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Social Development

Angela K Henneberger, Donna L Coffman, Scott D Gest
This study uses propensity scores to statistically approximate the causal effect of having aggressive friends on aggressive behavior in childhood. Participants were 1,355 children (53% girls; 31% minority) in 97 third and fifth grade classrooms enrolled in the Classroom Peer Ecologies Project. Propensity scores were calculated to control for the impact of 21 relevant confounder variables related to having aggressive friendships and aggressive behavior. The 21 variables included demographic, social, and behavioral characteristics measured at the beginning of the school year...
May 2017: Social Development
Darlene A Kertes, Jingwen Liu, Nathan J Hall, Natalie A Hadad, Clive D L Wynne, Samarth S Bhatt
The present study tested whether pet dogs have stress-buffering effects for children during a validated laboratory-based protocol, the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C). Participants were 101 children aged 7-12 years with their primary caregivers and pet dogs. Children were randomly assigned in the TSST-C to a pet present condition or one of two comparison conditions: parent present or no support figure present. Baseline, response, and recovery indices of perceived stress and cortisol levels were computed based on children's self-reported feelings of stress and salivary cortisol...
May 2017: Social Development
Lisa H Rosen, Kurt J Beron, Marion K Underwood
Social victimization refers to being targeted by behaviors intended to harm one's social status or relationships (Underwood, 2003), including malicious gossip, friendship manipulation, and social exclusion (both verbal and non-verbal). The current study examined social victimization experiences longitudinally from middle childhood through late adolescence. Participants (N = 273, 139 females) reported on their social victimization experiences in grades 4-11 (ages 9 to 16 years). Using mixture (group-based) modeling, four social victimization trajectories were identified: low, medium decreasing, medium increasing, and elevated...
May 2017: Social Development
Amanda R Burkholder, Kalsea J Koss, Camelia E Hostinar, Anna E Johnson, Megan R Gunnar
This study examined children's (N = 79; 9-10 years) and adolescents' (N = 82; 15-16 years) ability to regulate their emotion expressions of anxiety as they completed a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C). Approximately half in each age group were internationally adopted from institutional care (N = 79) and half were non-adopted, age-matched peers (N = 82). Institutional care was viewed as a form of early life stress. Coders who were reliable and blind to group status watched videos of the session to assess anxiety expressions using the Child and Adolescent Stress and Emotion Scale developed for this study...
November 2016: Social Development
Brenda Salley, John Colombo
The term social attention has become widely used during the last decade, appearing within behavioral neuroscience and developmental neurocognitive literatures to characterize a variety of activities and cognitive processes that emerge in the presence of conspecifics. We provide here an overview of the current status of social attention as a construct, as reflected in its appearance in research studies, and we offer a framework for characterizing the extant literature based on the functions of social attention processes: as behavior for social communication, as motivation to engage in social communication, and as a form of basic visual attention in the context of other social agents...
November 2016: Social Development
Elizabeth J Kiel, Julie E Premo, Kristin A Buss
Child gender may exert its influence on development, not as a main effect, but as a moderator among predictors and outcomes. We examined this notion in relations among toddler fearful temperament, maternal protective parenting, maternal accuracy in predicting toddler distress to novelty, and child social withdrawal. In two multi-method, longitudinal studies of toddlers (24 months at Time 1; ns = 93 and 117, respectively) and their mothers, few main effect gender differences occurred. Moderation existed in both studies: only for highly accurate mothers of boys, fearful temperament related to protective parenting, which then predicted later social withdrawal...
May 2016: Social Development
Mojdeh Motamedi, Karen Bierman, Cynthia L Huang-Pollock
This study examined emotional reactivity to rejection and executive function (EF) skills as potential mediators of the social behavior problems of inattentive and hyperactive kindergarteners. Participants included 171 children, including 107 with clinical levels of ADHD symptoms, 23 with sub-clinical levels of ADHD symptoms, and 41 typically-developing children (63% male; 73% Caucasian, 11% African American, 4% Latino/Hispanic, 1% Asian, and 11% multiracial; Mage = 5.2 years). Inattention (but not hyperactivity) was uniquely associated with poor EF, social withdrawal, and aggression...
May 2016: Social Development
Jamie Koenig Nordling, Lea J Boldt, Jessica O'Bleness, Grazyna Kochanska
Although attachment security has been associated with children's rule-compatible conduct, the mechanism through which attachment influences early regard for rules is not well established. We hypothesized that effortful control would mediate the link between security and indicators of children's emerging regard for rules (discomfort following rule violations, internalization of parents' and experimenter's rules, few externalizing behaviors). In a longitudinal study, the Attachment Q-Set was completed by parents, effortful control was observed, and Regard for Rules was observed and rated by parents...
May 2016: Social Development
Janice Zeman, Danielle Dallaire, Sarah Borowski
Children of incarcerated mothers are at increased risk for psychological, social, and emotional maladaptation. This research investigates whether perceived maternal socialization of sadness and anger may moderate these outcomes in a sample of 154 children (53.9% boys, 61.7% Black, M age = 9.38, range: 6 - 12), their 118 mothers (64.1% Black), and 118 caregivers (74.8% female, 61.9% grandparents, 63.2% Black). Using mother, caregiver, and child report, seven maternal socialization strategies were assessed in their interaction with incarceration-specific risk experiences predicting children's adjustment...
February 2016: Social Development
Julie C Dunsmore, Jordan A Booker, Thomas H Ollendick, Ross W Greene
We examined whether maternal emotion coaching at pre-treatment predicted children's treatment response following a 12-week program addressing children's Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) symptoms. Eighty-nine mother-child dyads participated. At pre-treatment, mothers and children engaged in an emotion talk task. Mothers also reported their beliefs about emotions at pre-treatment and their child's disruptive behavior symptoms, emotion regulation, and emotion lability/negativity at pre-, mid-, and post-treatment...
February 2016: Social Development
Arya Ansari, Elizabeth Gershoff
Using a subsample of the Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES) 2006, this study examined the associations between the amount of teacher instruction in 292 Head Start classrooms with changes in young children's (n = 936) early academic achievement and learning-related social skills from ages 3 to 5. In general, during the early years, children exhibited relatively stable academic and learning-related social skills. Although the amount of teacher instruction did not predict children's short-term academic growth directly, it did predict it indirectly through improvements in learning-related social skills, with benefits lasting through the end of kindergarten...
November 1, 2015: Social Development
Sonya Negriff, Adam James, Penelope K Trickett
Little is known about the social support networks of maltreated youth or how youth in foster care may compare with those who remain with their parent(s). Social network characteristics and perceived social support were examined between (1) maltreated and comparison youth, (2) maltreated youth who remained with their biological parent, those with a foster parent, or a those with a kin caregiver, and (3) youth in stable placements and those who have changed placements. Data came from a sample of 454 adolescents (241 boys, 9-13 years old at enrollment) who took part in a longitudinal study of child maltreatment...
August 1, 2015: Social Development
Elinor Flynn, Samuel E Ehrenreich, Kurt J Beron, Marion K Underwood
This study investigated developmental trajectories for prosocial behavior for a sample followed from age 10 - 18 and examined possible adjustment outcomes associated with membership in different trajectory groups. Participants were 136 boys and 148 girls, their teachers, and their parents (19.4% African American, 2.4% Asian, 51.9% Caucasian, 19.5% Hispanic, and 5.8% other). Teachers rated children's prosocial behavior yearly in grades 4 - 12. At the end of the 12(th) grade year, teachers, parents, and participants reported externalizing behaviors and participants reported internalizing symptoms, narcissism, and features of borderline personality disorder...
August 2015: Social Development
Erin T B Mathis, Karen L Bierman
Delays in emotion regulation and attention control are common among children growing up in poverty, and they contribute to significant socio-economic gaps in school readiness and later school attainment. In this study, the emotion regulation and attention control skills of 210 prekindergarten Head Start participants were assessed (M age = 4.80 years old). Home interviews and videotaped parent-child interactions were used to evaluate three aspects of parenting (e.g., warm-sensitive, directive-critical, and parenting stress)...
August 1, 2015: Social Development
Mairin E Augustine, Cynthia A Stifter
This longitudinal study highlights the role of specific parenting behaviors in specific contexts when predicting moral development in children of varying temperament types. A sample of mother-child dyads took part in a competing demands task involving differing "do" and "don't" contextual demands when the child was 2 years of age. Child temperament was also assessed at this time, yielding inhibited, exuberant, and low-reactive temperament groups. Children's moral behavior was assessed at 5.5 years of age. Models examining the interaction of temperament and mother behaviors in each context indicated that mother's reasoning/explanation and ignoring in the "do" context predicted later moral behavior in inhibited children, whereas redirection and commands in the "don't" context predicted moral behavior in exuberant children...
May 2015: Social Development
Nan Chen, Martha Ann Bell, Kirby Deater-Deckard
Frontal EEG asymmetry is associated with individual differences in positive/negative emotionality and approach/avoidance tendencies. The current study examined the moderating role of maternal resting frontal EEG asymmetry on the link between child behavior problems and maternal harsh parenting, within the context of differing degrees of chronic family stressors (father unemployment, single parenthood, caring for multiple children, and household chaos). The sample included 121 mother-child pairs. Results showed that stressors and frontal EEG asymmetry together moderated the link...
May 2015: Social Development
Rebecca Waller, Frances Gardner, Thomas Dishion, Stephanie L Sitnick, Daniel S Shaw, Charlotte E Winter, Melvin Wilson
A large literature provides strong empirical support for the influence of parenting on child outcomes. The current study addresses enduring research questions testing the importance of early parenting behavior to children's adjustment. Specifically, we developed and tested a novel multi-method observational measure of parental positive behavior support at age 2. Next, we tested whether early parental positive behavior support was related to child adjustment at school age, within a multi-agent and multi-method measurement approach and design...
May 2015: Social Development
Alisa N Almas, Kathryn A Degnan, Olga L Walker, Anca Radulescu, Charles A Nelson, Charles H Zeanah, Nathan A Fox
The present study compared the social behaviors of 8-year-old previously institutionalized Romanian children from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP) in two groups: 1) children randomized to foster care homes (FCG), and 2) children randomized to care as usual (remaining in institutions) (CAUG). Children were observed interacting with an age and gender-matched unfamiliar, non-institutionalized peer from the community (NIG) during six interactive tasks, and their behavior was coded for speech reticence, social engagement, task orientation, social withdrawal, and conversational competence...
May 2015: Social Development
Justin E Heinze, Alison L Miller, Ronald Seifer, Robin Locke
Children with poor emotion knowledge (EK) skills are at risk for externalizing problems; less is known about early internalizing behavior. We examined multiple facets of EK and social-emotional experiences relevant for internalizing difficulties, including loneliness, victimization, and peer rejection, in Head Start preschoolers (N = 134; M = 60 months). Results based on multiple informants suggest that facets of EK are differentially related to negative social-emotional experiences and internalizing behavior and that sex plays a moderating role...
May 2015: Social Development
Julie C Dunsmore
Effects of person- and process-focused feedback, parental lay theories, and prosocial self-concept on children's prosocial behavior were investigated with 143 9- and 10-year-old children who participated in a single session. Parents reported entity (person-focused) and incremental (process-focused) beliefs related to prosocial behavior. Children completed measures of prosocial self-concept, then participated in a virtual online chat with child actors who asked for help with service projects. After completing the chat, children could assist with the service projects...
February 1, 2015: Social Development
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