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Proceedings. Biological Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515207/early-social-learning-triggers-neurogenomic-expression-changes-in-a-swordtail-fish
#1
Rongfeng Cui, Pablo J Delclos, Molly Schumer, Gil G Rosenthal
Mate choice can play a pivotal role in the nature and extent of reproductive isolation between species. Mating preferences are often dependent on an individual's social experience with adult phenotypes throughout development. We show that olfactory preference in a swordtail fish (Xiphophorus malinche) is affected by previous experience with adult olfactory signals. We compare transcriptome-wide gene expression levels of pooled sensory and brain tissues between three treatment groups that differ by social experience: females with no adult exposure, females exposed to conspecifics and females exposed to heterospecifics...
May 17, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515206/widespread-ecomorphological-convergence-in-multiple-fish-families-spanning-the-marine-freshwater-interface
#2
Aaron M Davis, Ricardo Betancur-R
The theoretical definition and quantification of convergence is an increasingly topical focus in evolutionary research, with particular growing interest on study scales spanning deep phylogenetic divergences and broad geographical areas. While much progress has recently been made in understanding the role of convergence in driving terrestrial (e.g. anole lizards) and aquatic (e.g. cichlids) radiations, little is known about its macroevolutionary effects across environmental gradients. This study uses a suite of recently developed comparative approaches integrating diverse aspects of morphology, dietary data, habitat affiliation and phylogeny to assess convergence across several well-known tropical-temperate fish families in the percomorph suborder Terapontoidei, a clade with considerable phenotypic and ecological diversity radiating in both marine and freshwater environments...
May 17, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515205/family-network-size-and-survival-across-the-lifespan-of-female-macaques
#3
L J N Brent, A Ruiz-Lambides, M L Platt
Two decades of research suggest social relationships have a common evolutionary basis in humans and other gregarious mammals. Critical to the support of this idea is growing evidence that mortality is influenced by social integration, but when these effects emerge and how long they last is mostly unknown. Here, we report in adult female macaques that the impact of number of close adult female relatives, a proxy for social integration, on survival is not experienced uniformly across the life course; prime-aged females with a greater number of relatives had better survival outcomes compared with prime-aged females with fewer relatives, whereas no such effect was found in older females...
May 17, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515204/a-genetic-legacy-of-introgression-confounds-phylogeny-and-biogeography-in-oaks
#4
John D McVay, Andrew L Hipp, Paul S Manos
Oaks (Quercus L.) have long been suspected to hybridize in nature, and widespread genetic exchange between morphologically defined species is well documented in two- to six-species systems, but the phylogenetic consequences of hybridization in oaks have never been demonstrated in a phylogenetically diverse sample. Here, we present phylogenomic analyses of a ca 30 Myr clade that strongly support morphologically defined species and the resolution of novel clades of white oaks; however, historical hybridization across clade boundaries is detectable and, undiagnosed, would obscure the imprint of biogeographic history in the phylogeny...
May 17, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515203/wild-birds-respond-to-flockmate-loss-by-increasing-their-social-network-associations-to-others
#5
Josh A Firth, Bernhard Voelkl, Ross A Crates, Lucy M Aplin, Dora Biro, Darren P Croft, Ben C Sheldon
Understanding the consequences of losing individuals from wild populations is a current and pressing issue, yet how such loss influences the social behaviour of the remaining animals is largely unexplored. Through combining the automated tracking of winter flocks of over 500 wild great tits (Parus major) with removal experiments, we assessed how individuals' social network positions responded to the loss of their social associates. We found that the extent of flockmate loss that individuals experienced correlated positively with subsequent increases in the number of their social associations, the average strength of their bonds and their overall connectedness within the social network (defined as summed edge weights)...
May 17, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515202/does-coevolution-with-a-shared-parasite-drive-hosts-to-partition-their-defences-among-species
#6
Eleanor M Caves, Martin Stevens, Claire N Spottiswoode
When mimicry imposes costs on models, selection may drive the model's phenotype to evolve away from its mimic. For example, brood parasitism often drives hosts to diversify in egg appearance among females within a species, making mimetic parasitic eggs easier to detect. However, when a single parasite species exploits multiple host species, parasitism could also drive host egg evolution away from other co-occurring hosts, to escape susceptibility to their respective mimics. This hypothesis predicts that sympatric hosts of the same parasite should partition egg phenotypic space (defined by egg colour, luminance and pattern) among species to avoid one another...
May 17, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515201/pre-versus-post-mass-extinction-divergence-of-mesozoic-marine-reptiles-dictated-by-time-scale-dependence-of-evolutionary-rates
#7
Ryosuke Motani, Da-Yong Jiang, Andrea Tintori, Cheng Ji, Jian-Dong Huang
The fossil record of a major clade often starts after a mass extinction even though evolutionary rates, molecular or morphological, suggest its pre-extinction emergence (e.g. squamates, placentals and teleosts). The discrepancy is larger for older clades, and the presence of a time-scale-dependent methodological bias has been suggested, yet it has been difficult to avoid the bias using Bayesian phylogenetic methods. This paradox raises the question of whether ecological vacancies, such as those after mass extinctions, prompt the radiations...
May 17, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490628/reviewers-in-2016
#8
EDITORIAL
Spencer C H Barrett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 17, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490627/concerted-and-mosaic-evolution-of-functional-modules-in-songbird-brains
#9
Jordan M Moore, Timothy J DeVoogd
Vertebrate brains differ in overall size, composition and functional capacities, but the evolutionary processes linking these traits are unclear. Two leading models offer opposing views: the concerted model ascribes major dimensions of covariation in brain structures to developmental events, whereas the mosaic model relates divergent structures to functional capabilities. The models are often cast as incompatible, but they must be unified to explain how adaptive changes in brain structure arise from pre-existing architectures and developmental mechanisms...
May 17, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490626/minimal-variation-in-eutherian-brain-growth-rates-during-fetal-neurogenesis
#10
Andrew C Halley
A central question in the evolution of brain development is whether species differ in rates of brain growth during fetal neurogenesis. Studies of neonatal data have found allometric evidence for brain growth rate differences according to physiological variables such as relative metabolism and placental invasiveness, but these findings have not been tested against fetal data directly. Here, we measure rates of exponential brain growth acceleration in 10 eutherian mammals, two marsupials, and two birds. Eutherian brain acceleration exhibits minimal variation relative to body and visceral organ growth, varies independently of correlated growth patterns in other organs, and is unrelated to proposed physiological constraints such as metabolic rate or placental invasiveness...
May 17, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490625/nonlinear-trade-offs-allow-the-cooperation-game-to-evolve-from-prisoner-s-dilemma-to-snowdrift
#11
Lin Chao, Santiago F Elena
The existence of cooperation, or the production of public goods, is an evolutionary problem. Cooperation is not favoured because the Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) game drives cooperators to extinction. We have re-analysed this problem by using RNA viruses to motivate a model for the evolution of cooperation. Gene products are the public goods and group size is the number of virions co-infecting the same host cell. Our results show that if the trade-off between replication and production of gene products is linear, PD is observed...
May 17, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490624/removal-of-an-apex-predator-initiates-a-trophic-cascade-that-extends-from-herbivores-to-vegetation-and-the-soil-nutrient-pool
#12
Timothy Morris, Mike Letnic
It is widely assumed that organisms at low trophic levels, particularly microbes and plants, are essential to basic services in ecosystems, such as nutrient cycling. In theory, apex predators' effects on ecosystems could extend to nutrient cycling and the soil nutrient pool by influencing the intensity and spatial organization of herbivory. Here, we take advantage of a long-term manipulation of dingo abundance across Australia's dingo-proof fence in the Strzelecki Desert to investigate the effects that removal of an apex predator has on herbivore abundance, vegetation and the soil nutrient pool...
May 17, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490623/genetics-based-interactions-of-foundation-species-affect-community-diversity-stability-and-network-structure
#13
Arthur R Keith, Joseph K Bailey, Matthew K Lau, Thomas G Whitham
We examined the hypothesis that genetics-based interactions between strongly interacting foundation species, the tree Populus angustifolia and the aphid Pemphigus betae, affect arthropod community diversity, stability and species interaction networks of which little is known. In a 2-year experimental manipulation of the tree and its aphid herbivore four major findings emerged: (i) the interactions of these two species determined the composition of an arthropod community of 139 species; (ii) both tree genotype and aphid presence significantly predicted community diversity; (iii) the presence of aphids on genetically susceptible trees increased the stability of arthropod communities across years; and (iv) the experimental removal of aphids affected community network structure (network degree, modularity and tree genotype contribution to modularity)...
May 17, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490622/mutualistic-strategies-minimize-coextinction-in-plant-disperser-networks
#14
Evan C Fricke, Joshua J Tewksbury, Elizabeth M Wandrag, Haldre S Rogers
The global decline of mutualists such as pollinators and seed dispersers may cause negative direct and indirect impacts on biodiversity. Mutualistic network models used to understand the stability of mutualistic systems indicate that species with low partner diversity are most vulnerable to coextinction following mutualism disruption. However, existing models have not considered how species vary in their dependence on mutualistic interactions for reproduction or survival, overlooking the potential influence of this variation on species' coextinction vulnerability and on network stability...
May 17, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469030/manipulation-of-feeding-regime-alters-sexual-dimorphism-for-lifespan-and-reduces-sexual-conflict-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#15
Elizabeth M L Duxbury, Wayne G Rostant, Tracey Chapman
Sexual dimorphism for lifespan (SDL) is widespread, but poorly understood. A leading hypothesis, which we test here, is that strong SDL can reduce sexual conflict by allowing each sex to maximize its sex-specific fitness. We used replicated experimental evolution lines of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, which had been maintained for over 360 generations on either unpredictable 'Random' or predictable 'Regular' feeding regimes. This evolutionary manipulation of feeding regime led to robust, enhanced SDL in Random over control, Regular lines...
May 17, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469029/how-do-seemingly-non-vagile-clades-accomplish-trans-marine-dispersal-trait-and-dispersal-evolution-in-the-landfowl-aves-galliformes
#16
Peter A Hosner, Joseph A Tobias, Edward L Braun, Rebecca T Kimball
Dispersal ability is a key factor in determining insular distributions and island community composition, yet non-vagile terrestrial organisms widely occur on oceanic islands. The landfowl (pheasants, partridges, grouse, turkeys, quails and relatives) are generally poor dispersers, but the Old World quail (Coturnix) are a notable exception. These birds evolved small body sizes and high-aspect-ratio wing shapes, and hence are capable of trans-continental migrations and trans-oceanic colonization. Two monotypic partridge genera, Margaroperdix of Madagascar and Anurophasis of alpine New Guinea, may represent additional examples of trans-marine dispersal in landfowl, but their body size and wing shape are typical of poorly dispersive continental species...
May 17, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469028/climate-change-alters-the-optimal-wind-dependent-flight-routes-of-an-avian-migrant
#17
Elham Nourani, Noriyuki M Yamaguchi, Hiroyoshi Higuchi
Migratory birds can be adversely affected by climate change as they encounter its geographically uneven impacts in various stages of their life cycle. While a wealth of research is devoted to the impacts of climate change on distribution range and phenology of migratory birds, the indirect effects of climate change on optimal migratory routes and flyways, through changes in air movements, are poorly understood. Here, we predict the influence of climate change on the migratory route of a long-distant migrant using an ensemble of correlative modelling approaches, and present and future atmospheric data obtained from a regional climate model...
May 17, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469027/eggshell-structure-in-caiman-latirostris-eggs-improves-embryo-survival-during-nest-inundation
#18
César Cedillo-Leal, Melina S Simoncini, Pamela M L Leiva, Alejandro Larriera, Jeffrey W Lang, Carlos I Piña
Egg inundation often results in poor hatching success in crocodylians. However, how tolerant eggs are to submergence, and/or how eggshell ultrastructure may affect embryo survival when inundated, are not well understood. In this study, our objective was to determine if embryo survival in Caiman latirostris is affected by eggshell surface roughness, when eggs are submerged under water. Tolerance to inundation was tested early (day 30) versus late (day 60) in development, using eight clutches (four per time treatments), subdivided into four groups: (N = 9 per clutch per treatment; 9 × 4 = 36 eggs per group)...
May 17, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469026/are-flowers-vulnerable-to-xylem-cavitation-during-drought
#19
Feng-Ping Zhang, Timothy J Brodribb
Water stress is known to cause xylem cavitation in the leaves, roots and stems of plants, but little is known about the vulnerability of flowers to xylem damage during drought. This is an important gap in our understanding of how and when plants become damaged by water stress. Here we address fundamental questions about if and when flowers suffer cavitation damage, using a new technique of cavitation imaging to resolve the timing of cavitation in water-stressed flower petals compared with neighbouring leaves...
May 17, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469025/genetic-diversity-is-largely-unpredictable-but-scales-with-museum-occurrences-in-a-species-rich-clade-of-australian-lizards
#20
Sonal Singhal, Huateng Huang, Pascal O Title, Stephen C Donnellan, Iris Holmes, Daniel L Rabosky
Genetic diversity is a fundamental characteristic of species and is affected by many factors, including mutation rate, population size, life history and demography. To better understand the processes that influence levels of genetic diversity across taxa, we collected genome-wide restriction-associated DNA data from more than 500 individuals spanning 76 nominal species of Australian scincid lizards in the genus Ctenotus To avoid potential biases associated with variation in taxonomic practice across the group, we used coalescent-based species delimitation to delineate 83 species-level lineages within the genus for downstream analyses...
May 17, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
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