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Social Development

Elizabeth B Raposa, Constance Hammen
Early life stressors are associated with maladaptive social functioning in childhood and adolescence, but it is unclear whether and how the negative interpersonal effects of stress persist into adulthood. Daily diary surveys were used to examine young adults' social behavior and mood reactivity to social stressors as a function of experiences of early family adversity. Stressful early family environments predicted more daily reassurance seeking, but not aggression, withdrawal, or positive social behavior. Early family adversity also moderated the within-person effects of social stressors on next-day mood, such that individuals with high levels of adversity had elevated next-day negative affect in response to higher than average social stress...
May 2018: Social Development
Caitlin C Turpyn, Jennifer A Poon, Corynne E Ross, James C Thompson, Tara M Chaplin
Parents' emotional functioning represents a central mechanism in the caregiving environment's influence on adolescent affective brain function. However, a paucity of research has examined links between parental emotional arousal and regulation and adolescents' affective brain function. Thus, the present study examined associations between parents' self-rated negative emotion, parent emotion regulation difficulties, and adolescent brain responsivity to negative and positive emotional stimuli. Participants included 64 12-14 year-old adolescents (31 females) and their female primary caregivers...
February 2018: Social Development
Michelle Heron-Delaney, Paul C Quinn, Fabrice Damon, Kang Lee, Olivier Pascalis
Children's experiences with differently aged faces changes in the course of development. During infancy, most faces encountered are adult, however as children mature, exposure to child faces becomes more extensive. Does this change in experience influence preference for differently aged faces? The preferences of children for adult versus child, and adult versus infant faces were investigated. Caucasian 3- to 6-year-olds and adults were presented with adult/child and adult/infant face pairs which were either Caucasian or Asian (race consistent within pairs)...
February 2018: Social Development
Kathryn A Kerns, Kaela L Stuart-Parrigon, Karin G Coifman, Manfred H M van Dulmen, Amanda Koehn
Despite interest in human-animal interaction, few studies have tested whether the presence of a dog facilitates children's emotional responding. Preadolescents ( n = 99) were randomly assigned to complete the Trier Social Stress Test either with or without their pet dog. Children rated their positive and negative affect, and high frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV) was assessed throughout the session. Children reported higher positive affect when they completed the task with their pet dog, although there were no differences for negative affect or HF-HRV...
February 2018: Social Development
Daniel C Kopala-Sibley, Elizabeth P Hayden, Shiva M Singh, Haroon I Sheikh, Katie R Kryski, Daniel N Klein
Evidence suggests that parenting is associated cross-generationally and that children's genes may elicit specific parenting styles (evocative gene-environment correlation). This study examined whether the effect of children's genotype, specifically 5-HTTLPR, on mothers' parenting behaviors was moderated by her own parenting experiences from her mother. Two independent samples of three-year-olds (N = 476 and 405) were genotyped for the serotonin transporter gene, and observational measures of parenting were collected...
November 2017: Social Development
Sunhye Bai, Bridget M Reynolds, Theodore F Robles, Rena L Repetti
This study examined how academic and peer problems at school are linked to family interactions at home on the same day, using eight consecutive weeks of daily diary data collected from early adolescents (60% female; M age = 11.28, SD = 1.50), mothers and fathers in 47 families. On days when children reported more academic problems at school, they, but not their parents, reported less warmth and more conflict with mothers, and more conflict and less time spent around fathers. These effects were partially explained by same-day child reports of higher negative mood...
November 2017: Social Development
Emily C Merz, Susan H Landry, Janelle J Montroy, Jeffrey M Williams
In this study, we examined bidirectional associations between parental responsiveness and executive function (EF) processes in socioeconomically disadvantaged preschoolers. Participants were 534 3- to 5-year-old children (71% Hispanic/Latino; 28% African American; 1% European American) attending Head Start programs. At Time 1 (T1) and 6.5 months later at Time 2 (T2), parents and children participated in a videotaped free play session and children completed delay inhibition (gift delay-wrap, gift delay-bow) and conflict EF (bear/dragon, dimensional change card sort) tasks...
August 2017: Social Development
Angela K Henneberger, Donna L Coffman, Scott D Gest
This study uses propensity scores to statistically approximate the causal effect of having aggressive friends on aggressive behavior in childhood. Participants were 1,355 children (53% girls; 31% minority) in 97 third and fifth grade classrooms enrolled in the Classroom Peer Ecologies Project. Propensity scores were calculated to control for the impact of 21 relevant confounder variables related to having aggressive friendships and aggressive behavior. The 21 variables included demographic, social, and behavioral characteristics measured at the beginning of the school year...
May 2017: Social Development
Darlene A Kertes, Jingwen Liu, Nathan J Hall, Natalie A Hadad, Clive D L Wynne, Samarth S Bhatt
The present study tested whether pet dogs have stress-buffering effects for children during a validated laboratory-based protocol, the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C). Participants were 101 children aged 7-12 years with their primary caregivers and pet dogs. Children were randomly assigned in the TSST-C to a pet present condition or one of two comparison conditions: parent present or no support figure present. Baseline, response, and recovery indices of perceived stress and cortisol levels were computed based on children's self-reported feelings of stress and salivary cortisol...
May 2017: Social Development
Lisa H Rosen, Kurt J Beron, Marion K Underwood
Social victimization refers to being targeted by behaviors intended to harm one's social status or relationships (Underwood, 2003), including malicious gossip, friendship manipulation, and social exclusion (both verbal and non-verbal). The current study examined social victimization experiences longitudinally from middle childhood through late adolescence. Participants (N = 273, 139 females) reported on their social victimization experiences in grades 4-11 (ages 9 to 16 years). Using mixture (group-based) modeling, four social victimization trajectories were identified: low, medium decreasing, medium increasing, and elevated...
May 2017: Social Development
Maciel M Hernández, Nancy Eisenberg, Carlos Valiente, Tracy L Spinrad, Sarah K VanSchyndel, Anjolii Diaz, Kassondra M Silva, Rebecca H Berger, Jody Southworth
This study evaluated whether positive and anger emotional frequency (the proportion of instances an emotion was observed) and intensity (the strength of an emotion when it was observed) uniquely predicted social relationships among kindergarteners ( N = 301). Emotions were observed as naturally occurring at school in the fall term and multiple reporters (peers and teachers) provided information on quality of relationships with children in the spring term. In structural equation models, positive emotion frequency, but not positive emotion intensity, was positively related to peer acceptance and negatively related to peer rejection...
February 2017: Social Development
Amanda R Burkholder, Kalsea J Koss, Camelia E Hostinar, Anna E Johnson, Megan R Gunnar
This study examined children's ( N = 79; 9-10 years) and adolescents' ( N = 82; 15-16 years) ability to regulate their emotion expressions of anxiety as they completed a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C). Approximately half in each age group were internationally adopted from institutional care ( N = 79) and half were non-adopted, age-matched peers ( N = 82). Institutional care was viewed as a form of early life stress. Coders who were reliable and blind to group status watched videos of the session to assess anxiety expressions using the Child and Adolescent Stress and Emotion Scale developed for this study...
November 2016: Social Development
Brenda Salley, John Colombo
The term social attention has become widely used during the last decade, appearing within behavioral neuroscience and developmental neurocognitive literatures to characterize a variety of activities and cognitive processes that emerge in the presence of conspecifics. We provide here an overview of the current status of social attention as a construct, as reflected in its appearance in research studies, and we offer a framework for characterizing the extant literature based on the functions of social attention processes: as behavior for social communication, as motivation to engage in social communication, and as a form of basic visual attention in the context of other social agents...
November 2016: Social Development
Vanessa L Castro, Amy G Halberstadt, Patricia Garrett-Peters
Theoretical conceptualizations of emotion understanding generally imply a two-factor structure comprised of recognition of emotional expressions and understanding emotion-eliciting situations. We tested this structure in middle childhood and then explored the unique predictive value of various facets of emotion understanding in explaining children's socioemotional competence. Participants were 201 third-grade children and their mothers. Children completed five different measures, which provided eight distinct indices of emotion understanding...
August 2016: Social Development
Elizabeth J Kiel, Julie E Premo, Kristin A Buss
Child gender may exert its influence on development, not as a main effect, but as a moderator among predictors and outcomes. We examined this notion in relations among toddler fearful temperament, maternal protective parenting, maternal accuracy in predicting toddler distress to novelty, and child social withdrawal. In two multi-method, longitudinal studies of toddlers (24 months at Time 1; ns = 93 and 117, respectively) and their mothers, few main effect gender differences occurred. Moderation existed in both studies: only for highly accurate mothers of boys, fearful temperament related to protective parenting, which then predicted later social withdrawal...
May 2016: Social Development
Mojdeh Motamedi, Karen Bierman, Cynthia L Huang-Pollock
This study examined emotional reactivity to rejection and executive function (EF) skills as potential mediators of the social behavior problems of inattentive and hyperactive kindergarteners. Participants included 171 children, including 107 with clinical levels of ADHD symptoms, 23 with sub-clinical levels of ADHD symptoms, and 41 typically-developing children (63% male; 73% Caucasian, 11% African American, 4% Latino/Hispanic, 1% Asian, and 11% multiracial; Mage = 5.2 years). Inattention (but not hyperactivity) was uniquely associated with poor EF, social withdrawal, and aggression...
May 2016: Social Development
Jamie Koenig Nordling, Lea J Boldt, Jessica O'Bleness, Grazyna Kochanska
Although attachment security has been associated with children's rule-compatible conduct, the mechanism through which attachment influences early regard for rules is not well established. We hypothesized that effortful control would mediate the link between security and indicators of children's emerging regard for rules (discomfort following rule violations, internalization of parents' and experimenter's rules, few externalizing behaviors). In a longitudinal study, the Attachment Q-Set was completed by parents, effortful control was observed, and Regard for Rules was observed and rated by parents...
May 2016: Social Development
Joann Wu Shortt, Lynn Fainsilber Katz, Nicholas Allen, Craig Leve, Betsy Davis, Lisa Sheeber
This study examined parental emotion socialization processes associated with adolescent unipolar depressive disorder. Adolescent participants (N=107; 42 boys) were selected either to meet criteria for current unipolar depressive disorder or to be psychologically healthy as defined by no lifetime history of psychopathology or mental health treatment and low levels of current depressive symptomatology. A multisource/method measurement strategy was used to assess mothers' and fathers' responses to adolescent sad and angry emotion...
February 2016: Social Development
Janice Zeman, Danielle Dallaire, Sarah Borowski
Children of incarcerated mothers are at increased risk for psychological, social, and emotional maladaptation. This research investigates whether perceived maternal socialization of sadness and anger may moderate these outcomes in a sample of 154 children (53.9% boys, 61.7% Black, M age = 9.38, range: 6 - 12), their 118 mothers (64.1% Black), and 118 caregivers (74.8% female, 61.9% grandparents, 63.2% Black). Using mother, caregiver, and child report, seven maternal socialization strategies were assessed in their interaction with incarceration-specific risk experiences predicting children's adjustment...
February 2016: Social Development
Julie C Dunsmore, Jordan A Booker, Thomas H Ollendick, Ross W Greene
We examined whether maternal emotion coaching at pre-treatment predicted children's treatment response following a 12-week program addressing children's Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) symptoms. Eighty-nine mother-child dyads participated. At pre-treatment, mothers and children engaged in an emotion talk task. Mothers also reported their beliefs about emotions at pre-treatment and their child's disruptive behavior symptoms, emotion regulation, and emotion lability/negativity at pre-, mid-, and post-treatment...
February 2016: Social Development
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