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Clinical & Translational Oncology

M Hernández-Bronchud
Successful tumor microenvironments eventually kill the host. They are not only meant to nourish and protect tumor development, but to give them the right "soil" for perpetual malignant properties such as tissue invasion and metastasis. This can only be achieved if cancers avoid immune vigilance. A similar situation occurs in mammalian placental pregnancy but feto-maternal tolerance is required for a correct physiological process only until birth. Once a cancer microenvironment has acquired the genetic and epigenetic "placental immune editing switches" (PIES) phenotype, it seems likely that it will keep them "available", whenever needed, for the rest of its development, because it gives cellular clones a competitive advantage to pass unnoticed by the host's immune system...
November 15, 2018: Clinical & Translational Oncology
F Couñago, S Montemuiño, M Martin, B Taboada, P Calvo-Crespo, M P Samper-Ots, P Alcántara, J Corona, J L López-Guerra, M Murcia-Mejía, M López-Mata, J Jové-Teixidó, M Chust, V Díaz-Díaz, L de Ingunza-Barón, T García-Cañibano, M L Couselo, E Del Cerro, J Moradiellos, S Amor, A Varela, M M Puertas, I J Thuissard, D Sanz-Rosa, N R de Dios
PURPOSE: To evaluate the prognostic factors associated with survival in patients treated with neoadjuvant treatment [chemoradiotherapy (CRT) or chemotherapy] followed by surgery (CRTS) in patients with stage IIIA-N2 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted of 118 patients diagnosed with stage T1-T3N2M0 NSCLC and treated with CRTS at 14 hospitals in Spain between January 2005 and December 2014. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log-rank test...
November 14, 2018: Clinical & Translational Oncology
N Kouhi Habibi, A Shabestani Monfared, K Ebrahimnejad Gorji, M Karimi, A A Moghadamnia, M Tourani, S Borzoueisileh, F Niksirat
PURPOSE: We aimed to examine the radioprotective effects of melatonin on the blood cell counts of patients with rectum cancer undergoing radiotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This double-blind placebo-controlled study was conducted on 60 rectal cancer patients who were referred to Rajaii Hospital of Babolsar, Iran. An equal number of patients were randomly assigned to the control group which received placebo and study group which received 20 mg melatonin a day as an intervention...
November 12, 2018: Clinical & Translational Oncology
X Badía, M Tort, A-G Manganelli, C Camps, E Díaz-Rubio
INTRODUCTION: Cancer imposes a huge financial burden in all developed countries. This study estimates the burden of cancer in Spain in 2015. METHODS: The most recent available epidemiological data on prevalence, incidence and mortality, and the economic data on direct (hospital, drugs, and primary care) and indirect (productivity) costs was used from the social perspective. RESULTS: Prevalence, incidence, and mortality were, respectively, 1240, 478, and 218 per 100,000 inhabitants...
November 9, 2018: Clinical & Translational Oncology
X Ni, X Sun, D Wang, Y Chen, Y Zhang, W Li, L Wang, J Suo
INTRODUCTION: Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is reportedly expressed in colorectal tumors. However, the prognostic role of PD-L1 in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains controversial. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to investigate the clinicopathological and prognostic impact of PD-L1 in CRC. METHODS: A comprehensive search in PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science and the for publications about PD-L1 expression in colorectal cancer was done...
November 3, 2018: Clinical & Translational Oncology
T Mocan, Z Sparchez, R Craciun, C N Bora, D C Leucuta
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary neoplasia of the liver. There have been tremendous efforts in the development of therapeutic strategies in the last decades. As opposed to other cancer entities immunotherapy has just recently gained popularity in HCC. Among various immunotherapy approaches, programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1), and its ligand programmed death receptor ligand-1 (PD-L1) axis became one of the most promising pathway of the decade. The scientific interest in PD-1/PD-L1 axis is definitely justified due to: ability to detect PD-L1 expression in patients that underwent resection for HCC with prognostic values; the role of serum PD-L1 as a tool to identify early recurrences and to monitor treatment outcome; PD-1/PDL1 is a highly targetable pathway, with possible predictive markers, and with high clinical applicability that might help us in selecting a subgroup of HCC patients who are most likely to benefit from PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors...
November 1, 2018: Clinical & Translational Oncology
L Minig, J de Santiago, S Domingo, A Gil-Moreno, S Martínez, A Rodríguez-Garzotto, L Chiva
BACKGROUND: Optimal upfront treatment of patients with advanced ovarian cancer is complex and requires the adequate function of a multidisciplinary team. Specific standard of quality of care needs to be taken into consideration. METHODS: A literature search in PubMed was performed using the following criteria: ("ovarian neoplasms"[MeSH Terms] OR ("ovarian"[All Fields] AND "neoplasms"[All Fields]) OR "ovarian neoplasms"[All Fields] OR ("ovarian"[All Fields] AND "cancer"[All Fields]) OR "ovarian cancer"[All Fields])"[Date - Publication]: "2018/01/14"[Date - Publication])...
October 30, 2018: Clinical & Translational Oncology
Y Zhao, G Qiao, X Wang, Y Song, X Zhou, N Jiang, L Zhou, H Huang, J Zhao, M A Morse, A Hobeika, J Ren, H K Lyerly
BACKGROUND: Advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has remained challenging to treat effectively. This study aimed to investigate the clinical effects and safety of immunotherapy with dendritic cells and cytokine-induced killer cells (DC-CIK) administered with chemotherapy (CT) in this malignancy. METHODS: We have developed a new clinical trial design termed as the prospective patient's preference-based study (PPPS). Consecutive patients (n = 135) with advanced NSCLC were treated with DC-CIK administered with CT or mono-therapy (CT or DC-CIK alone)...
October 29, 2018: Clinical & Translational Oncology
J A Fernández, V Olivares, A J Gómez-Ruiz, B Ferri, M D Frutos, T Soria, G Torres, P Parrilla
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study is to clarify if a classification based on the time of occurrence of associated malignancies in GIST patients can help in the understanding of the clinical controversies observed in these patients. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all the patients diagnosed with GIST tumors between January 1999 and October 2016. They were divided into GIST patients associated with other tumors (A-GIST) and those not associated (NA-GIST). A-GIST patients were also divided into four types according to the proposed classification...
October 27, 2018: Clinical & Translational Oncology
N E El-Ashmawy, E A El-Zamarany, E G Khedr, H A El-Bahrawy, O A El-Feky
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the common malignancies, characterized by poor response to conventional therapeutic options. Immunotherapy with dendritic cells (DCs)-vaccines is one of the most successful strategies used for the treatment of HCC. However, the methods applied in the preparation of antigen-loaded DCs are important factors for optimization of DCs vaccines. PURPOSE: The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of HCC-whole tumor cell lysate prepared using rapid repetitive freeze-thaw cycles on the immunogenicity of DCs and evaluate the ability of whole tumor cell lysate-pulsed DCs vaccine to induce a specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) response against HepG2 cell line...
October 27, 2018: Clinical & Translational Oncology
X Hu, Q Pang, H Liu, Z Qian, H Jin, L Zhou, Y Wang, Z Man, Z Li, S Yang
PURPOSE: This study aimed at investigating the efficacy of percutaneous transhepatic biliary stenting (PTBS) combined with 125 I seeds intracavitary irradiation in the treatment of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (EHC) and to preliminarily explore the prognostic values of inflammation-based scores in these patients. METHODS: A total of 113 clinically/pathologically diagnosed cases of EHC who received PTBS combined with 125 I seeds implantation were retrospectively analyzed...
October 27, 2018: Clinical & Translational Oncology
P H P Liberman, M V S Goffi-Gomez, C Schultz, P L Jacob, C A A de Paula, E L Sartorato, G T Torrezan, E N Ferreira, D M Carraro
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Ototoxicity is a potential adverse effect of chemotherapy with platin drugs, such as cisplatin and carboplatin, in children. Hearing loss (HL) affecting frequencies below 4 kHz can compromise speech perception. The aim of this study was to investigate whether genetic variants previously implicated in ototoxicity are associated with HL overall and HL below 4 kHz in pediatric oncology patients treated with cisplatin or carboplatin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients given cisplatin or carboplatin for a pediatric cancer at least 5 years prior to the start of the study were enrolled...
October 25, 2018: Clinical & Translational Oncology
M Rodríguez-Barranco, E Salamanca-Fernández, M L Fajardo, E Bayo, Y-L Chang-Chan, J Expósito, C García, J Tallón, P Minicozzi, M Sant, D Petrova, M A Luque-Fernandez, M-J Sánchez
PURPOSE: The third most frequently diagnosed cancer in Europe in 2018 was lung cancer; it is also the leading cause of cancer death in Europe. We studied patient and tumor characteristics, and patterns of healthcare provision explaining regional variability in lung cancer survival in southern Spain. METHODS: A population-based cohort study included all 1196 incident first invasive primary lung cancer (C33-C34 according to ICD-10) cases diagnosed between 2010 and 2011 with follow-up until April 2015...
October 19, 2018: Clinical & Translational Oncology
M Roch, A Zapatero, P Castro, D Büchser, L Pérez, D Hernández, C Ansón, M Chevalier, F García-Vicente
BACKGROUND: The objective was to determine the magnitude of the prostate intrafractional motion relative to bony pelvis anatomy, and to evaluate the relationship between this displacement and some clinical and anatomical variables. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The prospective study consisted of 544 images (375 pre-treatment CBCT and 169 post-treatment CBCT) from 15 prostate adenocarcinoma patients that were used for intrafractional prostate motion determination. In addition, two radiation oncologists re-contoured the bladder and rectum on each CBCT according to the patient's anatomy of the day...
October 17, 2018: Clinical & Translational Oncology
A Brzozowska, R Mlak, P Gołębiowski, T Małecka-Massalska
BACKGROUND: Apart from surgery, the methods of treatment of HNC are radiotherapy (RTH) and/or chemotherapy (CRTH/CHT). One of the most frequent and serious complications of RTH is oral mucositis (OM). There is a strict correlation between the inflammation and the status of hydration. The aim of the study was to evaluate the changes in hydration, occurring in the course of RTH, measured by means of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and to analyze them in correlation with the intensification of OM in HNC patients...
October 16, 2018: Clinical & Translational Oncology
A Santaballa, J De Castro, J Maurel, M Lázaro, R Vera, E Alba
PURPOSE: To determine the current management of oral and intravenous chemotherapy (OC and IVC) in outpatient clinics of Oncology Departments in Spain to detect opportunities for improvement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Spanish Society of Medical Oncology designed a questionnaire specifically for Heads of Oncology Department: 142 were invited and 52 responded. RESULTS: In most centers, the waiting time (69.7%) and time at the outpatient clinic (84...
October 16, 2018: Clinical & Translational Oncology
J López Torrecilla, S Marín I Borràs, A Ruiz-Alonso, J Jaen Olasolo, M L Vázquez de la Torre, E Bóveda Carro, A Rodríguez, E Ignacio García, F Caballero Martínez, F J Campos Lucas, P C Lara Jiménez, J Contreras Martínez, C Ferrer Albiach
PURPOSE: Current cancer treatment options include surgical intervention, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. The quality of the provision of each of them and their effective coordination determines the results in terms of benefit/risk. Regarding the radiation oncology treatments, there are not stabilised quality indicators to be used to perform control and continuous improvement processes for healthcare services. Therefore, the Spanish Society of Radiation Oncology has undertaken a comprehensive project to establish quality indicators for use with the information systems available in most Spanish healthcare services...
October 11, 2018: Clinical & Translational Oncology
I A Voutsadakis
Breast cancer had been the first non-hematologic malignancy where sub-types based on molecular characterization had entered clinical practice. HER2 over-expression, due to either gene amplification or protein up-regulation, defines one of these sub-types and is clinically exploited by addition of HER2-targeted treatments to the regimens of treatment. Nevertheless, in many occasions HER2-positive cancers are resistant or become refractory to these therapies. Several mechanisms, such as activation of alternative pathways or loss of expression of the receptor in cancer cells, have been proposed as the cause of these therapeutic failures...
October 10, 2018: Clinical & Translational Oncology
N Wei, B Zhang, Y Wang, X H He, L C Xu, G D Li, Y H Wang, G Z Wang, H Z Huang, W T Li
PURPOSE: To evaluate and compare the efficiency and safety of raltitrexed- or floxuridine (FUDR)-based transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) in patients with unresectable colorectal cancer liver metastasis (CRCLM). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 81 patients with unresectable CRCLM who failed systemic chemotherapy and were treated with TACE in our department from Oct 2014 to Oct 2017. Of these, 61 patients received TACE using raltitrexed, oxaliplatin, and pirarubicin (raltitrexed group), and 20 received TACE using FUDR, oxaliplatin, and pirarubicin (FUDR group)...
October 10, 2018: Clinical & Translational Oncology
M Mirrahimi, V Hosseini, A Shakeri-Zadeh, Z Alamzadeh, S K Kamrava, N Attaran, Z Abed, H Ghaznavi, S M A Hosseini Nami
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of Au@Fe2 O3 core-shell nanoparticle (NP), with and without conjugation to folic acid (FA) as a targeting ligand, on radiosensitization of both cancer and healthy cells. METHODS: Au@Fe2 O3 NPs were first synthesized, then modified with FA, and finally characterized. Radiation dose enhancement studies were performed on KB cancer cells and L929 healthy cells. NPs at the concentration of 20 µg/ml were first incubated with both cell lines and then different doses of 6 MV X-ray radiation were examined...
October 8, 2018: Clinical & Translational Oncology
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