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Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757125/cross-cultural-comparison-of-genetic-and-cultural-transmission-of-smoking-initiation-using-an-extended-twin-kinship-model
#1
Hermine H Maes, Kate Morley, Michael C Neale, Kenneth S Kendler, Andrew C Heath, Lindon J Eaves, Nicholas G Martin
BACKGROUND: Considerable evidence from twin and adoption studies indicates that genetic and shared environmental factors play a role in the initiation of smoking behavior. Although twin and adoption designs are powerful to detect genetic and environmental influences, they do not provide information on the processes of assortative mating and parent-offspring transmission and their contribution to the variability explained by genetic and/or environmental factors. METHODS: We examined the role of genetic and environmental factors in individual differences for smoking initiation (SI) using an extended kinship design...
May 14, 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743129/establishing-a-twin-register-an-invaluable-resource-for-behavior-genetic-epidemiological-biomarker-and-omics-studies
#2
Veronika V Odintsova, Gonneke Willemsen, Conor V Dolan, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Nicholas G Martin, P Eline Slagboom, Juan R Ordoñana, Dorret I Boomsma
Twin registers are wonderful research resources for research applications in medical and behavioral genetics, epidemiology, psychology, molecular genetics, and other areas of research. New registers continue to be launched all over the world as researchers from different disciplines recognize the potential to boost and widen their research agenda. In this article, we discuss multiple aspects that need to be taken into account when initiating a register, from its preliminary sketch to its actual development...
May 10, 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730993/outcome-of-twin-pregnancies-complicated-by-a-neural-tube-defect
#3
Vanessa Ross, Karen Reidy, Lex W Doyle, Ricardo Palma-Dias, Mark P Umstad
Twin pregnancies discordant for neural tube defects (NTD) is a management dilemma. Risks of preterm delivery from polyhydramnios must be balanced with the risks of selective termination (ST) of the anomalous fetus. We investigated the prevalence of twin pregnancies discordant for NTD and the rate of pregnancy complications in our institution over a 10-year period. Cases were obtained by searching the hospital ultrasound database and findings were confirmed by expert review of ultrasound images. Outcomes of ST and expectant management were assessed...
May 7, 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708095/etiologies-of-the-relationships-among-body-mass-index-and-cold-heat-patterns-a-twin-study
#4
Yoon-Mi Hur, Hee-Jeong Jin, Siwoo Lee
The phenotypic relationships between body mass index (BMI) and cold-heat patterns have been frequently reported, but the etiology of these relationships remains unknown. We previously demonstrated that the cold pattern (CP) and the heat pattern (HP) were heritable traits. In the present study, we explored underlying genetic and environmental structures of the relationships among BMI and the CP and the HP. Twins (N = 1,752) drawn from the South Korean twin registry completed a cold-heat pattern questionnaire via a telephone interview...
April 30, 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692273/extended-twin-study-of-alcohol-use-in-virginia-and-australia
#5
Brad Verhulst, Michael C Neale, Lindon J Eaves, Sarah E Medland, Andrew C Heath, Nicholas G Martin, Hermine H Maes
Drinking alcohol is a normal behavior in many societies, and prior studies have demonstrated it has both genetic and environmental sources of variation. Using two very large samples of twins and their first-degree relatives (Australia ≈ 20,000 individuals from 8,019 families; Virginia ≈ 23,000 from 6,042 families), we examine whether there are differences: (1) in the genetic and environmental factors that influence four interrelated drinking behaviors (quantity, frequency, age of initiation, and number of drinks in the last week), (2) between the twin-only design and the extended twin design, and (3) the Australian and Virginia samples...
April 25, 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683105/a-discordance-weighting-approach-estimating-occupational-and-income-returns-to-education
#6
Matthew A Andersson
Schooling differences between identical twins are often utilized as a natural experiment to estimate returns to education. Despite longstanding doubts about the truly random nature of within-twin-pair schooling discordance, such discordance has not yet been understood comprehensively, in terms of diverse between- and within-family peer, academic, familial, social, and health exposures. Here, a predictive analysis using national U.S. midlife twin data shows that within-pair schooling differences are endogenous to a variety of childhood exposures...
April 23, 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655401/classic-provocative-and-or-influential-a-twin-study-sampler-twin-research-reviews-twin-pregnancies-with-and-without-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-ectopic-twin-pregnancy-sex-differences-in-cognition-maternal-cardiac-hemodynamics-newsworthy-president-obama-s-portrait
#7
Nancy L Segal
Selected twin research papers that are classic, provocative, and/or influential are surveyed. Many papers meet these criteria, so those chosen reflect the opinion of the author. Reviews of recent research on twin pregnancies with and without polycystic ovary syndrome, ectopic pregnancy, sex differences in cognition and maternal cardiac hemodynamics follow. Newsworthy twin-based items, including President Obama's portrait artist, the financial activities of the Winkelvoss twins, a set of triplet fashion models and the experience of seeing oneself in a painting, are summarized...
April 15, 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655398/adult-empathy-possible-gender-differences-in-gene-environment-architecture-for-cognitive-and-emotional-components-in-a-large-italian-twin-sample
#8
Virgilia Toccaceli, Corrado Fagnani, Nancy Eisenberg, Guido Alessandri, Augusto Vitale, Maria Antonietta Stazi
Empathy plays a central role in prosocial behavior and human cooperation. Very few twin researchers have investigated innate and environmental effects in adult empathy, and twin research on gender differences in these effects is sparse. The goal of this study was to examine innate and environmental influences on three components of an empathy scale frequently used with adults - the expression of cognitive (CE), emotional (EE), and social skills (SS) empathy - and to explore gender differences in the influences...
April 15, 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642972/the-association-of-intrapair-birth-weight-differences-with-internalizing-and-externalizing-behavior-problems
#9
Elena C Tore, Evangelia E Antoniou, Keith Reed, Taunton R Southwood, Luc Smits, Joseph P McCleery, Maurice P Zeegers
Problem behaviors are of increasing public health concern. Twin studies have revealed substantial genetic and environmental influences on children's behavior, and examining birth-weight difference could allow the identification of the specific contribution of multiple non-shared prenatal environmental factors. The Twins and Multiple Births Association Heritability Study, a UK, volunteer-based study, recruited mothers of twins aged 18 months to 5 years; 960 twins (480 pairs) were included in the analysis. Twins' mothers answered questions relative to their pregnancy and their twins' characteristics, and completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) 1½-5...
April 12, 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642967/heritability-of-cold-and-heat-patterns-a-twin-study
#10
Yoon-Mi Hur, Hana Yu, Hee-Jeong Jin, Siwoo Lee
In traditional East Asian medicine, cold-heat patterns have been widely used in the diagnosis and treatment of patients suffering from various diseases. The present study aimed to estimate the heritability of cold-heat patterns. Trained interviewers administered a cold-heat pattern questionnaire to 1,753 twins (mean age = 19.1 ± 3.1 years) recruited throughout South Korea. Correlations for the cold pattern (CP) were 0.42 (95% CI [0.28, 0.54]) for monozygotic (MZ) males, 0.16 (95% CI [-0.08, 0.39]) for dizygotic (DZ) males, 0...
April 12, 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559026/association-of-educational-level-and-marital-status-with-obesity-a-study-of-chinese-twins
#11
Chunxiao Liao, Wenjing Gao, Weihua Cao, Jun Lv, Canqing Yu, Shengfeng Wang, Chunxiao Li, Zengchang Pang, Liming Cong, Zhong Dong, Fan Wu, Hua Wang, Xianping Wu, Guohong Jiang, Xiaojie Wang, Binyou Wang, Liming Li
The prevalence of overweight and obesity is growing rapidly in many countries. Socioeconomic inequalities might be important for this increase. The aim of this study was to determine associations of body mass index (BMI), overweight and obesity with educational level and marital status in Chinese twins. Participants were adult twins recruited through the Chinese National Twin Registry (CNTR), aged 18 to 79 years, and the sample comprised 10,448 same-sex twin pairs. Current height, weight, educational attainment, and marital status were self-reported...
March 21, 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551100/comment-on-large-scale-cognitive-gwas-meta-analysis-reveals-tissue-specific-neural-expression-and-potential-nootropic-drug-targets-by-lam-et-al
#12
W David Hill
Intelligence and educational attainment are strongly genetically correlated. This relationship can be exploited by Multi-Trait Analysis of GWAS (MTAG) to add power to Genome-wide Association Studies (GWAS) of intelligence. MTAG allows the user to meta-analyze GWASs of different phenotypes, based on their genetic correlations, to identify association's specific to the trait of choice. An MTAG analysis using GWAS data sets on intelligence and education was conducted by Lam et al. (2017). Lam et al. (2017) reported 70 loci that they described as 'trait specific' to intelligence...
March 19, 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542428/a-possible-twin-the-1960s-twin-study-revisited-twin-research-twin-to-twin-heart-transplantation-distinguishing-monozygotic-twins-twin-conceptions-via-oocyte-donation-factors-affecting-craniofacial-traits-in-the-media-triplet-delivery-in-the-uk-conjoined-twins
#13
Nancy L Segal
This article begins with the story of a 51-year-old Los Angeles, California man, Justin Goldberg, whose daughter caught a glimpse of his striking look-alike at a popular market. Many people have so-called doppelgängers, but this occurrence is especially intriguing - the individual in question, born in New York City in the mid-1960s to an unwed mother, was an adoptee placed by the Louise Wise Adoption Agency. This agency, under the guidance of a prominent psychiatrist, decided to place twins in separate homes...
March 15, 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530109/the-nature-of-nurture-using-a-virtual-parent-design-to-test-parenting-effects-on-children-s-educational-attainment-in-genotyped-families
#14
Timothy C Bates, Brion S Maher, Sarah E Medland, Kerrie McAloney, Margaret J Wright, Narelle K Hansell, Kenneth S Kendler, Nicholas G Martin, Nathan A Gillespie
Research on environmental and genetic pathways to complex traits such as educational attainment (EA) is confounded by uncertainty over whether correlations reflect effects of transmitted parental genes, causal family environments, or some, possibly interactive, mixture of both. Thus, an aggregate of thousands of alleles associated with EA (a polygenic risk score; PRS) may tap parental behaviors and home environments promoting EA in the offspring. New methods for unpicking and determining these causal pathways are required...
March 13, 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526168/has-the-genetic-contribution-to-the-propensity-to-gamble-increased-evidence-from-national-twin-studies-conducted-in-1962-and-2002
#15
Wendy S Slutske
Social changes, such as the expansion of legal forms of gambling, can influence not only the prevalence of gambling, but can also shape the relative importance of genetic and environmental contributions to individual differences in the propensity to gamble. In the present study, I examined differences in the prevalence and in the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors to gambling involvement in the United States in 1962 versus 2002. The data came from two sources: (1) a survey of 839 17-year-old same-sex twin pairs from the National Merit Scholarship Qualifying Test twin study, and (2) an interview of 477 18- to 26-year-old same-sex twin pairs from Wave III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health...
March 12, 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582726/thg-volume-21-issue-2-cover-and-back-matter
#16
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582725/thg-volume-21-issue-2-cover-and-front-matter
#17
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582724/definitive-zygosity-scores-in-the-peas-in-the-pod-questionnaire-is-a-sensitive-and-accurate-assessment-of-the-zygosity-of-adult-twins
#18
Zakariya A Jarrar, Kirsten J Ward, Massimo Mangino, Lynn F Cherkas, Raj Gill, Irina Gillham-Nasenya, Darioush Yarand, Deborah Hart, Christopher J Hammond, Tim D Spector
Twin researchers face the challenge of accurately determining the zygosity of twins for research. As part of the annual questionnaire between 1999 and 2006, 8,307 twins from the TwinsUK registry were asked to complete five questions (independently from their co-twin) to ascertain their self-perceived zygosity during childhood on up to five separate occasions. This questionnaire is known as the 'peas in the pod' questionnaire (PPQ), but there is little evidence of its validation. Answers were scored and classified as monozygotic (MZ), dizygotic (DZ), or unknown zygosity (UZ) and were compared with 4,484 twins with genotyping data who had not been selected for zygosity...
April 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582723/are-migraine-and-tension-type-headache-genetically-related-an-investigation-of-twin-family-data
#19
Lannie Ligthart, Annemarie Huijgen, Gonneke Willemsen, Eco J C de Geus, Dorret I Boomsma
Migraine and tension-type headache (TTH) are often viewed as distinct entities and defined as such in the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd edition (ICHD-II) criteria, although there is also empirical evidence to suggest they may be etiologically similar. This study aims to investigate whether migraine and TTH are etiologically related conditions. First, we explored whether migraine and TTH were associated with the same environmental and lifestyle risk factors at the population level. Second, we examined comorbidity of migraine and TTH in a twin design...
April 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582722/intensity-specific-differential-leukocyte-dna-methylation-in-physical-in-activity-an-exploratory-approach
#20
Maarten Caspers, Sara Blocquiaux, Ruben Charlier, Sara Knaeps, Johan Lefevre, Katrien De Bock, Martine Thomis
The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate how sedentary behavior (SB) and physical activity (PA) influence DNA methylation at a global, gene-specific, and health-related pathway level. SB, light PA (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) were assessed objectively for 41 Flemish men using the SenseWear Pro 3 Armband. CpG site-specific methylation in leukocytes was determined using the Illumina HumanMethylation 450 BeadChip. Correlations were calculated between time spent on the three PA intensity levels and global DNA methylation, using a z-score-based method to determine global DNA methylation levels...
April 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
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