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Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF

Daniel Guerreiro Diniz, Marcus Augusto de Oliveira, Camila Mendes de Lima, César Augusto Raiol Fôro, Marcia Consentino Kronka Sosthenes, João Bento-Torres, Pedro Fernando da Costa Vasconcelos, Daniel Clive Anthony, Cristovam Wanderley Picanço Diniz
BACKGROUND: Few studies have explored the glial response to a standard environment and how the response may be associated with age-related cognitive decline in learning and memory. Here we investigated aging and environmental influences on hippocampal-dependent tasks and on the morphology of an unbiased selected population of astrocytes from the molecular layer of dentate gyrus, which is the main target of perforant pathway. RESULTS: Six and twenty-month-old female, albino Swiss mice were housed, from weaning, in a standard or enriched environment, including running wheels for exercise and tested for object recognition and contextual memories...
October 10, 2016: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Jenni Puurunen, Sini Sulkama, Katriina Tiira, Cesar Araujo, Marko Lehtonen, Kati Hanhineva, Hannes Lohi
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent and multifactorial neuropsychiatric disorder in the human population worldwide. Complex etiology and clinical heterogeneity have challenged the research, diagnostics and treatment of the disease. Hyperactive and impulsive behaviour has also been observed in dogs, and they could offer a physiologically relevant model for human ADHD. As a part of our ongoing study to understand the molecular etiology of canine anxiety traits, this study was aimed to pilot an approach to identify metabolic biomarkers in canine ADHD-like behaviours for research, diagnostics and treatment purposes...
September 29, 2016: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Takahiro Yoshikawa, Masaaki Tanaka, Akira Ishii, Yoko Yamano, Yasuyoshi Watanabe
BACKGROUND: Changes of resting brain activities after visual food stimulation might affect the feeling of pleasure in eating food in daily life and spontaneous appetitive motives. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to identify brain areas related to the activity changes. METHODS: Fifteen healthy, right-handed males [age, 25.4 ± 5.5 years; body mass index, 22.5 ± 2.7 kg/m(2) (mean ± SD)] were enrolled. They were asked to watch food or mosaic pictures for 5 min and to close their eyes for 3 min before and after the picture presentation without thinking of anything...
September 26, 2016: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Shinya Kinoshita, Tetsufumi Kanazawa, Hiroki Kikuyama, Hiroshi Yoneda
BACKGROUND: To reduce the number of patients with depression, biomarkers for clarifying psychiatric disorders are warranted. Numerous candidates have been proposed; however, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) with multi-channel probes and a dexamethasone/corticotropin-releasing hormone (DEX/CRH) test are still surviving for practical demand. Thirty-one outpatients with depressed moods were analyzed using both biological tests. RESULTS: The non-suppressors, as indicated by the DEX/CRH test, exhibited a high severity on the Hamilton Depression Scale and severe anxiety on the State Trait Anxiety Scale...
2016: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Mohd Zaki Farah Naquiah, Richard Johari James, Suraya Suratman, Lian Shien Lee, Mohd Izhar Mohd Hafidz, Mohd Zaki Salleh, Lay Kek Teh
BACKGROUND: Heroin addiction is a growing concern, affecting the socioeconomic development of many countries. Little is known about transgenerational effects on phenotype changes due to heroin addiction. This study aims to investigate changes in level of anxiety and aggression up to four different generations of adult male rats due to paternal exposure to heroin. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed with heroin intraperitoneally (i.p.) twice-daily for 14 days with increasing dosage regimen (F0-heroin)...
2016: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Min-Wei Huang, Tai-An Chiang, Pei-Yu Lo, Ching-Shan Huang
BACKGROUND: We investigated whether variation in the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2) and tri-dimensional personality questionnaire (TPQ) scores could be used to aid adjustment of daily methadone requirements of heroin addicts. DRD2 TaqI B polymorphisms and TPQ scores were determined in 138 male Taiwanese heroin addicts who were receiving methadone treatment. Borderline index (harm avoidance + novelty seeking-reward dependence) was calculated for each subject, and three groups were defined: high (mean from all subjects plus 1 standard deviation, or greater), low (half of the calculated high score, or lower) and medium (all values between the high and low scores)...
2016: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Subin Park, Jin Pyo Hong, Jong-Keuk Lee, Young-Mi Park, Yangsoon Park, Juri Jeon, Myeong Hee Ahn, Se Chang Yoon
BACKGROUND: Cancer diagnosis is associated with an increased suicide risk, particularly within the first 1 year after diagnosis of cancer. Abnormal function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis has been implicated in the pathophysiology of depression and suicide. We examined genetic associations of the functional Bcl-1 polymorphism of (rs41423247) neuron-specific glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) gene, with death by suicide in cancer patients. Suicides occurring within a year of cancer diagnosis ('early suicide') were considered separately from those suicides during the second or subsequent year ('late suicide') after cancer diagnosis...
2016: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Mariusz Stasiołek, Hanna Romanowicz, Katarzyna Połatyńska, Maciej Chamielec, Dominik Skalski, Marianna Makowska, Beata Smolarz
PURPOSE: Epilepsy is a disease of neurological character. Approximately one third of epileptic patients demonstrate a drug-resistant phenotype, which is associated with the development of drug-resistant epilepsy. The multidrug resistance protein 1 and glycoprotein P, encoded by MDR1, play a significant role in the transmembrane transport of anti-epileptic agents. Single nucleotide polymorphism C3435T (rs1045642) within MDR1 gene may be associated with an increased expression of P-gp which affects the levels of antiepileptic drugs in plasma...
2016: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Chanyoung Ko, Namwook Kim, Eunjoo Kim, Dong Ho Song, Keun-Ah Cheon
BACKGROUND: As the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders in people with epilepsy ranges from 15 to 47 % (Clarke et al. in Epilepsia 46:1970-1977, 2005), it is speculated that there is a special relationship between the two disorders, yet there has been a lack of systematic studies comparing the behavioral phenotype between autistic individuals and autistic individuals with epilepsy. This study aims to investigate how the co-occurrence of epilepsy and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) affects autistic characteristics assessed by the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), which has been used as a measure of autism symptoms in previous studies...
2016: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
A L Rodrigue, B P Austin, K A Dyckman, J E McDowell
BACKGROUND: Brain function in schizophrenia has been probed using saccade paradigms and functional magnetic resonance imaging, but little information exists about how changing task context impacts saccade related brain activation and behavioral performance. We recruited schizophrenia and comparison subjects to perform saccade tasks in differing contexts: (1) two single task runs (anti- or pro-saccades alternating with fixation) and (2) one dual task run (antisaccades alternating with prosaccades)...
2016: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Jacqueline S Womersley, Bafokeng Mpeta, Jacqueline J Dimatelis, Lauriston A Kellaway, Dan J Stein, Vivienne A Russell
BACKGROUND: Developmental stress has been hypothesised to interact with genetic predisposition to increase the risk of developing substance use disorders. Here we have investigated the effects of maternal separation-induced developmental stress using a behavioural proxy of methamphetamine preference in an animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, the spontaneously hypertensive rat, versus Wistar Kyoto and Sprague-Dawley comparator strains. RESULTS: Analysis of results obtained using a conditioned place preference paradigm revealed a significant strain × stress interaction with maternal separation inducing preference for the methamphetamine-associated compartment in spontaneously hypertensive rats...
2016: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Galina Y Zheleznyakova, Hao Cao, Helgi B Schiöth
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in nervous system development and function and it is well established that BDNF is involved in the pathogenesis of a wide range of psychiatric disorders. Recently, numerous studies have associated the DNA methylation level of BDNF promoters with certain psychiatric phenotypes. In this review, we summarize data from current literature as well as from our own analysis with respect to the correlation of BDNF methylation changes with psychiatric disorders and address questions about whether DNA methylation related to the BDNF can be useful as biomarker for specific neuropsychiatric disorders...
2016: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Matthew T Sutherland, Michael C Riedel, Jessica S Flannery, Julio A Yanes, Peter T Fox, Elliot A Stein, Angela R Laird
BACKGROUND: Whereas acute nicotine administration alters brain function which may, in turn, contribute to enhanced attention and performance, chronic cigarette smoking is linked with regional brain atrophy and poorer cognition. However, results from structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies comparing smokers versus nonsmokers have been inconsistent and measures of gray matter possess limited ability to inform functional relations or behavioral implications. The purpose of this study was to address these interpretational challenges through meta-analytic techniques in the service of clarifying the impact of chronic smoking on gray matter integrity and more fully contextualizing such structural alterations...
2016: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Kevin Lloyd, Peter Dayan
We enjoy a sophisticated understanding of how animals learn to predict appetitive outcomes and direct their behaviour accordingly. This encompasses well-defined learning algorithms and details of how these might be implemented in the brain. Dopamine has played an important part in this unfolding story, appearing to embody a learning signal for predicting rewards and stamping in useful actions, while also being a modulator of behavioural vigour. By contrast, although choosing correct actions and executing them vigorously in the face of adversity is at least as important, our understanding of learning and behaviour in aversive settings is less well developed...
2016: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Jamaan Ajarem, Naif G Altoom, Ahmed A Allam, Saleh N Maodaa, Mostafa A Abdel-Maksoud, Billy Kc Chow
BACKGROUND: Potassium bromate (KBrO3) is widely used as a food additive and is a major water disinfection by-product. The present study reports the side effects of KBrO3 administration on the brain functions and behaviour of albino mice. METHODS: Animals were divided into three groups: control, low dose KBrO3 (100 mg/kg/day) and high dose KBrO3 (200 mg/kg/day) groups. RESULTS: Administration of KBrO3 led to a significant change in the body weight in the animals of the high dose group in the first, second and the last weeks while water consumption was not significantly changed...
2016: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Shu Ping Chen, Yu Kan, Jian Liang Zhang, Jun Ying Wang, Yong Hui Gao, Li Na Qiao, Xiu Mei Feng, Ya Xia Yan, Jun Ling Liu
BACKGROUND: Cumulating evidence has shown a close correlation between electroacupuncture stimulation (EAS) frequency-specific analgesic effect and central opioid peptides. However, the actions of hippocampal acetylcholinergic receptors have not been determined. This study aims to observe the effect of different frequencies of EAS on the expression of hippocampal muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholinergic receptors (mAChRs, nAChRs) in neuropathic pain rats for revealing their relationship...
2016: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Peter R Killeen
BACKGROUND: It has been 10 years since Terje Sagvolden founded Behavioral and Brain Functions. BODY: After setting the context, this paper reviews some of the contributions of articles in the journal to the literature on ADHD over that decade. Those articles provide a cross section of some of the most important ongoing themes in ADHD research. CONCLUSION: Terje's faith in the new journal was well founded. It has survived the first threat of new journals, crib death, because of the continuing quality and relevance of the articles it carries...
2016: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Simon Baijot, Hichem Slama, Göran Söderlund, Bernard Dan, Paul Deltenre, Cécile Colin, Nicolas Deconinck
BACKGROUND: Optimal stimulation theory and moderate brain arousal (MBA) model hypothesize that extra-task stimulation (e.g. white noise) could improve cognitive functions of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We investigate benefits of white noise on attention and inhibition in children with and without ADHD (7-12 years old), both at behavioral and at neurophysiological levels. METHODS: Thirty children with and without ADHD performed a visual cued Go/Nogo task in two conditions (white noise or no-noise exposure), in which behavioral and P300 (mean amplitudes) data were analyzed...
2016: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Qin-qin He, Xiang He, Yan-ping Wang, Yu Zou, Qing-jie Xia, Liu-Lin Xiong, Chao-zhi Luo, Xiao-song Hu, Jia Liu, Ting-hua Wang
BACKGROUND: Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSCs)-based therapy seems to be a promising treatment for acute lung injury, but the therapeutic effects of BMSCs transplantation on acute lung injury induced by brain ischemia and the mechanisms have not been totally elucidated. This study explores the effects of transplantation of BMSCs on acute lung injury induced by focal cerebral ischemia and investigates the underlying mechanism. METHODS: Acute lung injury model was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)...
2016: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Akemi Uwaya, Hyunjin Lee, Jonghyuk Park, Hosung Lee, Junko Muto, Sanae Nakajima, Shigeo Ohta, Toshio Mikami
BACKGROUND: Histone acetylation is regulated in response to stress and plays an important role in learning and memory. Chronic stress is known to deteriorate cognition, whereas acute stress facilitates memory formation. However, whether acute stress facilitates memory formation when it is applied after fear stimulation is not yet known. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of acute stress applied after fear training on memory formation, mRNA expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), epigenetic regulation of BDNF expression, and corticosterone level in mice in vivo...
2016: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
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