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Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30001766/multi-trait-analysis-of-gwas-and-biological-insights-into-cognition-a-response-to-hill-2018
#1
Max Lam, Joey W Trampush, Jin Yu, Emma Knowles, Srdjan Djurovic, Ingrid Melle, Kjetil Sundet, Andrea Christoforou, Ivar Reinvang, Pamela DeRosse, Astri J Lundervold, Vidar M Steen, Thomas Espeseth, Katri Räikkönen, Elisabeth Widen, Aarno Palotie, Johan G Eriksson, Ina Giegling, Bettina Konte, Panos Roussos, Stella Giakoumaki, Katherine E Burdick, Antony Payton, William Ollier, Ornit Chiba-Falek, Deborah K Attix, Anna C Need, Elizabeth T Cirulli, Aristotle N Voineskos, Nikos C Stefanis, Dimitrios Avramopoulos, Alex Hatzimanolis, Dan E Arking, Nikolaos Smyrnis, Robert M Bilder, Nelson A Freimer, Tyrone D Cannon, Edythe London, Russell A Poldrack, Fred W Sabb, Eliza Congdon, Emily Drabant Conley, Matthew A Scult, Dwight Dickinson, Richard E Straub, Gary Donohoe, Derek Morris, Aiden Corvin, Michael Gill, Ahmad R Hariri, Daniel R Weinberger, Neil Pendleton, Panos Bitsios, Dan Rujescu, Jari Lahti, Stephanie Le Hellard, Matthew C Keller, Ole A Andreassen, David C Glahn, Anil K Malhotra, Todd Lencz
Hill (Twin Research and Human Genetics, Vol. 21, 2018, 84-88) presented a critique of our recently published paper in Cell Reports entitled 'Large-Scale Cognitive GWAS Meta-Analysis Reveals Tissue-Specific Neural Expression and Potential Nootropic Drug Targets' (Lam et al., Cell Reports, Vol. 21, 2017, 2597-2613). Specifically, Hill offered several interrelated comments suggesting potential problems with our use of a new analytic method called Multi-Trait Analysis of GWAS (MTAG) (Turley et al., Nature Genetics, Vol...
July 13, 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29976271/carotid-artery-atherosclerosis-a-review-on-heritability-and-genetics
#2
Bianka Forgo, Emanuela Medda, Anita Hernyes, Laszlo Szalontai, David Laszlo Tarnoki, Adam Domonkos Tarnoki
Carotid atherosclerosis (CAS) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk, and therefore, assessing the genetic versus environmental background of CAS traits is of key importance. Carotid intima-media-thickness and plaque characteristics seem to be moderately heritable, with remarkable differences in both heritability and presence or severity of these traits among ethnicities. Although the considerable role of additive genetic effects is obvious, based on the results so far, there is an important emphasis on non-shared environmental factors as well...
July 6, 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29976260/how-consistent-are-genetic-factors-in-explaining-leisure-time-physical-activity-and-sport-participation-the-portuguese-healthy-families-study
#3
Sara Pereira, Peter T Katzmarzyk, Thayse N Gomes, Robert Elston, José Maia
This study investigates how consistent genetic factors are, as measured by heritability estimates (h2), in the leisure-time physical activity index (LTPAI) and sport participation index (SPI) from early (10-14 yrs) to late adolescence (15-19 yrs). The sample comprises 12,385 subjects from 3,378 Portuguese nuclear families. Height and weight were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated, and the LTPAI and SPI were estimated by questionnaire. Socioeconomic status (SES) was assessed by parental occupation...
July 6, 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929564/heritability-of-hwabyung-symptoms-in-south-korean-adolescent-and-young-adult-twins
#4
Yoon-Mi Hur, Eun-Ji Choi, Jong-Woo Kim, Hee-Jeong Jin, Siwoo Lee
The present study aimed to estimate heritability of Hwabyung (HB) symptoms in adolescent and young adult twins in South Korea. The sample included 1,601 twins consisting of 143 pairs of monozygotic male (MZM), 67 pairs of dizygotic male (DZM), 295 pairs of monozygotic female (MZF), 114 pairs of dizygotic female (DZF), and 117 pairs of opposite-sex dizygotic (OSDZ) twins and 129 twins with non-participating co-twins (mean age = 19.1 ± 3.1 years; range: 12-29 years). An HB symptom questionnaire was given to twins via a telephone interview...
June 22, 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792250/thg-volume-21-issue-3-cover-and-back-matter
#5
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792249/thg-volume-21-issue-3-cover-and-front-matter
#6
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792248/metataxonomic-analysis-of-individuals-at-bmi-extremes-and-monozygotic-twins-discordant-for-bmi
#7
Casey T Finnicum, Stieneke Doornweerd, Conor V Dolan, Justin M Luningham, Jeffrey J Beck, Gonneke Willemsen, Erik A Ehli, Dorret I Boomsma, Richard G Ijzerman, Gareth E Davies, Eco J C de Geus
OBJECTIVE: The human gut microbiota has been demonstrated to be associated with a number of host phenotypes, including obesity and a number of obesity-associated phenotypes. This study is aimed at further understanding and describing the relationship between the gut microbiota and obesity-associated measurements obtained from human participants. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Here, we utilize genetically informative study designs, including a four-corners design (extremes of genetic risk for BMI and of observed BMI; N = 50) and the BMI monozygotic (MZ) discordant twin pair design (N = 30), in order to help delineate the role of host genetics and the gut microbiota in the development of obesity...
June 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792247/spontaneous-version-of-fetal-presentation-in-twin-pregnancies-during-third-trimester-longitudinal-assessment
#8
Jeong Woo Park, Seung Mi Lee, Hye-Sim Kang, Soon-Sup Shim, Jong Kwan Jun
Little is known about longitudinal changes of the first twin presentation in twin gestations. This is a retrospective cohort study including 411 women who were admitted consecutively and delivered live-born twins at 36 weeks of gestation or more. Longitudinal assessment of the first twin presentation was conducted during gestation and at birth in all cases. Gestational age at antenatal assessment was divided into two intervals: early-third trimester (28-31 weeks) and mid-third trimester (32-35 weeks). Fetal presentation was categorized as vertex or non-vertex...
June 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757125/cross-cultural-comparison-of-genetic-and-cultural-transmission-of-smoking-initiation-using-an-extended-twin-kinship-model
#9
Hermine H Maes, Kate Morley, Michael C Neale, Kenneth S Kendler, Andrew C Heath, Lindon J Eaves, Nicholas G Martin
BACKGROUND: Considerable evidence from twin and adoption studies indicates that genetic and shared environmental factors play a role in the initiation of smoking behavior. Although twin and adoption designs are powerful to detect genetic and environmental influences, they do not provide information on the processes of assortative mating and parent-offspring transmission and their contribution to the variability explained by genetic and/or environmental factors. METHODS: We examined the role of genetic and environmental factors in individual differences for smoking initiation (SI) using an extended kinship design...
June 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743129/establishing-a-twin-register-an-invaluable-resource-for-behavior-genetic-epidemiological-biomarker-and-omics-studies
#10
Veronika V Odintsova, Gonneke Willemsen, Conor V Dolan, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Nicholas G Martin, P Eline Slagboom, Juan R Ordoñana, Dorret I Boomsma
Twin registers are wonderful research resources for research applications in medical and behavioral genetics, epidemiology, psychology, molecular genetics, and other areas of research. New registers continue to be launched all over the world as researchers from different disciplines recognize the potential to boost and widen their research agenda. In this article, we discuss multiple aspects that need to be taken into account when initiating a register, from its preliminary sketch to its actual development...
June 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730993/outcome-of-twin-pregnancies-complicated-by-a-neural-tube-defect
#11
Vanessa Ross, Karen Reidy, Lex W Doyle, Ricardo Palma-Dias, Mark P Umstad
Twin pregnancies discordant for neural tube defects (NTD) is a management dilemma. Risks of preterm delivery from polyhydramnios must be balanced with the risks of selective termination (ST) of the anomalous fetus. We investigated the prevalence of twin pregnancies discordant for NTD and the rate of pregnancy complications in our institution over a 10-year period. Cases were obtained by searching the hospital ultrasound database and findings were confirmed by expert review of ultrasound images. Outcomes of ST and expectant management were assessed...
June 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708095/etiologies-of-the-relationships-among-body-mass-index-and-cold-heat-patterns-a-twin-study
#12
Yoon-Mi Hur, Hee-Jeong Jin, Siwoo Lee
The phenotypic relationships between body mass index (BMI) and cold-heat patterns have been frequently reported, but the etiology of these relationships remains unknown. We previously demonstrated that the cold pattern (CP) and the heat pattern (HP) were heritable traits. In the present study, we explored underlying genetic and environmental structures of the relationships among BMI and the CP and the HP. Twins (N = 1,752) drawn from the South Korean twin registry completed a cold-heat pattern questionnaire via a telephone interview...
June 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692273/extended-twin-study-of-alcohol-use-in-virginia-and-australia
#13
Brad Verhulst, Michael C Neale, Lindon J Eaves, Sarah E Medland, Andrew C Heath, Nicholas G Martin, Hermine H Maes
Drinking alcohol is a normal behavior in many societies, and prior studies have demonstrated it has both genetic and environmental sources of variation. Using two very large samples of twins and their first-degree relatives (Australia ≈ 20,000 individuals from 8,019 families; Virginia ≈ 23,000 from 6,042 families), we examine whether there are differences: (1) in the genetic and environmental factors that influence four interrelated drinking behaviors (quantity, frequency, age of initiation, and number of drinks in the last week), (2) between the twin-only design and the extended twin design, and (3) the Australian and Virginia samples...
June 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683105/a-discordance-weighting-approach-estimating-occupational-and-income-returns-to-education
#14
Matthew A Andersson
Schooling differences between identical twins are often utilized as a natural experiment to estimate returns to education. Despite longstanding doubts about the truly random nature of within-twin-pair schooling discordance, such discordance has not yet been understood comprehensively, in terms of diverse between- and within-family peer, academic, familial, social, and health exposures. Here, a predictive analysis using national U.S. midlife twin data shows that within-pair schooling differences are endogenous to a variety of childhood exposures...
June 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655401/classic-provocative-and-or-influential-a-twin-study-sampler-twin-research-reviews-twin-pregnancies-with-and-without-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-ectopic-twin-pregnancy-sex-differences-in-cognition-maternal-cardiac-hemodynamics-newsworthy-president-obama-s-portrait
#15
Nancy L Segal
Selected twin research papers that are classic, provocative, and/or influential are surveyed. Many papers meet these criteria, so those chosen reflect the opinion of the author. Reviews of recent research on twin pregnancies with and without polycystic ovary syndrome, ectopic pregnancy, sex differences in cognition and maternal cardiac hemodynamics follow. Newsworthy twin-based items, including President Obama's portrait artist, the financial activities of the Winkelvoss twins, a set of triplet fashion models and the experience of seeing oneself in a painting, are summarized...
June 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655398/adult-empathy-possible-gender-differences-in-gene-environment-architecture-for-cognitive-and-emotional-components-in-a-large-italian-twin-sample
#16
Virgilia Toccaceli, Corrado Fagnani, Nancy Eisenberg, Guido Alessandri, Augusto Vitale, Maria Antonietta Stazi
Empathy plays a central role in prosocial behavior and human cooperation. Very few twin researchers have investigated innate and environmental effects in adult empathy, and twin research on gender differences in these effects is sparse. The goal of this study was to examine innate and environmental influences on three components of an empathy scale frequently used with adults - the expression of cognitive (CE), emotional (EE), and social skills (SS) empathy - and to explore gender differences in the influences...
June 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642972/the-association-of-intrapair-birth-weight-differences-with-internalizing-and-externalizing-behavior-problems
#17
Elena C Tore, Evangelia E Antoniou, Keith Reed, Taunton R Southwood, Luc Smits, Joseph P McCleery, Maurice P Zeegers
Problem behaviors are of increasing public health concern. Twin studies have revealed substantial genetic and environmental influences on children's behavior, and examining birth-weight difference could allow the identification of the specific contribution of multiple non-shared prenatal environmental factors. The Twins and Multiple Births Association Heritability Study, a UK, volunteer-based study, recruited mothers of twins aged 18 months to 5 years; 960 twins (480 pairs) were included in the analysis. Twins' mothers answered questions relative to their pregnancy and their twins' characteristics, and completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) 1½-5...
June 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642967/heritability-of-cold-and-heat-patterns-a-twin-study
#18
Yoon-Mi Hur, Hana Yu, Hee-Jeong Jin, Siwoo Lee
In traditional East Asian medicine, cold-heat patterns have been widely used in the diagnosis and treatment of patients suffering from various diseases. The present study aimed to estimate the heritability of cold-heat patterns. Trained interviewers administered a cold-heat pattern questionnaire to 1,753 twins (mean age = 19.1 ± 3.1 years) recruited throughout South Korea. Correlations for the cold pattern (CP) were 0.42 (95% CI [0.28, 0.54]) for monozygotic (MZ) males, 0.16 (95% CI [-0.08, 0.39]) for dizygotic (DZ) males, 0...
June 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582726/thg-volume-21-issue-2-cover-and-back-matter
#19
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582725/thg-volume-21-issue-2-cover-and-front-matter
#20
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
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