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Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30201058/are-the-variants-of-the-circle-of-willis-determined-by-genetic-or-environmental-factors-results-of-a-twin-study-and-review-of-the-literature
#1
Bianka Forgo, Adam Domonkos Tarnoki, David Laszlo Tarnoki, Daniel Tamas Kovacs, Laszlo Szalontai, Aliz Persely, Anita Hernyes, Marcell Szily, Levente Littvay, Emanuela Medda, Adam Szabo, Lajos Rudolf Kozak, Gabor Rudas, Attila Sas, Marianna Sepsi, Laszlo Kostyal, Csaba Olah
BACKGROUND: Anatomic variants of the circle of Willis (CW) are commonly observed in healthy subjects. Genetic and environmental factors influencing these variants remain unclear. Our aim was to assess the genetic and environmental background affecting variant CW phenotypes. METHODS: A total of 122 adult healthy twins from the Hungarian Twin Registry (39 monozygotic (MZ) and 22 dizygotic (DZ) pairs, average age 49.7 ± 13.4 years) underwent Time-of-Flight magnetic resonance angiography and transcranial Doppler sonography...
September 11, 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30131086/twins-switched-at-birth-frequency-life-histories-twin-relationships-and-critical-issues-twin-research-reviews-classroom-placement-mirror-syndrome-unusual-twinning-parenting-stress-human-interest-triplet-film-educational-achievement-prison-release-co-twin-impersonation
#2
Nancy L Segal
Twins switched at birth are a rare subtype of twins who grow up apart. The frequency with which this event occurs, as well as selected life history events, twin relationships, and critical issues generated by the nine recorded cases are reviewed. This is followed by summaries of recent studies addressing classroom placement for twins, mirror syndrome in mothers, unusual twin types, and parenting stress. The article concludes with a review of human interest items from the general media, namely a triplet film, educational achievement, prison release, co-twin impersonation, and facial recognition technology...
August 22, 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30064533/four-generation-pedigree-of-monozygotic-female-twins-to-reveal-genetic-factors-in-twinning-process-by-whole-genome-sequencing
#3
Shiqi Liu, Yaqiang Hong, Kai Cui, Jinxia Guan, Lu Han, Wei Chen, Zhe Xu, Kenan Gong, Yang Ou, Changqing Zeng, Sheng Li, Dake Zhang, Dawei Hu
Familial monozygotic (MZ) twinning reports are rare around the world, and we report a four-generation pedigree with seven recorded pairs of female MZ twins. Whole-genome sequencing of seven family members was performed to explore the featured genetic factors in MZ twins. For variations specific to MZ twins, five novel variants were observed in the X chromosome. These candidates were used to explain the seemingly X-linked dominant inheritance pattern, and only one variant was exonic, located at the 5'UTR region of ZCCHC12 (chrX: 117958597, G > A)...
August 1, 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30017014/the-genetic-relationship-between-psychological-distress-somatic-distress-affective-disorders-and-substance-use-in-young-australian-adults-a-multivariate-twin-study
#4
Lun-Hsien Chang, Baptiste Couvy-Duchesne, Sarah E Medland, Nathan A Gillespie, Ian B Hickie, Richard Parker, Nicholas G Martin
Psychological distress (PSYCH), somatic distress (SOMA), affective disorders (AD), and substance use (SU) frequently co-occur. The genetic relationship between PSYCH and SOMA, however, remains understudied. We examined the genetic and environmental influences on these two disorders and their comorbid AD and SU using structural equation modeling. Self-reported PSYCH and SOMA were measured in 1,548 twins using the two subscales of a 12-item questionnaire, the Somatic and Psychological Health Report. Its reliability and psychometric properties were examined...
July 18, 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30001766/multi-trait-analysis-of-gwas-and-biological-insights-into-cognition-a-response-to-hill-2018
#5
Max Lam, Joey W Trampush, Jin Yu, Emma Knowles, Srdjan Djurovic, Ingrid Melle, Kjetil Sundet, Andrea Christoforou, Ivar Reinvang, Pamela DeRosse, Astri J Lundervold, Vidar M Steen, Thomas Espeseth, Katri Räikkönen, Elisabeth Widen, Aarno Palotie, Johan G Eriksson, Ina Giegling, Bettina Konte, Panos Roussos, Stella Giakoumaki, Katherine E Burdick, Antony Payton, William Ollier, Ornit Chiba-Falek, Deborah K Attix, Anna C Need, Elizabeth T Cirulli, Aristotle N Voineskos, Nikos C Stefanis, Dimitrios Avramopoulos, Alex Hatzimanolis, Dan E Arking, Nikolaos Smyrnis, Robert M Bilder, Nelson A Freimer, Tyrone D Cannon, Edythe London, Russell A Poldrack, Fred W Sabb, Eliza Congdon, Emily Drabant Conley, Matthew A Scult, Dwight Dickinson, Richard E Straub, Gary Donohoe, Derek Morris, Aiden Corvin, Michael Gill, Ahmad R Hariri, Daniel R Weinberger, Neil Pendleton, Panos Bitsios, Dan Rujescu, Jari Lahti, Stephanie Le Hellard, Matthew C Keller, Ole A Andreassen, David C Glahn, Anil K Malhotra, Todd Lencz
Hill (Twin Research and Human Genetics, Vol. 21, 2018, 84-88) presented a critique of our recently published paper in Cell Reports entitled 'Large-Scale Cognitive GWAS Meta-Analysis Reveals Tissue-Specific Neural Expression and Potential Nootropic Drug Targets' (Lam et al., Cell Reports, Vol. 21, 2017, 2597-2613). Specifically, Hill offered several interrelated comments suggesting potential problems with our use of a new analytic method called Multi-Trait Analysis of GWAS (MTAG) (Turley et al., Nature Genetics, Vol...
July 13, 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29976271/carotid-artery-atherosclerosis-a-review-on-heritability-and-genetics
#6
Bianka Forgo, Emanuela Medda, Anita Hernyes, Laszlo Szalontai, David Laszlo Tarnoki, Adam Domonkos Tarnoki
Carotid atherosclerosis (CAS) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk, and therefore, assessing the genetic versus environmental background of CAS traits is of key importance. Carotid intima-media-thickness and plaque characteristics seem to be moderately heritable, with remarkable differences in both heritability and presence or severity of these traits among ethnicities. Although the considerable role of additive genetic effects is obvious, based on the results so far, there is an important emphasis on non-shared environmental factors as well...
July 6, 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29976260/how-consistent-are-genetic-factors-in-explaining-leisure-time-physical-activity-and-sport-participation-the-portuguese-healthy-families-study
#7
Sara Pereira, Peter T Katzmarzyk, Thayse N Gomes, Robert Elston, José Maia
This study investigates how consistent genetic factors are, as measured by heritability estimates (h2), in the leisure-time physical activity index (LTPAI) and sport participation index (SPI) from early (10-14 yrs) to late adolescence (15-19 yrs). The sample comprises 12,385 subjects from 3,378 Portuguese nuclear families. Height and weight were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated, and the LTPAI and SPI were estimated by questionnaire. Socioeconomic status (SES) was assessed by parental occupation...
July 6, 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30027872/thg-volume-21-issue-4-cover-and-back-matter
#8
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30027871/from-genes-to-behavior-through-sex-hormones-and-socialization-the-example-of-gender-development
#9
Sheri A Berenbaum, Adriene M Beltz
Irving Gottesman is known primarily for his work in psychopathology, but he also had a long-standing interest in understanding psychological development generally (typical and atypical). Through his mentorship, he also influenced work in gender development. Characteristics related to sex and gender are ideally suited to study the interplay of genes and environment across development. We discuss how gender development is influenced by gonadal hormones present during early life, but not in a simple way. We describe some of the challenges and opportunities to extend our understanding of the complexity of gender development...
August 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30027870/closing-remarks-a-twin-research-legacy
#10
Nancy L Segal
Like families, professors transmit bits of wisdom to their students, not just by what they say but what they do. Colleagues share methods and data, but more importantly, ideas and visions. Irving I. Gottesman was unique in this respect, both brilliant in his field and wise when it came to teaching, guiding, and supporting. His academic pedigree extends across many generations and will for generations to come.
August 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30027868/thg-volume-21-issue-4-cover-and-front-matter
#11
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30027867/human-dizygotic-twinning-evolutionary-based-explanations-twin-research-reviews-conjoined-twins-in-a-triplet-pregnancy-double-embryo-transfer-health-anxiety-delayed-delivery-of-the-second-twin-in-the-media-digital-marketing-twins-bereaved-twin-at-march-for-our
#12
Nancy L Segal
Human twinning poses a conundrum for researchers, given that the female uterus is optimally designed to carry a single fetus. Evolutionary explanations of dizygotic (DZ or fraternal) twinning provide insight and understanding of this reproductive event. This review is followed by summaries of recent twin research and reports concerning twins in a triplet pregnancy, double embryo transfer; a twin study of health anxiety, and delayed delivery of the second twin. Twin events reported in the media include a pair of digital marketing twins, a speech by a bereaved twin at the March for Our Lives in Washington, D...
August 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30027866/understanding-mechanisms-of-genetic-risk-for-adolescent-internalizing-and-externalizing-problems-the-mediating-role-of-parenting-and-personality
#13
Jinni Su, Sally I-Chun Kuo, Kathleen K Bucholz, Howard J Edenberg, John R Kramer, Marc Schuckit, Danielle M Dick
Genetic predispositions play an important role in the development of internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Understanding the mechanisms through which genetic risk unfolds to influence these developmental outcomes is critical for developing prevention and intervention efforts, capturing key elements of Irv's research agenda and scientific legacy. In this study, we examined the role of parenting and personality in mediating the effect of genetic risk on adolescents' major depressive disorder and conduct disorder symptoms...
August 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30027865/mapping-risk-from-genes-to-behavior-the-enduring-and-evolving-influence-of-irving-gottesman-s-endophenotype-concept
#14
Danielle M Dick
One of Irving I. Gottesman's many contributions to behavior genetics, and part of his enduring legacy, was his introduction of the term 'endophenotype' to the field of psychiatry. Gottesman argued that focusing on endophenotypes, rather than complex heterogeneous clinical diagnoses, could help elucidate disease etiology. Although a different strategy for gene identification ultimately proved successful (that of amassing extremely large sample sizes in order to overcome the 'noise' of heterogeneity and have sufficient power to find genes of very small effect), the endophenotype concept continues to make a meaningful contribution to the field...
August 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30027864/irving-i-gottesman-s-collaboration-in-psychiatric-genetics-research-in-denmark
#15
Kaare Christensen, Aksel Bertelsen
Irving I. Gottesman played an important role for psychiatric genetic research in Denmark through more than 40 years of collaboration with Danish scientists, resulting in important twin and family studies based upon the unique national registers available in Denmark.
August 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30027863/rereading-biogenetics-of-race-and-class-50-years-later
#16
Eric Turkheimer
In 1968, long before the publication of Stephen J. Gould's The Mismeasure of Man, Herrnstein and Murray's The Bell Curve, or Arthur Jensen's Bias in Mental Testing, Irving Gottesman published a book chapter that addressed head-on the issues that would define the relationship between the genetics of social behavior and large-scale social theory for the next 50 years. That he could do so with his characteristic scholarly thoroughness and scientific tough-mindedness without once lapsing into regressive hereditarianism is a testimony to the scope of his scientific knowledge and the generosity of his intellectual spirit...
August 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30027862/gene-environment-correlations-affecting-children-s-early-rule-breaking-and-aggressive-play-behaviors
#17
Lisabeth F DiLalla, David L DiLalla
Play among peers is an important developmental context for child socialization. We have earlier shown that children at genetic risk for aggression were more likely to be treated aggressively by unfamiliar peers during peer play, reflecting genotype-evoked behaviors manifested during play. In this study, 118 5-year-old twin pairs were paired randomly with an unfamiliar, same-age, same-sex child, thus controlling for parent- and child-chosen environments (passive and active rGE). Twins played separately from each other with unmatched children...
August 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30027861/symposium-in-honor-of-irving-i-gottesman-december-29-1930-june-29-2016
#18
Nancy L Segal
The June 2016 death of our esteemed colleague, Dr Irving I. Gottesman, was felt as an extreme loss at so many levels by colleagues, students, friends, and family across the globe. Irv's stellar contributions to the field of twin research will continue to be remembered and cited for many years to come. In commemoration of his life and work, I organized a symposium at the 16th meeting of the International Society for Twin Studies, held in Madrid, Spain, November 16-18, 2017. The panelists included mostly former students, as well as colleagues, who presented their scientific research and personal remarks reflecting Irv's profound influence in shaping their lives and careers...
August 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30027860/twins-reared-apart-and-twins-in-families-the-findings-behind-the-fascination
#19
Nancy L Segal, Yesika S Montoya, Erika N Becker
Dr. Irving I. Gottesman was very creative in applying twin research designs to test hypotheses and predictions about human behavior. Two designs stand out among others: twins reared apart from birth and the twin-family study. I (NS) was inspired to incorporate both of these approaches into my own research programs at California State University, Fullerton. Gottesman's involvement and contributions to reared-apart twin research are described, followed by selected findings from the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart (MISTRA), the Fullerton Study of Chinese Twins Reared Apart (CTA), a case report on separated monozygotic (MZ) female twins from South Korea, and doubly exchanged MZ male twin pairs from Colombia, South America...
August 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929564/heritability-of-hwabyung-symptoms-in-south-korean-adolescent-and-young-adult-twins
#20
Yoon-Mi Hur, Eun-Ji Choi, Jong-Woo Kim, Hee-Jeong Jin, Siwoo Lee
The present study aimed to estimate heritability of Hwabyung (HB) symptoms in adolescent and young adult twins in South Korea. The sample included 1,601 twins consisting of 143 pairs of monozygotic male (MZM), 67 pairs of dizygotic male (DZM), 295 pairs of monozygotic female (MZF), 114 pairs of dizygotic female (DZF), and 117 pairs of opposite-sex dizygotic (OSDZ) twins and 129 twins with non-participating co-twins (mean age = 19.1 ± 3.1 years; range: 12-29 years). An HB symptom questionnaire was given to twins via a telephone interview...
June 22, 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
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