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Behavior Research Methods

Pete R Jones
During psychophysical testing, a loss of concentration can cause observers to answer incorrectly, even when the stimulus is clearly perceptible. Such lapses limit the accuracy and speed of many psychophysical measurements. This study evaluates an automated technique for detecting lapses based on body movement (postural instability). Thirty-five children (8-11 years of age) and 34 adults performed a typical psychophysical task (orientation discrimination) while seated on a Wii Fit Balance Board: a gaming device that measures center of pressure (CoP)...
May 16, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Lee Friedman, Ioannis Rigas, Evgeny Abdulin, Oleg V Komogortsev
Nystrӧm and Holmqvist have published a method for the classification of eye movements during reading (ONH) (Nyström & Holmqvist, 2010). When we applied this algorithm to our data, the results were not satisfactory, so we modified the algorithm (now the MNH) to better classify our data. The changes included: (1) reducing the amount of signal filtering, (2) excluding a new type of noise, (3) removing several adaptive thresholds and replacing them with fixed thresholds, (4) changing the way that the start and end of each saccade was determined, (5) employing a new algorithm for detecting PSOs, and (6) allowing a fixation period to either begin or end with noise...
May 15, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Giang Pham, Kerry Danahy Ebert, Kristine Thuy Dinh, Quynh Dam
Nonword repetition (NWR) has been a widely used measure of language-learning ability in children with and without language disorders. Although NWR tasks have been created for a variety of languages, minimal attention has been given to Asian tonal languages. This study introduces a new set of NWR stimuli for Vietnamese. The stimuli include 20 items ranging in length from one to four syllables. The items consist of dialect-neutral phonemes in consonant-vowel (CV) and CVC sequences that follow the phonotactic constraints of the language...
May 15, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Amandine Lassalle, Delia Pigat, Helen O'Reilly, Steve Berggen, Shimrit Fridenson-Hayo, Shahar Tal, Sigrid Elfström, Anna Råde, Ofer Golan, Sven Bölte, Simon Baron-Cohen, Daniel Lundqvist
In this study, we report the validation results of the EU-Emotion Voice Database, an emotional voice database available for scientific use, containing a total of 2,159 validated emotional voice stimuli. The EU-Emotion voice stimuli consist of audio-recordings of 54 actors, each uttering sentences with the intention of conveying 20 different emotional states (plus neutral). The database is organized in three separate emotional voice stimulus sets in three different languages (British English, Swedish, and Hebrew)...
April 30, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Heejo You, James S Magnuson
This article describes a new Python distribution of TISK, the time-invariant string kernel model of spoken word recognition (Hannagan et al. in Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 563, 2013). TISK is an interactive-activation model similar to the TRACE model (McClelland & Elman in Cognitive Psychology, 18, 1-86, 1986), but TISK replaces most of TRACE's reduplicated, time-specific nodes with theoretically motivated time-invariant, open-diphone nodes. We discuss the utility of computational models as theory development tools, the relative merits of TISK as compared to other models, and the ways in which researchers might use this implementation to guide their own research and theory development...
April 30, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Michela Lupo, Fabio Ferlazzo, Fabio Aloise, Francesco Di Nocera, Anna Maria Tedesco, Chiara Cardillo, Maria Leggio
Several studies have demonstrated that the processing of visuospatial memory for locations in reaching space and in navigational space is supported by independent systems, and that the coding of visuospatial information depends on the modality of the presentation (i.e., sequential or simultaneous). However, these lines of evidence and the most common neuropsychological tests used by clinicians to investigate visuospatial memory have several limitations (e.g., they are unable to analyze all the subcomponents of this function and are not directly comparable)...
April 27, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Anthony Pak-Hin Kong, Sam-Po Law
This article reports the construction of a multimodal annotated database of spoken discourse and co-verbal gestures by native healthy speakers of Cantonese and individuals with language impairment: the Cantonese AphasiaBank. This corpus was established as a foundation for aphasiologists and clinicians to use in designing and conducting research investigations into theoretical and clinical issues related to acquired language disorders in Chinese. Details in terms of the purpose, structure, and levels of annotation of the database (containing part-of-speech-annotated orthographic transcripts with Romanization and the corresponding videos) are described...
April 24, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Kirsten Ziman, Andrew C Heusser, Paxton C Fitzpatrick, Campbell E Field, Jeremy R Manning
Verbal responses are a convenient and naturalistic way for participants to provide data in psychological experiments (Salzinger, The Journal of General Psychology, 61(1),65-94:1959). However, audio recordings of verbal responses typically require additional processing, such as transcribing the recordings into text, as compared with other behavioral response modalities (e.g., typed responses, button presses, etc.). Further, the transcription process is often tedious and time-intensive, requiring human listeners to manually examine each moment of recorded speech...
April 23, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Yao-Ting Sung, Jeng-Shin Wu
Traditionally, the visual analogue scale (VAS) has been proposed to overcome the limitations of ordinal measures from Likert-type scales. However, the function of VASs to overcome the limitations of response styles to Likert-type scales has not yet been addressed. Previous research using ranking and paired comparisons to compensate for the response styles of Likert-type scales has suffered from limitations, such as that the total score of ipsative measures is a constant that cannot be analyzed by means of many common statistical techniques...
April 17, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Benjamin G Schultz
The Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) was readily adopted for auditory sensorimotor synchronization experiments. These experiments typically use MIDI percussion pads to collect responses, a MIDI-USB converter (or MIDI-PCI interface) to record responses on a PC and manipulate feedback, and an external MIDI sound module to generate auditory feedback. Previous studies have suggested that auditory feedback latencies can be introduced by these devices. The Schultz MIDI Benchmarking Toolbox (SMIDIBT) is an open-source, Arduino-based package designed to measure the point-to-point latencies incurred by several devices used in the generation of response-triggered auditory feedback...
April 17, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Bart Michiels, Patrick Onghena
In this article we present a nonparametric technique for meta-analyzing randomized single-case experiments by using inverted randomization tests to calculate nonparametric confidence intervals for combined effect sizes (CICES). Over the years, several proposals for single-case meta-analysis have been made, but most of these proposals assume either specific population characteristics (e.g., heterogeneity of variances or normality) or independent observations. However, such assumptions are seldom plausible in single-case research...
April 16, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Wolfgang Wiedermann, Xintong Li
In nonexperimental data, at least three possible explanations exist for the association of two variables x and y: (1) x is the cause of y, (2) y is the cause of x, or (3) an unmeasured confounder is present. Statistical tests that identify which of the three explanatory models fits best would be a useful adjunct to the use of theory alone. The present article introduces one such statistical method, direction dependence analysis (DDA), which assesses the relative plausibility of the three explanatory models on the basis of higher-moment information about the variables (i...
April 16, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Emma ZeeAbrahamsen, Jason Haberman
The visual system represents summary statistical information from a set of similar items, a phenomenon known as ensemble perception. In exploring various ensemble domains (e.g., orientation, color, facial expression), researchers have often employed the method of continuous report, in which observers select their responses from a gradually changing morph sequence. However, given their current implementation, some face morphs unintentionally introduce noise into the ensemble measurement. Specifically, some facial expressions on the morph wheel appear perceptually similar even though they are far apart in stimulus space...
April 13, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Tom Heyman, Anke Bruninx, Keith A Hutchison, Gert Storms
Many researchers have tried to predict semantic priming effects using a myriad of variables (e.g., prime-target associative strength or co-occurrence frequency). The idea is that relatedness varies across prime-target pairs, which should be reflected in the size of the priming effect (e.g., cat should prime dog more than animal does). However, it is only insightful to predict item-level priming effects if they can be measured reliably. Thus, in the present study we examined the split-half and test-retest reliabilities of item-level priming effects under conditions that should discourage the use of strategies...
April 5, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Miroslav Sirota, Marie Juanchich
The Cognitive Reflection Test, measuring intuition inhibition and cognitive reflection, has become extremely popular because it reliably predicts reasoning performance, decision-making, and beliefs. Across studies, the response format of CRT items sometimes differs, based on the assumed construct equivalence of tests with open-ended versus multiple-choice items (the equivalence hypothesis). Evidence and theoretical reasons, however, suggest that the cognitive processes measured by these response formats and their associated performances might differ (the nonequivalence hypothesis)...
March 27, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Bruno Rossion, Caroline Michel
We report normative data from a large (N = 307) sample of young adult participants tested with a computerized version of the long form of the classical Benton Facial Recognition Test (BFRT; Benton & Van Allen, 1968). The BFRT-c requires participants to match a target face photograph to either one or three of six face photographs presented simultaneously. We found that the percent accuracy on the BFRT-c (81%-83%) was below ceiling yet well above chance level, with little interindividual variance in this typical population sample, two important aspects of a sensitive clinical test...
March 16, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
R Miller, K Schmidt, C Kirschbaum, S Enge
The internet-based assessment of response time (RT) and error rate (ERR) has recently become a well-validated alternative to traditional laboratory-based assessment, because methodological research has provided evidence for negligible setting- and setup-related differences in RT and ERR measures of central tendency. However, corresponding data on potential differences in the variability of such performance measures are still lacking, to date. Hence, the aim of this study was to conduct internet-based mental chronometry in both poorly standardized domestic and highly standardized laboratory environments and to compare the variabilities of the corresponding performance measures...
March 15, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Erin M Buchanan, John E Scofield
Web-based data collection methods such as Amazon's Mechanical Turk (AMT) are an appealing option to recruit participants quickly and cheaply for psychological research. While concerns regarding data quality have emerged with AMT, several studies have exhibited that data collected via AMT are as reliable as traditional college samples and are often more diverse and representative of noncollege populations. The development of methods to screen for low quality data, however, has been less explored. Omitting participants based on simple screening methods in isolation, such as response time or attention checks may not be adequate identification methods, with an inability to delineate between high or low effort participants...
March 14, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Veronika Lerche, Andreas Voss
The diffusion model (Ratcliff, 1978) is a mathematical model theorized to untangle different cognitive processes involved in binary decision tasks. To test the validity of the diffusion model parameters, several experimental validation studies have been conducted. In these studies, the validity of the threshold separation parameter was tested with speed-accuracy manipulations. Typically, this manipulation not only results in the expected effect on the threshold separation parameter but it also impacts nondecision time: Nondecision time is longer in the accuracy than in the speed condition...
March 14, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Gong-Liang Zhang, Ai-Su Li, Cheng-Guo Miao, Xun He, Ming Zhang, Yang Zhang
Because they were used for decades to present visual stimuli in psychophysical and psychophysiological studies, cathode ray tubes (CRTs) used to be the gold standard for stimulus presentation in vision research. Recently, as CRTs have become increasingly rare in the market, researchers have started using various types of liquid-crystal display (LCD) monitors as a replacement for CRTs. However, LCDs are typically not cost-effective when used in vision research and often cannot reach the full capacity of a high refresh rate...
March 12, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
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