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Behavior Research Methods

Claudia H Sánchez-Gutiérrez, Hugo Mailhot, S Hélène Deacon, Maximiliano A Wilson
Most of the new words a reader will find are morphologically complex. Also, theoretical models of language processing propose that morphology plays an important role in visual word processing. Nevertheless, studies on the subject show contradicting results that are difficult to reconcile. One factor that may explain this is the lack of a sizeable and reliable morphological database. As a consequence, there are enormous methodological differences in the way the values for morphological variables are calculated across studies...
November 9, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
Constanze Mühl, Orla Sheil, Lina Jarutytė, Patricia E G Bestelmeyer
Recognising the identity of conspecifics is an important yet highly variable skill. Approximately 2 % of the population suffers from a socially debilitating deficit in face recognition. More recently the existence of a similar deficit in voice perception has emerged (phonagnosia). Face perception tests have been readily available for years, advancing our understanding of underlying mechanisms in face perception. In contrast, voice perception has received less attention, and the construction of standardized voice perception tests has been neglected...
November 9, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
Ya-Ning Chang, Chia-Ying Lee
Words are considered semantically ambiguous if they have more than one meaning and can be used in multiple contexts. A number of recent studies have provided objective ambiguity measures by using a corpus-based approach and have demonstrated ambiguity advantages in both naming and lexical decision tasks. Although the predictive power of objective ambiguity measures has been examined in several alphabetic language systems, the effects in logographic languages remain unclear. Moreover, most ambiguity measures do not explicitly address how the various contexts associated with a given word relate to each other...
November 9, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
J Peter Leeds
The theory of cognitive acuity (TCA) treats the response options within items as signals to be detected and uses psychophysical methods to estimate the respondents' sensitivity to these signals. Such a framework offers new methods to construct and score situational judgment tests (SJT). Leeds (2012) defined cognitive acuity as the capacity to discern correctness and distinguish between correctness differences among simultaneously presented situation-specific response options. In this study, SJT response options were paired in order to offer the respondent a two-option choice...
November 9, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
Haiying Li, Zhiqiang Cai, Arthur C Graesser
In this study we developed and evaluated a crowdsourcing-based latent semantic analysis (LSA) approach to computerized summary scoring (CSS). LSA is a frequently used mathematical component in CSS, where LSA similarity represents the extent to which the to-be-graded target summary is similar to a model summary or a set of exemplar summaries. Researchers have proposed different formulations of the model summary in previous studies, such as pregraded summaries, expert-generated summaries, or source texts. The former two methods, however, require substantial human time, effort, and costs in order to either grade or generate summaries...
November 3, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
Stefan Scherbaum, Pascal J Kieslich
Mouse-tracking is an increasingly popular method to trace cognitive processes. As is common for a novel method, the exact methodological procedures employed in an individual study are still relatively idiosyncratic and the effects of different methodological setups on mouse-tracking measures have not been explored so far. Here, we study the impact of one commonly occurring methodological variation, namely whether participants have to initiate their mouse movements to trigger stimulus presentation (dynamic starting condition) or whether the stimulus is presented automatically after a fixed delay and participants can freely decide when to initiate their movements (static starting condition)...
November 3, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
Joseph W Houpt, Mary E Frame, Leslie M Blaha
The first stage of analyzing eye-tracking data is commonly to code the data into sequences of fixations and saccades. This process is usually automated using simple, predetermined rules for classifying ranges of the time series into events, such as "if the dispersion of gaze samples is lower than a particular threshold, then code as a fixation; otherwise code as a saccade." More recent approaches incorporate additional eye-movement categories in automated parsing algorithms by using time-varying, data-driven thresholds...
October 26, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
Sascha Weber, Rebekka S Schubert, Stefan Vogt, Boris M Velichkovsky, Sebastian Pannasch
Nowadays, the use of eyetracking to determine 2-D gaze positions is common practice, and several approaches to the detection of 2-D fixations exist, but ready-to-use algorithms to determine eye movements in three dimensions are still missing. Here we present a dispersion-based algorithm with an ellipsoidal bounding volume that estimates 3D fixations. Therefore, 3D gaze points are obtained using a vector-based approach and are further processed with our algorithm. To evaluate the accuracy of our method, we performed experimental studies with real and virtual stimuli...
October 26, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
Ning Wei, Tiangang Zhou, Lin Chen
The importance of holistic perception is described by Gestalt psychology and its principles. Gestalt psychologists have promoted a formal and testable framework for these principles. Quantitative measurements have been introduced from Gestalt psychology in order to complement traditional phenomenal descriptions. Here we demonstrated a new method of measuring grouping effects objectively and quantitatively, by means of tilt aftereffect (TAE) from visual adaptation. Experiment 1 validated the method by measuring grouping based on either proximity or color similarity...
October 26, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
M Fokkema, N Smits, A Zeileis, T Hothorn, H Kelderman
Identification of subgroups of patients for whom treatment A is more effective than treatment B, and vice versa, is of key importance to the development of personalized medicine. Tree-based algorithms are helpful tools for the detection of such interactions, but none of the available algorithms allow for taking into account clustered or nested dataset structures, which are particularly common in psychological research. Therefore, we propose the generalized linear mixed-effects model tree (GLMM tree) algorithm, which allows for the detection of treatment-subgroup interactions, while accounting for the clustered structure of a dataset...
October 25, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
Bernt Christian Skottun
Many vision experiments, e.g., tests of masking and visual crowding, involve the effect of adding a second stimulus to an initial one. The effects of such additions are generally considered in terms of physiological mechanisms and the possibility of interference in the stimuli is generally not considered. In the present study, interference between two stimuli was assessed by comparing the sum of amplitudes in the combined stimulus to the sums of the amplitudes in the two stimuli determined separately. With this approach, evidence for interference was found...
October 24, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
Daniel McNeish, Tyler Matta
In psychology, mixed-effects models and latent-curve models are both widely used to explore growth over time. Despite this widespread popularity, some confusion remains regarding the overlap of these different approaches. Recent articles have shown that the two modeling frameworks are mathematically equivalent in many cases, which is often interpreted to mean that one's choice of modeling framework is merely a matter of personal preference. However, some important differences in estimation and specification can lead to the models producing very different results when implemented in software...
October 24, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
Margaret E Webb, Daniel R Little, Simon J Cropper
Despite the presumed ability of insight problems to elicit the subjective feeling of insight, as well as the use of so-called insight problems to investigate this phenomenon for over 100 years, no research has collected normative data regarding the ability of insight problems to actually elicit the feeling of insight in a given individual. The work described in this article provides an overview of both classic and contemporary problems used to examine the construct of insight and presents normative data on the success rate, mean time to solution, and mean rating of aha experience for each problem and task type...
October 19, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
Antonio M Díez-Álamo, Emiliano Díez, María Ángeles Alonso, C Alejandra Vargas, Angel Fernandez
Subjective ratings of perceptual and motor attributes were obtained for a set of 750 concrete concepts in Spanish by requiring scale-based judgments from a sample of university students (N = 539). Following on the work of Amsel, Urbach, and Kutas (2012), the seven attributes were color, motion, sound, smell, taste, graspability, and pain. Normative data based on the obtained ratings are provided as a tool for future investigations. Additionally, the relationships of these attributes to other lexical dimensions (e...
October 19, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
Matthew D Rocklage, Derek D Rucker, Loran F Nordgren
The rapid expansion of the Internet and the availability of vast repositories of natural text provide researchers with the immense opportunity to study human reactions, opinions, and behavior on a massive scale. To help researchers take advantage of this new frontier, the present work introduces and validates the Evaluative Lexicon 2.0 (EL 2.0)-a quantitative linguistic tool that specializes in the measurement of the emotionality of individuals' evaluations in text. Specifically, the EL 2.0 utilizes natural language to measure the emotionality, extremity, and valence of evaluative reactions and attitudes...
October 19, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
Ignace T C Hooge, Diederick C Niehorster, Marcus Nyström, Richard Andersson, Roy S Hessels
Manual classification is still a common method to evaluate event detection algorithms. The procedure is often as follows: Two or three human coders and the algorithm classify a significant quantity of data. In the gold standard approach, deviations from the human classifications are considered to be due to mistakes of the algorithm. However, little is known about human classification in eye tracking. To what extent do the classifications from a larger group of human coders agree? Twelve experienced but untrained human coders classified fixations in 6 min of adult and infant eye-tracking data...
October 19, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
María Rubio-Aparicio, Fulgencio Marín-Martínez, Julio Sánchez-Meca, José Antonio López-López
This article presents a methodological review of 54 meta-analyses of the effectiveness of clinical psychological treatments, using standardized mean differences as the effect size index. We statistically analyzed the distribution of the number of studies of the meta-analyses, the distribution of the sample sizes in the studies of each meta-analysis, the distribution of the effect sizes in each of the meta-analyses, the distribution of the between-studies variance values, and the Pearson correlations between effect size and sample size in each meta-analysis...
October 19, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
Dale S Kim, Connor J McCabe, Brianna L Yamasaki, Kristine A Louie, Kevin M King
Infrequency scales are becoming a popular mode of data screening, due to their availability and ease of implementation. Recent research has indicated that the interpretation and functioning of infrequency items may not be as straightforward as had previously been thought (Curran & Hauser, 2015), yet there are no empirically based guidelines for implementing cutoffs using these items. In the present study, we compared two methods of detecting random responding with infrequency items: a zero-tolerance threshold versus a threshold that balances classification error rates...
September 21, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
Tobias Busch, Anouk Sangen, Filiep Vanpoucke, Astrid van Wieringen
The Language ENvironment Analysis system (LENA™) automatically analyzes the natural sound environments of children. Among other things, it estimates the amounts of adult words (AWC), child vocalizations (CV), conversational turns (CT), and electronic media (TV) that a child is exposed to. To assess LENA's reliability, we compared it to manual transcription. Specifically, we calculated the correlation and agreement between the LENA estimates and manual counts for 48 five-min audio samples. These samples were selected from eight day-long recordings of six Dutch-speaking children (ages 2-5)...
September 21, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
Robbie C M van Aert, Marcel A L M van Assen
The unrealistically high rate of positive results within psychology has increased the attention to replication research. However, researchers who conduct a replication and want to statistically combine the results of their replication with a statistically significant original study encounter problems when using traditional meta-analysis techniques. The original study's effect size is most probably overestimated because it is statistically significant, and this bias is not taken into consideration in traditional meta-analysis...
September 21, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
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