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Proceedings. Biological Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794224/increased-prenatal-maternal-investment-reduces-inbreeding-depression-in-offspring
#1
Kate E Ihle, Pascale Hutter, Barbara Tschirren
Inbreeding depression refers to the reduction of fitness that results from matings between relatives. Evidence for reduced fitness in inbred individuals is widespread, but the strength of inbreeding depression varies widely both within and among taxa. Environmental conditions can mediate this variation in the strength of inbreeding depression, with environmental stress exacerbating the negative consequences of inbreeding. Parents can modify the environment experienced by offspring, and have thus the potential to mitigate the negative consequences of inbreeding...
August 16, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794223/novel-host-plant-leads-to-the-loss-of-sexual-dimorphism-in-a-sexually-selected-male-weapon
#2
Pablo E Allen, Christine W Miller
In this time of massive global change, species are now frequently interacting with novel players. Greater insight into the impact of these novel interactions on traits linked to fitness is essential, because effects on these traits can hinder population existence or promote rapid adaptation. Sexually selected weapons and ornaments frequently influence fitness and often have heightened condition-dependence in response to nutrition. Condition-dependence in response to different ecological conditions, a form of developmental plasticity, may be responsible for much of the intraspecific variation in sexually selected ornaments and weapons in wild populations...
August 16, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794222/a-new-giant-titanosaur-sheds-light-on-body-mass-evolution-among-sauropod-dinosaurs
#3
José L Carballido, Diego Pol, Alejandro Otero, Ignacio A Cerda, Leonardo Salgado, Alberto C Garrido, Jahandar Ramezani, Néstor R Cúneo, Javier M Krause
Titanosauria was the most diverse and successful lineage of sauropod dinosaurs. This clade had its major radiation during the middle Early Cretaceous and survived up to the end of that period. Among sauropods, this lineage has the most disparate values of body mass, including the smallest and largest sauropods known. Although recent findings have improved our knowledge on giant titanosaur anatomy, there are still many unknown aspects about their evolution, especially for the most gigantic forms and the evolution of body mass in this clade...
August 16, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794221/revised-time-scales-of-rna-virus-evolution-based-on-spatial-information
#4
Moritz Saxenhofer, Vanessa Weber de Melo, Rainer G Ulrich, Gerald Heckel
The time scales of pathogen evolution are of major concern in the context of public and veterinary health, epidemiology and evolutionary biology. Dating the emergence of a pathogen often relies on estimates of evolutionary rates derived from nucleotide sequence data. For many viruses, this has yielded estimates of evolutionary origins only a few hundred years in the past. Here we demonstrate through the incorporation of geographical information from virus sampling that evolutionary age estimates of two European hantaviruses are severely underestimated because of pervasive mutational saturation of nucleotide sequences...
August 16, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794220/is-behavioural-plasticity-consistent-across-different-environmental-gradients-and-through-time
#5
David J Mitchell, Peter A Biro
Despite accumulating evidence for individual variation in behavioural plasticity, there is currently little understanding of the causes and consequences of this variation. An outstanding question is whether individual reaction norm (RN) slopes are consistent across different environmental variables-that is, whether an individual that is highly responsive to one environmental variable will be equally responsive to a second variable. Another important and related question is whether RNs are themselves consistently expressed through time or whether they are simply state dependent...
August 16, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794219/dodging-silver-bullets-good-crispr-gene-drive-design-is-critical-for-eradicating-exotic-vertebrates
#6
Thomas A A Prowse, Phillip Cassey, Joshua V Ross, Chandran Pfitzner, Talia A Wittmann, Paul Thomas
Self-replicating gene drives that can spread deleterious alleles through animal populations have been promoted as a much needed but controversial 'silver bullet' for controlling invasive alien species. Homing-based drives comprise an endonuclease and a guide RNA (gRNA) that are replicated during meiosis via homologous recombination. However, their efficacy for controlling wild populations is threatened by inherent polymorphic resistance and the creation of resistance alleles via non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ)-mediated DNA repair...
August 16, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794218/exotic-species-enhance-response-diversity-to-land-use-change-but-modify-functional-composition
#7
Jamie R Stavert, David E Pattemore, Anne C Gaskett, Jacqueline R Beggs, Ignasi Bartomeus
Two main mechanisms may buffer ecosystem functions despite biodiversity loss. First, multiple species could share similar ecological roles, thus providing functional redundancy. Second, species may respond differently to environmental change (response diversity). However, ecosystem function would be best protected when functionally redundant species also show response diversity. This linkage has not been studied directly, so we investigated whether native and exotic pollinator species with similar traits (functional redundancy) differed in abundance (response diversity) across an agricultural intensification gradient...
August 16, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794217/pollination-benefits-are-maximized-at-intermediate-nutrient-levels
#8
Giovanni Tamburini, Francesco Lami, Lorenzo Marini
Yield production in flowering crops depends on both nutrient availability and pollination, but their relative roles and potential interactions are poorly understood. We measured pollination benefits to yield in sunflower, combining a gradient in insect pollination (0, 25, 50, 100%) with a continuous gradient in nitrogen (N) fertilization (from 0 to 150 kg N ha(-1)) in an experiment under realistic soil field conditions. We found that pollination benefits to yield were maximized at intermediate levels of N availability, bolstering yield by approximately 25% compared with complete pollinator exclusion...
August 16, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794216/higher-songs-of-city-birds-may-not-be-an-individual-response-to-noise
#9
Sue Anne Zollinger, Peter J B Slater, Erwin Nemeth, Henrik Brumm
It has been observed in many songbird species that populations in noisy urban areas sing with a higher minimum frequency than do matched populations in quieter, less developed areas. However, why and how this divergence occurs is not yet understood. We experimentally tested whether chronic noise exposure during vocal learning results in songs with higher minimum frequencies in great tits (Parus major), the first species for which a correlation between anthropogenic noise and song frequency was observed. We also tested vocal plasticity of adult great tits in response to changing background noise levels by measuring song frequency and amplitude as we changed noise conditions...
August 16, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794215/male-relatedness-and-familiarity-are-required-to-modulate-male-induced-harm-to-females-in-drosophila
#10
Sally Le Page, Irem Sepil, Ewan Flintham, Tommaso Pizzari, Pau Carazo, Stuart Wigby
Males compete over mating and fertilization, and often harm females in the process. Inclusive fitness theory predicts that increasing relatedness within groups of males may relax competition and discourage male harm of females as males gain indirect benefits. Recent studies in Drosophila melanogaster are consistent with these predictions, and have found that within-group male relatedness increases female fitness, though others have found no effects. Importantly, these studies did not fully disentangle male genetic relatedness from larval familiarity, so the extent to which modulation of harm to females is explained by male familiarity remains unclear...
August 16, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768894/phenotypic-plasticity-in-reproductive-effort-malaria-parasites-respond-to-resource-availability
#11
Philip L G Birget, Charlotte Repton, Aidan J O'Donnell, Petra Schneider, Sarah E Reece
The trade-off between survival and reproduction is fundamental in the life history of all sexually reproducing organisms. This includes malaria parasites, which rely on asexually replicating stages for within-host survival and on sexually reproducing stages (gametocytes) for between-host transmission. The proportion of asexual stages that form gametocytes (reproductive effort) varies during infections-i.e. is phenotypically plastic-in response to changes in a number of within-host factors, including anaemia...
August 16, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768893/performance-trade-offs-and-ageing-in-the-world-s-greatest-athletes
#12
Vincent Careau, Robbie S Wilson
The mechanistic foundations of performance trade-offs are clear: because body size and shape constrains movement, and muscles vary in strength and fibre type, certain physical traits should act in opposition with others (e.g. sprint versus endurance). Yet performance trade-offs are rarely detected, and traits are often positively correlated. A potential resolution to this conundrum is that within-individual performance trade-offs can be masked by among-individual variation in 'quality'. Although there is a current debate on how to unambiguously define and account for quality, no previous studies have partitioned trait correlations at the within- and among-individual levels...
August 16, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768892/baby-fish-working-out-an-epigenetic-source-of-adaptive-variation-in-the-cichlid-jaw
#13
Yinan Hu, R Craig Albertson
Understanding the developmental processes that underlie the production of adaptive variation (i.e. the 'arrival of the fittest') is a major goal of evolutionary biology. While most evo-devo studies focus on the genetic underpinnings of adaptive phenotypic variation, factors beyond changes in nucleotide sequence can also play a major role in shaping developmental outcomes. Here, we document a vigorous but enigmatic gaping behaviour during the early development of Lake Malawi cichlid larvae. The onset of the behaviour precedes the formation of bone, and we predicted that it might influence craniofacial shape by affecting the mechanical environment in which bone develops...
August 16, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768891/the-evolution-of-dual-meat-and-milk-cattle-husbandry-in-linearbandkeramik-societies
#14
Rosalind E Gillis, Lenka Kovačiková, Stéphanie Bréhard, Emilie Guthmann, Ivana Vostrovská, Hana Nohálová, Rose-Marie Arbogast, László Domboróczki, Joachim Pechtl, Alexander Anders, Arkadiusz Marciniak, Anne Tresset, Jean-Denis Vigne
Cattle dominate archaeozoological assemblages from the north-central Europe between the sixth and fifth millennium BC and are frequently considered as exclusively used for their meat. Dairy products may have played a greater role than previously believed. Selective pressure on the lactase persistence mutation has been modelled to have begun between 6000 and 4000 years ago in central Europe. The discovery of milk lipids in late sixth millennium ceramic sieves in Poland may reflect an isolated regional peculiarity for cheese making or may signify more generalized milk exploitation in north-central Europe during the Early Neolithic...
August 16, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768890/is-meiosis-a-fundamental-cause-of-inviability-among-sexual-and-asexual-plants-and-animals
#15
Daniel A Levitis, Kolea Zimmerman, Anne Pringle
Differences in viability between asexually and sexually generated offspring strongly influence the selective advantage and therefore the prevalence of sexual reproduction (sex). However, no general principle predicts when sexual offspring will be more viable than asexual offspring. We hypothesize that when any kind of reproduction is based on a more complex cellular process, it will encompass more potential failure points, and therefore lower offspring viability. Asexual reproduction (asex) can be simpler than sex, when offspring are generated using only mitosis...
August 16, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768889/decoupled-diversification-dynamics-of-feeding-morphology-following-a-major-functional-innovation-in-marine-butterflyfishes
#16
Nicolai Konow, Samantha Price, Richard Abom, David Bellwood, Peter Wainwright
The diversity of fishes on coral reefs is influenced by the evolution of feeding innovations. For instance, the evolution of an intramandibular jaw joint has aided shifts to corallivory in Chaetodon butterflyfishes following their Miocene colonization of coral reefs. Today, over half of all Chaetodon species consume coral, easily the largest concentration of corallivores in any reef fish family. In contrast with Chaetodon, other chaetodontids, including the long-jawed bannerfishes, remain less intimately associated with coral and mainly consume other invertebrate prey...
August 16, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768888/dynamical-state-transitions-into-addictive-behaviour-and-their-early-warning-signals
#17
Jerome Clifford Foo, Hamid Reza Noori, Ikuhiro Yamaguchi, Valentina Vengeliene, Alejandro Cosa-Linan, Toru Nakamura, Kenji Morita, Rainer Spanagel, Yoshiharu Yamamoto
The theory of critical transitions in complex systems (ecosystems, climate, etc.), and especially its ability to predict abrupt changes by early-warning signals based on analysis of fluctuations close to tipping points, is seen as a promising avenue to study disease dynamics. However, the biomedical field still lacks a clear demonstration of this concept. Here, we used a well-established animal model in which initial alcohol exposure followed by deprivation and subsequent reintroduction of alcohol induces excessive alcohol drinking as an example of disease onset...
August 16, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768887/phosphotyrosine-signalling-and-the-origin-of-animal-multicellularity
#18
Kai Tong, Yuyu Wang, Zhixi Su
The evolution of multicellular animals (i.e. metazoans) from a unicellular ancestor is one of the most important yet least understood evolutionary transitions. Historically, given its indispensable functions in intercellular communication and exclusive presence in metazoans, phosphotyrosine (pTyr) signalling was considered a metazoan-specific evolutionary innovation that might have contributed to the origin of metazoan multicellularity. However, recent studies have led to a new understanding of pTyr signalling evolution and its role in the metazoan origin...
August 16, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768886/oceanic-protists-with-different-forms-of-acquired-phototrophy-display-contrasting-biogeographies-and-abundance
#19
S G Leles, A Mitra, K J Flynn, D K Stoecker, P J Hansen, A Calbet, G B McManus, R W Sanders, D A Caron, F Not, G M Hallegraeff, P Pitta, J A Raven, M D Johnson, P M Glibert, S Våge
This first comprehensive analysis of the global biogeography of marine protistan plankton with acquired phototrophy shows these mixotrophic organisms to be ubiquitous and abundant; however, their biogeography differs markedly between different functional groups. These mixotrophs, lacking a constitutive capacity for photosynthesis (i.e. non-constitutive mixotrophs, NCMs), acquire their phototrophic potential through either integration of prey-plastids or through endosymbiotic associations with photosynthetic microbes...
August 16, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768885/satellite-telemetry-reveals-higher-fishing-mortality-rates-than-previously-estimated-suggesting-overfishing-of-an-apex-marine-predator
#20
Michael E Byrne, Enric Cortés, Jeremy J Vaudo, Guy C McN Harvey, Mark Sampson, Bradley M Wetherbee, Mahmood Shivji
Overfishing is a primary cause of population declines for many shark species of conservation concern. However, means of obtaining information on fishery interactions and mortality, necessary for the development of successful conservation strategies, are often fisheries-dependent and of questionable quality for many species of commercially exploited pelagic sharks. We used satellite telemetry as a fisheries-independent tool to document fisheries interactions, and quantify fishing mortality of the highly migratory shortfin mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus) in the western North Atlantic Ocean...
August 16, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
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