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Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633683/plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1-is-regulated-through-dietary-fat-intake-and-heritability-studies-in-twins
#1
Anna Janina Engstler, Turid Frahnow, Michael Kruse, Andreas Friedrich Hermann Pfeiffer, Ina Bergheim
In different pathophysiological conditions plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) plasma concentrations are elevated. As dietary patterns are considered to influence PAI-1 concentration, we aimed to determine active PAI-1 plasma concentrations and mRNA expression in adipose tissue before and after consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) and the impact of additive genetic effects herein in humans. For 6 weeks, 46 healthy, non-obese pairs of twins (aged 18-70) received a normal nutritionally balanced diet (ND) followed by an isocaloric HFD for 6 weeks...
June 21, 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606205/the-contribution-of-genes-and-the-environment-to-educational-and-socioeconomic-attainments-in-australia
#2
Gary N Marks
This article analyzes the contribution of genetics and the environment to educational attainment, occupational status, and income using data from over 1,100 monozygotic and 400 dizygotic Australian twin pairs aged from 18 to 99. The respective heritability estimates were 0.54, 0.37, and 0.18. The bivariate heritabilities were 0.71 for educational attainment and occupational status, 0.37 for education and income, and 0.61 for occupational status and income. There were no gender and cohort differences in the heritabilities for education and occupation, but for income, contrary to expectations, the heritabilities were significantly higher among women and for the older cohort (aged 50 or older)...
June 13, 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606200/exomic-and-epigenomic-analyses-in-a-pair-of-monozygotic-twins-discordant-for-cryptorchidism
#3
Peng Lu, Pengyun Wang, Lianbing Li, Chengqi Xu, Jing Crystal Liu, Xiangqian Guo, Dawei He, Huizhe Huang, Zhi Cheng
Cryptorchidism represents one of the most common human congenital anomalies. In most cases, its etiology remains unclear and seems to be multifactorial. In the present study, a pair of monozygotic twins discordant for cryptorchidism was identified. Twin zygosity was confirmed by microsatellite genotyping. Whole exome sequencing and methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (MeDIP-Seq) of DNA extract from leucocytes were performed to, respectively, evaluate their exomes and epigenomes. No differences in exome sequencing data were found between the twins after validation...
June 13, 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578747/the-decomposition-of-shared-environmental-influences-on-externalizing-syndromes-in-the-swedish-population-a-multivariate-study
#4
Henrik Ohlsson, Kenneth S Kendler, Paul Lichtenstein, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist
Using information from Swedish population registries, we attempt to decompose the shared environment (C) into four subcomponents: close family, family, household, and community. Among pairs differing in their genetic and geographical/household relationships, we examine three externalizing syndromes: drug abuse (DA), criminal behavior (CB), and alcohol use disorders (AUD). The best-fitting common pathway model suggested that total estimates for C were higher for DA (21% for males and 18% for females) than for AUD (16% and 14%) and CB (17% and 10%)...
June 5, 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540843/genome-wide-significance-for-pclo-as-a-gene-for-major-depressive-disorder
#5
Hamdi Mbarek, Yuri Milaneschi, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Lannie Ligthart, Eco J C de Geus, Erik A Ehli, Gonneke Willemsen, Gareth E Davies, Jan H Smit, Dorret I Boomsma, Brenda W J H Penninx
In 2009, the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) for major depressive disorder (MDD) highlighted an association with PCLO locus on chromosome 7, although not reaching genome-wide significance level. In the present study, we revisited the original GWAS after increasing the overall sample size and the number of interrogated SNPs. In an analysis comparing 1,942 cases with lifetime diagnosis of MDD and 4,565 controls, PCLO showed a genome-wide significant association with MDD at SNP (rs2715157, p = 2.91 × 10-8) and gene-based (p = 1...
May 25, 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535840/a-comparison-of-personality-life-events-comorbidity-and-health-in-monozygotic-twins-discordant-for-anorexia-nervosa
#6
Laura M Thornton, Sara E Trace, Kimberly A Brownley, Monica Ålgars, Suzanne E Mazzeo, Jocilyn E Bergin, Millie Maxwell, Paul Lichtenstein, Nancy L Pedersen, Cynthia M Bulik
Genetic and environmental factors contribute to the etiology of anorexia nervosa (AN). The co-twin control design is one of the most powerful methods available to evaluate environmental factors that could contribute to differences between monozygotic (MZ) twins who are discordant for AN. Using available data from a unique and rare sample of 22 Swedish female MZ pairs discordant for AN, we compared personality, life events, comorbidity, and health factors. Twins with AN had significantly higher perfectionism scores than unaffected co-twins and reported younger ages at first diet than unaffected co-twins who had dieted...
May 24, 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535831/csolnp-numerical-optimization-engine-for-solving-non-linearly-constrained-problems
#7
Mahsa Zahery, Hermine H Maes, Michael C Neale
We introduce the optimizer CSOLNP, which is a C++ implementation of the R package RSOLNP (Ghalanos & Theussl, 2012, Rsolnp: General non-linear optimization using augmented Lagrange multiplier method. R package version, 1) alongside some improvements. CSOLNP solves non-linearly constrained optimization problems using a Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) algorithm. CSOLNP, NPSOL (a very popular implementation of SQP method in FORTRAN (Gill et al., 1986, User's guide for NPSOL (version 4.0): A Fortran package for nonlinear programming (No...
May 24, 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485258/chromosomal-aberrations-in-monozygotic-and-dizygotic-twins-versus-singletons-in-denmark-during-1968-2009
#8
Lone Kroeldrup, Lisbeth A Larsen, Christina Fagerberg, Jens M Hertz, Kaare Christensen
BACKGROUND: Hall (Embryologic development and monozygotic twinning. Acta Geneticae Medicae et Gemellologiae, Vol. 45, 1996, pp. 53-57) hypothesized that chromosomal aberrations can lead to monozygotic (MZ) twinning. However, twinning and chromosomal aberrations increase prenatal mortality and could reduce the prevalence of chromosomal aberrations in live-born twins. We compared prevalence proportion ratios (PPR) of chromosomal aberrations and trisomy 21 (T21) in live-born twins versus singletons born in Denmark during 1968-2009...
May 9, 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724482/thg-volume-20-issue-4-cover-and-back-matter
#9
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724481/thg-volume-20-issue-4-cover-and-front-matter
#10
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724480/neuroticism-and-the-overlap-between-autistic-and-adhd-traits-findings-from-a-population-sample-of-young-adult-australian-twins
#11
Shin-Ho Park, Adam J Guastella, Michael Lynskey, Arpana Agrawal, John N Constantino, Sarah E Medland, Yun Ju C Song, Nicholas G Martin, Lucía Colodro-Conde
Neuroticism, a 'Big Five' personality trait, has been associated with sub-clinical traits of both autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The objective of the current study was to examine whether causal overlap between ASD and ADHD traits can be accounted for by genetic and environmental risk factors that are shared with neuroticism. We performed twin-based structural equation modeling using self-report data from 12 items of the Neo Five-Factor Inventory Neuroticism domain, 11 Social Responsiveness Scale items, and 12 Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale items obtained from 3,170 young adult Australian individual twins (1,081 complete pairs)...
August 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724479/holocene-selection-for-variants-associated-with-general-cognitive-ability-comparing-ancient-and-modern-genomes
#12
Michael A Woodley, Shameem Younuskunju, Bipin Balan, Davide Piffer
Human populations living during the Holocene underwent considerable microevolutionary change. It has been theorized that the transition of Holocene populations into agrarianism and urbanization brought about culture-gene co-evolution that favored via directional selection genetic variants associated with higher general cognitive ability (GCA). To examine whether GCA might have risen during the Holocene, we compare a sample of 99 ancient Eurasian genomes (ranging from 4.56 to 1.21 kyr BP) with a sample of 503 modern European genomes (Fst = 0...
August 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724478/the-stoppa-twin-study-explains-the-exhaled-nitric-oxide-and-asthma-link-by-genetics-and-sensitization
#13
Björn Nordlund, Cecilia Lundholm, Vilhelmina Ullemar, Marianne van Hage, Anne K Örtqvist, Catarina Almqvist
BACKGROUND: The link between asthma and exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) is not completely understood. The aim of this study was to estimate the association between FENO and asthma, taking genetics, sensitization, and inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) into account. METHODS: A total of 681 twins (53% monozygotic [MZ] and 47% dizygotic [DZ]) from the population-based STOPPA study (mean age 12.6 years) were recruited and information on FENO (parts per billion), parental report of current asthma, sensitization to airborne allergens (Phadiatop; IgE ≥0...
August 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724477/oliver-sacks-our-correspondence-about-twins-twin-research-vanishing-twins-syndrome-discordant-sex-in-mz-twins-pregnancy-outcomes-in-ivf-and-icsi-conceived-twins-print-and-media-superfetated-twins-twins-discordant-for-smoking-twins-in-fashion-yale-university
#14
Nancy L Segal
The late neurologist and author, Oliver Sacks, published an insightful 1986 review of Marjorie Wallace's book, The Silent Twins, in the New York Times. Taking exception to his assertion about Sir Francis Galton, I wrote a letter to the Times' editor. The letter was unpublished, but it brought a wonderful response from Sacks himself that is reproduced and examined. Next, brief reviews of twin research concerning the vanishing twin syndrome (VTS), discordant sex in a monozygotic (MZ) twin pair, and multiple pregnancy outcomes from assisted reproductive technology (ART) are presented...
August 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724476/twin-mythconceptions-false-beliefs-fables-and-facts-about-twins-nancy-segal-2017-academic-press-334-pages-ebook-isbn-9780128039953-paperback-isbn-9780128039946
#15
Dorret I Boomsma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651682/the-wuhan-twin-birth-cohort-wtbc
#16
Jinzhu Zhao, Shaoping Yang, Anna Peng, Zhengmin Qian, Hong Xian, Tianjiao Chen, Guanghui Dong, Yiming Zhang, Xijiang Hu, Zhong Chen, Jiangxia Cao, Xiaojie Song, Shunqing Xu, Tongzhang Zheng, Bin Zhang
The Wuhan Pre/Post-Natal Twin Birth Registry (WPTBR) is one of the largest twin birth registries with comprehensive medical information in China. It recruits women from the first trimester of pregnancy and their twins from birth. From January 2006 to May 2016, the total number of twins enrolled in WPTBR is 13,869 twin pairs (27,553 individuals). The WPTBR initiated the Wuhan Twin Birth Cohort (WTBC). The WTBC is a prospective cohort study carried out through incorporation of three samples. The first one comprises 6,920 twin pairs, and the second one, 6,949 twin pairs...
August 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535827/genotype-%C3%A3-environment-interaction-in-psychiatric-genetics-deep-truth-or-thin-ice
#17
Lindon Eaves
BACKGROUND: There continues to be significant investment in the detection of genotype × environment interaction (G × E) in psychiatric genetics. The implications of the method of assessment for the genetic analysis of psychiatric disorders are examined for simulated twin data on symptom scores and environmental covariates. METHODS: Additive and independent genetic and environmental risks were simulated for 10,000 monozygotic (MZ) and 10,000 dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs and the 'subjects' administered typical simulated checklists of clinical symptoms and environmental factors...
June 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485265/massively-parallel-sequencing-mps-of-cell-free-fetal-dna-cffdna-for-trisomies-21-18-and-13-in-twin-pregnancies
#18
Erqiu Du, Chun Feng, Yuming Cao, Yanru Yao, Jing Lu, Yuanzhen Zhang
Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) technology has become increasingly available and has been widely used to screen for trisomies 21, 18, and 13 in singleton pregnancies. This study assessed the performance of MPS testing of cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) from maternal plasma for trisomies 21, 18, and 13 in twin pregnancies. Ninety-two women with twin pregnancies were recruited. The results were identified through karyotypes of amniocentesis or clinical examination and follow-up of the neonates. Fluorescent in-situ hybridization was used to examine the placentas postnatally in cases of false-positive results...
June 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345502/reporting-correct-p-values-in-vegas-analyses
#19
Julian Hecker, Anna Maaser, Dmitry Prokopenko, Heide Loehlein Fier, Christoph Lange
VEGAS (versatile gene-based association study) is a popular methodological framework to perform gene-based tests based on summary statistics from single-variant analyses. The approach incorporates linkage disequilibrium information from reference panels to account for the correlation of test statistics. The gene-based test can utilize three different types of tests. In 2015, the improved framework VEGAS2, using more detailed reference panels, was published. Both versions provide user-friendly web- and offline-based tools for the analysis...
June 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262088/genome-wide-association-study-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-in-two-high-risk-populations
#20
Whitney E Melroy-Greif, Kirk C Wilhelmsen, Rachel Yehuda, Cindy L Ehlers
Mexican Americans (MAs) and American Indians (AIs) constitute conspicuously understudied groups with respect to risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), especially in light of findings showing racial/ethnic differences in trauma exposure and risk for PTSD. The purpose of this study was to examine genetic influences on PTSD in two minority cohorts. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) with sum PTSD symptoms for trauma-exposed subjects was run in each cohort. Six highly correlated variants in olfactory receptor family 11 subfamily L member 1 (OR11L1) were suggestively associated with PTSD in the MA cohort...
June 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
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