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Globalization and Health

Alexandra Monkhouse, Leanne Sadler, Andrew Boyd, Fleur Kitsell
BACKGROUND: The importance of leadership development in the early stages of careers in the NHS has been highlighted in recent years and many programmes have been implemented which seek to develop leadership skills in healthcare professionals. The Improving Global Health (IGH) Fellowship scheme is one such programme, it provides a unique leadership development opportunity through an overseas placement with a focus on quality improvement work. This evaluation examines the impact of completing an IGH Fellowship on the career and leadership development of participants, who are referred to as Fellows...
July 17, 2018: Globalization and Health
Daniel Béland, Amy Zarzeczny
Although a growing body of literature has emerged to study medical tourism and address the policy challenges it creates for national health care systems, the comparative scholarship on the topic remains too limited in scope. In this article, we draw on the existing literature to discuss a comparative research agenda on medical tourism that stresses the multifaceted relationship between medical tourism and the institutional characteristics of national health care systems. On the one hand, we claim that such characteristics shape the demand for medical tourism in each country...
July 16, 2018: Globalization and Health
Yi-Hsuan Lee, Chia-Wen Lu, Pei-Zu Wu, Hsien-Liang Huang, Yi-Chun Wu, Kuo-Chin Huang
BACKGROUND: With globalization, more and more people travel to countries where they are at risk of injuries and travel-related diseases. To protect travelers' health, it is crucial to understand whether travelers accurately perceive medical assistance resources before and during their trips. This study investigated the need, awareness, and previous usage of overseas emergency medical assistance services (EMAS) among people traveling abroad. METHODS: Anonymous questionnaires were distributed to patients (n = 500) at a travel clinic in Taipei, Taiwan...
July 11, 2018: Globalization and Health
Joshua S Yang, Hadii M Mamudu, Rijo John
BACKGROUND: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) account for over two-thirds of deaths worldwide, and global efforts to address NCDs have accelerated. Current prevention and control efforts rely primarily on individual behavior/lifestyle approaches that place the onus of responsibility for health on the individual. These approaches, however, have not stopped the increasing trend of NCDs worldwide. Thus, there is urgent need for exploring alternative approaches in order to attain the aim of reducing global premature NCDs mortality by 25% by 2025, and meeting the NCD reduction objective in the Sustainable Development Goals...
July 6, 2018: Globalization and Health
Amir Sabet Sarvestani, Kathleen H Sienko
BACKGROUND: This study characterized the landscape of commercially available medical devices specifically designed for use in low-income countries (LICs). METHODS: A state-of-the-art review of peer-reviewed publications, patents, global health databases, and online resources was performed. The criteria established for a health technology's inclusion in the study were: it met the definition of a medical device; it was designed and developed to address one of the top ten causes of death in LICs, Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4, or MDG 5; and there was evidence of its commercialization...
July 4, 2018: Globalization and Health
Subash Thapa, Arja R Aro
BACKGROUND: Global spending for HIV prevention has been decreasing over the years. As a result, several low-income countries, including Nepal, are increasingly facing the challenge to minimize the funding gap to continue providing HIV prevention services to the people. In this paper, we have attempted to clarify why it is important to integrate community-based traditional and complementary healthcare systems and mobilize them into the mainstream HIV programs to ensure access to HIV prevention messages, HIV testing, and treatment in resource-limited settings...
July 4, 2018: Globalization and Health
Kiran Raj Pandey
With increasing adoption of universal health coverage (UHC), the health for all agenda is resurgent around the world. However, after a promising start the first time in 1978, the health for all agenda fizzled over the next decade. This commentary discusses the origin of the health for all agenda in the 1970s and the influence of global politico-economic forces in shaping that agenda, its demise and the resurgence in the form of UHC in the twenty-first century. We discuss UHC's focus on finances and the increasing role of market economy in health care, and the opportunities and risks UHC poses...
July 3, 2018: Globalization and Health
Jeremy Shiffman, Michael Kunnuji, Yusra Ribhi Shawar, Rachel Sullivan Robinson
BACKGROUND: Proponents have promoted sexuality education as a means of empowering adolescents, yet it has been thwarted in many low and middle-income countries. Nigeria represents an exception. Despite social opposition, the government in 1999 unexpectedly approved sexuality education policy. Since then, implementation has advanced, although efficacy has differed across states. We draw on theory concerning international norm diffusion to understand Nigerian policy development. RESULTS: We find that a confluence of international and national norms and interests shaped policy outcomes, including concern over HIV/AIDS...
July 3, 2018: Globalization and Health
Alexander Huepers, Henock B Taddese, Filippos T Filippidis
BACKGROUND: Development assistance from governments of high income countries represents the vast majority of international funding for global health. Recent stagnation of this important source of funding may affect attainment of major global health goals. The financial crisis is widely accredited as denting governments' outlay for development aid, as well as citizen's support for aid. Europe has also recently experienced record levels of migration; the so called 'European migration crisis'...
June 28, 2018: Globalization and Health
Barry Kistnasamy, Annalee Yassi, Jessica Yu, Samuel J Spiegel, Andre Fourie, Stephen Barker, Jerry M Spiegel
BACKGROUND: South Africa's mineral resources have produced, and continue to produce, enormous economic wealth; yet decades of colonialism, apartheid, capital flight, and challenges in the neoliberal post-apartheid era have resulted in high rates of occupational lung disease and low rates of compensation for ex-miners and their families. Given growing advocacy and activism of current and former mine workers, initiatives were launched by the South African government in 2012 to begin to address the legacy of injustice...
June 28, 2018: Globalization and Health
Anna D Gage, Hannah H Leslie, Asaf Bitton, J Gregory Jerome, Jean Paul Joseph, Roody Thermidor, Margaret E Kruk
BACKGROUND: Expanding coverage of primary healthcare services such as antenatal care and vaccinations is a global health priority; however, many Haitians do not utilize these services. One reason may be that the population avoids low quality health facilities. We examined how facility infrastructure and the quality of primary health care service delivery were associated with community utilization of primary health care services in Haiti. METHODS: We constructed two composite measures of quality for all Haitian facilities using the 2013 Service Provision Assessment survey...
June 20, 2018: Globalization and Health
Mariyam Suzana, Helen Walls, Richard Smith, Johanna Hanefeld
BACKGROUND: The resolution adopted in 2006 by the World Health Organization on international trade and health urges Member States to understand the implications of international trade and trade agreements for health and to address any challenges arising through policies and regulations. The government of Maldives is an importer of health services (with outgoing medical travelers), through offering a comprehensive universal health care package for its people that includes subsidized treatment abroad for services unavailable in the country...
June 19, 2018: Globalization and Health
Céline Ledoux, Eva Pilot, Esperanza Diaz, Thomas Krafft
BACKGROUND: The current migration flow into Europe is leading to a growing ethnically diverse population in many European countries. Now more than ever, those populations have different healthcare needs, languages, traditions, and previous level of care. This higher level of diversity is likely to increase health inequalities that might challenge healthcare systems if not addressed. In this context, this study aims at reviewing the policy framework for migrants' access to healthcare in Spain, Portugal and Ireland, countries with a long history of immigration, to identify lessons to be learned for policies on migrants' health...
June 15, 2018: Globalization and Health
Atem Bethel Ajong, Philip Nana Njotang, Ngholapeh Emmanuel Nghoniji, Marie José Essi, Martin Ndinakie Yakum, Valirie Ndip Agbor, Bruno Kenfack
BACKGROUND: The Human Immunodeficiency Virus /Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is not just a medical problem but its social impact is increasingly affecting its effective management. The fear of HIV-stigma constitutes a major barrier to HIV testing, prevention, uptake and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). We aimed to quantify HIV-related stigma, and identify the factors associated with high HIV-related stigma among persons living with HIV and AIDS (PLHIVA) and on ART...
June 5, 2018: Globalization and Health
M F Chersich, E Newbatt, K Ng'oma, I de Zoysa
BACKGROUND: Between 2011 and 2013, global and national guidelines for preventing mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV shifted to recommend Option B+, the provision of lifelong antiretroviral treatment for all HIV-infected pregnant women. METHODS: We aimed to analyse how Option B+ reached the policy agenda, and unpack the processes, actors and politics that explain its adoption, with a focus on examining UNICEF's contribution to these events. Analysis drew on published articles and other documentation, 30 key informants interviews with staff at UNICEF, partner organisations and government officials, and country case studies...
June 1, 2018: Globalization and Health
Tuhinur Rahman Chowdhury, Sayan Chakrabarty, Muntaha Rakib, Sue Saltmarsh, Kendrick A Davis
BACKGROUND: Underweight is a major cause of global disease burden. It is associated with child mortality and morbidity, and its adverse impact on human performance and child survival is well recognized. Underweight is a major public health problem in Bangladesh, which is amongst the highest underweight prevalent countries in the world. The objectives of our study were to determine the national and regional prevalence rates of underweight and severe underweight in Bangladesh, and to investigate the association of socioeconomic and demographic factors with child underweight and severely underweight among children under the age of five living in Bangladesh...
May 30, 2018: Globalization and Health
Krycia Cowling, Anne Marie Thow, Keshia Pollack Porter
BACKGROUND: A key mechanism through which globalization has impacted health is the liberalization of trade and investment, yet relatively few studies to date have used quantitative methods to investigate the impacts of global trade and investment policies on non-communicable diseases and risk factors. Recent reviews of this literature have found heterogeneity in results and a range of quality across studies, which may be in part attributable to a lack of conceptual clarity and methodological inconsistencies...
May 24, 2018: Globalization and Health
Ronald Labonté
Globalization is a fairly recent addition to the panoply of concepts describing the internationalization of health concerns. What distinguishes it from 'international health' or its newer morphing into 'global health' is a specific analytical concern with how globalization processes, past or present, but particularly since the start of our neoliberal era post-1980, is affecting health outcomes. Globalization processes influence health through multiple social pathways: from health systems and financing reforms to migration flows and internal displacement; via trade and investment treaties, labour market 'flexibilization', and the spread of unhealthy commodities; or through deploying human rights and environment protection treaties, and strengthening health diplomacy efforts, to create more equitable and sustainable global health outcomes...
May 18, 2018: Globalization and Health
Catherine Yuk-Ping Lo
BACKGROUND: China has experienced unprecedented economic growth since the 1980s. Despite this impressive economic development, this growth exists side by side with the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) crises and the persisting deficiencies in public health provision in China. Acknowledging the prevailing health problems, the Chinese government has encouraged the development of health non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to respond to the health challenges and address the gaps in public health provision of the government...
May 16, 2018: Globalization and Health
Vannarath Te, Nadia Floden, Sameera Hussain, Claire E Brolan, Peter S Hill
BACKGROUND: In 2012, the European Commission funded Go4Health-Goals and Governance for Global Health, a consortium of 13 academic research and human rights institutions from both Global North and South-to track the evolution of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and provide ongoing policy advice. This paper reviews the research outputs published between 2012 and 2016, analyzing the thematic content of the publications, and the influence on global health and development discourse through citation metrics...
May 16, 2018: Globalization and Health
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