Read by QxMD icon Read

Proceedings. Biological Sciences

José C Noguera, Neil B Metcalfe, Pat Monaghan
Offspring of older parents frequently show reduced longevity, but the mechanisms driving this so-called 'Lansing effect' are unknown. While inheritance of short telomeres from older parents could underlie this effect, studies to date in different species have found mixed results, reporting positive, negative or no association between parental age and offspring telomere length (TL). However, most of the existing evidence is from non-experimental studies in which it is difficult to exclude alternative explanations such as differential survival of parents with different telomere lengths...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
P R Pearson, D A Warner
Seasonal shifts in environmental conditions provide predictable cues to which organisms can respond in adaptive ways. For example, seasonal changes in temperature can induce phenotypes at different times of the year that have season-specific fitness benefits. Here, we tested the hypothesis that embryo responses to seasonal changes in thermal environments are adaptively matched to the timing of reproduction (environmental-matching hypothesis). We collected eggs of the brown anole lizard ( Anolis sagrei ) from early and late seasons, and exposed them to early and late thermal regimes that mimic nest temperatures...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Deborah J Bird, William J Murphy, Lester Fox-Rosales, Iman Hamid, Robert A Eagle, Blaire Van Valkenburgh
The evolution of mammalian olfaction is manifested in a remarkable diversity of gene repertoires, neuroanatomy and skull morphology across living species. Olfactory receptor genes (ORGs), which initiate the conversion of odorant molecules into odour perceptions and help an animal resolve the olfactory world, range in number from a mere handful to several thousand genes across species. Within the snout, each of these ORGs is exclusively expressed by a discrete population of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), suggesting that newly evolved ORGs may be coupled with new OSN populations in the nasal epithelium...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Vanessa Kellermann, Ary A Hoffmann, Johannes Overgaard, Volker Loeschcke, Carla M Sgrò
Comparative analyses of ectotherm susceptibility to climate change often focus on thermal extremes, yet responses to aridity may be equally important. Here we focus on plasticity in desiccation resistance, a key trait shaping distributions of Drosophila species and other small ectotherms. We examined the extent to which 32 Drosophila species, varying in their distribution, could increase their desiccation resistance via phenotypic plasticity involving hardening, linking these responses to environment, phylogeny and basal resistance...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Sarah C Donelan, Geoffrey C Trussell
Because phenotypic plasticity can operate both within and between generations, phenotypic outcomes are often shaped by a complex history of environmental signals. For example, parental and embryonic experiences with predation risk can both independently and interactively influence prey offspring traits early in their life. Parental and embryonic risk experiences can also independently shape offspring phenotypes throughout an offspring's ontogeny, but the persistence of their interactive effects throughout offspring ontogeny is unknown...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Qike Wang, Yidan Shang, Douglas S Hilton, Kiao Inthavong, Dong Zhang, Mark A Elgar
The elaborate bipectinate antennae of male moths are thought to increase their sensitivity to female sex pheromones, and so should be favoured by selection. Yet simple filamentous antennae are the most common structure among moths. The stereotypic arrangements of scales on the surface of antennae may resolve this paradox. We use computational fluid dynamics techniques to model how scales on the filamentous antennae of moths affect the passage of different particles in the airflow across the flagellum in both small and large moths...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Maria Moiron, Kimberley J Mathot, Niels J Dingemanse
Adaptive theory predicts that the fundamental trade-off between starvation and predation risk shapes diurnal patterns in foraging activity and mass gain in wintering passerine birds. Foragers mitigating both types of risk should exhibit a bimodal distribution (increased foraging and mass gain early and late in the day), whereas both foraging and mass gains early (versus late) during the day are expected when the risk of starvation (versus predation) is greatest. Finally, relatively constant rates of foraging and mass gain should occur when the starvation-predation risk trade-off is independent of body mass...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Guozhi Yu, Desiree Y Baeder, Roland R Regoes, Jens Rolff
Antibiotic resistance constitutes one of the most pressing public health concerns. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) of multicellular organisms are considered part of a solution to this problem, and AMPs produced by bacteria such as colistin are last-resort drugs. Importantly, AMPs differ from many antibiotics in their pharmacodynamic characteristics. Here we implement these differences within a theoretical framework to predict the evolution of resistance against AMPs and compare it to antibiotic resistance. Our analysis of resistance evolution finds that pharmacodynamic differences all combine to produce a much lower probability that resistance will evolve against AMPs...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Joanne Lello, Susan J McClure, Kerri Tyrrell, Mark E Viney
It is normal for hosts to be co-infected by parasites. Interactions among co-infecting species can have profound consequences, including changing parasite transmission dynamics, altering disease severity and confounding attempts at parasite control. Despite the importance of co-infection, there is currently no way to predict how different parasite species may interact with one another, nor the consequences of those interactions. Here, we demonstrate a method that enables such prediction by identifying two nematode parasite groups based on taxonomy and characteristics of the parasitological niche...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Cecilia Siliansky de Andreazzi, Paulo R Guimarães, Carlos J Melián
Studies have shown the potential for rapid adaptation in coevolving populations and that the structure of species interaction networks can modulate the vulnerability of ecological systems to perturbations. Although the feedback loop between population dynamics and coevolution of traits is crucial for understanding long-term stability in ecological assemblages, modelling eco-evolutionary dynamics in species-rich assemblages is still a challenge. We explore how eco-evolutionary feedbacks influence trait evolution and species abundances in 23 empirical antagonistic networks...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Robert J Miller, Kevin D Lafferty, Thomas Lamy, Li Kui, Andrew Rassweiler, Daniel C Reed
Foundation species define the ecosystems they live in, but ecologists have often characterized dominant plants as foundational without supporting evidence. Giant kelp has long been considered a marine foundation species due to its complex structure and high productivity; however, there is little quantitative evidence to evaluate this. Here, we apply structural equation modelling to a 15-year time series of reef community data to evaluate how giant kelp affects the reef community. Although species richness was positively associated with giant kelp biomass, most direct paths did not involve giant kelp...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
A W Park, M J Farrell, J P Schmidt, S Huang, T A Dallas, P Pappalardo, J M Drake, P R Stephens, R Poulin, C L Nunn, T J Davies
The distribution of parasites across mammalian hosts is complex and represents a differential ability or opportunity to infect different host species. Here, we take a macroecological approach to investigate factors influencing why some parasites show a tendency to infect species widely distributed in the host phylogeny (phylogenetic generalism) while others infect only closely related hosts. Using a database on over 1400 parasite species that have been documented to infect up to 69 terrestrial mammal host species, we characterize the phylogenetic generalism of parasites using standard effect sizes for three metrics: mean pairwise phylogenetic distance (PD), maximum PD and phylogenetic aggregation...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Emma Sheehy, Chris Sutherland, Catherine O'Reilly, Xavier Lambin
Shared enemies may instigate or modify competitive interactions between species. The dis-equilibrium caused by non-native species introductions has revealed that the outcome of such indirect interactions can often be dramatic. However, studies of enemy-mediated competition mostly consider the impact of a single enemy, despite species being embedded in complex networks of interactions. Here, we demonstrate that native red and invasive grey squirrels in Britain, two terrestrial species linked by resource and disease-mediated apparent competition, are also now linked by a second enemy-mediated relationship involving a shared native predator recovering from historical persecution, the European pine marten...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Umesh Srinivasan, Paul R Elsen, Morgan W Tingley, David S Wilcove
Longstanding theory predicts that competitive interactions set species' range limits in relatively aseasonal, species-rich regions, while temperature limits distributions in more seasonal, species-poor areas. More recent theory holds that species evolve narrow physiological tolerances in aseasonal regions, with temperature being an important determining factor in such zones. We tested how abiotic (temperature) and biotic (competition) factors set range limits and structure bird communities along strong, opposing, temperature-seasonality and species-richness gradients in the Himalayas, in two regions separated by 1500 km...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Mikael Pontarp, Owen L Petchey
Much of life's diversity has arisen through ecological opportunity and adaptive radiations, but the mechanistic underpinning of such diversification is not fully understood. Competition and predation can affect adaptive radiations, but contrasting theoretical and empirical results show that they can both promote and interrupt diversification. A mechanistic understanding of the link between microevolutionary processes and macroevolutionary patterns is thus needed, especially in trophic communities. Here, we use a trait-based eco-evolutionary model to investigate the mechanisms linking competition, predation and adaptive radiations...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Sandra A Binning, Dominique G Roche, Alexandra S Grutter, Simona Colosio, Derek Sun, Joanna Miest, Redouan Bshary
Cleaning organisms play a fundamental ecological role by removing ectoparasites and infected tissue from client surfaces. We used the well-studied cleaning mutualisms involving the cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus, to test how client cognition is affected by ectoparasites and whether these effects are mitigated by cleaners. Ambon damselfish ( Pomacentrus amboinensis) collected from experimental reef patches without cleaner wrasse performed worse in a visual discrimination test than conspecifics from patches with cleaners...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Christian E Vincenot
Progress in understanding and managing complex systems comprised of decision-making agents, such as cells, organisms, ecosystems or societies, is-like many scientific endeavours-limited by disciplinary boundaries. These boundaries, however, are moving and can actively be made porous or even disappear. To study this process, I advanced an original bibliometric approach based on network analysis to track and understand the development of the model-based science of agent-based complex systems (ACS). I analysed research citations between the two communities devoted to ACS research, namely agent-based (ABM) and individual-based modelling (IBM)...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Paola Pulido-Santacruz, Alexandre Aleixo, Jason T Weir
We possess limited understanding of how speciation unfolds in the most species-rich region of the planet-the Amazon basin. Hybrid zones provide valuable information on the evolution of reproductive isolation, but few studies of Amazonian vertebrate hybrid zones have rigorously examined the genome-wide underpinnings of reproductive isolation. We used genome-wide genetic datasets to show that two deeply diverged, but morphologically cryptic sister species of forest understorey birds show little evidence for prezygotic reproductive isolation, but substantial postzygotic isolation...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Jessica Needham, Cory Merow, Chia-Hao Chang-Yang, Hal Caswell, Sean M McMahon
As population-level patterns of interest in forests emerge from individual vital rates, modelling forest dynamics requires making the link between the scales at which data are collected (individual stems) and the scales at which questions are asked (e.g. populations and communities). Structured population models (e.g. integral projection models (IPMs)) are useful tools for linking vital rates to population dynamics. However, the application of such models to forest trees remains challenging owing to features of tree life cycles, such as slow growth, long lifespan and lack of data on crucial ontogenic stages...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Spencer C H Barrett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"