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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30208169/alterations-in-the-expression-and-activity-of-extracellular-matrix-components-in-hpv-associated-infections-and-diseases
#1
Suellen Herbster, Andressa Paladino, Sumara de Freitas, Enrique Boccardo
Infection with human papillomaviruses is associated with a series of benign and malignant hyperproliferative diseases that impose a heavy burden on human populations. A subgroup of mucosal human papillomavirus types are associated with the majority of cervical cancers and a relevant fraction of vulvar, vaginal, anal, penile and head and neck carcinomas. Human papillomaviruses mediate cell transformation by the expression of two pleiotropic oncoproteins that alter major cellular regulatory pathways. However, these viruses are not complete carcinogens, and further alterations within the infected cells and in their microenvironment are necessary for tumor establishment and progression...
September 6, 2018: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30208168/human-papillomavirus-and-genome-instability-from-productive-infection-to-cancer
#2
Bruna Prati, Bruna Marangoni, Enrique Boccardo
Infection with high oncogenic risk human papillomavirus types is the etiological factor of cervical cancer and a major cause of other epithelial malignancies, including vulvar, vaginal, anal, penile and head and neck carcinomas. These agents affect epithelial homeostasis through the expression of specific proteins that deregulate important cellular signaling pathways to achieve efficient viral replication. Among the major targets of viral proteins are components of the DNA damage detection and repair machinery...
September 6, 2018: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30208167/interdisciplinary-interventions-in-the-perioperative-rehabilitation-of-total-laryngectomy-an-integrative-review
#3
Vitor Modesto Rosa, Joselia Maria Lira Fores, Erika Priscila Ferreira da Silva, Elizeteh Oliveira Guterres, Aline Marcelino, Paula Cristina Nogueira, Wania Regina Mollo Baia, Marco Aurélio Vamondes Kulcsar
The aim of this study was to use the scientific literature to identify interdisciplinary interventions for rehabilitation during the perioperative period for cancer patients who underwent total laryngectomy. We systematically researched controlled descriptors: laryngectomy, patient care team/education, patient care team/manpower, patient care team/methods, patient care team/utilization and rehabilitation. We performed a qualitative narrative synthesis and identified 549 articles. Of these, 113 were duplicates, 398 were excluded during the analysis of the title and abstract, 1 was excluded for unfeasibility of access, and 4 were excluded after reading the article in full, resulting in 33 included articles...
September 6, 2018: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30208166/perspectives-for-cancer-immunotherapy-mediated-by-p19arf-plus-interferon-beta-gene-transfer
#4
Bryan E Strauss, Gissele Rolemberg Oliveira Silva, Igor de Luna Vieira, Otto Luiz Dutra Cerqueira, Paulo Roberto Del Valle, Ruan Felipe Vieira Medrano, Samir Andrade Mendonça
While cancer immunotherapy has gained much deserved attention in recent years, many areas regarding the optimization of such modalities remain unexplored, including the development of novel approaches and the strategic combination of therapies that target multiple aspects of the cancer-immunity cycle. Our own work involves the use of gene transfer technology to promote cell death and immune stimulation. Such immunogenic cell death, mediated by the combined transfer of the alternate reading frame (p14ARF in humans and p19Arf in mice) and the interferon-β cDNA in our case, was shown to promote an antitumor immune response in mouse models of melanoma and lung carcinoma...
September 6, 2018: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30208165/dna-repair-pathways-and-cisplatin-resistance-an-intimate-relationship
#5
Clarissa Ribeiro Reily Rocha, Matheus Molina Silva, Annabel Quinet, Januario Bispo Cabral-Neto, Carlos Frederico Martins Menck
The main goal of chemotherapeutic drugs is to induce massive cell death in tumors. Cisplatin is an antitumor drug widely used to treat several types of cancer. Despite its remarkable efficiency, most tumors show intrinsic or acquired drug resistance. The primary biological target of cisplatin is genomic DNA, and it causes a plethora of DNA lesions that block transcription and replication. These cisplatin-induced DNA lesions strongly induce cell death if they are not properly repaired or processed. To counteract cisplatin-induced DNA damage, cells use an intricate network of mechanisms, including DNA damage repair and translesion synthesis...
September 6, 2018: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30208164/the-human-adrenal-cortex-growth-control-and-disorders
#6
Claudimara Ferini Pacicco Lotfi, Jean Lucas Kremer, Barbara Dos Santos Passaia, Isadora Pontes Cavalcante
This review summarizes key knowledge regarding the development, growth, and growth disorders of the adrenal cortex from a molecular perspective. The adrenal gland consists of two distinct regions: the cortex and the medulla. During embryological development and transition to the adult adrenal gland, the adrenal cortex acquires three different structural and functional zones. Significant progress has been made in understanding the signaling and molecules involved during adrenal cortex zonation. Equally significant is the knowledge obtained regarding the action of peptide factors involved in the maintenance of zonation of the adrenal cortex, such as peptides derived from proopiomelanocortin processing, adrenocorticotropin and N-terminal proopiomelanocortin...
September 6, 2018: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30208163/revisiting-the-roles-of-vhr-dusp3-phosphatase-in-human-diseases
#7
Lilian Cristina Russo, Jéssica Oliveira Farias, Pault Yeison Minaya Ferruzo, Lucas Falcão Monteiro, Fábio Luís Forti
Protein tyrosine phosphatases have long been considered key regulators of biological processes and are therefore implicated in the origins of various human diseases. Heterozygosity, mutations, deletions, and the complete loss of some of these enzymes have been reported to cause neurodegenerative diseases, autoimmune syndromes, genetic disorders, metabolic diseases, cancers, and many other physiological imbalances. Vaccinia H1-related phosphatase, also known as dual-specificity phosphatase 3, is a protein tyrosine phosphatase enzyme that regulates the phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway, a central mediator of a diversity of biological responses...
September 6, 2018: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30208162/metformin-and-blood-cancers
#8
Ademar Dantas Cunha Júnior, Fernando Vieira Pericole, Jose Barreto Campello Carvalheira
Type 2 diabetes mellitus and cancer are correlated with changes in insulin signaling, a pathway that is frequently upregulated in neoplastic tissue but impaired in tissues that are classically targeted by insulin in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Many antidiabetes treatments, particularly metformin, enhance insulin signaling, but this pathway can be inhibited by specific cancer treatments. The modulation of cancer growth by metformin and of insulin sensitivity by anticancer drugs is so common that this phenomenon is being studied in hundreds of clinical trials on cancer...
September 6, 2018: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30156595/a-didactic-approach-to-presenting-verbal-and-visual-information-to-children-participating-in-research-protocols-the-comic-book-informed-assent
#9
Thaís Massetti, Tânia Brusque Crocetta, Regiani Guarnieri, Talita Dias da Silva, Andrea Fernanda Leal, Mariana Callil Voos, Carlos Bandeira de Mello Monteiro
OBJECTIVE: When children participate in research protocols, consent (by a parent or legal guardian) and assent (by the children) must be given. Understanding research protocols can be challenging for an adult and even more difficult for a child. The aim of this study was to describe the development of a comic book created to facilitate children's understanding of informed assent with clear and simple language. METHODS: Five researchers with scores above seven according to the Fehring criteria developed the comic book, avoiding the use of technical terminology...
August 27, 2018: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30133566/eicosanoids-and-cancer
#10
Renata Nascimento Gomes, Souza Felipe da Costa, Alison Colquhoun
Eicosanoids are 20-carbon bioactive lipids derived from the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which can modulate various biological processes including cell proliferation, adhesion and migration, angiogenesis, vascular permeability and inflammatory responses. In recent years, studies have shown the importance of eicosanoids in the control of physiological and pathological processes associated with several diseases, including cancer. The polyunsaturated fatty acid predominantly metabolized to generate 2-series eicosanoids is arachidonic acid, which is the major n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid found in animal fat and in the occidental diet...
August 20, 2018: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30133565/carcinoid-syndrome-update-on-the-pathophysiology-and-treatment
#11
Anezka C Rubin de Celis Ferrari, João Glasberg, Rachel P Riechelmann
Approximately 30-40% of patients with well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors present with carcinoid syndrome, which is a paraneoplastic syndrome associated with the secretion of several humoral factors. Carcinoid syndrome significantly and negatively affects patients' quality of life; increases costs compared with the costs of nonfunctioning neuroendocrine tumors; and results in changes in patients' lifestyle, such as diet, work, physical activity and social life. For several decades, patients with neuroendocrine tumors and carcinoid syndrome have been treated with somatostatin analogues as the first-line treatment...
August 20, 2018: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30133564/epidemiology-and-biology-of-cutaneous-human-papillomavirus
#12
Emily M Nunes, Valéria Talpe-Nunes, Laura Sichero
Cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPVs) include β- and γ-HPVs, in addition to a small fraction of α-HPVs. β-HPVs were first isolated from patients with the rare genetic disorder Epidermodysplasia verruciformis, and they are associated with the development of nonmelanoma skin cancer at sun-exposed skin sites in these individuals. Organ transplant recipients also have greater susceptibility to β-HPV infection of the skin and an increased risk of developing nonmelanoma skin cancer. In both immunosuppressed and immunocompromised individuals, cutaneous HPVs are ubiquitously disseminated throughout healthy skin and may be an intrinsic part of the commensal flora...
August 20, 2018: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30133563/marine-drugs-for-cancer-surfacing-biotechnological-innovations-from-the-oceans
#13
Paula Christine Jimenez, Diego Veras Wilke, Leticia Veras Costa-Lotufo
This review will discuss the contributions of marine natural molecules, a source only recently found to have pharmaceutical prospects, to the development of anticancer drugs. Of the seven clinically utilized compounds with a marine origin, four are used for the treatment of cancer. The development of these drugs has afforded valuable knowledge and crucial insights to meet the most common challenges in this endeavor, such as toxicity and supply. In this context, the development of these compounds will be discussed herein to illustrate, with successful examples provided by cytarabine, trabectedin, eribulin and brentuximab vedotin, the steps involved in this process as well as the scientific advances and technological innovation potential associated with developing a new drug from marine resources...
August 20, 2018: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30133562/improving-adenoviral-vectors-and-strategies-for-prostate-cancer-gene-therapy
#14
Rodrigo Esaki Tamura, Igor Vieira de Luna, Marlous Gomes Lana, Bryan E Strauss
Gene therapy has been evaluated for the treatment of prostate cancer and includes the application of adenoviral vectors encoding a suicide gene or oncolytic adenoviruses that may be armed with a functional transgene. In parallel, versions of adenoviral vector expressing the p53 gene (Ad-p53) have been tested as treatments for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and non-small cell lung cancer. Although Ad-p53 gene therapy has yielded some interesting results when applied to prostate cancer, it has not been widely explored, perhaps due to current limitations of the approach...
August 20, 2018: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30133561/homologous-recombination-deficiency-in-ovarian-cancer-a-review-of-its-epidemiology-and-management
#15
Renata Rodrigues da Cunha Colombo Bonadio, Rodrigo Nogueira Fogace, Vanessa Costa Miranda, Maria Del Pilar Estevez Diz
Ovarian cancer patients with homologous recombination deficiencies exhibit specific clinical behaviors, and improved responses to treatments, such as platinum-based chemotherapy and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors, have been observed. Germline mutations in the BRCA 1/2 genes are the most well-known mechanisms of homologous recombination deficiency. However, other mechanisms, such as germline and somatic mutations in other homologous recombination genes and epigenetic modifications, have also been implicated in homologous recombination deficiency...
August 20, 2018: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30133560/immunological-based-approaches-for-cancer-therapy
#16
Luciana Barros, Marco Antonio Pretti, Leonardo Chicaybam, Luiza Abdo, Mariana Boroni, Martin Hernán Bonamino
The immunologic landscape of tumors has been continuously unveiled, providing a new look at the interactions between cancer cells and the immune system. Emerging tumor cells are constantly eliminated by the immune system, but some cells establish a long-term equilibrium phase leading to tumor immunoediting and, eventually, evasion. During this process, tumor cells tend to acquire more mutations. Bearing a high mutation burden leads to a greater number of neoantigens with the potential to initiate an immune response...
August 20, 2018: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30110069/relationships-between-female-infertility-and-female-genital-infections-and-pelvic-inflammatory-disease-a-population-based-nested-controlled-study
#17
Xin Tao, Shu-Qi Ge, Lei Chen, Li-Si Cai, Muh-Fa Hwang, Chiung-Lang Wang
OBJECTIVES: Our purpose was to examine the associations of female genital infections and certain comorbidities with infertility. METHODS: The Taiwan National Health Research Database was searched for women with a new diagnosis of infertility between 2000 and 2013. Women without a diagnosis of infertility served as a control group and were matched with the infertility cases by age (±3 years) and index year. They were divided into two groups: ≤40 years old and >40 years old...
August 9, 2018: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30088537/intraoperative-imprint-cytology-versus-histological-diagnosis-for-the-detection-of-sentinel-lymph-nodes-in-breast-cancer-treated-with-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy
#18
Ronald Enrique Delgado-Bocanegra, Eduardo Camargo Millen, Cristina Moreira do Nascimento, Karine de Aguiar Bruno
OBJECTIVES: To compare imprint cytology and paraffin section histology for sentinel lymph node detection in women with breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. METHOD: A cross-sectional study and report of the sentinel lymph node statuses of 64 patients with breast cancer who underwent intraoperative imprint cytology and neoadjuvant chemotherapy in a referral cancer institute in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between 2014 and 2016. RESULTS: The mean age was 51 years...
August 2, 2018: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30088536/does-resistance-training-improve-body-image-satisfaction-among-the-elderly-a-cross-sectional-study
#19
Roberta Luksevicius Rica, Eliane Florencio Gama, Alexandre Fernandes Machado, Angélica Castilho Alonso, Alexandre L Evangelista, Aylton Figueira-Junior, Marcelo Zanetti, Regina Brandão, Maria Luiza de Jesus Miranda, José Vilaça Alves, Marco Bergamin, Danilo Sales Bocalini
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate whether body image satisfaction improves with practice in resistance training in elderly women. METHODS: Forty women were selected and randomly divided into an untrained group (UN) group and a group trained in resistance exercises (RT). To evaluate body image satisfaction, the silhouette matching task was used. RESULTS: No differences were found between current (5.45±0.24) and ideal (4.7±0.12) silhouettes in the RT group...
August 2, 2018: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30088535/ace-gene-dosage-determines-additional-autonomic-dysfunction-and-increases-renal-angiotensin-ii-levels-in-diabetic-mice
#20
Oscar Albuquerque de Moraes, Karin Flues, Kátia Bilhar Scapini, Cristiano Mostarda, Fabiana de Sant'Anna Evangelista, Bruno Rodrigues, Daniela Ravizzoni Dartora, Patricia Fiorino, Kátia De Angelis, Maria Cláudia Irigoyen
OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to investigate cardiovascular autonomic modulation and angiotensin II (Ang II) activity in diabetic mice that were genetically engineered to harbor two or three copies of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene. METHODS: Diabetic and non-diabetic mice harboring 2 or 3 copies of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene were used in the present study. Animals were divided into 4 groups: diabetic groups with two and three copies of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene (2CD and 3CD) and the respective age-matched non-diabetic groups (2C and 3C)...
August 2, 2018: Clinics
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