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Behavior Research Methods

Dale S Kim, Connor J McCabe, Brianna L Yamasaki, Kristine A Louie, Kevin M King
Infrequency scales are becoming a popular mode of data screening, due to their availability and ease of implementation. Recent research has indicated that the interpretation and functioning of infrequency items may not be as straightforward as had previously been thought (Curran & Hauser, 2015), yet there are no empirically based guidelines for implementing cutoffs using these items. In the present study, we compared two methods of detecting random responding with infrequency items: a zero-tolerance threshold versus a threshold that balances classification error rates...
September 21, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
Tobias Busch, Anouk Sangen, Filiep Vanpoucke, Astrid van Wieringen
The Language ENvironment Analysis system (LENA™) automatically analyzes the natural sound environments of children. Among other things, it estimates the amounts of adult words (AWC), child vocalizations (CV), conversational turns (CT), and electronic media (TV) that a child is exposed to. To assess LENA's reliability, we compared it to manual transcription. Specifically, we calculated the correlation and agreement between the LENA estimates and manual counts for 48 five-min audio samples. These samples were selected from eight day-long recordings of six Dutch-speaking children (ages 2-5)...
September 21, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
Robbie C M van Aert, Marcel A L M van Assen
The unrealistically high rate of positive results within psychology has increased the attention to replication research. However, researchers who conduct a replication and want to statistically combine the results of their replication with a statistically significant original study encounter problems when using traditional meta-analysis techniques. The original study's effect size is most probably overestimated because it is statistically significant, and this bias is not taken into consideration in traditional meta-analysis...
September 21, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
Douglas A Fitts
The variable criteria sequential stopping rule (vcSSR) is an efficient way to add sample size to planned ANOVA tests while holding the observed rate of Type I errors, αo, constant. The only difference from regular null hypothesis testing is that criteria for stopping the experiment are obtained from a table based on the desired power, rate of Type I errors, and beginning sample size. The vcSSR was developed using between-subjects ANOVAs, but it should work with p values from any type of F test. In the present study, the αo remained constant at the nominal level when using the previously published table of criteria with repeated measures designs with various numbers of treatments per subject, Type I error rates, values of ρ, and four different sample size models...
September 21, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
Hans Stadthagen-González, Pilar Ferré, Miguel A Pérez-Sánchez, Constance Imbault, José Antonio Hinojosa
The discrete emotion theory proposes that affective experiences can be reduced to a limited set of universal "basic" emotions, most commonly identified as happiness, sadness, anger, fear, and disgust. Here we present norms for 10,491 Spanish words for those five discrete emotions collected from a total of 2,010 native speakers, making it the largest set of norms for discrete emotions in any language to date. When used in conjunction with the norms from Hinojosa, Martínez-García et al. (Behavior Research Methods, 48, 272-284, 2016) and Ferré, Guasch, Martínez-García, Fraga, & Hinojosa (Behavior Research Methods, 49, 1082-1094, 2017), researchers now have access to ratings of discrete emotions for 13,633 Spanish words...
September 18, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
Hannes Matuschek, Reinhold Kliegl
The analysis of large experimental datasets frequently reveals significant interactions that are difficult to interpret within the theoretical framework guiding the research. Some of these interactions actually arise from the presence of unspecified nonlinear main effects and statistically dependent covariates in the statistical model. Importantly, such nonlinear main effects may be compatible (or, at least, not incompatible) with the current theoretical framework. In the present literature, this issue has only been studied in terms of correlated (linearly dependent) covariates...
September 15, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
Mikko Nuutinen, Terhi Mustonen, Jukka Häkkinen
CFS toolbox is an open-source collection of MATLAB functions that utilizes PsychToolbox-3 (PTB-3). It is designed to allow a researcher to create and run continuous flash suppression experiments using a variety of experimental parameters (i.e., stimulus types and locations, noise characteristics, and experiment window settings). In a CFS experiment, one of the eyes at a time is presented with a dynamically changing noise pattern, while the other eye is concurrently presented with a static target stimulus, such as a Gabor patch...
September 15, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
Gene M Alarcon, Joseph B Lyons, James C Christensen, Samantha L Klosterman, Margaret A Bowers, Tyler J Ryan, Sarah A Jessup, Kevin T Wynne
Research on trust has burgeoned in the last few decades. Despite the growing interest in trust, little is known about trusting behaviors in non-dichotomous trust games. The current study explored propensity to trust, trustworthiness, and trust behaviors in a new computer-mediated trust relevant task. We used multivariate multilevel survival analysis (MMSA) to analyze behaviors across time. Results indicated propensity to trust did not influence trust behaviors. However, trustworthiness perceptions influenced initial trust behaviors and trust behaviors influenced subsequent trustworthiness perceptions...
September 15, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
Pablo Garaizar, Miguel A Vadillo
Experiment software is often used to measure reaction times gathered with keyboards or other input devices. In previous studies, the accuracy and precision of time stamps has been assessed through several means: (a) generating accurate square wave signals from an external device connected to the parallel port of the computer running the experiment software, (b) triggering the typematic repeat feature of some keyboards to get an evenly separated series of keypress events, or (c) using a solenoid handled by a microcontroller to press the input device (keyboard, mouse button, touch screen) that will be used in the experimental setup...
September 15, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
Suzanne Aussems, Natasha Kwok, Sotaro Kita
Human locomotion is a fundamental class of events, and manners of locomotion (e.g., how the limbs are used to achieve a change of location) are commonly encoded in language and gesture. To our knowledge, there is no openly accessible database containing normed human locomotion stimuli. Therefore, we introduce the GestuRe and ACtion Exemplar (GRACE) video database, which contains 676 videos of actors performing novel manners of human locomotion (i.e., moving from one location to another in an unusual manner) and videos of a female actor producing iconic gestures that represent these actions...
September 15, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
Roy P C Kessels, Albert Postma
The present paper describes the Box Task, a paradigm for the computerized assessment of visuospatial working memory. In this task, hidden objects have to be searched by opening closed boxes that are shown at different locations on the computer screen. The set size (i.e., number of boxes that must be searched) can be varied and different error scores can be computed that measure specific working memory processes (i.e., the number of within-search and between-search errors). The Box Task also has a developer's mode in which new stimulus displays can be designed for use in tailored experiments...
September 15, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
Daniel W Heck, Adrian Hoffmann, Morten Moshagen
In surveys concerning sensitive behavior or attitudes, respondents often do not answer truthfully, because of social desirability bias. To elicit more honest responding, the randomized-response (RR) technique aims at increasing perceived and actual anonymity by prompting respondents to answer with a randomly modified and thus uninformative response. In the crosswise model, as a particularly promising variant of the RR, this is achieved by adding a second, nonsensitive question and by prompting respondents to answer both questions jointly...
September 15, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
Johannes Titz, Agnes Scholz, Peter Sedlmeier
Up to now, the potential of eye tracking in science as well as in everyday life has not been fully realized because of the high acquisition cost of trackers. Recently, manufacturers have introduced low-cost devices, preparing the way for wider use of this underutilized technology. As soon as scientists show independently of the manufacturers that low-cost devices are accurate enough for application and research, the real advent of eye trackers will have arrived. To facilitate this development, we propose a simple approach for comparing two eye trackers by adopting a method that psychologists have been practicing in diagnostics for decades: correlating constructs to show reliability and validity...
September 6, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
Michal Bialek, Gordon Pennycook
The cognitive reflection test (CRT) is a widely used measure of the propensity to engage in analytic or deliberative reasoning in lieu of gut feelings or intuitions. CRT problems are unique because they reliably cue intuitive but incorrect responses and, therefore, appear simple among those who do poorly. By virtue of being composed of so-called "trick problems" that, in theory, could be discovered as such, it is commonly held that the predictive validity of the CRT is undermined by prior experience with the task...
August 28, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
Sebastian Sauer
Observation Oriented Modeling was proposed to overcome some of the problems in the application of statistical inference methods in the behavioral sciences. In this paper, we refine one part of this approach and show how it is connected to methods that are well known in statistical learning. Specifically, we argue that the Moore-Penrose pseudo inverse is superior to the initial solution from a statistical point of view. With this we also show that Observation Oriented Modeling can indeed be appropriate for some tasks in the analysis of observed data...
August 25, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
Elizabeth J Teh, Melvin J Yap, Susan J Rickard Liow
Picture databases are commonly used in experimental work on various aspects of emotion processing. However, existing standardized facial databases, typically used to explore emotion recognition, can be augmented with more contextual information for studying emotion and social perception. Moreover, the perception of social engagement, i.e., the degree of interaction or engagement inferred between the people in target pictures, has not been measured. In this paper, we describe the development of a database comprising 203 black-and-white line drawings depicting people within various situational contexts, and normed on perceived emotional valence, intensity, and social engagement, a new construct...
August 25, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
Matthew D Pickard, D Wilson, Catherine A Roster
Building on the literature that approaches self-disclosure as a decision-making process, we proposed a self-reported Sensitive Information Disclosure (SID) measure and tested the measure's reliability and validity in two studies across a variety of interview modes and settings. We used theory to identify potential dimensions of sensitive information disclosures, created potential scale items, performed two separate card sorts, and validated the resulting pool of items in two separate experiments. Participants answered the SID scale items following an interview involving sensitive information, potential risk, and after-disclosure vulnerability...
August 25, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
Udo Boehm, Helen Steingroever, Eric-Jan Wagenmakers
An important tool in the advancement of cognitive science are quantitative models that represent different cognitive variables in terms of model parameters. To evaluate such models, their parameters are typically tested for relationships with behavioral and physiological variables that are thought to reflect specific cognitive processes. However, many models do not come equipped with the statistical framework needed to relate model parameters to covariates. Instead, researchers often revert to classifying participants into groups depending on their values on the covariates, and subsequently comparing the estimated model parameters between these groups...
August 25, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
Matthias Speidel, Jörg Drechsler, Joseph W Sakshaug
When datasets are affected by nonresponse, imputation of the missing values is a viable solution. However, most imputation routines implemented in commonly used statistical software packages do not accommodate multilevel models that are popular in education research and other settings involving clustering of units. A common strategy to take the hierarchical structure of the data into account is to include cluster-specific fixed effects in the imputation model. Still, this ad hoc approach has never been compared analytically to the congenial multilevel imputation in a random slopes setting...
August 24, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
Ian W Skinner, Markus Hübscher, G Lorimer Moseley, Hopin Lee, Benedict M Wand, Adrian C Traeger, Sylvia M Gustin, James H McAuley
Eyetracking is commonly used to investigate attentional bias. Although some studies have investigated the internal consistency of eyetracking, data are scarce on the test-retest reliability and agreement of eyetracking to investigate attentional bias. This study reports the test-retest reliability, measurement error, and internal consistency of 12 commonly used outcome measures thought to reflect the different components of attentional bias: overall attention, early attention, and late attention. Healthy participants completed a preferential-looking eyetracking task that involved the presentation of threatening (sensory words, general threat words, and affective words) and nonthreatening words...
August 15, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
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