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Proceedings. Biological Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424347/long-term-fitness-consequences-of-early-environment-in-a-long-lived-ungulate
#1
Gabriel Pigeon, Marco Festa-Bianchet, Fanie Pelletier
Cohort effects can be a major source of heterogeneity and play an important role in population dynamics. Silver-spoon effects, when environmental quality at birth improves future performance regardless of the adult environment, can induce strong lagged responses on population growth. Alternatively, the external predictive adaptive response (PAR) hypothesis predicts that organisms will adjust their developmental trajectory and physiology during early life in anticipation of expected adult conditions but has rarely been assessed in wild species...
April 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424346/the-male-escape-hypothesis-sex-biased-metamorphosis-in-response-to-climatic-drivers-in-a-facultatively-paedomorphic-amphibian
#2
Anthony G E Mathiron, Jean-Paul Lena, Sarah Baouch, Mathieu Denoël
Paedomorphosis is a major evolutionary process that bypasses metamorphosis and allows reproduction in larvae. In newts and salamanders, it can be facultative with paedomorphs retaining gills and metamorphs dispersing. The evolution of these developmental processes is thought to have been driven by the costs and benefits of inhabiting aquatic versus terrestrial habitats. In this context, we aimed at testing the hypothesis that climatic drivers affect phenotypic transition and the difference across sexes because sex-ratio is biased in natural populations...
April 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424345/floaters-may-buffer-the-extinction-risk-of-small-populations-an-empirical-assessment
#3
Hugo Robles, Carlos Ciudad
The high extinction risk of small populations is commonly explained by reductions in fecundity and breeder survival associated with demographic and environmental stochasticity. However, ecological theory suggests that population extinctions may also arise from reductions in the number of floaters able to replace the lost breeders. This can be particularly plausible under harsh fragmentation scenarios, where species must survive as small populations subjected to severe effects of stochasticity. Using a woodpecker study in fragmented habitats (2004-2016), we provide here empirical support for the largely neglected hypothesis that floaters buffer population extirpation risks...
April 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424344/mutualistic-cleaner-fish-maintains-high-escape-performance-despite-privileged-relationship-with-predators
#4
Simon Gingins, Dominique G Roche, Redouan Bshary
Predatory reef fishes regularly visit mutualistic cleaner fish (Labroides dimidiatus) to get their ectoparasites removed but show no interest in eating them. The concept of compensated trait loss posits that characters can be lost if a mutualistic relationship reduces the need for a given trait. Thus, selective pressures on escape performance might have relaxed in L. dimidiatus due to its privileged relationship with predators. However, the cost of failing to escape a predatory strike is extreme even if predation events on cleaners are exceptionally rare...
April 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424343/interactive-effects-of-temperature-food-and-skeletal-mineralogy-mediate-biological-responses-to-ocean-acidification-in-a-widely-distributed-bryozoan
#5
Daniel S Swezey, Jessica R Bean, Aaron T Ninokawa, Tessa M Hill, Brian Gaylord, Eric Sanford
Marine invertebrates with skeletons made of high-magnesium calcite may be especially susceptible to ocean acidification (OA) due to the elevated solubility of this form of calcium carbonate. However, skeletal composition can vary plastically within some species, and it is largely unknown how concurrent changes in multiple oceanographic parameters will interact to affect skeletal mineralogy, growth and vulnerability to future OA. We explored these interactive effects by culturing genetic clones of the bryozoan Jellyella tuberculata (formerly Membranipora tuberculata) under factorial combinations of dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2), temperature and food concentrations...
April 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424342/individual-variation-in-local-interaction-rules-can-explain-emergent-patterns-of-spatial-organization-in-wild-baboons
#6
D R Farine, A Strandburg-Peshkin, I D Couzin, T Y Berger-Wolf, M C Crofoot
Researchers have long noted that individuals occupy consistent spatial positions within animal groups. However, an individual's position depends not only on its own behaviour, but also on the behaviour of others. Theoretical models of collective motion suggest that global patterns of spatial assortment can arise from individual variation in local interaction rules. However, this prediction remains untested. Using high-resolution GPS tracking of members of a wild baboon troop, we identify consistent inter-individual differences in within-group spatial positioning...
April 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404784/correction-to-early-life-inflammation-immune-response-and-ageing
#7
Imroze Khan, Deepa Agashe, Jens Rolff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404783/a-faster-escape-does-not-enhance-survival-in-zebrafish-larvae
#8
Arjun Nair, Christy Nguyen, Matthew J McHenry
An escape response is a rapid manoeuvre used by prey to evade predators. Performing this manoeuvre at greater speed, in a favourable direction, or from a longer distance have been hypothesized to enhance the survival of prey, but these ideas are difficult to test experimentally. We examined how prey survival depends on escape kinematics through a novel combination of experimentation and mathematical modelling. This approach focused on zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae under predation by adults and juveniles of the same species...
April 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404782/signatures-of-optimal-control-in-pairs-of-schooling-zebrafish
#9
Andress Laan, Raul Gil de Sagredo, Gonzalo G de Polavieja
Animals moving in groups coordinate their motion to remain cohesive. A large amount of data and analysis of movement coordination has been obtained in several species, but we are lacking theoretical frameworks that can derive the form of coordination rules. Here, we examine whether optimal control theory can predict the rules underlying social interactions from first principles. We find that a control rule which is designed to minimize the time it would take a pair of schooling fish to form a cohesively moving unit correctly predicts the characteristics of social interactions in fish...
April 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404781/climatic-niche-evolution-is-faster-in-sympatric-than-allopatric-lineages-of-the-butterfly-genus-pyrgus
#10
Camille Pitteloud, Nils Arrigo, Tomasz Suchan, Alicia Mastretta-Yanes, Roger Vila, Vlad Dincă, Juan Hernández-Roldán, Ernst Brockmann, Yannick Chittaro, Irena Kleckova, Luca Fumagalli, Sven Buerki, Loïc Pellissier, Nadir Alvarez
Understanding how speciation relates to ecological divergence has long fascinated biologists. It is assumed that ecological divergence is essential to sympatric speciation, as a mechanism to avoid competition and eventually lead to reproductive isolation, while divergence in allopatry is not necessarily associated with niche differentiation. The impact of the spatial context of divergence on the evolutionary rates of abiotic dimensions of the ecological niche has rarely been explored for an entire clade. Here, we compare the magnitude of climatic niche shifts between sympatric versus allopatric divergence of lineages in butterflies...
April 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404780/environmental-modification-via-a-quorum-sensing-molecule-influences-the-social-landscape-of-siderophore-production
#11
Roman Popat, Freya Harrison, Ana C da Silva, Scott A S Easton, Luke McNally, Paul Williams, Stephen P Diggle
Bacteria produce a wide variety of exoproducts that favourably modify their environment and increase their fitness. These are often termed 'public goods' because they are costly for individuals to produce and can be exploited by non-producers (cheats). The outcome of conflict over public goods is dependent upon the prevailing environment and the phenotype of the individuals in competition. Many bacterial species use quorum sensing (QS) signalling molecules to regulate the production of public goods. QS, therefore, determines the cooperative phenotype of individuals, and influences conflict over public goods...
April 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404779/open-data-and-digital-morphology
#12
REVIEW
Thomas G Davies, Imran A Rahman, Stephan Lautenschlager, John A Cunningham, Robert J Asher, Paul M Barrett, Karl T Bates, Stefan Bengtson, Roger B J Benson, Doug M Boyer, José Braga, Jen A Bright, Leon P A M Claessens, Philip G Cox, Xi-Ping Dong, Alistair R Evans, Peter L Falkingham, Matt Friedman, Russell J Garwood, Anjali Goswami, John R Hutchinson, Nathan S Jeffery, Zerina Johanson, Renaud Lebrun, Carlos Martínez-Pérez, Jesús Marugán-Lobón, Paul M O'Higgins, Brian Metscher, Maëva Orliac, Timothy B Rowe, Martin Rücklin, Marcelo R Sánchez-Villagra, Neil H Shubin, Selena Y Smith, J Matthias Starck, Chris Stringer, Adam P Summers, Mark D Sutton, Stig A Walsh, Vera Weisbecker, Lawrence M Witmer, Stephen Wroe, Zongjun Yin, Emily J Rayfield, Philip C J Donoghue
Over the past two decades, the development of methods for visualizing and analysing specimens digitally, in three and even four dimensions, has transformed the study of living and fossil organisms. However, the initial promise that the widespread application of such methods would facilitate access to the underlying digital data has not been fully achieved. The underlying datasets for many published studies are not readily or freely available, introducing a barrier to verification and reproducibility, and the reuse of data...
April 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404778/correction-to-adiposity-compared-to-masculinity-serves-as-a-more-valid-cue-to-immunocompetence-in-human-mate-choice
#13
M J Rantala, V Coetzee, F R Moore, I Skrinda, S Kecko, T Krama, I Kivleniece, I Krams
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404777/transcriptomics-of-an-extended-phenotype-parasite-manipulation-of-wasp-social-behaviour-shifts-expression-of-caste-related-genes
#14
Amy C Geffre, Ruolin Liu, Fabio Manfredini, Laura Beani, Jeyaraney Kathirithamby, Christina M Grozinger, Amy L Toth
Parasites can manipulate host behaviour to increase their own transmission and fitness, but the genomic mechanisms by which parasites manipulate hosts are not well understood. We investigated the relationship between the social paper wasp, Polistes dominula, and its parasite, Xenos vesparum (Insecta: Strepsiptera), to understand the effects of an obligate endoparasitoid on its host's brain transcriptome. Previous research suggests that X. vesparum shifts aspects of host social caste-related behaviour and physiology in ways that benefit the parasitoid...
April 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404776/dry-habitats-were-crucibles-of-domestication-in-the-evolution-of-agriculture-in-ants
#15
Michael G Branstetter, Ana Ješovnik, Jeffrey Sosa-Calvo, Michael W Lloyd, Brant C Faircloth, Seán G Brady, Ted R Schultz
The evolution of ant agriculture, as practised by the fungus-farming 'attine' ants, is thought to have arisen in the wet rainforests of South America about 55-65 Ma. Most subsequent attine agricultural evolution, including the domestication event that produced the ancestor of higher attine cultivars, is likewise hypothesized to have occurred in South American rainforests. The 'out-of-the-rainforest' hypothesis, while generally accepted, has never been tested in a phylogenetic context. It also presents a problem for explaining how fungal domestication might have occurred, given that isolation from free-living populations is required...
April 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404775/stable-producer-scrounger-dynamics-in-wild-birds-sociability-and-learning-speed-covary-with-scrounging-behaviour
#16
L M Aplin, J Morand-Ferron
There has been extensive game-theoretic modelling of conditions leading to equilibria of producer-scrounger dichotomies in groups. However there is a surprising paucity of experimental evidence in wild populations. Here, we examine producer-scrounger games in five subpopulations of birds feeding at a socially learnt foraging task. Over four weeks, a bimodal distribution of producers and scroungers emerged in all areas, with pronounced and consistent individual tactic specialization persisting over 3 years. Tactics were unrelated to exploratory personality, but correlated with latency to contact and learn the foraging task, with the late arrivers and slower learners more likely to adopt the scrounging role...
April 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404774/changes-in-the-location-of-biodiversity-ecosystem-function-hot-spots-across-the-seafloor-landscape-with-increasing-sediment-nutrient-loading
#17
Simon F Thrush, Judi E Hewitt, Casper Kraan, A M Lohrer, Conrad A Pilditch, Emily Douglas
Declining biodiversity and loss of ecosystem function threatens the ability of habitats to contribute ecosystem services. However, the form of the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem function (BEF) and how relationships change with environmental change is poorly understood. This limits our ability to predict the consequences of biodiversity loss on ecosystem function, particularly in real-world marine ecosystems that are species rich, and where multiple ecosystem functions are represented by multiple indicators...
April 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404773/not-equal-in-the-face-of-habitat-change-closely-related-fishes-differ-in-their-ability-to-use-predation-related-information-in-degraded-coral
#18
Maud C O Ferrari, Mark I McCormick, Bridie J M Allan, Douglas P Chivers
Coral reefs are biodiversity hotpots that are under significant threat due to the degradation and death of hard corals. When obligate coral-dwelling species die, the remaining species must either move or adjust to the altered conditions. Our goal was to investigate the effect of coral degradation on the ability of coral reef fishes to assess their risk of predation using alarm cues from injured conspecifics. Here, we tested the ability of six closely related species of juvenile damselfish (Pomacentridae) to respond to risk cues in both live coral or dead-degraded coral environments...
April 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404772/known-mutator-alleles-do-not-markedly-increase-mutation-rate-in-clinical-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-strains
#19
Daniel A Skelly, Paul M Magwene, Brianna Meeks, Helen A Murphy
Natural selection has the potential to act on all phenotypes, including genomic mutation rate. Classic evolutionary theory predicts that in asexual populations, mutator alleles, which cause high mutation rates, can fix due to linkage with beneficial mutations. This phenomenon has been demonstrated experimentally and may explain the frequency of mutators found in bacterial pathogens. By contrast, in sexual populations, recombination decouples mutator alleles from beneficial mutations, preventing mutator fixation...
April 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404771/social-foraging-and-individual-consistency-in-following-behaviour-testing-the-information-centre-hypothesis-in-free-ranging-vultures
#20
Roi Harel, Orr Spiegel, Wayne M Getz, Ran Nathan
Uncertainties regarding food location and quality are among the greatest challenges faced by foragers and communal roosting may facilitate success through social foraging. The information centre hypothesis (ICH) suggests that uninformed individuals at shared roosts benefit from following informed individuals to previously visited resources. We tested several key prerequisites of the ICH in a social obligate scavenger, the Eurasian griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus), by tracking movements and behaviour of sympatric individuals over extended periods and across relatively large spatial scales, thereby precluding alternative explanations such as local enhancement...
April 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
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