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Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH

Samuel Tromans, Verity Chester, Reza Kiani, Regi Alexander, Terry Brugha
Background: Whilst the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders in adults within the community setting is well-established, less is known about the prevalence among adults based within a psychiatric inpatient setting. Objective: To conduct a systematic literature review pertaining to the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders among the adult psychiatric inpatient population. Method: Eligibility criteria included: (a) investigation of the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (b) adult psychiatric inpatient study population (c) published in English language...
2018: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH
Angelo Picardi, Antonella Gigantesco, Emanuele Tarolla, Vera Stoppioni, Renato Cerbo, Maurizio Cremonte, Guido Alessandri, Ilaria Lega, Franco Nardocci
Background: The effects of having a child with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) on parents are multifaceted and pervasive. While ample evidence has been provided that these families are under severe stress, there are still several knowledge gaps and unresolved questions. Objective: This study aimed at quantifying the subjective and objective burden of ASD in mothers and fathers, and at improving the understanding of the interplay between parental burden, child's characteristics, and parents' coping resources and strategies...
2018: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH
Amalia Sillero, Adelaida Zabalegui
Background: Knowing the organizational factors that predict burnout in perioperative nurses is paramount for improving the care of patients and promoting nurses' psychosocial well-being and health. Objective: To determine the influence of organizational factors of the perioperative nurse's work environment on the three burnout dimensions: emotional exhaustion, despersonalization, and personal accomplishment. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 136 nurses in a perioperative care unit at a university hospital in Barcelona, Spain...
2018: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH
Antonio Preti, Andrea Raballo, Georgios D Kotzalidis, Rosanna Scanu, Tamara Muratore, Mersia Gabbrielli, Debora Tronci, Carmelo Masala, Donatella Rita Petretto, Mauro G Carta
Background: Diagnosing people during the prodromal phase of an incipient psychosis can improve the chance of better outcome. In busy clinical settings, the ideal tool is a brief, easy-to-complete self-report questionnaire. Objective: To test the psychometric properties of the Italian version of one of the most used screening tools for the identification of the risk of psychosis, the Prodromal Questionnaire-Brief (PQ-B). Methods: Cross-sectional design...
2018: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH
Addishiwet Fantahun Adamu, Yohannes Mehretie Adinew
Background: Mental illness in women leads to an increased maternal morbidity and mortality. Postpartum depression accommodates various groups of depressive disorders and syndromes that occur within the first immediate year after delivery. Thus, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of postpartum depression symptoms and correlates among mothers attending public health centers of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods: Facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 618 women in their postpartum period...
2018: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH
Wireko-Gyebi Sampson, Ashiagbor Emelia Sandra
Background: Despite the existence of autism spectrum disorder in Ghana, few studies have provided the necessary information on the phenomenon. These studies have mostly focused on speech and language therapy for children and modification of classroom environment for children with autism spectrum disorder. This approach has resulted in a paucity of knowledge on nurse's knowledge of autism spectrum disorder in Ghana. Objective: The study sought to assess the knowledge of paediatric and psychiatric on autism spectrum disorder...
2018: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH
Alessandro Oliveira de Carvalho, Alberto Souza Sá Filho, Eric Murillo-Rodriguez, Nuno Barbosa Rocha, Mauro Giovanni Carta, Sergio Machado
Background: National projections about the increase in the elderly population over 60 years bring with it an increase in the number of people affected by Parkinson's Disease (PD), making it an important public health problem. Therefore, the establishment of effective strategies for intervention in people with PD needs to be more clearly investigated. Objective: The study aimed to report the effectiveness of exercise on functional capacity and neurobiological mechanisms in people with PD...
2018: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH
Veronica Vitriol, Alfredo Cancino, Carlos Serrano, Soledad Ballesteros, Soledad Potthoff
Objective: To determine the factors associated with remission at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months among depressive adult patients in primary care [PHC] in Chile. Methods: This is a one-year naturalistic study that followed 297 patients admitted for treatment of depression in eight primary care clinics in Chile. Initially, patients were evaluated using: the International Mini-Neuropsychiatric Interview [MINI], a screening for Childhood Trauma Events [CTEs], the Life Experiences Survey and a partner violence scale...
2018: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH
Giulia Cossu, Emilio Loi, Mauro Giovanni Carta, Alessia Bramanti
Background: The physical activity has been indicated as an experience that can help achieve positive, self-oriented own body awareness. This awareness is an aspect that tends to get worse with age. Objective: Our study aims to verify the internal consistency of a questionnaire on physical awareness in a sample of Italian elders; a secondary objective is to measure if there is a relationship between physical awareness and perceived level of physical activity. Methods: Cross sectional study on a consecutive sample of elderly people was administered the "Physical Body Experiences Questionnaire simplified for active aging (PBE-QAG)", inspired by the "Physical Body Experiences Questionnaire", modified, simplified and adapted to be used in the elderly over 65...
2018: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH
Giulia Cossu, Luca Saba, Luigi Minerba, Mario Mascalchi
Since ColoRectal Cancer (CRC) remains the third cause of cancer death in the world, a better understanding of the reasons underlying poor adherence to and delay in undergoing CRC screening programs is important. CRC screening decision-making process can be conceptualized as the relationship between intention and behavior and needs to be investigated including the impact on patients' decision of a broad range of psychological factors and personal predisposition as fear of a positive screening test, poor understanding of the procedure, psychological distress, anxiety, anticipation of pain, feelings of embarrassment and vulnerability...
2018: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH
Germano Orrù, Mauro Giovanni Carta, Alessia Bramanti
Background: Several studies have shown that the Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) in the CACAN1C gene, rs1006737, is related to different mood disorder illnesses, such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Current day molecular procedures for allele detection of this gene can be very expensive and time consuming. Hence, a sensitive and specific molecular procedure for detecting these mutations in a large number of subjects is desirable, especially for research groups who have no complex laboratory equipment...
2018: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH
Alessia Bramanti, Ernesto D'Aloja, Federico Cabras, Pasquale Paribello, Maria Francesca Moro, Jutta Lindert, Mauro Giovanni Carta
Introduction: Two main demographic phenomena have substantially changed the condition of elderly: the growth of the urban population and the increase in longevity. Objective: The aim of the present review is to investigate how the elderly living in the cities perceive the sense of insecurity compared to those who reside in rural areas, and their Quality of Life (QoL). Method: Studies published from January 2011 to August 2017 were identified on Google and PubMed combining the following terms: "elderly urban/rural QoL" or "old age urban/rural QoL"...
2018: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH
Germano Orrù, Mauro Giovanni Carta
Background: Bipolar Disorder (BD), along with depression and schizophrenia, is one of the most serious mental illnesses, and one of the top 20 causes of severe impairment in everyday life. Recent molecular studies, using both traditional approaches and new procedures such as Whole-Genome Sequencing (WGS), have suggested that genetic factors could significantly contribute to the development of BD, with heritability estimates of up to 85%. However, it is assumed that BD is a multigenic and multifactorial illness with environmental factors that strongly contribute to disease development/progression, which means that progress in genetic knowledge of BD might be difficult to interpret in clinical practice...
2018: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH
M G Carta, A Preti, H S Akiskal
Human population is increasing in immense cities with millions of inhabitants, in which life is expected to run 24 hours a day for seven days a week (24/7). Noise and light pollution are the most reported consequences, with a profound impact on sleep patterns and circadian biorhythms. Disruption of sleep and biorhythms has severe consequences on many metabolic pathways. Suppression of melatonin incretion at night and the subsequent effect on DNA methylation may increase the risk of prostate and breast cancer...
2018: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH
F Sancassiani, Mauro G Carta, Roberta Montisci, Antonio Preti, Sergio Machado, Maria F Moro, Maria F Marchetti, Luigi Meloni
Background: The aim was to study the association between mood and anxiety disorders and the Tako-Tsubo Syndrome (TTS) and to determine the role of antidepressants and the impairment of quality of life due the comorbid psychiatric disorder. Methods: Case-control study: 19 consecutive patients (17 female) with TTS compared to 76 controls without TTS, were randomly selected from the database of a nationwide epidemiological study after matching (gender, age and residence) by controls...
2018: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH
Eduardo Lattari, Henning Budde, Flávia Paes, Geraldo Albuquerque Maranhão Neto, José Carlos Appolinario, Antônio Egídio Nardi, Eric Murillo-Rodriguez, Sérgio Machado
Background: The effects of the aerobic exercise on anxiety symptoms in patients with Panic Disorder (PD) remain unclear. Thus, the investigation of possible changes in EEG frontal asymmetry could contribute to understand the relationship among exercise, brain and anxiety. Objective: To investigate the acute effects of aerobic exercise on the symptoms of anxiety and the chronic effects of aerobic exercise on severity and symptoms related to PD, besides the changes in EEG frontal asymmetry...
2018: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH
Federica Sancassiani, Sergio Machado, Antonio Preti
People with severe psychosocial disabilities have a 20-years shorter lifespan due to chronic somatic comorbidities and the long-term consequences of the side-effects of antipsychotic drugs. They often are sedentary and show lower levels of physical activity, factors which can contribute to their shorter lifespan, because of the greater cardiovascular risk. An increasing amount of evidence, including clinical trials, pointed out that sport, physical activity and structured exercise programs improve physical and psychological wellbeing of people with psychosocial disabilities, playing also an important role against their social isolation and self-stigma...
2018: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH
I Kirilov, M Atzeni, A Perra, D Moro, M G Carta
Background: The objective of this research is to verify whether European projects on Active Aging (AA) and Elderly Quality of Life (Qol) funded by the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) produce an impact on literature similar to projects funded by the National Health Institute (NHI) of the United States on international literature using well-known bibliometric indicators. This effort may be useful in developing standardized and replicable procedures. Methods: Fifteen randomly selected projects on AA and Elderly Qol concluded in August 2017 and funded by FP7 were compared to similar projects funded by the US NHI with reference to papers published (Scopus and Scholar), papers published in Q1 journals, and the number of citations of the papers linked to the projects...
2018: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH
Alberto Bocchetta, Francesco Traccis
Background: Sardinia, the second largest Mediterranean island has long been considered a privileged observatory for the study of several medical conditions. The peculiar epidemiology of mood disorders and suicide across Sardinian sub-regions has long intrigued clinicians and researchers. Objective: The principal aim of the present study was to test whether the geographical distribution of suicides committed in Sardinian over the last three decades are comparable with the geographical origin of patients hospitalized up to half a century ago...
2017: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH
Nelson Mauro Maldonato, Raffaele Sperandeo, Silvia Dell'Orco, Pasquale Cozzolino, Maria Luigia Fusco, Vittoria Silviana Iorio, Daniela Albesi, Patrizia Marone, Nicole Nascivera, Pietro Cipresso
Background: Although different personality traits have often been associated with different levels of mental activity and cognitive functioning, no previous studies have evaluated the association in a sample that mirrors a nationally-representative sample of elderly individuals. Objective: To evaluate the association between personality traits and neurocognitive functioning among individuals 51 years and older using the Cognition and Aging in the USA (CogUSA) database...
2017: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH
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