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Proceedings. Biological Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142119/landscape-predictors-of-pathogen-prevalence-and-range-contractions-in-us-bumblebees
#1
Scott H McArt, Christine Urbanowicz, Shaun McCoshum, Rebecca E Irwin, Lynn S Adler
Several species of bumblebees have recently experienced range contractions and possible extinctions. While threats to bees are numerous, few analyses have attempted to understand the relative importance of multiple stressors. Such analyses are critical for prioritizing conservation strategies. Here, we describe a landscape analysis of factors predicted to cause bumblebee declines in the USA. We quantified 24 habitat, land-use and pesticide usage variables across 284 sampling locations, assessing which variables predicted pathogen prevalence and range contractions via machine learning model selection techniques...
November 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142118/climate-and-foraging-mode-explain-interspecific-variation-in-snake-metabolic-rates
#2
Andréaz Dupoué, François Brischoux, Olivier Lourdais
The energy cost of self-maintenance is a critical facet of life-history strategies. Clarifying the determinant of interspecific variation in metabolic rate (MR) at rest is important to understand and predict ecological patterns such as species distributions or responses to climatic changes. We examined variation of MR in snakes, a group characterized by a remarkable diversity of activity rates and a wide distribution. We collated previously published MR data (n = 491 observations) measured in 90 snake species at different trial temperatures...
November 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142117/long-necks-enhance-and-constrain-foraging-capacity-in-aquatic-vertebrates
#3
Rory P Wilson, Agustina Gómez-Laich, Juan-Emilio Sala, Giacomo Dell'Omo, Mark D Holton, Flavio Quintana
Highly specialized diving birds display substantial dichotomy in neck length with, for example, cormorants and anhingas having extreme necks, while penguins and auks have minimized necks. We attached acceleration loggers to Imperial cormorants Phalacrocorax atriceps and Magellanic penguins Spheniscus magellanicus, both foraging in waters over the Patagonian Shelf, to examine the difference in movement between their respective heads and bodies in an attempt to explain this dichotomy. The penguins had head and body attitudes and movements that broadly concurred throughout all phases of their dives...
November 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142116/indirectly-connected-simple-social-differences-can-explain-the-causes-and-apparent-consequences-of-complex-social-network-positions
#4
Josh A Firth, Ben C Sheldon, Lauren J N Brent
Animal societies are often structurally complex. How individuals are positioned within the wider social network (i.e. their indirect social connections) has been shown to be repeatable, heritable and related to key life-history variables. Yet, there remains a general lack of understanding surrounding how complex network positions arise, whether they indicate active multifaceted social decisions by individuals, and how natural selection could act on this variation. We use simulations to assess how variation in simple social association rules between individuals can determine their positions within emerging social networks...
November 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142115/males-harm-females-less-when-competing-with-familiar-relatives
#5
Samuel J Lymbery, Leigh W Simmons
Sexual conflict occurs when reproductive partners have different fitness optima, and can lead to the evolution of traits in one sex that inflict fitness costs on the opposite sex. Recently, it has been proposed that antagonism by males towards females should be reduced when they compete with relatives, because reducing the future productivity of a female would result in an indirect fitness cost for a harmful male. We tested this prediction in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, the males of which harm females with genital spines and pre-copulatory harassment...
November 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142114/female-vervet-monkeys-fine-tune-decisions-on-tolerance-versus-conflict-in-a-communication-network
#6
Christèle Borgeaud, Alessandra Schnider, Michael Krützen, Redouan Bshary
Group living promotes opportunities for both cooperation and competition. Selection on the ability to cope with such opposing social opportunities has been proposed as a driving force in the evolution of large brains in primates and other social species. However, we still know little about the degree of complexity involved in such social strategies. Here, we report advanced social strategies in wild vervet monkeys. Building on recent experimental evidence that subordinate females trade grooming for tolerance from higher-ranking individuals during foraging activities, we show that the audience composition strongly affects this trade...
November 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142113/chromatic-and-achromatic-monocular-deprivation-produce-separable-changes-of-eye-dominance-in-adults
#7
Jiawei Zhou, Alexandre Reynaud, Yeon Jin Kim, Kathy T Mullen, Robert F Hess
Temporarily depriving one eye of its input, in whole or in part, results in a transient shift in eye dominance in human adults, with the patched eye becoming stronger and the unpatched eye weaker. However, little is known about the role of colour contrast in these behavioural changes. Here, we first show that the changes in eye dominance and contrast sensitivity induced by monocular eye patching affect colour and achromatic contrast sensitivity equally. We next use dichoptic movies, customized and filtered to stimulate the two eyes differentially...
November 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142112/give-one-species-the-task-to-come-up-with-a-theory-that-spans-them-all-what-good-can-come-out-of-that
#8
REVIEW
Hanna Kokko
Does the progress in understanding evolutionary theory depend on the species that is doing the investigation? This question is difficult to answer scientifically, as we are dealing with an n = 1 scenario: every individual who has ever written about evolution is a human being. I will discuss, first, whether we get the correct answer to questions if we begin with ourselves and expand outwards, and second, whether we might fail to ask all the interesting questions unless we combat our tendencies to favour taxa that are close to us...
November 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142111/can-birds-do-it-too-evidence-for-convergence-in-evaporative-water-loss-regulation-for-birds-and-mammals
#9
E C Eto, P C Withers, C E Cooper
Birds have many physiological characteristics that are convergent with mammals. In the light of recent evidence that mammals can maintain a constant insensible evaporative water loss (EWL) over a range of perturbing environmental conditions, we hypothesized that birds might also regulate insensible EWL, reflecting this convergence. We found that budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) maintain EWL constant over a range of relative humidities at three ambient temperatures. EWL, expressed as a function of water vapour pressure deficit, differed from a physical model where the water vapour pressure deficit between the animal and the ambient air is the driver of evaporation, indicating physiological control of EWL...
November 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142110/global-reef-fish-richness-gradients-emerge-from-divergent-and-scale-dependent-component-changes
#10
Shane A Blowes, Jonathan Belmaker, Jonathan M Chase
Biodiversity varies from place to place due to environmental and historical factors. To improve our understanding of how history and the environment influence observed patterns, we need to address the limitations of the most commonly used biodiversity metric, species richness. Here, we show that scale-dependent dissections of species richness into components of total abundance, species relative abundances and spatial aggregations of species reveal that two well-known biogeographic reef fish species richness gradients emerge from very different underlying component patterns...
November 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118141/midbrain-adaptation-may-set-the-stage-for-the-perception-of-musical-beat
#11
Vani G Rajendran, Nicol S Harper, Jose A Garcia-Lazaro, Nicholas A Lesica, Jan W H Schnupp
The ability to spontaneously feel a beat in music is a phenomenon widely believed to be unique to humans. Though beat perception involves the coordinated engagement of sensory, motor and cognitive processes in humans, the contribution of low-level auditory processing to the activation of these networks in a beat-specific manner is poorly understood. Here, we present evidence from a rodent model that midbrain preprocessing of sounds may already be shaping where the beat is ultimately felt. For the tested set of musical rhythms, on-beat sounds on average evoked higher firing rates than off-beat sounds, and this difference was a defining feature of the set of beat interpretations most commonly perceived by human listeners over others...
November 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118140/correction-to-the-growth-of-finfish-in-global-open-ocean-aquaculture-under-climate-change
#12
Dane H Klinger, Simon A Levin, James R Watson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118139/anticipatory-flexibility-larval-population-density-in-moths-determines-male-investment-in-antennae-wings-and-testes
#13
Tamara L Johnson, Matthew R E Symonds, Mark A Elgar
Developmental plasticity provides individuals with a distinct advantage when the reproductive environment changes dramatically. Variation in population density, in particular, can have profound effects on male reproductive success. Females may be easier to locate in dense populations, but there may be a greater risk of sperm competition. Thus, males should invest in traits that enhance fertilization success over traits that enhance mate location. Conversely, males in less dense populations should invest more in structures that will facilitate mate location...
November 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118138/macroecological-factors-shape-local-scale-spatial-patterns-in-agriculturalist-settlements
#14
Tingting Tao, Sebastián Abades, Shuqing Teng, Zheng Y X Huang, Luís Reino, Bin J W Chen, Yong Zhang, Chi Xu, Jens-Christian Svenning
Macro-scale patterns of human systems ranging from population distribution to linguistic diversity have attracted recent attention, giving rise to the suggestion that macroecological rules shape the assembly of human societies. However, in which aspects the geography of our own species is shaped by macroecological factors remains poorly understood. Here, we provide a first demonstration that macroecological factors shape strong local-scale spatial patterns in human settlement systems, through an analysis of spatial patterns in agriculturalist settlements in eastern mainland China based on high-resolution Google Earth images...
November 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118137/defector-clustering-is-linked-to-cooperation-in-a-pathogenic-bacterium
#15
Edward W Tekwa, Dao Nguyen, Michel Loreau, Andrew Gonzalez
Spatial clustering is thought to favour the evolution of cooperation because it puts cooperators in a position to help each other. However, clustering also increases competition. The fate of cooperation may depend on how much cooperators cluster relative to defectors, but these clustering differences have not been the focus of previous models and experiments. By competing siderophore-producing cooperator and defector strains of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa in experimental microhabitats, we found that at the spatial scale of individual interactions, cooperator clustering lowers cooperation, but defector clustering favours cooperation...
November 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118136/variably-hungry-caterpillars-predictive-models-and-foliar-chemistry-suggest-how-to-eat-a-rainforest
#16
Simon T Segar, Martin Volf, Brus Isua, Mentap Sisol, Conor M Redmond, Margaret E Rosati, Bradley Gewa, Kenneth Molem, Chris Dahl, Jeremy D Holloway, Yves Basset, Scott E Miller, George D Weiblen, Juha-Pekka Salminen, Vojtech Novotny
A long-term goal in evolutionary ecology is to explain the incredible diversity of insect herbivores and patterns of host plant use in speciose groups like tropical Lepidoptera. Here, we used standardized food-web data, multigene phylogenies of both trophic levels and plant chemistry data to model interactions between Lepidoptera larvae (caterpillars) from two lineages (Geometridae and Pyraloidea) and plants in a species-rich lowland rainforest in New Guinea. Model parameters were used to make and test blind predictions for two hectares of an exhaustively sampled forest...
November 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118135/mass-extinction-in-tetraodontiform-fishes-linked-to-the-palaeocene-eocene-thermal-maximum
#17
Dahiana Arcila, James C Tyler
Integrative evolutionary analyses based upon fossil and extant species provide a powerful approach for understanding past diversification events and for assessing the tempo of evolution across the Tree of Life. Herein, we demonstrate the importance of integrating fossil and extant species for inferring patterns of lineage diversification that would otherwise be masked in analyses that examine only one source of evidence. We infer the phylogeny and macroevolutionary history of the Tetraodontiformes (triggerfishes, pufferfishes and allies), a group with one of the most extensive fossil records among fishes...
November 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118134/temperature-effects-on-life-history-trade-offs-germline-maintenance-and-mutation-rate-under-simulated-climate-warming
#18
David Berger, Josefine Stångberg, Karl Grieshop, Ivain Martinossi-Allibert, Göran Arnqvist
Mutation has a fundamental influence over evolutionary processes, but how evolutionary processes shape mutation rate remains less clear. In asexual unicellular organism, increased mutation rates have been observed in stressful environments and the reigning paradigm ascribes this increase to selection for evolvability. However, this explanation does not apply in sexually reproducing species, where little is known about how the environment affects mutation rate. Here we challenged experimental lines of seed beetle, evolved at ancestral temperature or under simulated climate warming, to repair induced mutations at ancestral and stressful temperature...
November 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118133/climate-change-and-bird-reproduction-warmer-springs-benefit-breeding-success-in-boreal-forest-grouse
#19
Per Wegge, Jørund Rolstad
Global warming is predicted to adversely affect the reproduction of birds, especially in northern latitudes. A recent study in Finland inferred that declining populations of black grouse, Tetrao tetrix, could be attributed to advancement of the time of mating and chicks hatching too early-supporting the mismatch hypothesis. Here, we examine the breeding success of sympatric capercaillie, T. urogallus, and black grouse over a 38-year period in southeast Norway. Breeding season temperatures increased, being most pronounced in April...
November 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118132/physical-trade-offs-shape-the-evolution-of-buoyancy-control-in-sharks
#20
Adrian C Gleiss, Jean Potvin, Jeremy A Goldbogen
Buoyancy control is a fundamental aspect of aquatic life that has major implications for locomotor performance and ecological niche. Unlike terrestrial animals, the densities of aquatic animals are similar to the supporting fluid, thus even small changes in body density may have profound effects on locomotion. Here, we analysed the body composition (lipid versus lean tissue) of 32 shark species to study the evolution of buoyancy. Our comparative phylogenetic analyses indicate that although lean tissue displays minor positive allometry, liver volume exhibits pronounced positive allometry, suggesting that larger sharks evolved bulkier body compositions by adding lipid tissue to lean tissue rather than substituting lean for lipid tissue, particularly in the liver...
November 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
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