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Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF

Yi-Tzu Chang, Hsiang-Yu Chen, Yuan-Chieh Huang, Wan-Yu Shih, Hsiao-Lung Chan, Ping-Yi Wu, Ling-Fu Meng, Chen-Chi Chen, Ching-I Wang
BACKGROUND: Action semantics have been investigated in relation to context violation but remain less examined in relation to the meaning of gestures. In the present study, we examined tool-gesture incongruity by event-related potentials (ERPs) and hypothesized that the component N400, a neural index which has been widely used in both linguistic and action semantic congruence, is significant for conditions of incongruence. METHODS: Twenty participants performed a tool-gesture judgment task, in which they were asked to judge whether the tool-gesture pairs were correct or incorrect, for the purpose of conveying functional expression of the tools...
March 13, 2018: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Christina Artemenko, Mojtaba Soltanlou, Ann-Christine Ehlis, Hans-Christoph Nuerk, Thomas Dresler
BACKGROUND: Arithmetic processing in adults is known to rely on a frontal-parietal network. However, neurocognitive research focusing on the neural and behavioral correlates of arithmetic development has been scarce, even though the acquisition of arithmetic skills is accompanied by changes within the fronto-parietal network of the developing brain. Furthermore, experimental procedures are typically adjusted to constraints of functional magnetic resonance imaging, which may not reflect natural settings in which children and adolescents actually perform arithmetic...
March 10, 2018: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Noémi Ágnes Varga, Klára Pentelényi, Péter Balicza, András Gézsi, Viktória Reményi, Vivien Hársfalvi, Renáta Bencsik, Anett Illés, Csilla Prekop, Mária Judit Molnár
BACKGROUND: The etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is very heterogeneous. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been described in ASD; however, primary mitochondrial disease has been genetically proven in a small subset of patients. The main goal of the present study was to investigate correlations between mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) changes and alterations of genes associated with mtDNA maintenance or ASD. METHODS: Sixty patients with ASD and sixty healthy individuals were screened for common mtDNA mutations...
February 20, 2018: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Renee Dufault, Roseanne Schnoll, Walter J Lukiw, Blaise LeBlanc, Charles Cornett, Lyn Patrick, David Wallinga, Steven G Gilbert, Raquel Crider
The original version of this article [1] unfortunately contained an error which has since been acknowledged in this Correction article. The URL link in the Reference 19 was broken and it needs to be replaced with the active link given below.
February 7, 2018: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Leah M Mattiaccio, Ioana L Coman, Carlie A Thompson, Wanda P Fremont, Kevin M Antshel, Wendy R Kates
BACKGROUND: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a neurodevelopmental syndrome associated with deficits in cognitive and emotional processing. This syndrome represents one of the highest risk factors for the development of schizophrenia. Previous studies of functional connectivity (FC) in 22q11DS report aberrant connectivity patterns in large-scale networks that are associated with the development of psychotic symptoms. METHODS: In this study, we performed a functional connectivity analysis using the CONN toolbox to test for differential connectivity patterns between 54 individuals with 22q11DS and 30 healthy controls, between the ages of 17-25 years old...
January 20, 2018: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Yongfeng Yang, Hongyan Yu, Wenqiang Li, Bing Liu, Hongxing Zhang, Shuang Ding, Yanli Lu, Tianzi Jiang, Luxian Lv
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia (SZ) is a complex polygenic psychiatric disorder caused in part by abnormal dopamine levels. Cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) 2 is known to protect and repair the dopaminergic system. Dopamine dysfunction is one of the pathogenesis of SZ. However, the relationship between CDNF2 and SZ has not been previously investigated. We speculated that CDNF2 may be a susceptibility factor for SZ. METHODS: To address this issue, we carried out a study to investigate the association between CDNF2 and SZ in the total sample 1371 (670 SZ patients and 701 healthy controls) Han Chinese population...
January 3, 2018: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Arvind Palanisamy, Gregory Crosby, Deborah J Culley
BACKGROUND: Our previous research showed that 4 h of maternal anesthesia with isoflurane during early gestation in pregnant rats leads to a deficit in spatial memory of adult male offspring. Because spatial memory is predominantly a hippocampally-mediated task, we asked the question if early gestational exposure to isoflurane affects development of the hippocampus in the offspring. FINDINGS: Previously behaviorally characterized adult male rats that were exposed to isoflurane during second trimester were sacrificed at 4 months of age (N = 10 and 13, control and isoflurane groups, respectively) for quantitative histology of hippocampal subregions...
December 26, 2017: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Emi Furukawa, Shizuka Shimabukuro, Brent Alsop, Gail Tripp
BACKGROUND: Most research on motivational processes in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been undertaken in Western Europe and North America. The extent to which these findings apply to other cultural groups is unclear. The current study evaluated the behavioral sensitivity of Japanese children with and without ADHD to changing reward availability. Forty-one school-aged children, 19 diagnosed with DSM-IV ADHD, completed a signal-detection task in which correct discriminations between two stimuli were associated with different reinforcement frequencies...
September 25, 2017: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Jianqin Cao, Quanying Liu, Yang Li, Jun Yang, Ruolei Gu, Jin Liang, Yanyan Qi, Haiyan Wu, Xun Liu
BACKGROUND: Previous studies of patients with social anxiety have demonstrated abnormal early processing of facial stimuli in social contexts. In other words, patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) tend to exhibit enhanced early facial processing when compared to healthy controls. Few studies have examined the temporal electrophysiological event-related potential (ERP)-indexed profiles when an individual with SAD compares faces to objects in SAD. Systematic comparisons of ERPs to facial/object stimuli before and after therapy are also lacking...
July 28, 2017: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Yi-Quan Wang, Yang Pan, Sheng Zhu, Yong-Guang Wang, Zhi-Hua Shen, Kai Wang
BACKGROUND: Attention ability can be subdivided into three functionally independent networks, i.e., alerting network, orienting network, and executive network. Previous literature has documented that deficits in attention are a common consequence of HIV infection. However, the precise nature of deficits of attention in HIV-infected patients is poorly understood. Accordingly, the aim of the study was to identify whether the HIV-infected patients showed a specific attention network deficit or a general attentional impairment...
June 27, 2017: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Jamaan Ajarem, Gawaher Al Rashedi, Mohamed Mohany, Ahmed Allam
BACKGROUND: Green tea extract (GTE) has various health promoting effects on animals and humans. However, the effects of perinatal exposure to GTE on the behavioral aspects of offspring have not been elucidated thus far. GTE was provided for pregnant female mice at concentrations of either 20 or 50 g/L, beginning the day of conception until the third week after delivery, postnatal day 22 (PD 22). Mice pups were subjected to behavioral testing to assess sensory motor reflexes, locomotion, anxiety, and learning on various postnatal days...
June 1, 2017: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Sayaka Yokota, Yusuke Suzuki, Keigo Hamami, Akiko Harada, Shoji Komai
BACKGROUND: Sex has been considered as a potential factor regulating individual behaviors in different contexts. Recently, findings on sex differences in the neuroendocrine circuit have expanded due to exact measurements and control of neuronal activity, while findings on sex differences in behavioral phenotypes are limited. One efficient way to determine the miscellaneous aspects of a sexually different behavior is to segment it into a set of simpler responses induced by discrete scenes...
May 5, 2017: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Wei-Chih Ou, Yi-Chin Huang, Chih-Ling Huang, Min-Hsuan Lin, Yi-Chun Chen, Yi-Ju Chen, Chen-Nu Liu, Mei-Chih Chen, Ching-Shan Huang, Pei-Lain Chen
BACKGROUND: Although some effects of gene-gene interactions on nicotine-dopamine metabolism for smoking behavior have been reported, polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2A6 and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) have not been studied together to determine their effects on smokers. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the interaction between the CYP 2A6 and COMT genes on smoking behavior in young Taiwanese men. RESULTS: A self-report questionnaire regarding smoking status was administered to 500 young men...
May 4, 2017: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Nan Wu, Feng Wang, Zhe Jin, Zhen Zhang, Lian-Kun Wang, Chun Zhang, Tao Sun
BACKGROUND: Insular function has gradually become a topic of intense study in cognitive research. Recognition memory is a commonly studied type of memory in memory research. GABABR has been shown to be closely related to memory formation. In the present study, we used intellicage, which is a new intelligent behavioural test system, and a bilateral drug microinjection technique to inject into the bilateral insula, to examine the relationship between GABABR and recognition memory. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control, Sham, Nacl, baclofen and CGP35348 groups...
April 17, 2017: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
M Meyer, G Di Scala, M Edde, B Dilharreguy, F Radat, M Allard, S Chanraud
BACKGROUND: Spatial normalization of brain images, a prerequisite for voxel based morphometry analysis, may account for the large variability of the volumetric data in medication overuse headache (MOH); possibly because this disease concerns patients differing on both sex and age, and hence with different brain size and shape. METHODS: The present study aimed at providing a subject-based analysis of macrostructure using a native space volumes segmentation (Freesurfer), and microstructure using a region of interest (ROI: i...
April 8, 2017: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Radu Ionita, Paula Alexandra Postu, Galba Jean Beppe, Marius Mihasan, Brindusa Alina Petre, Monica Hancianu, Oana Cioanca, Lucian Hritcu
BACKGROUND: Plants of the genus Markhamia have been traditionally used by different tribes in various parts of West African countries, including Cameroun. Markhamia tomentosa (Benth.) K. Schum. (Bignoniaceae) is used as an antimalarial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant and anti-Alzheimer agent. The current study was undertaken in order to investigate its anti-amnesic and antioxidant potential on scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment and to determine its possible mechanism of action...
March 28, 2017: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Amy K Olszewski, Zora Kikinis, Christie S Gonzalez, Ioana L Coman, Nikolaos Makris, Xue Gong, Yogesh Rathi, Anni Zhu, Kevin M Antshel, Wanda Fremont, Marek R Kubicki, Sylvain Bouix, Martha E Shenton, Wendy R Kates
BACKGROUND: Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a neurogenetic disorder that is associated with a 25-fold increase in schizophrenia. Both individuals with 22q11.2DS and those with schizophrenia present with social cognitive deficits, which are putatively subserved by a network of brain regions that are involved in the processing of social cognitive information. This study used two-tensor tractography to examine the white matter tracts believed to underlie the social brain network in a group of 57 young adults with 22q11...
February 16, 2017: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Espen A Sjoberg
BACKGROUND: Animal models of human behavioural deficits involve conducting experiments on animals with the hope of gaining new knowledge that can be applied to humans. This paper aims to address risks, biases, and fallacies associated with drawing conclusions when conducting experiments on animals, with focus on animal models of mental illness. CONCLUSIONS: Researchers using animal models are susceptible to a fallacy known as false analogy, where inferences based on assumptions of similarities between animals and humans can potentially lead to an incorrect conclusion...
February 15, 2017: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Santeri Yrttiaho, Dana Niehaus, Eileen Thomas, Jukka M Leppänen
BACKGROUND: Human parental care relies heavily on the ability to monitor and respond to a child's affective states. The current study examined pupil diameter as a potential physiological index of mothers' affective response to infant facial expressions. METHODS: Pupillary time-series were measured from 86 mothers of young infants in response to an array of photographic infant faces falling into four emotive categories based on valence (positive vs. negative) and arousal (mild vs...
February 6, 2017: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Carla Mucignat, Antonio Caretta
BACKGROUND: Olfaction is often affected in parkinsonian patients, but dopaminergic cells in the olfactory bulb are not affected by some Parkinson-inducing drugs. We investigated whether the drug MPTP produces the olfactory deficits typical of Parkinson and affects the olfactory bulb in mice. FINDINGS: Lesioned and control mice were tested for olfactory search, for motor and exploratory behavior. Brains and olfactory mucosa were investigated via immunohistochemistry for thyrosine hydroxylase, Olfactory Marker Protein and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase as an intracellular pathway involved in dopaminergic neurotransmission...
January 26, 2017: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
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