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Behavior Research Methods

Seang-Hwane Joo, Eun Sook Kim
When multiple groups are compared, the error variance-covariance structure is not always invariant between groups. In this study we investigated the impacts of misspecified error structures on testing measurement invariance and the latent-factor mean difference between groups. A Monte Carlo study was conducted to examine how measurement invariance and latent mean difference tests were affected when heterogeneous error structures were misspecified as being invariant across groups. Multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA) and the multiple-indicator multiple-causes model (MIMIC) were employed in the present study...
September 21, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Oleg Špakov, Howell Istance, Aulikki Hyrskykari, Harri Siirtola, Kari-Jouko Räihä
The recent growth in low-cost eye-tracking systems makes it feasible to incorporate real-time measurement and analysis of eye position data into activities such as learning to read. It also enables field studies of reading behavior in the classroom and other learning environments. We present a study of the data quality provided by two remote eye trackers, one being a low-sampling-rate, low-cost system. Then we present two algorithms for mapping fixations derived from the data to the words being read. One is for immediate (or real-time) mapping of fixations to words and the other for deferred (or post hoc) mapping...
September 17, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Chris Westbury, Geoff Hollis
Co-occurrence models have been of considerable interest to psychologists because they are built on very simple functionality. This is particularly clear in the case of prediction models, such as the continuous skip-gram model introduced in Mikolov, Chen, Corrado, and Dean (2013), because these models depend on functionality closely related to the simple Rescorla-Wagner model of discriminant learning in nonhuman animals (Rescorla & Wagner, 1972), which has a rich history within psychology as a model of many animal learning processes...
September 13, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Graham G Scott, Anne Keitel, Marc Becirspahic, Bo Yao, Sara C Sereno
The Glasgow Norms are a set of normative ratings for 5,553 English words on nine psycholinguistic dimensions: arousal, valence, dominance, concreteness, imageability, familiarity, age of acquisition, semantic size, and gender association. The Glasgow Norms are unique in several respects. First, the corpus itself is relatively large, while simultaneously providing norms across a substantial number of lexical dimensions. Second, for any given subset of words, the same participants provided ratings across all nine dimensions (33 participants/word, on average)...
September 11, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Robert E Wickham, Kathryn S Macia
The actor-partner interdependence (APIM) and common-fate (CFM) models for dyadic data are well understood and widely applied. The actor and partner coefficients estimated in the APIM reflect the associations between individual-level variance components, whereas the CFM coefficient describes the association between dyad-level variance components. Additionally, both models assume that the theoretically relevant and/or empirically dominant component of variability resides at the same level (individual or dyad) across the predictor and outcome variables...
September 10, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Caitlin A Rice, Barend Beekhuizen, Vladimir Dubrovsky, Suzanne Stevenson, Blair C Armstrong
Most words are ambiguous, with interpretation dependent on context. Advancing theories of ambiguity resolution is important for any general theory of language processing, and for resolving inconsistencies in observed ambiguity effects across experimental tasks. Focusing on homonyms (words such as bank with unrelated meanings EDGE OF A RIVER vs. FINANCIAL INSTITUTION), the present work advances theories and methods for estimating the relative frequency of their meanings, a factor that shapes observed ambiguity effects...
September 10, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Raymond Vagell, Vance J Vagell, Rachel L Jacobs, James Gordon, Andrea L Baden
This article introduces the open-source Subject-Mediated Automatic Remote Testing Apparatus (SMARTA) for visual discrimination tasks, which aims to streamline and ease data collection, eliminate or reduce observer error, increase interobserver agreement, and automate data entry without the need for an internet connection. SMARTA is inexpensive and easy to build, and it can be modified to accommodate a variety of experimental designs. Here we describe the utility and functionality of SMARTA in a captive setting...
September 5, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Michael K Lindell, Donald H House, Jordan Gestring, Hao-Che Wu
This tutorial describes DynaSearch, a Web-based system that supports process-tracing experiments on coupled-system dynamic decision-making tasks. A major need in these tasks is to examine the process by which decision makers search over a succession of situation reports for the information they need in order to make response decisions. DynaSearch provides researchers with the ability to construct and administer Web-based experiments containing both between- and within-subjects factors. Information search pages record participants' acquisition of verbal, numeric, and graphic information...
September 5, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Arnaud Decatoire, Sophie-Anne Beauprez, Jean Pylouster, Patrick Lacouture, Yannick Blandin, Christel Bidet-Ildei
The study of biological point-light displays (PLDs) has fascinated researchers for more than 40 years. However, the mechanisms underlying PLD perception remain unclear, partly due to difficulties with precisely controlling and transforming PLD sequences. Furthermore, little agreement exists regarding how transformations are performed. This article introduces a new free-access program called PLAViMoP (Point-Light Display Visualization and Modification Platform) and presents the algorithms for PLD transformations actually included in the software...
September 5, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Leendert van Maanen, Dimitris Katsimpokis, A Dilene van Campen
Understanding error and response time patterns is essential for making inferences in several domains of cognitive psychology. Crucial insights on cognitive performance and typical behavioral patterns are disclosed by using distributional analyses such as conditional accuracy functions (CAFs) instead of mean statistics. Several common behavioral error patterns revealed by CAFs are frequently described in the literature: response capture (associated with relatively fast errors), time pressure or urgency paradigms (slow errors), or cue-induced speed-accuracy trade-off (evenly distributed errors)...
September 5, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
James L Butler, Steve W Kennerley
Training nonhuman primates (NHPs) to perform cognitive tasks is essential for many neuroscientific investigations, yet laboratory training is a time-consuming process with inherent limitations. Habituating NHPs to the laboratory staff and experimental equipment can take months before NHPs are ready to proceed to the primary tasks. Laboratory training also necessarily separates NHPs from their home-room social group and typically involves some form of restraint or limited mobility, and data collection is often limited to a few hours per day so that multiple NHPs can be trained on the same equipment...
September 5, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Jianying Bai, Min Bao, Tao Zhang, Yi Jiang
As we move in space, our retinae receive motion signals from two causes: those resulting from motion in the world and those resulting from self-motion. Mounting evidence has shown that vestibular self-motion signals interact with visual motion processing profoundly. However, most contemporary methods arguably lack portability and generality and are incapable of providing measurements during locomotion. Here we developed a virtual reality approach, combining a three-space sensor with a head-mounted display, to quantitatively manipulate the causality between retinal motion and head rotations in the yaw plane...
September 5, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Manuela Pinto, Shalom Zuckerman
We present a new method for investigating children's language comprehension and argue that it has the potential to mitigate known task-related biases and expose children's grammatical and lexical knowledge in a more natural and ecologically valid manner. The new method consists of filling in a digital coloring page, according to sentence stimuli (e.g., The green monkey is being scratched by the blue monkey; The rabbit is red.). Through the playful act of coloring in the page, children reveal their interpretations of grammatical constructions and lexical items...
September 4, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
James P Trujillo, Julija Vaitonyte, Irina Simanova, Asli Özyürek
Action, gesture, and sign represent unique aspects of human communication that use form and movement to convey meaning. Researchers typically use manual coding of video data to characterize naturalistic, meaningful movements at various levels of description, but the availability of markerless motion-tracking technology allows for quantification of the kinematic features of gestures or any meaningful human movement. We present a novel protocol for extracting a set of kinematic features from movements recorded with Microsoft Kinect...
August 24, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Shu Fai Cheung, Darius K-S Chan, Rong Wei Sun
Previous procedures for meta-analyzing dependent correlations have been found to overestimate or underestimate the true variation in effect sizes. Samplewise-adjusted procedures have been shown to perform better than simple within-study means when meta-analyzing dependent correlations. However, such procedures cannot be applied when correction for artifacts such as unreliability is desired. In the present study, we extended the procedures to correct for attenuation due to artifacts when meta-analyzing dependent correlations...
August 22, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Kamran Binaee, Gabriel J Diaz
To walk through the cluttered natural environment requires visually guided and anticipatory adjustments to gait in advance of upcoming obstacles. However, scientific investigation of visual contributions to obstacle crossing have historically been limited by the practical issues involved with the repeated presentation of multiple obstacles upon a ground plane. This study evaluates an approach in which the perception of a 3D obstacle is generated from 2D projection onto the ground plane with perspective correction based on the subject's motion-tracked head position...
August 21, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Amanda Zamary, Katherine A Rawson, Christopher A Was
Complex span and content-embedded tasks are two kinds of tasks that are designed to measure maintenance and processing in the working memory system. However, a key functional difference between these task types is that complex span tasks require the maintenance of information that is not relevant to the processing task, whereas content-embedded tasks require the maintenance of task-relevant information. The purpose of the present research was to test the hypothesis that more unique variance in inductive reasoning would be explained by content-embedded tasks than by complex span tasks, given that inductive reasoning requires reasoners to maintain and manipulate task-relevant information in order to arrive to a solution...
August 20, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Georges Chedid, Maximilliano A Wilson, Christophe Bedetti, Amandine E Rey, Guillaume T Vallet, Simona Maria Brambati
In the last decade, research has shown that word processing is influenced by the lexical and semantic features of words. However, norms for a crucial semantic variable-that is, conceptual familiarity-have not been available for a sizeable French database. We thus developed French Canadian conceptual familiarity norms for 3,596 nouns. This enriches Desrochers and Thompson's (2009) database, in which subjective frequency and imageability values are already available for the same words. We collected online data from 313 Canadian French speakers...
August 20, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Nia M M Dowell, Tristan M Nixon, Arthur C Graesser
Roles are one of the most important concepts in understanding human sociocognitive behavior. During group interactions, members take on different roles within the discussion. Roles have distinct patterns of behavioral engagement (i.e., active or passive, leading or following), contribution characteristics (i.e., providing new information or echoing given material), and social orientation (i.e., individual or group). Different combinations of roles can produce characteristically different group outcomes, and thus can be either less or more productive with regard to collective goals...
August 17, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Nicholas C Jacobson, Sy-Miin Chow, Michelle G Newman
With the recent growth in intensive longitudinal designs and the corresponding demand for methods to analyze such data, there has never been a more pressing need for user-friendly analytic tools that can identify and estimate optimal time lags in intensive longitudinal data. The available standard exploratory methods to identify optimal time lags within univariate and multivariate multiple-subject time series are greatly underpowered at the group (i.e., population) level. We describe a hybrid exploratory-confirmatory tool, referred to herein as the Differential Time-Varying Effect Model (DTVEM), which features a convenient user-accessible function to identify optimal time lags and estimate these lags within a state-space framework...
August 17, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
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