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Plant Methods

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924448/comparison-of-visible-imaging-thermography-and-spectrometry-methods-to-evaluate-the-effect-of-heterodera-schachtii-inoculation-on-sugar-beets
#1
Samuel Joalland, Claudio Screpanti, Frank Liebisch, Hubert Vincent Varella, Alain Gaume, Achim Walter
BACKGROUND: Phenotyping technologies are expected to provide predictive power for a range of applications in plant and crop sciences. Here, we use the disease pressure of Beet Cyst Nematodes (BCN) on sugar beet as an illustrative example to test the specific capabilities of different methods. Strong links between the above and belowground parts of sugar beet plants have made BCN suitable targets for use of non-destructive phenotyping methods. We compared the ability of visible light imaging, thermography and spectrometry to evaluate the effect of BCN on the growth of sugar beet plants...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912827/development-of-taqman-probes-targeting-the-four-major-celiac-disease-epitopes-found-in-%C3%AE-gliadin-sequences-of-spelt-triticum-aestivum-ssp-spelta-and-bread-wheat-triticum-aestivum-ssp-aestivum
#2
Benjamin Dubois, Pierre Bertin, Yordan Muhovski, Emmanuelle Escarnot, Dominique Mingeot
BACKGROUND: Celiac disease (CD) is caused by specific sequences of gluten proteins found in cereals such as bread wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. aestivum) and spelt (T. aestivum ssp. spelta). Among them, the α-gliadins display the highest immunogenicity, with four T-cell stimulatory epitopes. The toxicity of each epitope sequence can be reduced or even suppressed according to the allelic form of each sequence. One way to address the CD problem would be to make use of this allelic variability in breeding programs to develop safe varieties, but tools to track the presence of toxic epitopes are required...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861117/quantification-of-seed-soil-contact-of-sugar-beet-beta-vulgaris-using-x-ray-computed-tomography
#3
Sebastian Blunk, Ali Hafeez Malik, Martine I de Heer, Tobias Ekblad, Jennifer Bussell, Debbie Sparkes, Kenneth Fredlund, Craig J Sturrock, Sacha J Mooney
BACKGROUND: Seed-soil contact is important to ensure successful germination, however, there is a paucity of reported studies that have quantified the microstructure at and around this critical interface, mainly due to the opacity of soil. RESULTS: Here we describe a novel methodology to non-destructively calculate the seed-soil contact area using X-ray Computed Tomography. Under controlled conditions, we observed that seed-soil contact was strongly influenced by the size and type of seed, with a seed-soil contact of ca...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855957/discrimination-of-boron-tolerance-in-pisum-sativum-l-genotypes-using-a-rapid-high-throughput-hydroponic-screen-and-precociously-germinated-seed-grown-under-far-red-enriched-light
#4
Richard G Bennett, Federico M Ribalta, Maria Pazos-Navarro, Antonio Leonforte, Janine S Croser
BACKGROUND: Boron (B) tolerance has been identified as a key target for field pea improvement. Screening for B tolerance in the field is problematic due to variability in space and time, and robust B molecular markers are currently unavailable in field pea. There has been recent progress in developing protocols that can accelerate the life cycle of plants to enable rapid generation turnover in single seed descent breeding programs. A robust B screening protocol that can be fully integrated within an accelerated single seed descent system could lead to rapid identification and introgression of B tolerance into field pea genotypes...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855956/kinetic-modelling-an-integrated-approach-to-analyze-enzyme-activity-assays
#5
Jelena Boeckx, Maarten Hertog, Annemie Geeraerd, Bart Nicolai
BACKGROUND: In general, enzyme activity is estimated from spectrophotometric data, by taking the slope of the linear part of the progress curve describing the rate of change in the substrate or product monitored. As long as the substrate concentrations are sufficiently high to saturate the enzyme and, the velocity of the catalyzed reaction is directly proportional to the enzyme concentration. Under these premises, this velocity can be taken as a measure of the amount of active enzyme present...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855955/microaspiration-of-solanum-tuberosum-root-cells-at-early-stages-of-infection-by-globodera-pallida
#6
Rinu Kooliyottil, Louise-Marie Dandurand, Joseph C Kuhl, Allan Caplan, Fangming Xiao
BACKGROUND: Sedentary endoparasitic cyst nematodes form a feeding structure in plant roots, called a syncytium. Syncytium formation involves extensive transcriptional modifications, which leads to cell modifications such as increased cytoplasmic streaming, enlarged nuclei, increased numbers of organelles, and replacement of a central vacuole by many small vacuoles. When whole root RNA is isolated and analyzed, transcript changes manifested in the infected plant cells are overshadowed by gene expression from cells of the entire root system...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28824704/an-optimised-clearing-protocol-for-the-quantitative-assessment-of-sub-epidermal-ovule-tissues-within-whole-cereal-pistils
#7
Laura G Wilkinson, Matthew R Tucker
BACKGROUND: Seed development in the angiosperms requires the production of a female gametophyte (embryo sac) within the ovule. Many aspects of female reproductive development in cereal crops are yet to be described, largely due to the technical difficulty in obtaining phenotypic information at the cellular or sub-cellular level. Hoyer's solution is currently well established as a solution for clearing thin tissues samples, such as sections or whole tissues of bryophytes, mycorrhizal fungi, and small model organisms (e...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794796/a-high-throughput-phenotyping-procedure-for-evaluation-of-antixenosis-against-common-cutworm-at-early-seedling-stage-in-soybean
#8
Guangnan Xing, Kai Liu, Junyi Gai
BACKGROUND: Common cutworm (CCW; Spodoptera litura Fabricius) is a major leaf-feeding pest of soybean in Asia. The previous methods of measuring antixenosis against CCW using adult plant under field or net-room conditions were time-consuming, labor-intensive and precision-inferior. To solve the problems, this study aimed at (i) establishing a high-throughput phenotyping method for evaluating antixenosis against CCW at early seedling stage, (ii) using the procedure to evaluate the antixenosis of an insect-resistant versus -susceptible germplasm population (IRSGP), (iii) validating the proposed method through comparing the results with the historical phenotypic data and phenotyping-genotyping consistency data using PAV (presence/absence variation) markers linked with the identified loci CCW-1 and CCW-2, (iv) and evaluating the efficiency of the novel method through comparisons to the previous methods...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794795/ground-penetrating-radar-a-case-study-for-estimating-root-bulking-rate-in-cassava-manihot-esculenta-crantz
#9
Alfredo Delgado, Dirk B Hays, Richard K Bruton, Hernán Ceballos, Alexandre Novo, Enrico Boi, Michael Gomez Selvaraj
BACKGROUND: Understanding root traits is a necessary research front for selection of favorable genotypes or cultivation practices. Root and tuber crops having most of their economic potential stored below ground are favorable candidates for such studies. The ability to image and quantify subsurface root structure would allow breeders to classify root traits for rapid selection and allow agronomist the ability to derive effective cultivation practices. In spite of the huge role of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), for food security and industrial uses, little progress has been made in understanding the onset and rate of the root-bulking process and the factors that influence it...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28785299/quantitation-of-glutathione-s-transferases-in-rice-oryza-sativa-l-roots-exposed-to-cadmium-by-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-using-isotope-labeled-wing-peptides-as-an-internal-standard
#10
Zhenzhen Cao, Renxiang Mou, Zhaoyun Cao, Xiaoyan Lin, Youning Ma, Zhiwei Zhu, Mingxue Chen
BACKGROUND: Plant glutathione S-transferases (GSTs, EC 2.5.1.18) are multifunctional enzymes involved in heavy metal cellular detoxification by conjugating the tripeptide (g-Glu-Cys-Gly) glutathione to heavy metals. Previous studies demonstrated that individual rice GSTs were differentially induced by heavy metal exposure at the mRNA transcript level. However, little information is available concerning changes in protein concentration of rice GSTs under heavy metal stress. Because the correlation between changes in protein concentration and gene expression under abiotic stress is poor, direct determination of rice GSTs protein concentrations during cadmium (Cd) exposure is a more effective and reliable approach to explore possible mechanisms of rice Cd translocation and accumulation...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769997/genomic-bayesian-functional-regression-models-with-interactions-for-predicting-wheat-grain-yield-using-hyper-spectral-image-data
#11
Abelardo Montesinos-López, Osval A Montesinos-López, Jaime Cuevas, Walter A Mata-López, Juan Burgueño, Sushismita Mondal, Julio Huerta, Ravi Singh, Enrique Autrique, Lorena González-Pérez, José Crossa
BACKGROUND: Modern agriculture uses hyperspectral cameras that provide hundreds of reflectance data at discrete narrow bands in many environments. These bands often cover the whole visible light spectrum and part of the infrared and ultraviolet light spectra. With the bands, vegetation indices are constructed for predicting agronomically important traits such as grain yield and biomass. However, since vegetation indices only use some wavelengths (referred to as bands), we propose using all bands simultaneously as predictor variables for the primary trait grain yield; results of several multi-environment maize (Aguate et al...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769996/a-procedure-for-maize-genotypes-discrimination-to-drought-by-chlorophyll-fluorescence-imaging-rapid-light-curves
#12
Carlos Antônio Ferreira de Sousa, Dayane Silva de Paiva, Raphael Augusto das Chagas Noqueli Casari, Nelson Geraldo de Oliveira, Hugo Bruno Correa Molinari, Adilson Kenji Kobayashi, Paulo Cesar Magalhães, Reinaldo Lúcio Gomide, Manoel Teixeira Souza
BACKGROUND: Photosynthesis can be roughly separated into biochemical and photochemical processes. Both are affected by drought and can be assessed by non-invasive standard methods. Gas exchange, which mainly assesses the first process, has well-defined protocols. It is considered a standard method for evaluation of plant responses to drought. Under such stress, assessment of photochemical apparatus by chlorophyll fluorescence needs improvement to become faster and reproducible, especially in growing plants under field conditions...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769995/nano-mechanical-characterization-of-the-wood-cell-wall-by-afm-studies-comparison-between-ac-and-qi%C3%A2-mode
#13
Kirstin Casdorff, Tobias Keplinger, Ingo Burgert
BACKGROUND: Understanding the arrangement and mechanical properties of wood polymers within the plant cell wall is the basis for unravelling its underlying structure-property relationships. As state of the art Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) has been used to visualize cell wall layers in contact resonance- and amplitude controlled mode (AC) on embedded samples. Most of the studies have focused on the structural arrangement of the S2 layer and its lamellar structure. RESULTS: In this work, a protocol for AFM is proposed to characterize the entire cell wall mechanically by quantitative imaging (QI™) at the nanometer level, without embedding the samples...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736574/elucidating-the-role-of-highly-homologous-nicotiana-benthamiana-ubiquitin-e2-gene-family-members-in-plant-immunity-through-an-improved-virus-induced-gene-silencing-approach
#14
Bangjun Zhou, Lirong Zeng
BACKGROUND: Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) has been used in many plant species as an attractive post transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) method for studying gene function either individually or at large-scale in a high-throughput manner. However, the specificity and efficiency for knocking down members of a highly homologous gene family have remained to date a significant challenge in VIGS due to silencing of off-targets. RESULTS: Here we present an improved method for the selection and evaluation of gene fragments used for VIGS to specifically and efficiently knock down members of a highly homologous gene family...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736573/a-rapid-and-efficient-in-vitro-regeneration-system-for-lettuce-lactuca-sativa-l
#15
Isabel Armas, Natalia Pogrebnyak, Ilya Raskin
BACKGROUND: Successful biotechnological improvement of crop plants requires a reliable and efficient in vitro regeneration system. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), one the most important vegetable crops worldwide, is strongly genotype-dependent in terms of regeneration capacity, limiting the potential for biotechnological improvement of cultivars which show recalcitrance under currently available protocols. The effect of different nutrient sources, plant hormone combinations and activated charcoal supplementation on shoot induction efficiency was evaluated on the cultivar 'RSL NFR', which had previously shown poor regeneration efficiency...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717384/accelerating-root-system-phenotyping-of-seedlings-through-a-computer-assisted-processing-pipeline
#16
Lionel X Dupuy, Gladys Wright, Jacqueline A Thompson, Anna Taylor, Sebastien Dekeyser, Christopher P White, William T B Thomas, Mark Nightingale, John P Hammond, Neil S Graham, Catherine L Thomas, Martin R Broadley, Philip J White
BACKGROUND: There are numerous systems and techniques to measure the growth of plant roots. However, phenotyping large numbers of plant roots for breeding and genetic analyses remains challenging. One major difficulty is to achieve high throughput and resolution at a reasonable cost per plant sample. Here we describe a cost-effective root phenotyping pipeline, on which we perform time and accuracy benchmarking to identify bottlenecks in such pipelines and strategies for their acceleration...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702072/development-of-a-phenotyping-platform-for-high-throughput-screening-of-nodal-root-angle-in-sorghum
#17
Dinesh C Joshi, Vijaya Singh, Colleen Hunt, Emma Mace, Erik van Oosterom, Richard Sulman, David Jordan, Graeme Hammer
BACKGROUND: In sorghum, the growth angle of nodal roots is a major component of root system architecture. It strongly influences the spatial distribution of roots of mature plants in the soil profile, which can impact drought adaptation. However, selection for nodal root angle in sorghum breeding programs has been restricted by the absence of a suitable high throughput phenotyping platform. The aim of this study was to develop a phenotyping platform for the rapid, non-destructive and digital measurement of nodal root angle of sorghum at the seedling stage...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694843/quantifying-pruning-impacts-on-olive-tree-architecture-and-annual-canopy-growth-by-using-uav-based-3d-modelling
#18
F M Jiménez-Brenes, F López-Granados, A I de Castro, J Torres-Sánchez, N Serrano, J M Peña
BACKGROUND: Tree pruning is a costly practice with important implications for crop harvest and nutrition, pest and disease control, soil protection and irrigation strategies. Investigations on tree pruning usually involve tedious on-ground measurements of the primary tree crown dimensions, which also might generate inconsistent results due to the irregular geometry of the trees. As an alternative to intensive field-work, this study shows a innovative procedure based on combining unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology and advanced object-based image analysis (OBIA) methodology for multi-temporal three-dimensional (3D) monitoring of hundreds of olive trees that were pruned with three different strategies (traditional, adapted and mechanical pruning)...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690669/establishment-of-integrated-protocols-for-automated-high-throughput-kinetic-chlorophyll-fluorescence-analyses
#19
Henning Tschiersch, Astrid Junker, Rhonda C Meyer, Thomas Altmann
BACKGROUND: Automated plant phenotyping has been established as a powerful new tool in studying plant growth, development and response to various types of biotic or abiotic stressors. Respective facilities mainly apply non-invasive imaging based methods, which enable the continuous quantification of the dynamics of plant growth and physiology during developmental progression. However, especially for plants of larger size, integrative, automated and high throughput measurements of complex physiological parameters such as photosystem II efficiency determined through kinetic chlorophyll fluorescence analysis remain a challenge...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670331/a-mobile-nmr-lab-for-leaf-phenotyping-in-the-field
#20
Maja Musse, Laurent Leport, Mireille Cambert, William Debrandt, Clément Sorin, Alain Bouchereau, François Mariette
BACKGROUND: Low field NMR has been used to investigate water status in various plant tissues. In plants grown in controlled conditions, the method was shown to be able to monitor leaf development as it could detect slight variations in senescence associated with structural modifications in leaf tissues. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the potential of NMR to provide robust indicators of the leaf development stage in plants grown in the field, where leaves may develop less evenly due to environmental fluctuations...
2017: Plant Methods
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