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Globalization and Health

Wilma B Freire, William F Waters, Diana Román, Elisa Jiménez, Estefania Burgos, Philippe Belmont
BACKGROUND: In order to understand why rates of overweight and obesity are so high in the Ecuadorian province of Galapagos, this study analyzes changes in household food expenditures and perceptions and practices related to food consumption patterns. Galapagos is understood as an unusual but not unique case because conditions there graphically illustrate trends observed in communities and countries worldwide. A mixed methods approach was employed: a quantitative component was based on expenditures for foods classified according to the NOVA system, and a qualitative component utilized focus group discussions, key informant interviews, and structured observations...
September 12, 2018: Globalization and Health
Qiaolei Jiang, Chunjuan Luan
BACKGROUND: Despite the significant impact of pharmaceutical innovations on healthcare, our understanding is still limited because previous studies explored only a few cases and largely came from a linear perspective. This study presents a detailed case of the Chinese and U.S. pharmaceutical patents and investigated advancements that the global pharmaceutical industry is experiencing. A network analysis approach was used to identify certain aspects regarding the diffusion of pharmaceutical innovations, including innovation attributes, adopter characteristics, and clustering...
August 30, 2018: Globalization and Health
Valerie Percival, Esther Dusabe-Richards, Haja Wurie, Justine Namakula, Sarah Ssali, Sally Theobald
BACKGROUND: Global health policy prioritizes improving the health of women and girls, as evident in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), multiple women's health initiatives, and the billions of dollars spent by international donors and national governments to improve health service delivery in low-income countries. Countries recovering from fragility and conflict often engage in wide-ranging institutional reforms, including within the health system, to address inequities. Research and policy do not sufficiently explore how health system interventions contribute to the broader goal of gender equity...
August 30, 2018: Globalization and Health
Jeremaia Coriakula, Marj Moodie, Gade Waqa, Catherine Latu, Wendy Snowdon, Colin Bell
BACKGROUND: Non communicable diseases (NCD) place a significant health burden on Pacific Island countries including Fiji. Policy interventions to curb NCDs have been implemented in Fiji including a 32% increase in the import duty on palm oil. This study aims to analyse the development and implementation of the increase in palm oil import duty in Fiji. Also, to document the policy process, identify barriers and facilitators during implementation and to examine the impact of the new import duty on import volumes...
August 29, 2018: Globalization and Health
Armando Arredondo, Alejandra Azar, Ana Lucia Recaman
BACKGROUND: Despite more than 20 years of reform projects in health systems, the universal coverage strategy has not reached the expected results in most middle-income countries (MICs). Using evidence from the Mexican case on diabetes and hypertension as tracers of non-communicable diseases, the effective coverage rate barely surpasses half of the expected goals necessary to meet the challenges that these two diseases represent at the population level. Prevalence and incidence rates do not diminish either; they even grow...
August 24, 2018: Globalization and Health
Jasmina Saric, Jürg Utzinger, Bassirou Bonfoh
BACKGROUND: The research productivity of countries commonly grouped within sub-Saharan Africa is as diverse as their cultural, economic, linguistic, political, and social profiles. While South Africa has been the science hub on the subcontinent for decades, publishing original research articles in the thousands, Mauritania struggles to have a single publication in international indexed journals in any given year. Detailed country-specific accounts on the co-evolution of research productivity and demographic and economic indicators from sub-Saharan Africa are lacking and render an accurate evaluation and cross-country comparison of internal research progress challenging...
August 23, 2018: Globalization and Health
Yuri Lee
BACKGROUND: With the increasing burden of tuberculosis (TB) in the Philippines, and the risk of multidrug resistance to TB, there is a need to strengthen the surveillance system. In many countries, cases of TB are reported to health authorities, and reporting is an effective way to manage TB. Although TB is a universal and representative reportable disease, the Philippines does not designate it as a notifiable disease. MAIN TEXT: This study aimed to review and compare current communicable disease-related laws and regulations in the Philippines with relevant international laws and regulations in other countries, to highlight where current TB notification regulations require change, or to determine whether they reflect global trends...
August 22, 2018: Globalization and Health
Sally Souraya, Charlotte Hanlon, Laura Asher
BACKGROUND: The involvement of people with psychosocial disabilities in decision-making is a fundamental component of a person-centred and recovery-oriented model of care, but there has been little investigation of this approach in low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to explore the involvement of people with schizophrenia in decision-making relating to their care in rural Ethiopia. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted in rural Ethiopia as part of the Rehabilitation Intervention for people with Schizophrenia in Ethiopia (RISE) project, involving two focus group discussions (n = 10) with community-based rehabilitation workers, and 18 in-depth interviews with people with schizophrenia, caregivers, health officers, supervisors and a community-based rehabilitation worker...
August 22, 2018: Globalization and Health
Mary Wiktorowicz, Kathy Moscou, Joel Lexchin
BACKGROUND: As a transnational policy network, the International Council for Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) aligns international regulatory standards to address the pressures of globalization on the pharmaceutical industry and increase access to new medicines. Founding ICH members include regulators and pharmaceutical industry trade associations in the European Union, the United States and Japan. In this paper we explore the manner in which state interdependence fosters the conditions for regulatory harmonization by tracing the underlying parallels between ICH and member state pharmacogovernance to clarify emergent patterns in regulatory policy convergence...
August 22, 2018: Globalization and Health
Simón Barquera, Dean Schillinger, Carlos A Aguilar-Salinas, Marc Schenker, Luis A Rodríguez, Cesar Hernández-Alcaraz, Jaime Sepúlveda-Amor
BACKGROUND: Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is now a massive epidemic in both California and Mexico, with serious consequences for social and economic well-being. A large proportion of these populations share common ethnic backgrounds. Yet diverse environmental and social conditions across regions create unique opportunities to explore the ways that T2D risk, incidence, management and outcomes manifest. MAIN TEXT: An action-oriented research consortium headed up by the University of California and Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico was constituted to set priorities for bi-national translational research, in an attempt to implement and evaluate clinical, public health and policy actions to decrease the burden of T2D for people of Mexican origin...
August 22, 2018: Globalization and Health
Beniamino Cislaghi, Lori Heise
BACKGROUND: Recently, Global Health practitioners, scholars, and donors have expressed increased interest in "changing social norms" as a strategy to promote health and well-being in low and mid-income countries (LMIC). Despite this burgeoning interest, the ability of practitioners to use social norm theory to inform health interventions varies widely. MAIN BODY: Here, we identify eight pitfalls that practitioners must avoid as they plan to integrate a social norms perspective in their interventions, as well as eight learnings...
August 17, 2018: Globalization and Health
Julius T Kamwesiga, Gunilla M Eriksson, Kerstin Tham, Uno Fors, Ali Ndiwalana, Lena von Koch, Susanne Guidetti
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of evidence-based health services to reduce the impact of stroke in low-income countries at a personal, family or community level. The aim was to evaluate the feasibility of: i) a mobile phone supported family-centred intervention (F@ce™), and ii) the study design for evaluating the effects of the intervention on the perceived impact of stroke; perceived participation in everyday life; and self-efficacy in everyday activities amongst persons with stroke and their families in Uganda...
August 15, 2018: Globalization and Health
Akhenaten Benjamin Siankam Tankwanchi
BACKGROUND: The Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) identifies the maldistribution of power, money, and resources as main drivers of health inequities. The CSDH further observes that tackling these drivers effectively requires interventions to focus at local, national, and global levels. Consistent with the CSDH's observation, this paper describes the eco-psychopolitical validity (EPV) paradigm, a multilevel and transdisciplinary model for research and action, thus far insufficiently tapped, but with the potential to systematize the exploration of the social determinants of health...
August 9, 2018: Globalization and Health
Daniel Gilfillan
BACKGROUND: The role played by regional organisations in climate change adaptation and health is growing in Southeast Asia, with the Asian Development Bank and the Asia-Pacific Regional Forum on Health and Environment both supporting health and adaptation initiatives. There is, however, a lack of empirical research on the value that regional organisations add to national health-related adaptation. This qualitative research compares regional project and governance-based models of adaptation and health support in Southeast Asia, providing an analysis of strengths and weaknesses of each, as well as possibilities for improvement...
August 3, 2018: Globalization and Health
Benjamin Hawkins, Chris Holden
BACKGROUND: Article 5.3 of the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) requires Parties to the agreement to take proactive measures to protect health policy from the vested interests of the tobacco industry. Parties to the FCTC are required to submit periodic reports to the Convention Secretariat on the efforts undertaken to implement it. Previous analyses of national compliance with the FCTC suggest that Article 5.3 implementation is piecemeal and insufficient in many contexts, with governments relying on general transparency and other existing policies for the purpose of Article 5...
August 2, 2018: Globalization and Health
Barry Kistnasamy, Annalee Yassi, Jessica Yu, Samuel Spiegel, Andre Fourie, Stephen Barker, Jerry M Spiegel
Following publication of the original article [1], the author has request the addition of 'Deputy' to endnote number 1 (addition highlighted in bold).
August 1, 2018: Globalization and Health
Terra Morel, Dermot Maher, Thomas Nyirenda, Ole F Olesen
BACKGROUND: The objective was to guide key stakeholders on future directions of external funding of international postgraduate training (Master's and PhD) of health research students at institutions in sub-Saharan Africa by mapping the numbers and characteristics of students, the location of institutions, and sources of external support. A cross-sectional survey of eligible external funding organizations and programmes was conducted in 2017. Information was gathered from funders' websites or through the assistance of institutional contacts...
July 31, 2018: Globalization and Health
Ann Kim Novakowski, Pat Garcia-Gonzalez, Michael Wrigglesworth, Andy Stergachis
BACKGROUND: Cancer is a major burden of disease in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) yet financial barriers limit access to life-saving oncology drugs. Medical donation and other drug access programs can help improve patient access to essential medicines, such as quality assured oncology drugs in LMICs. However, there are no published examples of the conduct of pharmacovigilance with donated medical products intended for use in LMICs where pharmacovigilance is weak. We describe a partnership between a pharmaceutical company and a non-governmental organization as a case example that addresses the challenges in performing pharmacovigilance with donated medicines in LMICs...
July 27, 2018: Globalization and Health
Aaron M Wendelboe, Micah McCumber, Julie Erb-Alvarez, Nicholas Mould, Richard W Childs, James L Regens
BACKGROUND: Pandemics pose significant security/stability risks to nations with fragile infrastructures. We evaluated characteristics of the 2014 West African Ebola outbreak to elucidate lessons learned for managing transnational public health security threats. METHODS: We used publically available data to compare demographic and outbreak-specific data for Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia, including key indicator data by the World Health Organization. Pearson correlation statistics were calculated to compare country-level infrastructure characteristics with outbreak size and duration...
July 27, 2018: Globalization and Health
Neil Spicer, Yashua Alkali Hamza, Della Berhanu, Meenakshi Gautham, Joanna Schellenberg, Feker Tadesse, Nasir Umar, Deepthi Wickremasinghe
BACKGROUND: Donors often fund projects that develop innovative practices in low and middle-income countries, hoping recipient governments will adopt and scale them within existing systems and programmes. Such innovations frequently end when project funding ends, limiting longer term potential in countries with weak health systems and pressing health needs. This paper aims to identify critical actions for externally funded project implementers to enable scale-up of maternal and newborn child health innovations originally funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation ('the foundation'), or influenced by innovations that were originally funded by the foundation in three low-income settings: Ethiopia, the state of Uttar Pradesh in India and northeast Nigeria...
July 27, 2018: Globalization and Health
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