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Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209179/the-social-brain-network-in-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome-a-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#1
Amy K Olszewski, Zora Kikinis, Christie S Gonzalez, Ioana L Coman, Nikolaos Makris, Xue Gong, Yogesh Rathi, Anni Zhu, Kevin M Antshel, Wanda Fremont, Marek R Kubicki, Sylvain Bouix, Martha E Shenton, Wendy R Kates
BACKGROUND: Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a neurogenetic disorder that is associated with a 25-fold increase in schizophrenia. Both individuals with 22q11.2DS and those with schizophrenia present with social cognitive deficits, which are putatively subserved by a network of brain regions that are involved in the processing of social cognitive information. This study used two-tensor tractography to examine the white matter tracts believed to underlie the social brain network in a group of 57 young adults with 22q11...
February 16, 2017: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202023/logical-fallacies-in-animal-model-research
#2
REVIEW
Espen A Sjoberg
BACKGROUND: Animal models of human behavioural deficits involve conducting experiments on animals with the hope of gaining new knowledge that can be applied to humans. This paper aims to address risks, biases, and fallacies associated with drawing conclusions when conducting experiments on animals, with focus on animal models of mental illness. CONCLUSIONS: Researchers using animal models are susceptible to a fallacy known as false analogy, where inferences based on assumptions of similarities between animals and humans can potentially lead to an incorrect conclusion...
February 15, 2017: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166792/mothers-pupillary-responses-to-infant-facial-expressions
#3
Santeri Yrttiaho, Dana Niehaus, Eileen Thomas, Jukka M Leppänen
BACKGROUND: Human parental care relies heavily on the ability to monitor and respond to a child's affective states. The current study examined pupil diameter as a potential physiological index of mothers' affective response to infant facial expressions. METHODS: Pupillary time-series were measured from 86 mothers of young infants in response to an array of photographic infant faces falling into four emotive categories based on valence (positive vs. negative) and arousal (mild vs...
February 6, 2017: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122575/drug-induced-parkinson-s-disease-modulates-protein-kinase-a-and-olfactory-marker-protein-in-the-mouse-olfactory-bulb
#4
Carla Mucignat, Antonio Caretta
BACKGROUND: Olfaction is often affected in parkinsonian patients, but dopaminergic cells in the olfactory bulb are not affected by some Parkinson-inducing drugs. We investigated whether the drug MPTP produces the olfactory deficits typical of Parkinson and affects the olfactory bulb in mice. FINDINGS: Lesioned and control mice were tested for olfactory search, for motor and exploratory behavior. Brains and olfactory mucosa were investigated via immunohistochemistry for thyrosine hydroxylase, Olfactory Marker Protein and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase as an intracellular pathway involved in dopaminergic neurotransmission...
January 26, 2017: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931233/venlafaxine-ameliorates-the-depression-like-behaviors-and-hippocampal-s100b-expression-in-a-rat-depression-model
#5
Chang-Hong Wang, Jing-Yang Gu, Xiao-Li Zhang, Jiao Dong, Jun Yang, Ying-Li Zhang, Qiu-Fen Ning, Xiao-Wen Shan, Yan Li
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence has indicated that S100B may be involved in the pathophysiology of depression. No published study has examined the effect of the antidepressant drug venlafaxine on S100B in animal models of depression. This study investigated S100B expression in the hippocampus and assessed the effect of venlafaxine on S100B mRNA level and protein expression in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). METHODS: Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups as control, 0, 5 and 10 mg venlafaxine groups...
December 8, 2016: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931218/scutellaria-barbata-flavonoids-alleviate-memory-deficits-and-neuronal-injuries-induced-by-composited-a%C3%AE-in-rats
#6
Xiao G Wu, Shu S Wang, Hong Miao, Jian J Cheng, Shu F Zhang, Ya Z Shang
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Scutellaria barbata flavonoids (SBF) on memory impairment and neuronal injury induced by amyloid beta protein 25-35 in combination with aluminum trichloride (AlCl3) and recombinant human transforming growth factor-β1 (RHTGF-β1) (composited Aβ) in rats. METHODS: The composited Aβ-treated model of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like memory impairment and neuronal injury was established in male rats by right intracerebroventricular injection of composited Aβ, and the effects of SBF were assessed using this rat model...
December 8, 2016: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906019/patterns-of-motor-activity-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats-compared-to-wistar-kyoto-rats
#7
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Ole Bernt Fasmer, Espen Borgå Johansen
BACKGROUND: Increased motor activity is a defining characteristic of patients with ADHD, and spontaneously hypertensive rats have been suggested to be an animal model of this disorder. In the present study, we wanted to use linear and non-linear methods to explore differences in motor activity patterns in SHR/NCrl rats compared to Wistar Kyoto (WKY/NHsd) rats. METHODS: A total number of 42 rats (23 SHR/NCrl and 19 WKY/NHsd, male and female) were tested. At PND 51, the animals' movements were video-recorded during an operant test procedure that lasted 90 min...
December 1, 2016: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899123/a-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-investigation-of-visual-hallucinations-in-the-human-striate-cortex
#8
Hina Abid, Fayyaz Ahmad, Soo Y Lee, Hyun W Park, Dongmi Im, Iftikhar Ahmad, Safee U Chaudhary
PURPOSE: Human beings frequently experience fear, phobia, migraine and hallucinations, however, the cerebral mechanisms underpinning these conditions remain poorly understood. Towards this goal, in this work, we aim to correlate the human ocular perceptions with visual hallucinations, and map them to their cerebral origins. METHODS: An fMRI study was performed to examine the visual cortical areas including the striate, parastriate and peristriate cortex in the occipital lobe of the human brain...
November 29, 2016: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871272/association-of-tryptophan-hydroxylase-2-polymorphisms-with-oppositional-defiant-disorder-in-a-chinese-han-population
#9
Chang-Hong Wang, Cong Liu, En-Zhao Cong, Gai-Ling Xu, Ting-Ting Lv, Ying-Li Zhang, Qiu-Fen Ning, Ji-Kang Wang, Hui-Yao Nie, Yan Li
BACKGROUND: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is a behavioral disorder of school-age population. It is well known that 5-HT dysfunction is correlated with impulsivity, which is one of the common characteristics of ODD. The enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH-2) synthesizes 5-HT in serotonergic neurons of the midbrain raphe. The purposes of this study were to investigate the potential association of TPH-2 polymorphisms with susceptibility to ODD in a Han Chinese school population. METHODS: Four polymorphisms (rs4570625, rs11178997, rs1386494 and rs7305115) of the TPH-2 gene were analyzed by using polymerase chain reaction and DNA microarray hybridization in a case-control study of 276 Han Chinese individuals (124 ODD and 152 controls)...
November 21, 2016: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829443/the-role-of-c957t-taqi-and-ser311cys-polymorphisms-of-the-drd2-gene-in-schizophrenia-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
REVIEW
Thelma Beatriz González-Castro, Yazmín Hernández-Díaz, Isela Esther Juárez-Rojop, María Lilia López-Narváez, Carlos Alfonso Tovilla-Zárate, Alma Genis-Mendoza, Mariela Alpuin-Reyes
BACKGROUND: The association between the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene and schizophrenia has been studied though no conclusive outcomes have been attained. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to explore the relation between three polymorphisms of the DRD2 gene (C957T, TaqI and Ser311Cys) and schizophrenia. METHODS: The search was made in PubMed and EBSCO databases (up to February 2016). The systematic review included 34 case-control association studies (34 for C957T, 16 for TaqI and 36 for Ser311Cys)...
November 9, 2016: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719674/age-environment-object-recognition-and-morphological-diversity-of-gfap-immunolabeled-astrocytes
#11
Daniel Guerreiro Diniz, Marcus Augusto de Oliveira, Camila Mendes de Lima, César Augusto Raiol Fôro, Marcia Consentino Kronka Sosthenes, João Bento-Torres, Pedro Fernando da Costa Vasconcelos, Daniel Clive Anthony, Cristovam Wanderley Picanço Diniz
BACKGROUND: Few studies have explored the glial response to a standard environment and how the response may be associated with age-related cognitive decline in learning and memory. Here we investigated aging and environmental influences on hippocampal-dependent tasks and on the morphology of an unbiased selected population of astrocytes from the molecular layer of dentate gyrus, which is the main target of perforant pathway. RESULTS: Six and twenty-month-old female, albino Swiss mice were housed, from weaning, in a standard or enriched environment, including running wheels for exercise and tested for object recognition and contextual memories...
October 10, 2016: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686065/a-non-targeted-metabolite-profiling-pilot-study-suggests-that-tryptophan-and-lipid-metabolisms-are-linked-with-adhd-like-behaviours-in-dogs
#12
Jenni Puurunen, Sini Sulkama, Katriina Tiira, Cesar Araujo, Marko Lehtonen, Kati Hanhineva, Hannes Lohi
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent and multifactorial neuropsychiatric disorder in the human population worldwide. Complex etiology and clinical heterogeneity have challenged the research, diagnostics and treatment of the disease. Hyperactive and impulsive behaviour has also been observed in dogs, and they could offer a physiologically relevant model for human ADHD. As a part of our ongoing study to understand the molecular etiology of canine anxiety traits, this study was aimed to pilot an approach to identify metabolic biomarkers in canine ADHD-like behaviours for research, diagnostics and treatment purposes...
September 29, 2016: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670910/visual-food-stimulus-changes-resting-oscillatory-brain-activities-related-to-appetitive-motive
#13
Takahiro Yoshikawa, Masaaki Tanaka, Akira Ishii, Yoko Yamano, Yasuyoshi Watanabe
BACKGROUND: Changes of resting brain activities after visual food stimulation might affect the feeling of pleasure in eating food in daily life and spontaneous appetitive motives. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to identify brain areas related to the activity changes. METHODS: Fifteen healthy, right-handed males [age, 25.4 ± 5.5 years; body mass index, 22.5 ± 2.7 kg/m(2) (mean ± SD)] were enrolled. They were asked to watch food or mosaic pictures for 5 min and to close their eyes for 3 min before and after the picture presentation without thinking of anything...
September 26, 2016: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27582123/clinical-application-of-dex-crh-test-and-multi-channel-nirs-in-patients-with-depression
#14
Shinya Kinoshita, Tetsufumi Kanazawa, Hiroki Kikuyama, Hiroshi Yoneda
BACKGROUND: To reduce the number of patients with depression, biomarkers for clarifying psychiatric disorders are warranted. Numerous candidates have been proposed; however, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) with multi-channel probes and a dexamethasone/corticotropin-releasing hormone (DEX/CRH) test are still surviving for practical demand. Thirty-one outpatients with depressed moods were analyzed using both biological tests. RESULTS: The non-suppressors, as indicated by the DEX/CRH test, exhibited a high severity on the Hamilton Depression Scale and severe anxiety on the State Trait Anxiety Scale...
August 31, 2016: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27582026/transgenerational-effects-of-paternal-heroin-addiction-on-anxiety-and-aggression-behavior-in-male-offspring
#15
Mohd Zaki Farah Naquiah, Richard Johari James, Suraya Suratman, Lian Shien Lee, Mohd Izhar Mohd Hafidz, Mohd Zaki Salleh, Lay Kek Teh
BACKGROUND: Heroin addiction is a growing concern, affecting the socioeconomic development of many countries. Little is known about transgenerational effects on phenotype changes due to heroin addiction. This study aims to investigate changes in level of anxiety and aggression up to four different generations of adult male rats due to paternal exposure to heroin. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed with heroin intraperitoneally (i.p.) twice-daily for 14 days with increasing dosage regimen (F0-heroin)...
August 31, 2016: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27580593/relationship-among-methadone-dose-polymorphisms-of-dopamine-d2-receptor-and-tri-dimensional-personality-questionnaire-in-heroin-addicted-patients
#16
Min-Wei Huang, Tai-An Chiang, Pei-Yu Lo, Ching-Shan Huang
BACKGROUND: We investigated whether variation in the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2) and tri-dimensional personality questionnaire (TPQ) scores could be used to aid adjustment of daily methadone requirements of heroin addicts. DRD2 TaqI B polymorphisms and TPQ scores were determined in 138 male Taiwanese heroin addicts who were receiving methadone treatment. Borderline index (harm avoidance + novelty seeking-reward dependence) was calculated for each subject, and three groups were defined: high (mean from all subjects plus 1 standard deviation, or greater), low (half of the calculated high score, or lower) and medium (all values between the high and low scores)...
August 31, 2016: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27401254/associations-between-the-neuron-specific-glucocorticoid-receptor-nr3c1-bcl-1-polymorphisms-and-suicide-in-cancer-patients-within-the-first-year-of-diagnosis
#17
Subin Park, Jin Pyo Hong, Jong-Keuk Lee, Young-Mi Park, Yangsoon Park, Juri Jeon, Myeong Hee Ahn, Se Chang Yoon
BACKGROUND: Cancer diagnosis is associated with an increased suicide risk, particularly within the first 1 year after diagnosis of cancer. Abnormal function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis has been implicated in the pathophysiology of depression and suicide. We examined genetic associations of the functional Bcl-1 polymorphism of (rs41423247) neuron-specific glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) gene, with death by suicide in cancer patients. Suicides occurring within a year of cancer diagnosis ('early suicide') were considered separately from those suicides during the second or subsequent year ('late suicide') after cancer diagnosis...
July 11, 2016: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27391700/association-between-c3435t-polymorphism-of-mdr1-gene-and-the-incidence-of-drug-resistant-epilepsy-in-the-population-of-polish-children
#18
Mariusz Stasiołek, Hanna Romanowicz, Katarzyna Połatyńska, Maciej Chamielec, Dominik Skalski, Marianna Makowska, Beata Smolarz
PURPOSE: Epilepsy is a disease of neurological character. Approximately one third of epileptic patients demonstrate a drug-resistant phenotype, which is associated with the development of drug-resistant epilepsy. The multidrug resistance protein 1 and glycoprotein P, encoded by MDR1, play a significant role in the transmembrane transport of anti-epileptic agents. Single nucleotide polymorphism C3435T (rs1045642) within MDR1 gene may be associated with an increased expression of P-gp which affects the levels of antiepileptic drugs in plasma...
July 8, 2016: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27350381/the-effect-of-epilepsy-on-autistic-symptom-severity-assessed-by-the-social-responsiveness-scale-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#19
Chanyoung Ko, Namwook Kim, Eunjoo Kim, Dong Ho Song, Keun-Ah Cheon
BACKGROUND: As the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders in people with epilepsy ranges from 15 to 47 % (Clarke et al. in Epilepsia 46:1970-1977, 2005), it is speculated that there is a special relationship between the two disorders, yet there has been a lack of systematic studies comparing the behavioral phenotype between autistic individuals and autistic individuals with epilepsy. This study aims to investigate how the co-occurrence of epilepsy and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) affects autistic characteristics assessed by the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), which has been used as a measure of autism symptoms in previous studies...
June 27, 2016: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27342314/brain-activation-differences-in-schizophrenia-during-context-dependent-processing-of-saccade-tasks
#20
A L Rodrigue, B P Austin, K A Dyckman, J E McDowell
BACKGROUND: Brain function in schizophrenia has been probed using saccade paradigms and functional magnetic resonance imaging, but little information exists about how changing task context impacts saccade related brain activation and behavioral performance. We recruited schizophrenia and comparison subjects to perform saccade tasks in differing contexts: (1) two single task runs (anti- or pro-saccades alternating with fixation) and (2) one dual task run (antisaccades alternating with prosaccades)...
June 24, 2016: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
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