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Globalization and Health

Jorge Ramírez, Leonel Valdivia, Elena Rivera, Marilia da Silva Santos, Dino Sepúlveda, Ronald Labonté, Arne Ruckert
BACKGROUND: Global health diplomacy (GHD) has become an important field of investigation due to health concerns increasingly entering the foreign policy domain. Much of the existing academic writing focuses on North-South cooperation in global health, and emphasizes the role of security and economic interests by Northern countries as drivers of GHD. Chile presents a favourable environment for an expanded involvement in future GHD activities. However, there is little knowledge about what has been driving Chile's integration of health into foreign policy, and little effort to appropriate knowledge from international relations theories to better theoretically grasp the emergence of GHD...
November 16, 2018: Globalization and Health
H Hilda Ampadu, Jarno Hoekman, Daniel Arhinful, Marilyn Amoama-Dapaah, Hubert G M Leufkens, Alex N O Dodoo
BACKGROUND: National pharmacovigilance centres (national centres) are gradually gaining visibility as part of the healthcare delivery system in Africa. As does happen in high-income countries, it is assumed that national centres can play a central coordinating role in their national pharmacovigilance (PV) systems. However, there are no studies that have investigated whether national centres in Africa have sufficient organizational capacity to deliver on this mandate and previous studies have reported challenges such as lack of funding, political will and adequate human resources...
November 16, 2018: Globalization and Health
Abraham Assan, Amirhossein Takian, Moses Aikins, Ali Akbarisari
The 9th Global conference on health promotion (Shanghai 2016) reaffirmed the role of primary health care (PHC) in achieving the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda. Gaining much international recognition, the community-based health planning and services (CHPS) initiative is considered one of the pragmatic strategy in delivering on the promise of universal health coverage (UHC) through the PHC strategy, in Ghana. Yet, certain key factors threaten its successes - renewing the relevance of this study to present the barriers to and facilitators of the initiative...
November 9, 2018: Globalization and Health
Waleed M Sweileh
BACKGROUND: Human trafficking is a crime against humanity. It is also a serious threat to global health and security. Globalization has made human trafficking an easier task for the criminal organizations. No data are available on the volume, research trends, and key players in this field. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the research activity and research trends on human trafficking. METHODS: A bibliometric method was adopted. Literature published in academic journals indexed in Scopus database was retrieved...
November 8, 2018: Globalization and Health
Waleed M Sweileh
BACKGROUND: Approximately 150 million international migrant workers work under conditions that increase their risk of illness and injuries. The current study aimed to assess and analyze the global output of research on the health of international migrant workers to promote national and international policies that could help improve the health of international migrant workers. METHODS: A bibliometric methodology was implemented using Scopus database after retrieving documents relevant to the health of migrant workers during the study period from 2000 to 2017...
November 8, 2018: Globalization and Health
Chigozie Jesse Uneke, Issiaka Sombie, Henry Chukwuemeka Uro-Chukwu, Ermel Johnson
BACKGROUND: United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) designed EQUitable Impact Sensitive Tool (EQUIST) to enable global health community address the issue of equity in maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH) and minimize health disparities between the most marginalized population and the better-off. The purpose of this study was to use EQUIST to provide reliable evidence, based on demographic health surveys (DHS) on cost-effectiveness and equitable impact of interventions that can be implemented to improve MNCH outcomes in Benin, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Mali, Nigeria and Senegal...
November 6, 2018: Globalization and Health
Alain B Labrique, Christina Wadhwani, Koku Awoonor Williams, Peter Lamptey, Cees Hesp, Rowena Luk, Ann Aerts
Healthcare challenges in low and middle income countries (LMICs) have been the focus of many digital initiatives that have aimed to improve both access to healthcare and the quality of healthcare delivery. Moving beyond the initial phase of piloting and experimentation, these initiatives are now more clearly focused on the need for effective scaling and integration to provide sustainable benefit to healthcare systems.Based on real-life case studies of scaling digital health in LMICs, five key focus areas have been identified as being critical for success...
November 3, 2018: Globalization and Health
Lukas Roth, Daniel Bempong, Joseph B Babigumira, Shabir Banoo, Emer Cooke, David Jeffreys, Lombe Kasonde, Hubert G M Leufkens, John C W Lim, Murray Lumpkin, Gugu Mahlangu, Rosanna W Peeling, Helen Rees, Margareth Ndomondo-Sigonda, Andy Stergachis, Mike Ward, Jude Nwokike
Access to quality-assured medical products improves health and save lives. However, one third of the world's population lacks timely access to quality-assured medicines while estimates indicate that at least 10% of medicine in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are substandard or falsified (SF), costing approximately US$ 31 billion annually. National regulatory authorities are the key government institutions that promote access to quality-assured medicines and combat SF medical products but despite progress, regulatory capacity in LMICs is still insufficient...
November 1, 2018: Globalization and Health
Kyung-Bok Son, Ruth Lopert, Deborah Gleeson, Tae-Jin Lee
BACKGROUND: The inclusion of patent linkage mechanisms in bilateral and plurilateral trade and investment agreements has emerged as a key element in the United States' TRIPS-Plus intellectual property (IP) negotiating agenda. However, the provisions establishing patent linkage mechanisms in several agreements appear to reflect a degree of ambiguity, potentially enabling some flexibility in their implementation. In this study, we reviewed the features of the prototypic patent linkage mechanism established by the Hatch-Waxman Act in the United States, and compared these with the implementation of systems in three countries whose agreements with the US include patent linkage obligations...
October 24, 2018: Globalization and Health
Maru Mormina, Sophie Pinder
BACKGROUND: Global health partnerships (GHP) between high or low-middle income countries are considered one of the best approaches to health systems strengthening. They typically involve highly skilled healthcare workers who volunteer to deliver capacity strengthening projects overseas, often in the form of peer-to-peer support through training and mentoring. Given GHP's strong focus on education and training, a common assumption is that training of trainers (ToT) is a strong predictor of sustainability because of its potential for up-skilling the workforce rapidly, cheaply and exponentially by developing local educators...
October 22, 2018: Globalization and Health
Maria Paola Bertone, Haja Wurie, Mohamed Samai, Sophie Witter
BACKGROUND: As performance-based financing (PBF) has been increasingly implemented in low-income countries, a growing literature has developed, assessing its effectiveness and, more recently, focussing on the political dynamics of PBF introduction and implementation. This study contributes to the latter body of literature by exploring decision-making processes on PBF in Sierra Leone during the 2010-2017 period. Sierra Leone presents an interesting case because of the 'start-stop-start' trajectory of PBF...
October 20, 2018: Globalization and Health
Angela E Micah, Bianca S Zlavog, Catherine S Chen, Abigail Chapin, Joseph L Dieleman
BACKGROUND: Skilled health professionals are a critical component of the effective delivery of lifesaving health interventions. The inadequate number of skilled health professionals in many low- and middle-income countries has been identified as a constraint to the achievement of improvements in health outcomes. In response, more international development agencies have provided funds toward broader health system initiatives and health workforce activities in particular. Nonetheless, estimates of the amount of donor funding targeting investments in human resources for health activities are few...
October 17, 2018: Globalization and Health
Charbel El Bcheraoui, Aruna M Kamath, Emily Dansereau, Erin B Palmisano, Alexandra Schaefer, Bernardo Hernandez, Ali H Mokdad
BACKGROUND: The Salud Mesoamérica Initiative is a public-private partnership aimed at reducing maternal and child morbidity and mortality for the poorest populations in Central America and the southernmost state of Mexico. Currently at the midpoint of implementation and with external funding expected to phase out by 2020, SMI's sustainability warrants evaluation. In this study, we examine if the major SMI components fit into the Dynamic Sustainability Framework to predict whether SMI benefits could be sustainable beyond the external funding and to identify threats to sustainability...
October 16, 2018: Globalization and Health
Dimitrios Skempes, John Melvin, Per von Groote, Gerold Stucki, Jerome Bickenbach
BACKGROUND: Rehabilitation is crucial for the realization of the right to health and a proper concern of global health. Yet, reliable information to guide rehabilitation service planning is unavailable in many countries in part due to the lack of appropriate indicators. To ensure universal health coverage and meet the central imperative of "leaving no one behind" countries must be able to assess key aspects of rehabilitation policy and provision and monitor how they have discharged their human rights responsibilities towards those most disadvantaged, including people with disability...
October 1, 2018: Globalization and Health
Shuang Lin, Liangmin Gao, Melissa Reyes, Feng Cheng, Joan Kaufman, Wafaa M El-Sadr
Please note that following publication of the original article [1], one of the authors has flagged that the abbreviations section lists "BRIC" as "Britain, Russia, India and China".
October 1, 2018: Globalization and Health
Marco Liverani, Srey Teng, Minh Sat Le, Richard Coker
BACKGROUND: The importance of data and information sharing for the prevention and control of infectious diseases has long been recognised. In recent years, public health emergencies such as avian influenza, drug-resistant malaria, and Ebola have brought renewed attention to the need for effective communication channels between health authorities, particularly in regional contexts where neighbouring countries share common health threats. However, little empirical research has been conducted to date to explore the range of factors that may affect the transfer, exchange, and use of public health data and expertise across borders, especially in developing contexts...
September 29, 2018: Globalization and Health
Wilma B Freire, William F Waters, Diana Román, Elisa Jiménez, Estefania Burgos, Philippe Belmont
BACKGROUND: In order to understand why rates of overweight and obesity are so high in the Ecuadorian province of Galapagos, this study analyzes changes in household food expenditures and perceptions and practices related to food consumption patterns. Galapagos is understood as an unusual but not unique case because conditions there graphically illustrate trends observed in communities and countries worldwide. A mixed methods approach was employed: a quantitative component was based on expenditures for foods classified according to the NOVA system, and a qualitative component utilized focus group discussions, key informant interviews, and structured observations...
September 12, 2018: Globalization and Health
Qiaolei Jiang, Chunjuan Luan
BACKGROUND: Despite the significant impact of pharmaceutical innovations on healthcare, our understanding is still limited because previous studies explored only a few cases and largely came from a linear perspective. This study presents a detailed case of the Chinese and U.S. pharmaceutical patents and investigated advancements that the global pharmaceutical industry is experiencing. A network analysis approach was used to identify certain aspects regarding the diffusion of pharmaceutical innovations, including innovation attributes, adopter characteristics, and clustering...
August 30, 2018: Globalization and Health
Valerie Percival, Esther Dusabe-Richards, Haja Wurie, Justine Namakula, Sarah Ssali, Sally Theobald
BACKGROUND: Global health policy prioritizes improving the health of women and girls, as evident in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), multiple women's health initiatives, and the billions of dollars spent by international donors and national governments to improve health service delivery in low-income countries. Countries recovering from fragility and conflict often engage in wide-ranging institutional reforms, including within the health system, to address inequities. Research and policy do not sufficiently explore how health system interventions contribute to the broader goal of gender equity...
August 30, 2018: Globalization and Health
Jeremaia Coriakula, Marj Moodie, Gade Waqa, Catherine Latu, Wendy Snowdon, Colin Bell
BACKGROUND: Non communicable diseases (NCD) place a significant health burden on Pacific Island countries including Fiji. Policy interventions to curb NCDs have been implemented in Fiji including a 32% increase in the import duty on palm oil. This study aims to analyse the development and implementation of the increase in palm oil import duty in Fiji. Also, to document the policy process, identify barriers and facilitators during implementation and to examine the impact of the new import duty on import volumes...
August 29, 2018: Globalization and Health
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