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Proceedings. Biological Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931746/voltage-gated-sodium-channel-gene-repertoire-of-lampreys-gene-duplications-tissue-specific-expression-and-discovery-of-a-long-lost-gene
#1
Harold H Zakon, Weiming Li, Nisha E Pillai, Sumanty Tohari, Prashant Shingate, Jianfeng Ren, Byrappa Venkatesh
Studies of the voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels of extant gnathostomes have made it possible to deduce that ancestral gnathostomes possessed four voltage-gated sodium channel genes derived from a single ancestral chordate gene following two rounds of genome duplication early in vertebrates. We investigated the Nav gene family in two species of lampreys (the Japanese lamprey Lethenteron japonicum and sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus) (jawless vertebrates-agnatha) and compared them with those of basal vertebrates to better understand the origin of Nav genes in vertebrates...
September 27, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931745/evolution-of-cross-resistance-to-medical-triazoles-in-aspergillus-fumigatus-through-selection-pressure-of-environmental-fungicides
#2
Jianhua Zhang, Joost van den Heuvel, Alfons J M Debets, Paul E Verweij, Willem J G Melchers, Bas J Zwaan, Sijmen E Schoustra
Resistance to medical triazoles in Aspergillus fumigatus is an emerging problem for patients at risk of aspergillus diseases. There are currently two presumed routes for medical triazole-resistance selection: (i) through selection pressure of medical triazoles when treating patients and (ii) through selection pressure from non-medical sterol-biosynthesis-inhibiting (SI) triazole fungicides which are used in the environment. Previous studies have suggested that SI fungicides can induce cross-resistance to medical triazoles...
September 27, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931744/using-multiple-lines-of-evidence-to-assess-the-risk-of-ecosystem-collapse
#3
Lucie M Bland, Tracey J Regan, Minh Ngoc Dinh, Renata Ferrari, David A Keith, Rebecca Lester, David Mouillot, Nicholas J Murray, Hoang Anh Nguyen, Emily Nicholson
Effective ecosystem risk assessment relies on a conceptual understanding of ecosystem dynamics and the synthesis of multiple lines of evidence. Risk assessment protocols and ecosystem models integrate limited observational data with threat scenarios, making them valuable tools for monitoring ecosystem status and diagnosing key mechanisms of decline to be addressed by management. We applied the IUCN Red List of Ecosystems criteria to quantify the risk of collapse of the Meso-American Reef, a unique ecosystem containing the second longest barrier reef in the world...
September 27, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931743/the-language-of-cooperation-shared-intentionality-drives-variation-in-helping-as-a-function-of-group-membership
#4
Jennifer Susan McClung, Sarah Placì, Adrian Bangerter, Fabrice Clément, Redouan Bshary
While we know that the degree to which humans are able to cooperate is unrivalled by other species, the variation humans actually display in their cooperative behaviour has yet to be fully explained. This may be because research based on experimental game-theoretical studies neglects fundamental aspects of human sociality and psychology, namely social interaction and language. Using a new optimal foraging game loosely modelled on the prisoner's dilemma, the egg hunt, we categorized players as either in-group or out-group to each other and studied their spontaneous language usage while they made interactive, potentially cooperative decisions...
September 27, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931742/barn-owls-have-ageless-ears
#5
Bianca Krumm, Georg Klump, Christine Köppl, Ulrike Langemann
We measured the auditory sensitivity of the barn owl (Tyto alba), using a behavioural Go/NoGo paradigm in two different age groups, one younger than 2 years (n = 4) and another more than 13 years of age (n = 3). In addition, we obtained thresholds from one individual aged 23 years, three times during its lifetime. For computing audiograms, we presented test frequencies of between 0.5 and 12 kHz, covering the hearing range of the barn owl. Average thresholds in quiet were below 0 dB sound pressure level (SPL) for frequencies between 1 and 10 kHz...
September 27, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931741/major-urinary-protein-levels-are-associated-with-social-status-and-context-in-mouse-social-hierarchies
#6
Won Lee, Amber Khan, James P Curley
We have previously shown that male mice living in groups of 12 males establish and maintain stable linear social hierarchies with each individual having a defined social rank. However, it is not clear which social cues mice use to signal and recognize their relative social status within their hierarchy. In this study, we investigate how individual social status both in pairs and in groups affects the levels of major urinary proteins (MUPs) and specifically MUP20 in urine. We housed groups of adult outbred CD1 male mice in a complex social environment for three weeks and collected urine samples from all individuals repeatedly...
September 27, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931740/single-sperm-sequencing-reveals-the-accelerated-mitochondrial-mutation-rate-in-male-daphnia-pulex-crustacea-cladocera
#7
Sen Xu, Kenny Van Tran, Swatantra Neupane, Marelize Snyman, Trung Viet Huynh, Way Sung
Mutation rate in the nuclear genome differs between sexes, with males contributing more mutations than females to their offspring. The male-biased mutation rates in the nuclear genome is most likely to be driven by a higher number of cell divisions in spermatogenesis than in oogenesis, generating more opportunities for DNA replication errors. However, it remains unknown whether male-biased mutation rates are present in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Although mtDNA is maternally inherited and male mtDNA mutation typically does not contribute to genetic variation in offspring, male mtDNA mutations are critical for male reproductive health...
September 27, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931739/what-drives-the-spatial-distribution-and-dynamics-of-local-species-richness-in-tropical-forest
#8
Thorsten Wiegand, Felix May, Martin Kazmierczak, Andreas Huth
Understanding the structure and dynamics of highly diverse tropical forests is challenging. Here we investigate the factors that drive the spatio-temporal variation of local tree numbers and species richness in a tropical forest (including 1250 plots of 20 × 20 m(2)). To this end, we use a series of dynamic models that are built around the local spatial variation of mortality and recruitment rates, and ask which combination of processes can explain the observed spatial and temporal variation in tree and species numbers...
September 27, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931738/biological-and-statistical-processes-jointly-drive-population-aggregation-using-host-parasite-interactions-to-understand-taylor-s-power-law
#9
Pieter T J Johnson, Mark Q Wilber
The macroecological pattern known as Taylor's power law (TPL) represents the pervasive tendency of the variance in population density to increase as a power function of the mean. Despite empirical illustrations in systems ranging from viruses to vertebrates, the biological significance of this relationship continues to be debated. Here we combined collection of a unique dataset involving 11 987 amphibian hosts and 332 684 trematode parasites with experimental measurements of core epidemiological outcomes to explicitly test the contributions of hypothesized biological processes in driving aggregation...
September 27, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931737/changes-in-predator-exposure-but-not-in-diet-induce-phenotypic-plasticity-in-scorpion-venom
#10
Alex N Gangur, Michael Smout, Michael J Liddell, Jamie E Seymour, David Wilson, Tobin D Northfield
Animals embedded between trophic levels must simultaneously balance pressures to deter predators and acquire resources. Venomous animals may use venom toxins to mediate both pressures, and thus changes in this balance may alter the composition of venoms. Basic theory suggests that greater exposure to a predator should induce a larger proportion of defensive venom components relative to offensive venom components, while increases in arms races with prey will elicit the reverse. Alternatively, reducing the need for venom expenditure for food acquisition, for example because of an increase in scavenging, may reduce the production of offensive venom components...
September 27, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931736/the-influence-of-stress-hormones-and-aggression-on-cooperative-behaviour-in-subordinate-meerkats
#11
Ben Dantzer, Ines Braga Goncalves, Helen C Spence-Jones, Nigel C Bennett, Michael Heistermann, Andre Ganswindt, Constance Dubuc, David Gaynor, Marta B Manser, Tim H Clutton-Brock
In cooperative breeders, aggression from dominant breeders directed at subordinates may raise subordinate stress hormone (glucocorticoid) concentrations. This may benefit dominants by suppressing subordinate reproduction but it is uncertain whether aggression from dominants can elevate subordinate cooperative behaviour, or how resulting changes in subordinate glucocorticoid concentrations affect their cooperative behaviour. We show here that the effects of manipulating glucocorticoid concentrations in wild meerkats (Suricata suricatta) on cooperative behaviour varied between cooperative activities as well as between the sexes...
September 27, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931735/dna-metabarcoding-of-orchid-derived-products-reveals-widespread-illegal-orchid-trade
#12
Hugo J de Boer, Abdolbaset Ghorbani, Vincent Manzanilla, Ancuta-Cristina Raclariu, Anna Kreziou, Sarawut Ounjai, Maslin Osathanunkul, Barbara Gravendeel
In eastern Mediterranean countries orchids continue to be collected from the wild for the production of salep, a beverage made of dried orchid tubers. In this study we used nrITS1 and nrITS2 DNA metabarcoding to identify orchid and other plant species present in 55 commercial salep products purchased in Iran, Turkey, Greece and Germany. Thirty samples yielded a total of 161 plant taxa, and 13 products (43%) contained orchid species and these belonged to 10 terrestrial species with tuberous roots. Another 70% contained the substitute ingredient Cyamopsis tetraganoloba (Guar)...
September 27, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931734/cross-taxa-generalities-in-the-relationship-between-population-abundance-and-ambient-temperatures
#13
Diana E Bowler, Peter Haase, Christian Hof, Ingrid Kröncke, Léon Baert, Wouter Dekoninck, Sami Domisch, Frederik Hendrickx, Thomas Hickler, Hermann Neumann, Robert B O'Hara, Anne F Sell, Moritz Sonnewald, Stefan Stoll, Michael Türkay, Roel van Klink, Oliver Schweiger, Rikjan Vermeulen, Katrin Böhning-Gaese
Identifying patterns in the effects of temperature on species' population abundances could help develop a general framework for predicting the consequences of climate change across different communities and realms. We used long-term population time series data from terrestrial, freshwater, and marine species communities within central Europe to compare the effects of temperature on abundance across a broad range of taxonomic groups. We asked whether there was an average relationship between temperatures in different seasons and annual abundances of species in a community, and whether species attributes (temperature range of distribution, range size, habitat breadth, dispersal ability, body size, and lifespan) explained interspecific variation in the relationship between temperature and abundance...
September 27, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931733/ecosystem-engineering-strengthens-bottom-up-and-weakens-top-down-effects-via-trait-mediated-indirect-interactions
#14
Zhiwei Zhong, Xiaofei Li, Dean Pearson, Deli Wang, Dirk Sanders, Yu Zhu, Ling Wang
Trophic interactions and ecosystem engineering are ubiquitous and powerful forces structuring ecosystems, yet how these processes interact to shape natural systems is poorly understood. Moreover, trophic effects can be driven by both density- and trait-mediated interactions. Microcosm studies demonstrate that trait-mediated interactions may be as strong as density-mediated interactions, but the relative importance of these pathways at natural spatial and temporal scales is underexplored. Here, we integrate large-scale field experiments and microcosms to examine the effects of ecosystem engineering on trophic interactions while also exploring how ecological scale influences density- and trait-mediated interaction pathways...
September 27, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931732/extending-the-durability-of-cultivar-resistance-by-limiting-epidemic-growth-rates
#15
Kevin Carolan, Joe Helps, Femke van den Berg, Ruairidh Bain, Neil Paveley, Frank van den Bosch
Cultivar resistance is an essential part of disease control programmes in many agricultural systems. The use of resistant cultivars applies a selection pressure on pathogen populations for the evolution of virulence, resulting in loss of disease control. Various techniques for the deployment of host resistance genes have been proposed to reduce the selection for virulence, but these are often difficult to apply in practice. We present a general technique to maintain the effectiveness of cultivar resistance...
September 27, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904147/long-legged-bees-make-adaptive-leaps-linking-adaptation-to-coevolution-in-a-plant-pollinator-network
#16
Anton Pauw, Belinda Kahnt, Michael Kuhlmann, Denis Michez, Graham A Montgomery, Elizabeth Murray, Bryan N Danforth
Adaptation is evolution in response to natural selection. Hence, an adaptation is expected to originate simultaneously with the acquisition of a particular selective environment. Here we test whether long legs evolve in oil-collecting Rediviva bees when they come under selection by long-spurred, oil-secreting flowers. To quantify the selective environment, we drew a large network of the interactions between Rediviva species and oil-secreting plant species. The selective environment of each bee species was summarized as the average spur length of the interacting plant species weighted by interaction frequency...
September 13, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904146/correction-to-the-evolution-of-dual-meat-and-milk-cattle-husbandry-in-linearbandkeramik-societies
#17
Rosalind E Gillis, Lenka Kovačiková, Stéphanie Bréhard, Emilie Guthmann, Ivana Vostrovská, Hana Nohálová, Rose-Marie Arbogast, László Domboróczki, Joachim Pechtl, Alexandra Anders, Arkadiusz Marciniak, Anne Tresset, Jean-Denis Vigne
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 13, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904145/older-fathers-children-have-lower-evolutionary-fitness-across-four-centuries-and-in-four-populations
#18
Ruben C Arslan, Kai P Willführ, Emma M Frans, Karin J H Verweij, Paul-Christian Bürkner, Mikko Myrskylä, Eckart Voland, Catarina Almqvist, Brendan P Zietsch, Lars Penke
Higher paternal age at offspring conception increases de novo genetic mutations. Based on evolutionary genetic theory we predicted older fathers' children, all else equal, would be less likely to survive and reproduce, i.e. have lower fitness. In sibling control studies, we find support for negative paternal age effects on offspring survival and reproductive success across four large populations with an aggregate N > 1.4 million. Three populations were pre-industrial (1670-1850) Western populations and showed negative paternal age effects on infant survival and offspring reproductive success...
September 13, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904144/low-recruitment-due-to-altered-settlement-substrata-as-primary-constraint-for-coral-communities-under-ocean-acidification
#19
Katharina E Fabricius, Sam H C Noonan, David Abrego, Lindsay Harrington, Glenn De'ath
The future of coral reefs under increasing CO2 depends on their capacity to recover from disturbances. To predict the recovery potential of coral communities that are fully acclimatized to elevated CO2, we compared the relative success of coral recruitment and later life stages at two volcanic CO2 seeps and adjacent control sites in Papua New Guinea. Our field experiments showed that the effects of ocean acidification (OA) on coral recruitment rates were up to an order of magnitude greater than the effects on the survival and growth of established corals...
September 13, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904143/hierarchical-structure-of-ecological-and-non-ecological-processes-of-differentiation-shaped-ongoing-gastropod-radiation-in-the-malawi-basin
#20
Bert Van Bocxlaer
Ecological processes, non-ecological processes or a combination of both may cause reproductive isolation and speciation, but their specific roles and potentially complex interactions in evolutionary radiations remain poorly understood, which defines a central knowledge gap at the interface of microevolution and macroevolution. Here I examine genome scans in combination with phenotypic and environmental data to disentangle how ecological and non-ecological processes contributed to population differentiation and speciation in an ongoing radiation of Lanistes gastropods from the Malawi Basin...
September 13, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
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