotope analysis of essential amino acids in tail feathers provides the ability to track the movement patterns of two, wide-ranging penguin species over ocean basin scales...
August 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768797/has-snake-fang-evolution-lost-its-bite-new-insights-from-a-structural-mechanics-viewpoint
#6
Chris Broeckhoven, Anton du Plessis
Venomous snakes-the pinnacle of snake evolution-are characterized by their possession of venom-conducting fangs ranging from grooved phenotypes characterizing multiple lineages of rear-fanged taxa to tubular phenotypes present in elapids, viperids and atractaspidines. Despite extensive research, controversy still exists on the selective pressures involved in fang phenotype diversification. Here, we test the hypothesis that larger fangs and consequently a shift to an anterior position in the maxilla evolved to compensate for the costs of structural changes, i...
August 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768796/feeding-the-enemy-loss-of-nectar-and-nectaries-to-herbivores-reduces-tepal-damage-and-increases-pollinator-attraction-in-iris-bulleyana
#7
Ya-Ru Zhu, Min Yang, Jana C Vamosi, W Scott Armbruster, Tao Wan, Yan-Bing Gong
Floral nectar usually functions as a pollinator reward, yet it may also attract herbivores. However, the effects of herbivore consumption of nectar or nectaries on pollination have rarely been tested. We investigated Iris bulleyana, an alpine plant that has showy tepals and abundant nectar, in the Hengduan Mountains of SW China. In this region, flowers are visited mainly by pollen-collecting pollinators and nectarivorous herbivores. We tested the hypothesis that, in I. bulleyana, sacrificing nectar and nectaries to herbivores protects tepals and thus enhances pollinator attraction...
August 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768795/possible-co-option-of-engrailed-during-brachiopod-and-mollusc-shell-development
#8
Keisuke Shimizu, Yi-Jyun Luo, Noriyuki Satoh, Kazuyoshi Endo
In molluscs, two homeobox genes, engrailed (en) and distal-less (dlx), are transcription factors that are expressed in correlation with shell development. They are expressed in the regions between shell-forming and non-shell-forming cells, likely defining the boundaries of shell-forming fields. Here we investigate the expression of two transcription factors in the brachiopod Lingula anatina We find that en is expressed in larval mantle lobes, whereas dlx is expressed in larval tentacles. We also demonstrate that the embryonic shell marker mantle peroxidase (mpox) is specifically expressed in mantle lobes...
August 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747533/species-integrity-enhanced-by-a-predation-cost-to-hybrids-in-the-wild
#9
P Anders Nilsson, Kaj Hulthén, Ben B Chapman, Lars-Anders Hansson, Jakob Brodersen, Henrik Baktoft, Jerker Vinterstare, Christer Brönmark, Christian Skov
Species integrity can be challenged, and even eroded, if closely related species can hybridize and produce fertile offspring of comparable fitness to that of parental species. The maintenance of newly diverged or closely related species therefore hinges on the establishment and effectiveness of pre- and/or post-zygotic reproductive barriers. Ecological selection, including predation, is often presumed to contribute to reduced hybrid fitness, but field evidence for a predation cost to hybridization remains elusive...
July 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747532/negative-phenotypic-and-genetic-correlation-between-natal-dispersal-propensity-and-nest-defence-behaviour-in-a-wild-bird
#10
Pierre Bize, Grégory Daniel, Vincent A Viblanc, Julien G A Martin, Blandine Doligez
Natural selection is expected to favour the integration of dispersal and phenotypic traits allowing individuals to reduce dispersal costs. Accordingly, associations have been found between dispersal and personality traits such as aggressiveness and exploration, which may facilitate settlement in a novel environment. However, the determinism of these associations has only rarely been explored. Here, we highlight the functional integration of individual personality in nest-defence behaviour and natal dispersal propensity in a long-lived colonial bird, the Alpine swift (Apus melba), providing insights into genetic constraints shaping the coevolution of these two traits...
July 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747531/remarkable-size-spectra-stability-in-a-marine-system-undergoing-massive-invasion
#11
Yehezkel Buba, Itai van Rijn, Shane A Blowes, Oren Sonin, Dor Edelist, John P DeLong, Jonathan Belmaker
The Mediterranean Sea is an invasion hotspot, with non-indigenous species suspected to be a major driver behind community changes. We used size spectra, a reliable index of food web structure, to examine how the influx of Red Sea fishes into the Mediterranean Sea has impacted the indigenous species community. This is the first attempt to use changes in the size spectra to reveal the effect of biological invasions. We used data from trawl catches along Israel's shoreline spanning 20 years to estimate changes in the community size spectra of both indigenous and non-indigenous species...
July 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724691/drought-induced-starvation-of-aardvarks-in-the-kalahari-an-indirect-effect-of-climate-change
#12
Benjamin Rey, Andrea Fuller, Duncan Mitchell, Leith C R Meyer, Robyn S Hetem
Aardvarks (Orycteropus afer) are elusive burrowing mammals, predominantly nocturnal and distributed widely throughout Africa except for arid deserts. Their survival may be threatened by climate change via direct and indirect effects of increasing heat and aridity. To measure their current physiological plasticity, we implanted biologgers into six adult aardvarks resident in the semi-arid Kalahari. Following a particularly dry and hot summer, five of the study aardvarks and 11 other aardvarks at the study site died...
July 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724690/correction-to-high-protein-paternal-diet-confers-an-advantage-to-sons-in-sperm-competition
#13
Felix Zajitschek, Susanne Zajitschek, Mollie Manier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724689/california-scrub-jays-reduce-visual-cues-available-to-potential-pilferers-by-matching-food-colour-to-caching-substrate
#14
Laura A Kelley, Nicola S Clayton
Some animals hide food to consume later; however, these caches are susceptible to theft by conspecifics and heterospecifics. Caching animals can use protective strategies to minimize sensory cues available to potential pilferers, such as caching in shaded areas and in quiet substrate. Background matching (where object patterning matches the visual background) is commonly seen in prey animals to reduce conspicuousness, and caching animals may also use this tactic to hide caches, for example, by hiding coloured food in a similar coloured substrate...
July 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724688/dopamine-d1-receptor-activation-leads-to-object-recognition-memory-in-a-coral-reef-fish
#15
Trevor J Hamilton, Martin Tresguerres, David I Kline
Object recognition memory is the ability to identify previously seen objects and is an adaptive mechanism that increases survival for many species throughout the animal kingdom. Previously believed to be possessed by only the highest order mammals, it is now becoming clear that fish are also capable of this type of memory formation. Similar to the mammalian hippocampus, the dorsolateral pallium regulates distinct memory processes and is modulated by neurotransmitters such as dopamine. Caribbean bicolour damselfish (Stegastes partitus) live in complex environments dominated by coral reef structures and thus likely possess many types of complex memory abilities including object recognition...
July 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724687/direct-and-trans-generational-effects-of-male-and-female-gut-microbiota-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#16
Juliano Morimoto, Stephen J Simpson, Fleur Ponton
There is increasing evidence of the far-reaching effects of gut bacteria on physiological and behavioural traits, yet the fitness-related consequences of changes in the gut bacteria composition of sexually interacting individuals remain unknown. To address this question, we manipulated the gut microbiota of fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, by monoinfecting flies with either Acetobacter pomorum (AP) or Lactobacillus plantarum (LP). Re-inoculated individuals were paired in all treatment combinations. LP-infected males had longer mating duration and induced higher short-term offspring production in females compared with AP-infected males...
July 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701471/effects-of-hypoxia-and-ocean-acidification-on-the-upper-thermal-niche-boundaries-of-coral-reef-fishes
#17
Rasmus Ern, Jacob L Johansen, Jodie L Rummer, Andrew J Esbaugh
Rising ocean temperatures are predicted to cause a poleward shift in the distribution of marine fishes occupying the extent of latitudes tolerable within their thermal range boundaries. A prevailing theory suggests that the upper thermal limits of fishes are constrained by hypoxia and ocean acidification. However, some eurythermal fish species do not conform to this theory, and maintain their upper thermal limits in hypoxia. Here we determine if the same is true for stenothermal species. In three coral reef fish species we tested the effect of hypoxia on upper thermal limits, measured as critical thermal maximum (CTmax)...
July 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679696/distinct-developmental-pathways-underlie-independent-losses-of-flight-in-ratites
#18
Cynthia Faux, Daniel J Field
Recent phylogenetic studies question the monophyly of ratites (large, flightless birds incorporating ostriches, rheas, kiwis, emus and cassowaries), suggesting their paraphyly with respect to flying tinamous (Tinamidae). Flightlessness and large body size have thus likely evolved repeatedly among ratites, and separately in ostriches (Struthio) and emus (Dromaius). Here, we test this hypothesis with data from wing developmental trajectories in ostriches, emus, tinamous and chickens. We find the rate of ostrich embryonic wing growth falls within the range of variation exhibited by flying taxa (tinamous and chickens), but that of emus is extremely slow...
July 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679695/mice-as-stowaways-colonization-history-of-danish-striped-field-mice
#19
Liselotte Wesley Andersen, Magnus Jacobsen, Christina Vedel-Smith, Thomas Secher Jensen
Species from the steppe region of Eastern Europe likely colonized northwestern Europe in connection with agriculture after 6500 BP. The striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius Pallas, 1783), is a steppe-derived species often found in human crops. It is common on the southern Danish islands of Lolland and Falster, which have been isolated from mainland Europe since approximately 10 300-8000 BP. Thus, this species could have been brought in with humans in connection with agriculture, or it could be an earlier natural invader...
July 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659418/perception-of-animacy-in-dogs-and-humans
#20
Judit Abdai, Bence Ferdinandy, Cristina Baño Terencio, Ákos Pogány, Ádám Miklósi
Humans have a tendency to perceive inanimate objects as animate based on simple motion cues. Although animacy is considered as a complex cognitive property, this recognition seems to be spontaneous. Researchers have found that young human infants discriminate between dependent and independent movement patterns. However, quick visual perception of animate entities may be crucial to non-human species as well. Based on general mammalian homology, dogs may possess similar skills to humans. Here, we investigated whether dogs and humans discriminate similarly between dependent and independent motion patterns performed by geometric shapes...
June 2017: Biology Letters
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