journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Biology Letters

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321249/facing-each-other-mammal-mothers-and-infants-prefer-the-position-favouring-right-hemisphere-processing
#1
Andrey Giljov, Karina Karenina, Yegor Malashichev
The right hemisphere plays a crucial role in social processing. Human mothers show a robust left cradling/holding bias providing greater right-hemispheric involvement in the exchange of social information between mother and infant. Here, we demonstrate that a similar bias is evident in face-to-face spatial interactions in marine and terrestrial non-primate mammals. Walruses and Indian flying foxes showed a significant population-level preference for the position which facilitates the use of the left visual field in both mother and infant...
January 2018: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321248/early-life-maltreatment-predicts-adult-stress-response-in-a-long-lived-wild-bird
#2
Jacquelyn K Grace, David J Anderson
Persistent phenotypic changes due to early-life stressors are widely acknowledged, but their relevance for wild, free-living animals is poorly understood. We evaluated effects of two natural stressors experienced when young (maltreatment by adults and nutritional stress) on stress physiology in wild Nazca boobies (Sula granti) 6-8 years later, an exceptionally long interval for such studies. Maltreatment as a nestling, but not nutritional stress, was associated years later with depressed baseline corticosterone in females and elevated stress-induced corticosterone concentration [CORT] in males...
January 2018: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321247/aberrant-regulation-of-autophagy-in-mammalian-diseases
#3
REVIEW
Wei Xie, Jun Zhou
Autophagy is a major cellular metabolic pathway that facilitates degradation of a subset of long-lived proteins and cytoplasmic organelles in eukaryotic cells. This pathway plays a vital role in preserving the cellular homeostasis of the cells themselves, in addition to maintaining the normal physiological state of cell renewal. Many stressors, such as starvation, ischaemia and oxidative stress can induce autophagy. In addition to its physiological roles, autophagy also occurs in a wide variety of pathological processes, including tumour progression, metabolic disorders, and neurodegenerative and lung diseases...
January 2018: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321246/unique-perceptuomotor-control-of-stone-hammers-in-wild-monkeys
#4
Madhur Mangalam, Matheus Maia Pacheco, Patrícia Izar, Elisabetta Visalberghi, Dorothy Munkenbeck Fragaszy
We analysed the patterns of coordination of striking movement and perceptuomotor control of stone hammers in wild bearded capuchin monkeys, Sapajus libidinosus as they cracked open palm nut using hammers of different mass, a habitual behaviour in our study population. We aimed to determine why these monkeys cannot produce conchoidally fractured flakes as do contemporary human knappers or as did prehistoric hominin knappers. We found that the monkeys altered their patterns of coordination of movement to accommodate changes in hammer mass...
January 2018: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321245/limited-support-for-the-x-linked-grandmother-hypothesis-in-pre-industrial-finland
#5
Simon N Chapman, Jenni E Pettay, Virpi Lummaa, Mirkka Lahdenperä
The level of kin help often depends on the degree of relatedness between a helper and the helped. In humans, grandmother help is known to increase the survival of grandchildren, though this benefit can differ between maternal grandmothers (MGMs) and paternal grandmothers (PGMs) and between grandsons and granddaughters. The X-linked grandmother hypothesis posits that differential X-chromosome relatedness between grandmothers and their grandchildren is a leading driver of differential grandchild survival between grandmother lineages and grandchild sexes...
January 2018: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298825/bone-histological-correlates-for-air-sacs-and-their-implications-for-understanding-the-origin-of-the-dinosaurian-respiratory-system
#6
Markus Lambertz, Filippo Bertozzo, P Martin Sander
Air sacs are an important component of the avian respiratory system, and corresponding structures also were crucial for the evolution of sauropod dinosaur gigantism. Inferring the presence of air sacs in fossils so far is restricted to bones preserving internal pneumatic cavities and foramina as osteological correlates. We here present bone histological correlates for air sacs as a new potential identification tool for these elements of the respiratory system. The analysis of several avian and non-avian dinosaur samples revealed delicate fibres in secondary trabecular and secondary endosteal bone that in the former case (birds) is known or in the latter (non-avian dinosaurs) assumed to have been in contact with air sacs, respectively...
January 2018: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29263132/genetics-redraws-pelagic-biogeography-of-calanus
#7
Marvin Choquet, Maja Hatlebakk, Anusha K S Dhanasiri, Ksenia Kosobokova, Irina Smolina, Janne E Søreide, Camilla Svensen, Webjørn Melle, Sławomir Kwaśniewski, Ketil Eiane, Malin Daase, Vigdis Tverberg, Stig Skreslet, Ann Bucklin, Galice Hoarau
Planktonic copepods of the genus Calanus play a central role in North Atlantic/Arctic marine food webs. Here, using molecular markers, we redrew the distributional ranges of Calanus species inhabiting the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans and revealed much wider and more broadly overlapping distributions than previously described. The Arctic shelf species, C. glacialis, dominated the zooplankton assemblage of many Norwegian fjords, where only C. finmarchicus has been reported previously. In these fjords, high occurrences of the Arctic species C...
December 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29263131/behavioural-responses-of-naked-mole-rats-to-acute-hypoxia-and-anoxia
#8
Aaron N Ilacqua, Alexia M Kirby, Matthew E Pamenter
Naked mole rats (NMRs) are among the most hypoxia-tolerant mammals. Other species respond to hypoxia by either escaping the hypoxic environment or drastically decreasing behavioural activity and body temperature (Tb) to conserve energy. However, NMRs rarely leave their underground burrows, which are putatively hypoxic and thermally stable near the NMRs' preferred Tb Therefore, we asked whether NMRs are able to employ behavioural and thermoregulatory strategies in response to hypoxia despite their need to remain active and the minimal thermal scope in their burrows...
December 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29263130/a-sound-worth-saving-acoustic-characteristics-of-a-massive-fish-spawning-aggregation
#9
Brad E Erisman, Timothy J Rowell
Group choruses of marine animals can produce extraordinarily loud sounds that markedly elevate levels of the ambient soundscape. We investigated sound production in the Gulf corvina (Cynoscion othonopterus), a soniferous marine fish with a unique reproductive behaviour threatened by overfishing, to compare with sounds produced by other marine animals. We coupled echosounder and hydrophone surveys to estimate the magnitude of the aggregation and sounds produced during spawning. We characterized individual calls and documented changes in the soundscape generated by the presence of as many as 1...
December 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237814/effects-of-mutations-in-phage-restriction-sites-during-escape-from-restriction-modification
#10
Maroš Pleška, Călin C Guet
Restriction-modification systems are widespread genetic elements that protect bacteria from bacteriophage infections by recognizing and cleaving heterologous DNA at short, well-defined sequences called restriction sites. Bioinformatic evidence shows that restriction sites are significantly underrepresented in bacteriophage genomes, presumably because bacteriophages with fewer restriction sites are more likely to escape cleavage by restriction-modification systems. However, how mutations in restriction sites affect the likelihood of bacteriophage escape is unknown...
December 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237813/specificity-of-oral-immune-priming-in-the-red-flour-beetle-tribolium-castaneum
#11
Momir Futo, Marie P Sell, Megan A M Kutzer, Joachim Kurtz
Immune specificity is the degree to which a host's immune system discriminates among various pathogens or antigenic variants. Vertebrate immune memory is highly specific due to antibody responses. On the other hand, some invertebrates show immune priming, i.e. improved survival after secondary exposure to a previously encountered pathogen. Until now, specificity of priming has only been demonstrated via the septic infection route or when live pathogens were used for priming. Therefore, we tested for specificity in the oral priming route in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum For priming, we used pathogen-free supernatants derived from three different strains of the entomopathogen, Bacillus thuringiensis, which express different Cry toxin variants known for their toxicity against this beetle...
December 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237812/species-richness-alters-spatial-nutrient-heterogeneity-effects-on-above-ground-plant-biomass
#12
Nianxun Xi, Chunhui Zhang, Juliette M G Bloor
Previous studies have suggested that spatial nutrient heterogeneity promotes plant nutrient capture and growth. However, little is known about how spatial nutrient heterogeneity interacts with key community attributes to affect plant community production. We conducted a meta-analysis to investigate how nitrogen heterogeneity effects vary with species richness and plant density. Effect size was calculated using the natural log of the ratio in plant biomass between heterogeneous and homogeneous conditions. Effect sizes were significantly above zero, reflecting positive effects of spatial nutrient heterogeneity on community production...
December 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237811/long-term-uvb-exposure-promotes-predator-inspection-behaviour-in-a-fish
#13
Simon Vitt, Janina E Zierul, Theo C M Bakker, Ingolf P Rick
Ultraviolet-B radiation (UVB) reaching the earth's surface has increased due to human-caused stratospheric ozone depletion. Whereas the harmful effects of UVB on aquatic organisms are well studied at the molecular and cellular level, recent studies have also begun to address behavioural changes caused by sublethal amounts of UVB. However, the behavioural consequences of long-term exposure to ecologically relevant UVB levels over several life stages are virtually unknown, particularly with regard to predator-prey behaviour...
December 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237810/behavioural-tuning-in-a-tropical-amphibian-along-an-altitudinal-gradient
#14
Sebastiaan W F Meenderink, Patricia M Quiñones, Peter M Narins
Males of the coqui treefrog, Eleutherodactylus coqui, produce a distinct two-note 'co-qui' advertisement call from sunset to midnight throughout most of the year. Previous work established that both the spectrotemporal aspects of the call and the frequency of highest inner-ear sensitivity change with altitude above sea level. These variations are such that the frequency of the emitted co-note closely matches the frequency to which the inner ear is most sensitive. Given this parallel variation, we expected that the call-evoked behavioural response of male coqui treefrogs would also show an altitude dependence, and hypothesized that males would produce their most robust acoustical territorial response to advertisement calls that match calls from their own altitude...
December 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212753/water-vascular-system-architecture-in-an-ordovician-ophiuroid
#15
Elizabeth G Clark, Bhart-Anjan S Bhullar, Simon A F Darroch, Derek E G Briggs
Understanding the water vascular system (WVS) in early fossil echinoderms is critical to elucidating the evolution of this system in extant forms. Here we present the first report of the internal morphology of the water vascular system of a stem ophiuroid. The radial canals are internal to the arm, but protected dorsally by a plate separate to the ambulacrals. The canals zig-zag with no evidence of constrictions, corresponding to sphincters, which control pairs of tube feet in extant ophiuroids. The morphology suggests that the unpaired tube feet must have operated individually, and relied on the elasticity of the radial canals, lateral valves and tube foot musculature alone for extension and retraction...
December 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212752/freezer-on-lights-off-environmental-effects-on-activity-rhythms-of-fish-in-the-arctic
#16
Kate L Hawley, Carolyn M Rosten, Thrond O Haugen, Guttorm Christensen, Martyn C Lucas
Polar regions are characterized by acute seasonal changes in the environment, with organisms inhabiting these regions lacking diel photoperiodic information for parts of the year. We present, to our knowledge, the first high-resolution analysis of diel and seasonal activity of free-living fishes in polar waters (74°N), subject to extreme variation in photoperiod, temperature and food availability. Using biotelemetry, we tracked two sympatric ecomorphs of lake-dwelling Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus n = 23) over an annual cycle...
December 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212751/heterothermy-is-associated-with-reduced-fitness-in-wild-rabbits
#17
Shane K Maloney, Maija K Marsh, Steven R McLeod, Andrea Fuller
An increase in variation in the 24 h pattern of body temperature (heterothermy) in mammals can be induced by energy and water deficits. Since performance traits such as growth and reproduction also are impacted by energy and water balance, we investigated whether the characteristics of the body temperature rhythm provide an indication of the reproductive success of an individual. We show that the amplitude of the daily rhythm of body temperature in wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) prior to breeding is inversely related to the number of pregnancies in the subsequent seven months, while the minimum daily body temperature is positively correlated to the number of pregnancies...
December 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212750/does-oxidative-stress-shorten-telomeres-in-vivo-a-review
#18
REVIEW
Sophie Reichert, Antoine Stier
The length of telomeres, the protective caps of chromosomes, is increasingly used as a biomarker of individual health state because it has been shown to predict chances of survival in a range of endothermic species including humans. Oxidative stress is presumed to be a major cause of telomere shortening, but most evidence to date comes from in vitro cultured cells. The importance of oxidative stress as a determinant of telomere shortening in vivo remains less clear and has recently been questioned. We, therefore, reviewed correlative and experimental studies investigating the links between oxidative stress and telomere shortening in vivo While correlative studies provide equivocal support for a connection between oxidative stress and telomere attrition (10 of 18 studies), most experimental studies published so far (seven of eight studies) partially or fully support this hypothesis...
December 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212749/treating-hummingbirds-as-feathered-bees-a-case-of-ethological-cross-pollination
#19
REVIEW
D J Pritchard, M C Tello Ramos, F Muth, S D Healy
Hummingbirds feed from hundreds of flowers every day. The properties of these flowers provide these birds with a wealth of information about colour, space and time to guide how they forage. To understand how hummingbirds might use this information, researchers have adapted established laboratory paradigms for use in the field. In recent years, however, experimental inspiration has come less from other birds, and more from looking at other nectar-feeders, particularly honeybees and bumblebees, which have been models for foraging behaviour and cognition for over a century...
December 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187609/associations-between-imprinted-gene-expression-in-the-placenta-human-fetal-growth-and-preeclampsia
#20
Julian K Christians, Katherine Leavey, Brian J Cox
Genomic imprinting is essential for normal placental and fetal growth. One theory to explain the evolution of imprinting is the kinship theory (KT), which predicts that genes that are paternally expressed will promote fetal growth, whereas maternally expressed genes will suppress growth. We investigated the expression of imprinted genes using microarray measurements of expression in term placentae. Correlations between birthweight and the expression levels of imprinted genes were more significant than for non-imprinted genes, but did not tend to be positive for paternally expressed genes and negative for maternally expressed genes...
November 2017: Biology Letters
journal
journal
41059
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"