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Globalization and Health

Shoaib Fahad Hussain, Peter Boyle, Preeti Patel, Richard Sullivan
Since the launch of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) in 1988 the global incidence of poliomyelitis has fallen by nearly 99 %. From a situation where wild type poliovirus was endemic in 125 countries across five continents, transmission is now limited to regions of just three countries - Pakistan, Afghanistan and Nigeria. A sharp increase in Pakistan's poliomyelitis cases in 2014 prompted the International Health Regulations Emergency Committee to declare the situation a 'public health emergency of international concern'...
October 12, 2016: Globalization and Health
Vivian Tam, Jennifer S Edge, Steven J Hoffman
BACKGROUND: Shortages of health workers in low-income countries are exacerbated by the international migration of health workers to more affluent countries. This problem is compounded by the active recruitment of health workers by destination countries, particularly Australia, Canada, UK and USA. The World Health Organization (WHO) adopted a voluntary Code of Practice in May 2010 to mitigate tensions between health workers' right to migrate and the shortage of health workers in source countries...
October 12, 2016: Globalization and Health
Christine L Gray, Brian W Pence, Lynne C Messer, Jan Ostermann, Rachel A Whetten, Nathan M Thielman, Karen O'Donnell, Kathryn Whetten
BACKGROUND: Communities and nations seeking to foster social responsibility in their youth are interested in understanding factors that predict and promote youth involvement in public activities. Orphans and separated children (OSC) are a vulnerable population whose numbers are increasing, particularly in resource-poor settings. Understanding whether and how OSC are engaged in civic activities is important for community and world leaders who need to provide care for OSC and ensure their involvement in sustainable development...
October 11, 2016: Globalization and Health
Mark Tambe Keboa, Natalie Hiles, Mary Ellen Macdonald
INTRODUCTION: Improving the oral health of refugees and asylum seekers is a global priority, yet little is known about the overall burden of oral diseases and their causes for this population. OBJECTIVE: To synthesize available evidence on the oral health of, and access to oral health care by this population. METHODS: Using a scoping review methodology, we retrieved 3321 records from eight databases and grey literature; 44 publications met the following inclusion criteria: empirical research focused on refugees and/or asylum seekers' oral health, published between 1990 and 2014 in English, French, Italian, Portuguese, or Spanish...
October 7, 2016: Globalization and Health
Jeremy Snyder, Valorie A Crooks, Rory Johnston, Alejandro Cerón, Ronald Labonte
BACKGROUND: Medical tourism has attracted considerable interest within the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) region. Governments in the region tout the economic potential of treating foreign patients while several new private hospitals primarily target international patients. This analysis explores the perspectives of a range of medical tourism sector stakeholders in two LAC countries, Guatemala and Barbados, which are beginning to develop their medical tourism sectors. These perspectives provide insights into how beliefs about international patients are shaping the expanding regional interest in medical tourism...
October 7, 2016: Globalization and Health
Ramadhani A Noor, Pascal Geldsetzer, Till Bärnighausen, Wafaie Fawzi
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization's (WHO) antiretroviral therapy (ART) guidelines have generally been adopted rapidly and with high fidelity by countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Thus far, however, WHO has not published specific guidance on nutritional care and support for (non-pregnant) adults living with HIV despite a solid evidence base for some interventions. This offers an opportunity for a case study on whether national clinical guidelines in sub-Saharan Africa provide concrete recommendations in the face of limited guidance by WHO...
October 6, 2016: Globalization and Health
Vincent Israel Opoku Agyapong, Conor Farren, Eilish McAuliffe
BACKGROUND: The scarcity of mental health professionals places specialist psychiatric care out of the reach of most people in low and middle income countries. There is growing interest in the effectiveness of task shifting as a strategy for targeting expanding health care demands in settings with shortages of qualified health personnel. Given this background, the aim of our study was to examine the perceptions of psychiatrists and health policy directors about the policy to expand mental health care delivery in Ghana through a system of task-shifting from psychiatrists to community mental health workers (CMHWs)...
October 1, 2016: Globalization and Health
John Quinn, Vít Lidinský, Venu Rajaratnam, Marta Kruszcynski, Tomas Zeleny, Vladimir Bencko
BACKGROUND: Some university curricula struggle to present evidence-based promotion of global health principles and global health diplomacy within an undergraduate setting. The de facto global health paradigm has experienced significant stress and pressure from epidemics, war and violence, climate change and resource challenges. These stressors may lead to increased morbidity and mortality, in turn requiring medical professionals to play a larger role in global health action across borders...
2016: Globalization and Health
Kelley Lee, Natalia Carrillo Botero, Thomas Novotny
BACKGROUND: Deforestation due to tobacco farming began to raise concerns in the mid 1970s. Over the next 40 years, tobacco growing increased significantly and shifted markedly to low- and middle-income countries. The percentage of deforestation caused by tobacco farming reached 4 % globally by the early 2000s, although substantially higher in countries such as China (18 %), Zimbabwe (20 %), Malawi (26 %) and Bangladesh (>30 %). Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) have argued that tobacco-attributable deforestation is not a serious problem, and that the industry has addressed the issue through corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives...
2016: Globalization and Health
Alexandra Greenberg, Rachel Kiddell-Monroe
In recent years, the world has witnessed the tragic outcomes of multiple global health crises. From Ebola to high prices to antibiotic resistance, these events highlight the fundamental constraints of the current biomedical research and development (R&D) system in responding to patient needs globally.To mitigate this lack of responsiveness, over 100 self-identified "alternative" R&D initiatives, have emerged in the past 15 years. To begin to make sense of this panoply of initiatives working to overcome the constraints of the current system, UAEM began an extensive, though not comprehensive, mapping of the alternative biomedical R&D landscape...
2016: Globalization and Health
Jolie Kaner, Sarah Schaack
Near the end of 2013, an outbreak of Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) began in Guinea, subsequently spreading to neighboring Liberia and Sierra Leone. As this epidemic grew, important public health questions emerged about how and why this outbreak was so different from previous episodes. This review provides a synthetic synopsis of the 2014-15 outbreak, with the aim of understanding its unprecedented spread. We present a summary of the history of previous epidemics, describe the structure and genetics of the ebolavirus, and review our current understanding of viral vectors and the latest treatment practices...
2016: Globalization and Health
Matthew Chersich, Duane Blaauw, Mari Dumbaugh, Loveday Penn-Kekana, Siphiwe Thwala, Leon Bijlmakers, Emily Vargas, Elinor Kern, Josephine Kavanagh, Ashar Dhana, Francisco Becerra-Posada, Langelihle Mlotshwa, Victor Becerril-Montekio, Priya Mannava, Stanley Luchters, Minh Duc Pham, Anayda Gerarda Portela, Helen Rees
BACKGROUND: Progress in achieving maternal health goals and the rates of reductions in deaths from individual conditions have varied over time and across countries. Assessing whether research priorities in maternal health align with the main causes of mortality, and those factors responsible for inequitable health outcomes, such as health system performance, may help direct future research. The study thus investigated whether the research done in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) matched the principal causes of maternal deaths in these settings...
2016: Globalization and Health
Matthew Chersich, Victor Becerril-Montekio, Francisco Becerra-Posada, Mari Dumbaugh, Josephine Kavanagh, Duane Blaauw, Siphiwe Thwala, Elinor Kern, Loveday Penn-Kekana, Emily Vargas, Langelihle Mlotshwa, Ashar Dhana, Priya Mannava, Anayda Portela, Mario Tristan, Helen Rees, Leon Bijlmakers
BACKGROUND: Mapping studies describe a broad body of literature, and differ from classical systematic reviews, which assess more narrowly-defined questions and evaluate the quality of the studies included in the review. While the steps involved in mapping studies have been described previously, a detailed qualitative account of the methodology could inform the design of future mapping studies. OBJECTIVES: Describe the perspectives of a large research team on the methods used and collaborative experiences in a study that mapped the literature published on maternal health interventions in low- and middle-income countries (2292 full text articles included, after screening 35,048 titles and abstracts in duplicate)...
2016: Globalization and Health
Karla Hernandez-Villafuerte, Ryan Li, Karen J Hofman
BACKGROUND: Collaboration between Sub-Saharan African researchers is important for the generation and transfer of health technology assessment (HTA) evidence, in order to support priority-setting in health. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate collaboration patterns between countries. METHODS: We conducted a rapid evidence assessment that included a random sample of health economic evaluations carried out in 20 countries (Angola, Botswana, Congo, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Ethiopia, Uganda)...
2016: Globalization and Health
Ciara Close, Anne Kouvonen, Tania Bosqui, Kishan Patel, Dermot O'Reilly, Michael Donnelly
BACKGROUND: First generation migrants are reportedly at higher risk of mental ill-health compared to the settled population. This paper systematically reviews and synthesizes all reviews on the mental health of first generation migrants in order to appraise the risk factors for, and explain differences in, the mental health of this population. METHODS: Scientific databases were searched for systematic reviews (inception-November 2015) which provided quantitative data on the mental ill-health of first generation migrants and associated risk factors...
2016: Globalization and Health
Stefania Toselli, Natascia Rinaldo, Emanuela Gualdi-Russo
Nutritional disorders are now spreading worldwide both in developed and developing countries. Body image ideals and dissatisfaction have been linked to a number of poor health outcomes, including nutritional disorders. While previous studies have offered insight into weight status and body image perception of immigrants in North America, very few studies have analysed these aspects in migrants from Africa to Europe. Our review examines the effects of the migration process on beauty ideals and body dissatisfaction in African immigrants in Europe compared to residents in their own countries...
2016: Globalization and Health
Joanne McVeigh, Malcolm MacLachlan, Brynne Gilmore, Chiedza McClean, Arne H Eide, Hasheem Mannan, Priscille Geiser, Antony Duttine, Gubela Mji, Eilish McAuliffe, Beth Sprunt, Mutamad Amin, Charles Normand
BACKGROUND: Good governance may result in strengthened performance of a health system. Coherent policies are essential for good health system governance. The overall aim of this research is to provide the best available scientific evidence on principles of good policy related leadership and governance of health related rehabilitation services in less resourced settings. This research was also conducted to support development of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Guidelines on health related rehabilitation...
2016: Globalization and Health
José M Merigó, Alicia Núñez
BACKGROUND: There is a wide range of intellectual work written about health research, which has been shaped by the evolution of diseases. This study aims to identify the leading journals over the last 25 years (1990-2014) according to a wide range of bibliometric indicators. METHODS: The study develops a bibliometric overview of all the journals that are currently indexed in Web of Science (WoS) database in any of the four categories connected to health research...
2016: Globalization and Health
Kenneth Gustavsen, Yao Sodahlon, Simon Bush
Diseases don't respect borders, so efforts to control and eliminate diseases must also be flexible and adaptable enough to effectively reach the populations that live in the areas around national frontiers. Onchocerciasis, commonly known as river blindness is a tropical disease that has historically affected millions of people in 35 countries in Africa and Latin America. In Africa, programs and partnerships to address river blindness through mass drug administration have been active for more than 25 years...
2016: Globalization and Health
Paul H Caldron, Ann Impens, Milena Pavlova, Wim Groot
BACKGROUND: Short term medical missions (STMMs) are a form of unregulated and unsanctioned, grass roots, direct medical service aid from wealthier countries to low and middle income countries. The US leads the world in STMM activity. The magnitude of monetary and man power inputs towards STMMs is not clear. The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence of physician participation in STMMs from the US and the related expenditures of cash and resources. METHODS: An online survey solicited information on physician participation in STMMs...
2016: Globalization and Health
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