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Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307333/the-16th-international-twin-congress-highlights-from-madrid-twin-research-twin-study-of-partner-aggression-abo-incompatibility-in-dizygotic-twins-growth-discordance-in-a-monoamniotic-twin-pair-quick-note-on-twin-implantation-in-the-media-long-lost-twins-found
#1
Nancy L Segal
Highlights from the 16th International Twin Congress, held in Madrid, Spain from November 16-18, 2017, are presented. The Twin Congress, formerly held every three years, now takes place biennially with a single-day meeting organized during the off years. This meeting is the largest gathering of scientific twin researchers, medical personnel, and representatives of multiple birth organizations in the world. This overview is followed by reviews of recent twin research and commentary concerning partner aggression, ABO incompatibility in dizygotic twins, growth discordance in a monoamniotic twin pair and twin implantation...
January 8, 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307321/copy-number-variation-analysis-of-100-twin-pairs-enriched-for-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#2
Sofia Stamouli, Britt-Marie Anderlid, Charlotte Willfors, Bhooma Thiruvahindrapuram, John Wei, Steve Berggren, Ann Nordgren, Stephen W Scherer, Paul Lichtenstein, Kristiina Tammimies, Sven Bölte
Hundreds of penetrant risk loci have been identified across different neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), and these often involve rare (<1% frequency) copy number variations (CNVs), which can involve one or more genes. Monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs are long thought to share 100% of their genomic information. However, genetic differences in the form of postzygotic somatic variants have been reported recently both in typically developing (TD) and in clinically discordant MZ pairs. We sought to investigate the contribution of rare CNVs in 100 twin pairs enriched for NDD phenotypes with a particular focus on postzygotic CNVs in MZ pairs discordant for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using the Illumina Infinium PsychArray...
January 8, 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282159/twins-as-participants-in-randomized-controlled-trials-a-review-of-published-literature
#3
Athula Sumathipala, Lisa Yelland, Debra Green, Tom Shepherd, Kaushalya Jayaweera, Paulo Ferreira, Jeffrey M Craig
Monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins participate in research that partitions variance in health, disease, and behavior into genetic and environmental components. However, there are other innovative roles for twins in medical research. One such way is involving MZ and/or DZ twins in co-twin control-designed randomized controlled trials (RCTs). To our knowledge, no reviews have been conducted that summarizes the involvement of twins in RCTs. Therefore, we conducted a systematic literature search using the U...
December 28, 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258629/aspects-of-the-history-of-twin-research-statistical-congresses-in-the-19th-century-and-hellin-s-law
#4
Johan Fellman
In the 19th century, a series of international statistical congresses began that were important for population studies, including twin research. The introduction of common rules for the national demographic registers enabled scientists to contribute to the genesis of statistical research. The congress in St. Petersburg in 1872, in particular, focused on the movements of the population, and how they should be registered. Among the facts to be recorded were in multiple births, the sex and number of children born alive or still-born, whether legitimate or illegitimate, and the age of the mother at the date of the births...
December 20, 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212571/expression-of-homeobox-gene-hlx-and-its-downstream-target-genes-are-altered-in-placentae-from-discordant-twin-pregnancies
#5
Nicola Yuen, Shaun P Brennecke, Mark P Umstad, Hannah E J Yong, Anthony J Borg, Gayathri Rajaraman, Bill Kalionis, Padma Murthi
A discordant twin gestation, in which one fetus is significantly growth restricted, compared to the other normal twin, is a unique model that can be used to elucidate the mechanism(s) by which the intrauterine environment affects fetal growth. In many model systems, placental transcription factor genes regulate fetal growth. Transcription factors regulate growth through their activation or repression of downstream target genes that mediate important cell functions. The objective of this study was to determine the expression of the placental HLX homeobox gene transcription factor and its downstream target genes in dizygotic twins with growth discordance...
December 7, 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125095/social-comparison-orientation-in-monozygotic-and-dizygotic-twins
#6
Pascal Huguet, Michèle Carlier, Conor V Dolan, Eco J de Geus, Dorret I Boomsma
Twin research has offered evidence that monozygotic (MZ) twins are more socially close than dizygotic (DZ) twins, but has not paid much attention to the way twins compare themselves with their co-twin. The few studies in this area suggest that 'horizontal comparisons' (social comparison motivated by solidarity or communion with others) matter more for MZ twins than for DZ twins, at least when the co-twin is the social comparison standard. Consistent with this view, we predicted higher interest in MZ twins relative to DZ twins to select their co-twin rather than other people in general as the social comparison standard...
November 10, 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110752/heritability-and-gwas-analyses-of-acne-in-australian-adolescent-twins
#7
Angela Mina-Vargas, Lucía Colodro-Conde, Katrina Grasby, Gu Zhu, Scott Gordon, Sarah E Medland, Nicholas G Martin
Acne vulgaris is a skin disease with a multifactorial and complex pathology. While several twin studies have estimated that acne has a heritability of up to 80%, the genomic elements responsible for the origin and pathology of acne are still undiscovered. Here we performed a twin-based structural equation model, using available data on acne severity for an Australian sample of 4,491 twins and their siblings aged from 10 to 24. This study extends by a factor of 3 an earlier analysis of the genetic factors of acne...
November 7, 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103407/musical-interests-and-talent-twin-jazz-musicians-and-twin-studies-twin-research-loss-of-a-preterm-multiple-conjoined-twin-conception-depression-in-fathers-of-twins-twin-to-twin-transfusion-syndrome-twin-news-high-achieving-twins-twin-children-of-a-tennis-star
#8
Nancy L Segal
Findings from twin studies of musical interests and talent are reviewed as a backdrop to the lives and careers of twin jazz musicians, Peter and Will Anderson. The Anderson twins exemplify many aspects of twin research, namely their matched musical abilities, shared musical interests, and common career. This overview is followed by reviews of studies and case reports of bereavement in families who have lost a preterm multiple birth infant, the conception of conjoined twins following in vitro fertilization (IVF), depression in fathers of twins, and twin-to-twin transfusion incidence in monochorionic-diamniotic IVF twin pairs...
November 6, 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103406/mathematical-ability-and-socio-economic-background-irt-modeling-to-estimate-genotype-by-environment-interaction
#9
Inga Schwabe, Dorret I Boomsma, Stéphanie M van den Berg
Genotype by environment interaction in behavioral traits may be assessed by estimating the proportion of variance that is explained by genetic and environmental influences conditional on a measured moderating variable, such as a known environmental exposure. Behavioral traits of interest are often measured by questionnaires and analyzed as sum scores on the items. However, statistical results on genotype by environment interaction based on sum scores can be biased due to the properties of a scale. This article presents a method that makes it possible to analyze the actually observed (phenotypic) item data rather than a sum score by simultaneously estimating the genetic model and an item response theory (IRT) model...
November 6, 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192584/thg-volume-20-issue-6-cover-and-back-matter
#10
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192583/abstracts-from-the-16th-international-congress-on-twin-studies-and-the-4th-world-congress-on-twin-pregnancy-madrid-spain-november-16-18-2017
#11
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192582/thg-volume-20-issue-6-cover-and-front-matter
#12
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192581/genetic-influences-on-evening-preference-overlap-with-those-for-bipolar-disorder-in-a-sample-of-mexican-americans-and-american-indians
#13
Whitney E Melroy-Greif, Ian R Gizer, Kirk C Wilhelmsen, Cindy L Ehlers
Diurnal preference (e.g., being an owl or lark) has been associated with several psychiatric disorders including bipolar disorder (BP), major depressive disorder, and substance use disorders. Previous large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) aimed at identifying genetic influences on diurnal preference have exclusively included subjects of European ancestry. This study examined the genetic architecture of diurnal preference in two minority samples: a young adult sample of Mexican Americans (MAs), and a family-based sample of American Indians (AIs)...
December 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192580/copy-number-variants-and-exome-sequencing-analysis-in-six-pairs-of-chinese-monozygotic-twins-discordant-for-congenital-heart-disease
#14
Yuejuan Xu, Tingting Li, Tian Pu, Ruixue Cao, Fei Long, Sun Chen, Kun Sun, Rang Xu
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is one of the most common birth defects. More than 200 susceptibility loci have been identified for CHDs, yet a large part of the genetic risk factors remain unexplained. Monozygotic (MZ) twins are thought to be completely genetically identical; however, discordant phenotypes have been found in MZ twins. Recent studies have demonstrated genetic differences between MZ twins. We aimed to test whether copy number variants (CNVs) and/or genetic mutation differences play a role in the etiology of CHDs by using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping arrays and whole exome sequencing of twin pairs discordant for CHDs...
December 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039294/a-comparison-of-heritability-estimates-by-classical-twin-modeling-and-based-on-genome-wide-genetic-relatedness-for-cardiac-conduction-traits
#15
Ilja M Nolte, Joeri A Jansweijer, Hariette Riese, Folkert W Asselbergs, Pim van der Harst, Timothy D Spector, Yigal M Pinto, Harold Snieder, Yalda Jamshidi
Twin studies have found that ~50% of variance in electrocardiogram (ECG) traits can be explained by genetic factors. However, genetic variants identified through genome-wide association studies explain less than 10% of the total trait variability. Some have argued that the equal environment assumption for the classical twin model might be invalid, resulting in inflated narrow-sense heritability (h 2) estimates, thus explaining part of the 'missing h 2'. Genomic relatedness restricted maximum likelihood (GREML) estimation overcomes this issue...
October 17, 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021003/seasonality-in-multiple-maternities
#16
Johan Fellman
In the 19th century, a series of international statistical congresses introduced common rules for the national demographic registers. This activity contributed to the genesis of statistical research. During the history of twin research, Hellin's law has played a central role because it is an approximately correct association between the rates of multiple maternities. However, it has been mathematically proven that Hellin's law cannot hold exactly. The majority of all studies of Hellin's law are based on empirical rates of multiple maternities...
October 12, 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978361/genetic-and-environmental-relationships-between-depressive-and-anxiety-symptoms-and-cardiovascular-risk-estimates-among-korean-twins-and-families
#17
Yun-Mi Song, Joohon Sung, Kayoung Lee
We aimed to assess shared genetic correlations of depressive and anxiety symptoms with concurrent and future estimated cardiovascular risk (CVR) score in Korean twins and family members. For the relationship with Adult Treatment Panel III CVR estimate in subjects aged 30-74 years (n = 1,059, baseline and follow-up after 3.2 ± 1.2 years), Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and state and trait anxiety inventory (SAI and TAI) were measured at baseline. A mixed linear model for CVR scores at baseline and follow-up was applied to include depressive and anxiety symptoms, twin and family effects, income, education, alcohol use, exercise, body mass index, and baseline CVR score for follow-up analysis...
October 5, 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975879/thg-volume-20-issue-5-cover-and-front-matter
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975878/thg-volume-20-issue-5-cover-and-back-matter
#19
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975877/attitudes-to-gun-control-in-an-american-twin-sample-sex-differences-in-the-causes-of-variation
#20
Lindon J Eaves, Judy L Silberg
The genetic and social causes of individual differences in attitudes to gun control are estimated in a sample of senior male and female twin pairs in the United States. Genetic and environmental parameters were estimated by weighted least squares applied to polychoric correlations for monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins of both sexes. The analysis suggests twin similarity for attitudes to gun control in men is entirely genetic while that in women is purely social. Although the volunteer sample is small, the analysis illustrates how the well-tested concepts and methods of genetic epidemiology may be a fertile resource for deepening our scientific understanding of biological and social pathways that affect individual risk to gun violence...
October 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
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