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Plant Methods

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428810/recent-achievements-obtained-by-chloroplast-transformation
#1
REVIEW
Muhamed Adem, Dereje Beyene, Tileye Feyissa
Chloroplasts play a great role for sustained wellbeing of life on the planet. They have the power and raw materials that can be used as sophisticated biological factories. They are rich in energy as they have lots of pigment-protein complexes capable of collecting sunlight, in sugar produced by photosynthesis and in minerals imported from the plant cell. Chloroplast genome transformation offers multiple advantages over nuclear genome which among others, include: integration of the transgene via homologus recombination that enables to eliminate gene silencing and position effect, higher level of transgene expression resulting into higher accumulations of foreign proteins, and significant reduction in environmental dispersion of the transgene due to maternal inheritance which helps to minimize the major critic of plant genetic engineering...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428809/leucine-rich-repeat-containing-variable-lymphocyte-receptors-as-modules-to-target-plant-expressed-proteins
#2
André C Velásquez, Kinya Nomura, Max D Cooper, Brantley R Herrin, Sheng Yang He
BACKGROUND: The ability to target and manipulate protein-based cellular processes would accelerate plant research; yet, the technology to specifically and selectively target plant-expressed proteins is still in its infancy. Leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) are ubiquitously present protein domains involved in mediating protein-protein interactions. LRRs confer the binding specificity to the highly diverse variable lymphocyte receptor (VLR) antibodies (including VLRA, VLRB and VLRC types) that jawless vertebrates make as the functional equivalents of jawed vertebrate immunoglobulin-based antibodies...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428808/reference-genes-for-normalization-of-qpcr-assays-in-sugarcane-plants-under-water-deficit
#3
Larissa Mara de Andrade, Michael Dos Santos Brito, Rafael Fávero Peixoto Junior, Paulo Eduardo Ribeiro Marchiori, Paula Macedo Nóbile, Alexandre Palma Boer Martins, Rafael Vasconcelos Ribeiro, Silvana Creste
BACKGROUND: Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is the main raw material for sugar and ethanol production. Among the abiotic stress, drought is the main one that negatively impact sugarcane yield. Although gene expression analysis through quantitative PCR (qPCR) has increased our knowledge about biological processes related to drought, gene network that mediates sugarcane responses to water deficit remains elusive. In such scenario, validation of reference gene is a major requirement for successful analyzes involving qPCR...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416964/a-nondestructive-method-to-estimate-the-chlorophyll-content-of-arabidopsis-seedlings
#4
Ying Liang, Daisuke Urano, Kang-Ling Liao, Tyson L Hedrick, Yajun Gao, Alan M Jones
BACKGROUND: Chlorophyll content decreases in plants under stress conditions, therefore it is used commonly as an indicator of plant health. Arabidopsis thaliana offers a convenient and fast way to test physiological phenotypes of mutations and treatments. However, chlorophyll measurements with conventional solvent extraction are not applicable to Arabidopsis leaves due to their small size, especially when grown on culture dishes. RESULTS: We provide a nondestructive method for chlorophyll measurement whereby the red, green and blue (RGB) values of a color leaf image is used to estimate the chlorophyll content from Arabidopsis leaves...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413433/protoplast-isolation-prior-to-flow-cytometry-reveals-clear-patterns-of-endoreduplication-in-potato-tubers-related-species-and-some-starchy-root-crops
#5
F Parker E Laimbeer, Sarah H Holt, Melissa Makris, Michael Alan Hardigan, C Robin Buell, Richard E Veilleux
BACKGROUND: Endoreduplication, the process of DNA replication in the absence of cell division, is associated with specialized cellular function and increased cell size. Genes controlling endoreduplication in tomato fruit have been shown to affect mature fruit size. An efficient method of estimating endoreduplication is required to study its role in plant organ development. Flow cytometry is often utilized to evaluate endoreduplication, yet some tissues and species, among them the tubers of Solanum tuberosum, remain intractable to routine tissue preparation for flow cytometry...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405214/a-real-time-phenotyping-framework-using-machine-learning-for-plant-stress-severity-rating-in-soybean
#6
Hsiang Sing Naik, Jiaoping Zhang, Alec Lofquist, Teshale Assefa, Soumik Sarkar, David Ackerman, Arti Singh, Asheesh K Singh, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian
BACKGROUND: Phenotyping is a critical component of plant research. Accurate and precise trait collection, when integrated with genetic tools, can greatly accelerate the rate of genetic gain in crop improvement. However, efficient and automatic phenotyping of traits across large populations is a challenge; which is further exacerbated by the necessity of sampling multiple environments and growing replicated trials. A promising approach is to leverage current advances in imaging technology, data analytics and machine learning to enable automated and fast phenotyping and subsequent decision support...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400855/ex-vitro-hairy-root-induction-in-detached-peanut-leaves-for-plant-nematode-interaction-studies
#7
Larissa Arrais Guimaraes, Bruna Medeiros Pereira, Ana Claudia Guerra Araujo, Patricia Messenberg Guimaraes, Ana Cristina Miranda Brasileiro
BACKGROUND: Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) production is largely affected by a variety of abiotic and biotic stresses, including the root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne arenaria that causes yield losses worldwide. Transcriptome studies of wild Arachis species, which harbor resistance to a number of pests and diseases, disclosed several candidate genes for M. arenaria resistance. Peanut is recalcitrant to genetic transformation, so the use of Agrobacterium rhizogenes-derived hairy roots emerged as an alternative for in-root functional characterization of these candidate genes...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400854/a-rapid-and-efficient-method-for-uniform-gene-expression-using-the-barley-stripe-mosaic-virus
#8
Arnaud Cheuk, Mario Houde
BACKGROUND: The barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) has become a popular vector to study gene function in cereals. However, studies have been limited to gene silencing in leaves of barley or wheat. In addition, the method produces high variability between different leaves and plants. To overcome these limitations, we explored the potential of modifying the inoculation protocol for BSMV gene overexpression. An improved light, oxygen or voltage-sensing (iLOV) domain-based fluorescent protein was used as a reporter of gene expression to monitor the infection and spread of BSMV...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392829/a-robust-protocol-for-efficient-generation-and-genomic-characterization-of-insertional-mutants-of-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#9
Steve V Pollock, Bratati Mukherjee, Joanna Bajsa-Hirschel, Marylou C Machingura, Ananya Mukherjee, Arthur R Grossman, James V Moroney
BACKGROUND: Random insertional mutagenesis of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii using drug resistance cassettes has contributed to the generation of tens of thousands of transformants in dozens of labs around the world. In many instances these insertional mutants have helped elucidate the genetic basis of various physiological processes in this model organism. Unfortunately, the insertion sites of many interesting mutants are never defined due to experimental difficulties in establishing the location of the inserted cassette in the Chlamydomonas genome...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373892/tips-a-system-for-automated-image-based-phenotyping-of-maize-tassels
#10
Joseph L Gage, Nathan D Miller, Edgar P Spalding, Shawn M Kaeppler, Natalia de Leon
BACKGROUND: The maize male inflorescence (tassel) produces pollen necessary for reproduction and commercial grain production of maize. The size of the tassel has been linked to factors affecting grain yield, so understanding the genetic control of tassel architecture is an important goal. Tassels are fragile and deform easily after removal from the plant, necessitating rapid measurement of any shape characteristics that cannot be retained during storage. Some morphological characteristics of tassels such as curvature and compactness are difficult to quantify using traditional methods, but can be quantified by image-based phenotyping tools...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360929/talen-mediated-genome-editing-approaches-in-the-liverwort-marchantia-polymorpha-yield-high-efficiencies-for-targeted-mutagenesis
#11
Sarah Kopischke, Esther Schüßler, Felix Althoff, Sabine Zachgo
BACKGROUND: The liverwort Marchantia polymorpha occupies a crucial position in land plant evolution and provides the opportunity to investigate adaptations to a terrestrial plant life style. Marchantia reverse genetic analyses have thus far been conducted by employing a homologous recombination approach, which yields an efficiency of around 3%. Availability of the characterized and suitable endogenous MpEF1α promoter prompted us to establish the TALEN gene targeting technique for Marchantia...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360928/a-new-kymogram-based-method-reveals-unexpected-effects-of-marker-protein-expression-and-spatial-anisotropy-of-cytoskeletal-dynamics-in-plant-cell-cortex
#12
Fatima Cvrčková, Denisa Oulehlová
BACKGROUND: Cytoskeleton can be observed in live plant cells in situ with high spatial and temporal resolution using a combination of specific fluorescent protein tag expression and advanced microscopy methods such as spinning disc confocal microscopy (SDCM) or variable angle epifluorescence microscopy (VAEM). Existing methods for quantifying cytoskeletal dynamics are often either based on laborious manual structure tracking, or depend on costly commercial software. Current automated methods also do not readily allow separate measurements of structure lifetime, lateral mobility, and spatial anisotropy of these parameters...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344637/growth-curve-registration-for-evaluating-salinity-tolerance-in-barley
#13
Rui Meng, Stephanie Saade, Sebastian Kurtek, Bettina Berger, Chris Brien, Klaus Pillen, Mark Tester, Ying Sun
BACKGROUND: Smarthouses capable of non-destructive, high-throughput plant phenotyping collect large amounts of data that can be used to understand plant growth and productivity in extreme environments. The challenge is to apply the statistical tool that best analyzes the data to study plant traits, such as salinity tolerance, or plant-growth-related traits. RESULTS: We derive family-wise salinity sensitivity (FSS) growth curves and use registration techniques to summarize growth patterns of HEB-25 barley families and the commercial variety, Navigator...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344636/development-of-an-efficient-glucosinolate-extraction-method
#14
T Doheny-Adams, K Redeker, V Kittipol, I Bancroft, S E Hartley
BACKGROUND: Glucosinolates, anionic sulfur rich secondary metabolites, have been extensively studied because of their occurrence in the agriculturally important brassicaceae and their impact on human and animal health. There is also increasing interest in the biofumigant properties of toxic glucosinolate hydrolysis products as a method to control agricultural pests. Evaluating biofumigation potential requires rapid and accurate quantification of glucosinolates, but current commonly used methods of extraction prior to analysis involve a number of time consuming and hazardous steps; this study aimed to develop an improved method for glucosinolate extraction...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344635/the-combination-of-gas-phase-fluorophore-technology-and-automation-to-enable-high-throughput-analysis-of-plant-respiration
#15
Andrew P Scafaro, A Clarissa A Negrini, Brendan O'Leary, F Azzahra Ahmad Rashid, Lucy Hayes, Yuzhen Fan, You Zhang, Vincent Chochois, Murray R Badger, A Harvey Millar, Owen K Atkin
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial respiration in the dark (Rdark) is a critical plant physiological process, and hence a reliable, efficient and high-throughput method of measuring variation in rates of Rdark is essential for agronomic and ecological studies. However, currently methods used to measure Rdark in plant tissues are typically low throughput. We assessed a high-throughput automated fluorophore system of detecting multiple O2 consumption rates. The fluorophore technique was compared with O2-electrodes, infrared gas analysers (IRGA), and membrane inlet mass spectrometry, to determine accuracy and speed of detecting respiratory fluxes...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344634/an-image-analysis-pipeline-for-automated-classification-of-imaging-light-conditions-and-for-quantification-of-wheat-canopy-cover-time-series-in-field-phenotyping
#16
Kang Yu, Norbert Kirchgessner, Christoph Grieder, Achim Walter, Andreas Hund
BACKGROUND: Robust segmentation of canopy cover (CC) from large amounts of images taken under different illumination/light conditions in the field is essential for high throughput field phenotyping (HTFP). We attempted to address this challenge by evaluating different vegetation indices and segmentation methods for analyzing images taken at varying illuminations throughout the early growth phase of wheat in the field. 40,000 images taken on 350 wheat genotypes in two consecutive years were assessed for this purpose...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331535/rosettr-protocol-and-software-for-seedling-area-and-growth-analysis
#17
Filipa Tomé, Karel Jansseune, Bernadette Saey, Jack Grundy, Korneel Vandenbroucke, Matthew A Hannah, Henning Redestig
BACKGROUND: Growth is an important parameter to consider when studying the impact of treatments or mutations on plant physiology. Leaf area and growth rates can be estimated efficiently from images of plants, but the experiment setup, image analysis, and statistical evaluation can be laborious, often requiring substantial manual effort and programming skills. RESULTS: Here we present rosettR, a non-destructive and high-throughput phenotyping protocol for the measurement of total rosette area of seedlings grown in plates in sterile conditions...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321263/the-tree-drought-emission-monitor-tree-demon-an-innovative-system-for-assessing-biogenic-volatile-organic-compounds-emission-from-plants
#18
Marvin Lüpke, Rainer Steinbrecher, Michael Leuchner, Annette Menzel
BACKGROUND: Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) emitted by plants play an important role for ecological and physiological processes, for example as response to stressors. These emitted compounds are involved in chemical processes within the atmosphere and contribute to the formation of aerosols and ozone. Direct measurement of BVOC emissions requires a specialized sample system in order to obtain repeatable and comparable results. These systems need to be constructed carefully since BVOC measurements may be disturbed by several side effects, e...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286542/autoroot-open-source-software-employing-a-novel-image-analysis-approach-to-support-fully-automated-plant-phenotyping
#19
Michael P Pound, Susan Fozard, Mercedes Torres Torres, Brian G Forde, Andrew P French
BACKGROUND: Computer-based phenotyping of plants has risen in importance in recent years. Whilst much software has been written to aid phenotyping using image analysis, to date the vast majority has been only semi-automatic. However, such interaction is not desirable in high throughput approaches. Here, we present a system designed to analyse plant images in a completely automated manner, allowing genuine high throughput measurement of root traits. To do this we introduce a new set of proxy traits...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286541/an-evaluation-of-inexpensive-methods-for-root-image-acquisition-when-using-rhizotrons
#20
Awaz Mohamed, Yogan Monnier, Zhun Mao, Guillaume Lobet, Jean-Luc Maeght, Merlin Ramel, Alexia Stokes
BACKGROUND: Belowground processes play an essential role in ecosystem nutrient cycling and the global carbon budget cycle. Quantifying fine root growth is crucial to the understanding of ecosystem structure and function and in predicting how ecosystems respond to climate variability. A better understanding of root system growth is necessary, but choosing the best method of observation is complex, especially in the natural soil environment. Here, we compare five methods of root image acquisition using inexpensive technology that is currently available on the market: flatbed scanner, handheld scanner, manual tracing, a smartphone application scanner and a time-lapse camera...
2017: Plant Methods
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