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Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903320/effects-of-intrauterine-environment-on-the-magnitude-of-differences-within-the-pairs-of-monozygotic-and-dizygotic-twins
#1
Małgorzata Waszak, Krystyna Cieślik, Marzena Skrzypczak-Zielińska, Marlena Szalata, Karolina Wielgus, Oliwia Zakerska-Banaszak, Grzegorz Bręborowicz, Ryszard Słomski
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of intrauterine environment on the magnitude of intrapair differences in six somatic traits of monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins (1,263 pairs; 424 MZ twins and 839 DZ twins). Differences in intrauterine environments of MZ twins enforced division of the research material into four groups: (1) MZ-MC-TTTS - MZ twins from monochorionic (MC) pregnancies with twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS), (2) MZ-MC (without TTTS)-MZ twins from MC pregnancies without TTTS, (3) MZ-DC-MZ twins from dichorionic (DC) pregnancies, and (4) DZ-DZ twins...
December 1, 2016: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846924/genetic-and-environmental-influences-on-general-skin-traits-healthy-twins-and-families-in-korea
#2
Young Ju Suh, Jeonghyun Shin, Moonil Kang, Hyun Ju Park, Kayoung Lee, Yun-Mi Song, Joohon Sung
Family study can provide estimates of overall genetic influences on a particular trait because family relationships provide accurate measures of average genetic sharing. However, evidence of genetic contributions to skin phenotypes is limited, which may preclude genetic studies to identify genetic variants or to understand underlying molecular biology of skin traits. This study aimed to estimate genetic and environmental contributions to selected dermatologic phenotypes, that is, to melanin index, sebum secretion, and skin humidity level in a Korean twin-family cohort...
November 16, 2016: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852356/thg-volume-19-issue-6-cover-and-front-matter
#3
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852355/the-genetic-overlap-between-hair-and-eye-color
#4
Bochao D Lin, Gonneke Willemsen, Abdel Abdellaoui, Meike Bartels, Erik A Ehli, Gareth E Davies, Dorret I Boomsma, Jouke J Hottenga
We identified the genetic variants for eye color by Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) in a Dutch Caucasian family-based population sample and examined the genetic correlation between hair and eye color using data from unrelated participants from the Netherlands Twin Register. With the Genome-wide Complex Trait Analysis software package, we found strong genetic correlations between various combinations of hair and eye colors. The strongest positive correlations were found for blue eyes with blond hair (0...
December 2016: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852354/exploring-the-genetic-etiology-of-trust-in-adolescents-combined-twin-and-dna-analyses
#5
Robyn E Wootton, Oliver S P Davis, Abigail L Mottershaw, R Adele H Wang, Claire M A Haworth
Behavioral traits generally show moderate to strong genetic influence, with heritability estimates of around 50%. Some recent research has suggested that trust may be an exception because it is more strongly influenced by social interactions. In a sample of over 7,000 adolescent twins from the United Kingdom's Twins Early Development Study, we found broad sense heritability estimates of 57% for generalized trust and 51% for trust in friends. Genomic-relatedness-matrix restricted maximum likelihood (GREML) estimates in the same sample indicate that 21% of the narrow sense genetic variance can be explained by common single nucleotide polymorphisms for generalized trust and 43% for trust in friends...
December 2016: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852353/the-brazilian-twin-registry
#6
Paulo H Ferreira, Vinicius C Oliveira, Daniela R Junqueira, Lígia C Cisneros, Lucas C Ferreira, Kate Murphy, Juan R Ordoñana, John L Hopper, Luci F Teixeira-Salmela
The Brazilian Twin Registry (BTR) was established in 2013 and has impelled twin research in South America. The main aim of the initiative was to create a resource that would be accessible to the Brazilian scientific community as well as international researchers interested in the investigation of the contribution of genetic and environmental factors in the development of common diseases, phenotypes, and human behavior traits. The BTR is a joint effort between academic and governmental institutions from Brazil and Australia...
December 2016: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852352/thg-volume-19-issue-6-cover-and-back-matter
#7
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852351/remembering-irving-i-gottesman-twin-research-colleague-and-friend-extraordinaire-research-studies-face-lift-technique-comparison-in-identical-twins-raising-preterm-twins-fetal-behavior-in-dichorionic-twin-pregnancies-co-bedding-and-stress-reduction-in-twins
#8
Nancy L Segal
Dr Irving I. Gottesman, a colleague, friend, and long-time member of the International Society of Twin Studies passed away on June 29, 2016. His contributions to twin research and some personal reflections are presented to honor both the man and the memory. This tribute is followed by short reviews of twin research concerning differences between cosmetic surgical techniques, the rearing of preterm twins, behavioral observations of dichorionic fetal twins, and the outcomes of co-bedding twins with reference to stress reduction...
December 2016: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776569/twinning-and-multiple-birth-rates-according-to-maternal-age-in-the-city-of-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-brazil-2003-2014
#9
Emma Otta, Eloisa de S Fernandes, Tiziana G Acquaviva, Tania K Lucci, Leda C Kiehl, Marco A C Varella, Nancy L Segal, Jaroslava V Valentova
The present study investigates the twinning rates in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, during the years 2003-2014. The data were drawn from the Brazilian Health Department database of Sistema de Informações de Nascidos Vivos de São Paulo-SINASC (Live Births Information System of São Paulo). In general, more information is available on the incidence of twinning in developed countries than in developing ones. A total of 24,589 twin deliveries and 736 multiple deliveries were registered in 140 hospitals of São Paulo out of a total of 2,056,016 deliveries during the studied time period...
December 2016: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766995/the-outcome-of-monochorionic-diamniotic-twins-discordant-at-11-to-13-6-weeks-gestation
#10
Yaniv Zipori, Karen Reidy, T Gilchrist, Lex W Doyle, Mark P Umstad
BACKGROUND: Monochorionic diamniotic (MCDA) twin pregnancies are associated with adverse perinatal outcome. Intertwin discordances at the time of nuchal translucency (NT) screening may have a value in the prediction of fetal loss or twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. We aimed to determine the ability of intertwin NT and crown rump length (CRL) discordances among MCDA twins to predict adverse outcomes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All MCDA twins with a documented routine ultrasound at 11 to 13+6 weeks' gestation, and known pregnancy outcome between August 2003 and August 2012 were included...
December 2016: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762180/how-cognitive-genetic-factors-influence-fertility-outcomes-a-mediational-sem-analysis
#11
Michael A Woodley Of Menie, Joseph A Schwartz, Kevin M Beaver
Utilizing a newly released cognitive Polygenic Score (PGS) from Wave IV of Add Health (n = 1,886), structural equation models (SEMs) examining the relationship between PGS and fertility (which is approximately 50% complete in the present sample), employing measures of verbal IQ and educational attainment as potential mediators, were estimated. The results of indirect pathway models revealed that verbal IQ mediates the positive relationship between PGS and educational attainment, and educational attainment in turn mediates the negative relationship between verbal IQ and a latent fertility measure...
December 2016: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748230/what-drives-the-development-of-social-inequality-over-the-life-course-the-german-twinlife-study
#12
Elisabeth Hahn, Juliana Gottschling, Wiebke Bleidorn, Christian Kandler, Marion Spengler, Anna E Kornadt, Wiebke Schulz, Reinhardt Schunck, Tina Baier, Kristina Krell, Volker Lang, Franziska Lenau, Anna-Lena Peters, Martin Diewald, Rainer Riemann, Frank M Spinath
The German twin family study 'TwinLife' was designed to enhance our understanding of the development of social inequalities over the life course. The interdisciplinary project investigates mechanisms of social inequalities across the lifespan by taking into account psychological as well as social mechanisms, and their genetic origin as well as the interaction and covariation between these factors. Main characteristics of the study are: (1) a multidimensional perspective on social inequalities, (2) the assessment of developmental trajectories in childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood in a longitudinal design by using (3) a combination of a multi-cohort cross-sequential and an extended twin family design, while (4) capturing a large variation of behavioral and environmental factors in a representative sample of about 4,000 German twin families...
December 2016: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748217/genetic-etiologies-of-comorbidity-and-stability-for-reading-difficulties-and-adhd-a-replication-study
#13
Sally J Wadsworth, John C DeFries, Erik G Willcutt, Bruce F Pennington, Richard K Olson
Because of recent concerns about the replication of published results in the behavioral and biomedical sciences (Ioannidis, PLoS Medicine, Vol. 2, 2005, p. e124; Open Science Collaboration, Science, Vol. 349, 2015, p. 943; Pashler & Wagenmakers, Perspectives on Psychological Science, Vol. 7, 2012, pp. 528-530), we have conducted a replication of our recently published analyses of longitudinal reading performance and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder data from twin pairs selected for reading difficulties (Wadsworth et al...
December 2016: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725004/lab-girl-hope-jahren-2016-alfred-a-knopf-290-pages-isbn-978-0-349-00619-2man-of-science-man-of-god-gregor-mendel-discovering-the-gene-for-his-150th-anniversary-david-j-galton-timaeus-press-at-wolfson-241-pages-isbn-978-1-326-25936-5
#14
Dorret I Boomsma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719687/the-identification-of-hereditary-and-environmental-determinants-of-frailty-in-a-cohort-of-uk-twins
#15
Aideen C M Young, Karen Glaser, Timothy D Spector, Claire J Steves
Our study examines the contribution of genetic and environmental factors (both shared and unique) to frailty, measured using the Rockwood Frailty Index (FI) in a sample of twins from the St Thomas' UK Adult Twin Registry. The FI was based on 39 items of potential health deficit. Study participants were 3,375 volunteer adult twins (840 monozygotic and 802 dizygotic twin-pairs) 40.0-84.5 years old. First, we used structural equation modeling to estimate the relative contribution of genetics and of the shared and unique environment to variance in FI adjusted for age...
December 2016: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702415/shared-genetic-factors-in-the-co-occurrence-of-depression-and-fatigue
#16
Elizabeth C Corfield, Nicholas G Martin, Dale R Nyholt
Depression and fatigue have previously been suggested to share an underlying genetic contribution. The present study aims to investigate and characterize the familiality and genetic relationship between depression and fatigue. The familiality of depression and fatigue was assessed by calculating relative risks, measured by the prevalence ratio, within 643 monozygotic (MZ) and 577 dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs. Bivariate twin modeling was utilized to assess the magnitude of shared heritability between depression and fatigue...
December 2016: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677539/intrahepatic-cholestasis-of-pregnancy-in-women-with-twin-pregnancy
#17
Dan Shan, Yayi Hu, Peiyuan Qiu, Bechu Shelley Mathew, Yun Chen, Si Li, Yuan Hu, Lijun Lin, Zhi Wang, Luping Li
The aim of the present work was to determine maternal and fetal outcomes of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) in twin pregnancies. All twin pregnancies delivered above 28 gestational weeks in West China Second University Hospital from January 2013 to May 2015 were included. Data on maternal demographics and obstetric complications together with fetal outcomes were collected. The risk of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes were determined in relation to ICP by crude odds ratios (OR) and adjusted ORs (aOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI)...
December 2016: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670103/twinning-rates-in-isolates
#18
Johan Fellman
The aim of this study was to investigate the twinning rates (TWRs) in isolates relative to the TWRs in the surrounding populations. It is not uncommon that the TWR shows extreme values (high or low rates) within isolated subpopulations. Starting from the isolated populations of the Åland Islands in Finland (high rates), we enlarged our studies to other isolated subpopulations in other countries: the island of Gotland (high rates), the county of Älvsborg located in the southwestern part of Sweden (low rates), and mountain villages in Norway...
December 2016: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620693/an-underlying-common-factor-influenced-by-genetics-and-unique-environment-explains-the-covariation-between-major-depressive-disorder-generalized-anxiety-disorder-and-burnout-a-swedish-twin-study
#19
Lisa Mather, Victoria Blom, Gunnar Bergström, Pia Svedberg
Depression and anxiety are highly comorbid due to shared genetic risk factors, but less is known about whether burnout shares these risk factors. We aimed to examine whether the covariation between major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and burnout is explained by common genetic and/or environmental factors. This cross-sectional study included 25,378 Swedish twins responding to a survey in 2005-2006. Structural equation models were used to analyze whether the trait variances and covariances were due to additive genetics, non-additive genetics, shared environment, and unique environment...
December 2016: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27439998/the-impact-of-gender-on-anthropometric-measures-of-twins
#20
Shayesteh Jahanfar, Kenneth Lim
INTRODUCTION: Literature suggests that male hormones influence fetal growth in singleton pregnancies. We hypothesized that the same phenomenon is seen in twin gestations. OBJECTIVES: (1) to identify the impact of gender associated with fetal birth weight, head circumference, and birth length for twins; (2) to examine the effect of gender on standardized fetal growth at birth, according to gestational age and birth order; (3) to examine the effect of gender on placenta weight and dimensions...
December 2016: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
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