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Behavior Research Methods

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340970/ultrahigh-temporal-resolution-of-visual-presentation-using-gaming-monitors-and-g-sync
#1
Christian H Poth, Rebecca M Foerster, Christian Behler, Ulrich Schwanecke, Werner X Schneider, Mario Botsch
Vision unfolds as an intricate pattern of information processing over time. Studying vision and visual cognition therefore requires precise manipulations of the timing of visual stimulus presentation. Although standard computer display technologies offer great accuracy and precision of visual presentation, their temporal resolution is limited. This limitation stems from the fact that the presentation of rendered stimuli has to wait until the next refresh of the computer screen. We present a novel method for presenting visual stimuli with ultrahigh temporal resolution (<1 ms) on newly available gaming monitors...
January 16, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340969/on-the-predictive-validity-of-various-corpus-based-frequency-norms-in-l2-english-lexical-processing
#2
Xiaocong Chen, Yanping Dong, Xiufen Yu
The predictive validity of various corpus-based frequency norms in first-language lexical processing has been intensively investigated in previous research, but less attention has been paid to this issue in second-language (L2) processing. To bridge the gap, in the present study we took English as a case in point and compared the predictive power of a large set of corpus-based frequency norms for the performance of an L2 English visual lexical decision task (LDT). Our results showed that, in general, the frequency norms from SUBTLEX-US and WorldLex-Blog tended to predict L2 performance better in reaction times, whereas the frequency norms from corpora with a mixture of written and spoken genres (CELEX, WorldLex-Blog, BNC, ANC, and COCA) tended to predict L2 accuracy better...
January 16, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340968/a-novel-blink-detection-method-based-on-pupillometry-noise
#3
Ronen Hershman, Avishai Henik, Noga Cohen
Pupillometry (or the measurement of pupil size) is commonly used as an index of cognitive load and arousal. Pupil size data are recorded using eyetracking devices that provide an output containing pupil size at various points in time. During blinks the eyetracking device loses track of the pupil, resulting in missing values in the output file. The missing-sample time window is preceded and followed by a sharp change in the recorded pupil size, due to the opening and closing of the eyelids. This eyelid signal can create artificial effects if it is not removed from the data...
January 16, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340967/testing-the-actual-equivalence-of-automatically-generated-items
#4
Debora de Chiusole, Luca Stefanutti, Pasquale Anselmi, Egidio Robusto
If the automatic item generation is used for generating test items, the question of how the equivalence among different instances may be tested is fundamental to assure an accurate assessment. In the present research, the question was dealt by using the knowledge space theory framework. Two different ways of considering the equivalence among instances are proposed: The former is at a deterministic level and it requires that all the instances of an item template must belong to exactly the same knowledge states; the latter adds a probabilistic level to the deterministic one...
January 16, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330764/the-failing-measurement-of-attitudes-how-semantic-determinants-of-individual-survey-responses-come-to-replace-measures-of-attitude-strength
#5
Jan Ketil Arnulf, Kai Rune Larsen, Øyvind Lund Martinsen, Thore Egeland
The traditional understanding of data from Likert scales is that the quantifications involved result from measures of attitude strength. Applying a recently proposed semantic theory of survey response, we claim that survey responses tap two different sources: a mixture of attitudes plus the semantic structure of the survey. Exploring the degree to which individual responses are influenced by semantics, we hypothesized that in many cases, information about attitude strength is actually filtered out as noise in the commonly used correlation matrix...
January 12, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330763/safe-and-sensible-preprocessing-and-baseline-correction-of-pupil-size-data
#6
Sebastiaan Mathôt, Jasper Fabius, Elle Van Heusden, Stefan Van der Stigchel
Measurement of pupil size (pupillometry) has recently gained renewed interest from psychologists, but there is little agreement on how pupil-size data is best analyzed. Here we focus on one aspect of pupillometric analyses: baseline correction, i.e., analyzing changes in pupil size relative to a baseline period. Baseline correction is useful in experiments that investigate the effect of some experimental manipulation on pupil size. In such experiments, baseline correction improves statistical power by taking into account random fluctuations in pupil size over time...
January 12, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330762/how-honest-are-the-signals-a-protocol-for-validating-wearable-sensors
#7
Varol Onur Kayhan, Zheng Chris Chen, Kimberly A French, Tammy D Allen, Kristen Salomon, Alison Watkins
There is growing interest among organizational researchers in tapping into alternative sources of data beyond self-reports to provide a new avenue for measuring behavioral constructs. Use of alternative data sources such as wearable sensors is necessary for developing theory and enhancing organizational practice. Although wearable sensors are now commercially available, the veracity of the data they capture is largely unknown and mostly based on manufacturers' claims. The goal of this research is to test the validity and reliability of data captured by one such wearable badge (by Humanyze) in the context of structured meetings where all individuals wear a badge for the duration of the encounter...
January 12, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322400/general-mixture-item-response-models-with-different-item-response-structures-exposition-with-an-application-to-likert-scales
#8
Jesper Tijmstra, Maria Bolsinova, Minjeong Jeon
This article proposes a general mixture item response theory (IRT) framework that allows for classes of persons to differ with respect to the type of processes underlying the item responses. Through the use of mixture models, nonnested IRT models with different structures can be estimated for different classes, and class membership can be estimated for each person in the sample. If researchers are able to provide competing measurement models, this mixture IRT framework may help them deal with some violations of measurement invariance...
January 10, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322399/when-is-best-worst-best-a-comparison-of-best-worst-scaling-numeric-estimation-and-rating-scales-for-collection-of-semantic-norms
#9
Geoff Hollis, Chris Westbury
Large-scale semantic norms have become both prevalent and influential in recent psycholinguistic research. However, little attention has been directed towards understanding the methodological best practices of such norm collection efforts. We compared the quality of semantic norms obtained through rating scales, numeric estimation, and a less commonly used judgment format called best-worst scaling. We found that best-worst scaling usually produces norms with higher predictive validities than other response formats, and does so requiring less data to be collected overall...
January 10, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313247/emofinder-the-meeting-point-for-spanish-emotional-words
#10
Isabel Fraga, Marc Guasch, Juan Haro, Isabel Padrón, Pilar Ferré
We present here emoFinder ( http://usc.es/pcc/emofinder ), a Web-based search engine for Spanish word properties taken from different normative databases. The tool incorporates several subjective word properties for 16,375 distinct words. Although it focuses particularly on normative ratings for emotional dimensions (e.g., valence and arousal) and discrete emotional categories (fear, disgust, anger, happiness, and sadness), it also makes available ratings for other word properties that are known to affect word processing (e...
January 8, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274007/assessing-and-overcoming-participant-dishonesty-in-online-data-collection
#11
Chris Hydock
Crowdsourcing services, such as MTurk, have opened a large pool of participants to researchers. Unfortunately, it can be difficult to confidently acquire a sample that matches a given demographic, psychographic, or behavioral dimension. This problem exists because little information is known about individual participants and because some participants are motivated to misrepresent their identity with the goal of financial reward. Despite the fact that online workers do not typically display a greater than average level of dishonesty, when researchers overtly request that only a certain population take part in an online study, a nontrivial portion misrepresent their identity...
December 22, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29270719/correction-to-estimating-effect-size-when-there-is-clustering-in-one-treatment-group
#12
Larry V Hedges, Martyna Citkowicz
Equation (26) is formatted incorrectly in the pdf version. It should appear as follows.
December 21, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247386/all-for-one-or-some-for-all-evaluating-informative-hypotheses-using-multiple-n-%C3%A2-1-studies
#13
Fayette Klaassen, Claire M Zedelius, Harm Veling, Henk Aarts, Herbert Hoijtink
Analyses are mostly executed at the population level, whereas in many applications the interest is on the individual level instead of the population level. In this paper, multiple N = 1 experiments are considered, where participants perform multiple trials with a dichotomous outcome in various conditions. Expectations with respect to the performance of participants can be translated into so-called informative hypotheses. These hypotheses can be evaluated for each participant separately using Bayes factors...
December 15, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247385/within-subject-mediation-analysis-for-experimental-data-in-cognitive-psychology-and-neuroscience
#14
Matti Vuorre, Niall Bolger
Statistical mediation allows researchers to investigate potential causal effects of experimental manipulations through intervening variables. It is a powerful tool for assessing the presence and strength of postulated causal mechanisms. Although mediation is used in certain areas of psychology, it is rarely applied in cognitive psychology and neuroscience. One reason for the scarcity of applications is that these areas of psychology commonly employ within-subjects designs, and mediation models for within-subjects data are considerably more complicated than for between-subjects data...
December 15, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235072/a-bayesian-approach-to-estimating-variance-components-within-a-multivariate-generalizability-theory-framework
#15
Zhehan Jiang, William Skorupski
In many behavioral research areas, multivariate generalizability theory (mG theory) has been typically used to investigate the reliability of certain multidimensional assessments. However, traditional mG-theory estimation-namely, using frequentist approaches-has limits, leading researchers to fail to take full advantage of the information that mG theory can offer regarding the reliability of measurements. Alternatively, Bayesian methods provide more information than frequentist approaches can offer. This article presents instructional guidelines on how to implement mG-theory analyses in a Bayesian framework; in particular, BUGS code is presented to fit commonly seen designs from mG theory, including single-facet designs, two-facet crossed designs, and two-facet nested designs...
December 12, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235071/computationally-constructing-a-repository-of-compound-remote-associates-test-items-in-american-english-with-comrat-g
#16
Ana-Maria Olteţeanu, Holger Schultheis, Jonathan B Dyer
The Remote Associates Test (RAT) has been used to measure creativity, however few repositories or standardizations of test items exist, like the normative data on 144 items provided by Bowden and Jung-Beeman. comRAT is a computational solver which has been used to solve the compound RAT in linguistic and visual forms, showing correlation to human performance over the normative data provided by Bowden and Jung-Beeman. This paper describes using a variant of comRAT, comRAT-G, to generate and construct a repository of compound RAT items for use in the cognitive psychology and cognitive modeling community...
December 12, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235070/predpsych-a-toolbox-for-predictive-machine-learning-based-approach-in-experimental-psychology-research
#17
Atesh Koul, Cristina Becchio, Andrea Cavallo
Recent years have seen an increased interest in machine learning-based predictive methods for analyzing quantitative behavioral data in experimental psychology. While these methods can achieve relatively greater sensitivity compared to conventional univariate techniques, they still lack an established and accessible implementation. The aim of current work was to build an open-source R toolbox - "PredPsych" - that could make these methods readily available to all psychologists. PredPsych is a user-friendly, R toolbox based on machine-learning predictive algorithms...
December 12, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218590/measuring-and-testing-the-agreement-of-matrices
#18
Michael J Brusco, Douglas Steinley
The problem of comparing the agreement of two n × n matrices has a variety of applications in experimental psychology. A well-known index of agreement is based on the sum of the element-wise products of the matrices. Although less familiar to many researchers, measures of agreement based on within-row and/or within-column gradients can also be useful. We provide a suite of MATLAB programs for computing agreement indices and performing matrix permutation tests of those indices. Programs for computing exact p-values are available for small matrices, whereas resampling programs for approximate p-values are provided for larger matrices...
December 7, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218589/stimulstat-a-lexical-database-for-russian
#19
Svetlana Alexeeva, Natalia Slioussar, Daria Chernova
In this article, we present StimulStat - a lexical database for the Russian language in the form of a web application. The database contains more than 52,000 of the most frequent Russian lemmas and more than 1.7 million word forms derived from them. These lemmas and forms are characterized according to more than 70 properties that were demonstrated to be relevant for psycholinguistic research, including frequency, length, phonological and grammatical properties, orthographic and phonological neighborhood frequency and size, grammatical ambiguity, homonymy and polysemy...
December 7, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218588/threats-to-the-validity-of-eye-movement-research-in-psychology
#20
Jacob L Orquin, Kenneth Holmqvist
Eyetracking research in psychology has grown exponentially over the past decades, as equipment has become cheaper and easier to use. The surge in eyetracking research has not, however, been equaled by a growth in methodological awareness, and practices that are best avoided have become commonplace. We describe nine threats to the validity of eyetracking research and provide, whenever possible, advice on how to avoid or mitigate these challenges. These threats concern both internal and external validity and relate to the design of eyetracking studies, to data preprocessing, to data analysis, and to the interpretation of eyetracking data...
December 7, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
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