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Behavior Research Methods

Mariska E Kret, Elio E Sjak-Shie
Pupillometry has been one of the most widely used response systems in psychophysiology. Changes in pupil size can reflect diverse cognitive and emotional states, ranging from arousal, interest and effort to social decisions, but they are also widely used in clinical practice to assess patients' brain functioning. As a result, research involving pupil size measurements has been reported in practically all psychology, psychiatry, and psychophysiological research journals, and now it has found its way into the primatology literature as well as into more practical applications, such as using pupil size as a measure of fatigue or a safety index during driving...
July 10, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Brian A Anderson, Haena Kim
Attention is biased toward learned predictors of reward. The degree to which attention is automatically drawn to arbitrary reward cues has been linked to a variety of psychopathologies, including drug dependence, HIV-risk behaviors, depressive symptoms, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. In the context of addiction specifically, attentional biases toward drug cues have been related to drug craving and treatment outcomes. Given the potential role of value-based attention in psychopathology, the ability to quantify the magnitude of such bias before and after a treatment intervention in order to assess treatment-related changes in attention allocation would be desirable...
July 9, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Lena C Müller-Frommeyer, Niels A M Frommeyer, Simone Kauffeld
The way that individuals use function words in a conversation-reflecting how they say things, rather than what they say-is called their individual language style. The dyadic coordination of language styles, called language style matching (LSM), is central to the development of social relationships in conversations. Despite a growing body of research on LSM, conceptual and methodological approaches are inconsistent between scholars. After giving a conceptual overview of LSM, we derive the properties desirable for analyses of LSM in interaction (e...
July 6, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
John Paulin Hansen, Diako Mardanbegi, Florian Biermann, Per Bækgaard
This paper presents a study of a gaze interactive digital assembly instruction that provides concurrent logging of pupil data in a realistic task setting. The instruction allows hands-free gaze dwells as a substitute for finger clicks, and supports image rotation as well as image zooming by head movements. A user study in two LEGO toy stores with 72 children showed it to be immediately usable by 64 of them. Data logging of view-times and pupil dilations was possible for 59 participants. On average, the children spent half of the time attending to the instruction (S...
July 6, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Marc Brysbaert, Paweł Mandera, Samantha F McCormick, Emmanuel Keuleers
We present word prevalence data for 61,858 English words. Word prevalence refers to the number of people who know the word. The measure was obtained on the basis of an online crowdsourcing study involving over 220,000 people. Word prevalence data are useful for gauging the difficulty of words and, as such, for matching stimulus materials in experimental conditions or selecting stimulus materials for vocabulary tests. Word prevalence also predicts word processing times, over and above the effects of word frequency, word length, similarity to other words, and age of acquisition, in line with previous findings in the Dutch language...
July 2, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Alison Heard, Christopher R Madan, Andrea B Protzner, Penny M Pexman
One of the strategies that researchers have used to investigate the role of sensorimotor information in lexical-semantic processing is to examine the effects of words' rated body-object interaction (BOI; i.e., the ease with which the human body can interact with a word's referent). Processing tends to be facilitated for words with high as compared with low BOI, across a wide variety of tasks. Such effects have been referenced in debates over the nature of semantic representations, but their theoretical import has been limited by the fact that BOI is a fairly coarse measure of sensorimotor experience with words' referents...
July 2, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Minjeong Jeon, Paul De Boeck
In this paper, we hypothesize a type of item-response strategy based on knowledge retrieval. Knowledge retrieval-based item-solving strategy may emerge when: (1) one's regular ability is not utilized, (2) fast response time is not necessarily applied, and (3) the accuracy rate may be higher than the expected level due to chance. We propose to utilize item-response time with a finite-mixture IRT modeling approach to illustrate a potentially knowledge retrieval-based item-solving strategy. The described strategy is illustrated through the utilization of a low-stakes assessment data administered under no time constraint...
June 29, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Andrew Heathcote, Yi-Shin Lin, Angus Reynolds, Luke Strickland, Matthew Gretton, Dora Matzke
Parameter estimation in evidence-accumulation models of choice response times is demanding of both the data and the user. We outline how to fit evidence-accumulation models using the flexible, open-source, R-based Dynamic Models of Choice (DMC) software. DMC provides a hands-on introduction to the Bayesian implementation of two popular evidence-accumulation models: the diffusion decision model (DDM) and the linear ballistic accumulator (LBA). It enables individual and hierarchical estimation, as well as assessment of the quality of a model's parameter estimates and descriptive accuracy...
June 29, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Trish L Varao-Sousa, Alan Kingstone
Mind wandering (MW) reports often rely on individuals responding to specific external thought probes. Researchers have used this probe-caught method almost exclusively, due to its reliability across a wide range of testing situations. However, it remains an open question whether the probe-caught MW rates in more complex settings converge with those for simpler tasks, because of the rather artificial and controlled nature of the probe-caught methodology itself, which is shared across the different settings. To address this issue, we measured MW in a real-world lecture, during which students indicated whether they were mind wandering by simply catching themselves (as one would normally do in real life) or by catching themselves and responding to thought probes...
June 26, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Saoirse Connor Desai, Stian Reimers
Open-ended questions, in which participants write or type their responses, are used in many areas of the behavioral sciences. Although effective in the lab, they are relatively untested in online experiments, and the quality of responses is largely unexplored. Closed-ended questions are easier to use online because they generally require only single key- or mouse-press responses and are less cognitively demanding, but they can bias the responses. We compared the data quality obtained using open and closed response formats using the continued-influence effect (CIE), in which participants read a series of statements about an unfolding event, one of which is unambiguously corrected later...
June 25, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Ching Chu Sun, Peter Hendrix, Jianqiang Ma, Rolf Harald Baayen
We present the Chinese Lexical Database (CLD): a large-scale lexical database for simplified Chinese. The CLD provides a wealth of lexical information for 3913 one-character words, 34,233 two-character words, 7143 three-character words, and 3355 four-character words, and is publicly available through . For each of the 48,644 words in the CLD, we provide a wide range of categorical predictors, as well as an extensive set of frequency measures, complexity measures, neighborhood density measures, orthography-phonology consistency measures, and information-theoretic measures...
June 22, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Guillermo Vallejo, Manuel Ato, M Paula Fernández, Pablo E Livacic-Rojas
In this study, two approaches were employed to calculate how large the sample size needs to be in order to achieve a desired statistical power to detect a significant group-by-time interaction in longitudinal intervention studies-a power analysis method, based on derived formulas using ordinary least squares estimates, and an empirical method, based on restricted maximum likelihood estimates. The performance of both procedures was examined under four different scenarios: (a) complete data with homogeneous variances, (b) incomplete data with homogeneous variances, (c) complete data with heterogeneous variances, and (d) incomplete data with heterogeneous variances...
June 22, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Rose E Stafford, Christopher R Runyon, Jodi M Casabianca, Barbara G Dodd
An important consideration of any computer adaptive testing (CAT) program is the criterion used for ending item administration-the stopping rule, which ensures that all examinees are assessed to the same standard. Although various stopping rules exist, none of them have been compared under the generalized partial-credit model (Muraki in Applied Psychological Measurement, 16, 159-176, 1992). In this simulation study we compared the performance of three variable-length stopping rules-standard error (SE), minimum information (MI), and change in theta (CT)-both in isolation and in combination with requirements of minimum and maximum numbers of items, as well as a fixed-length stopping rule...
June 20, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Eva Smolka, Carsten Eulitz
A central issue in visual and spoken word recognition is the lexical representation of complex words-in particular, whether the lexical representation of complex words depends on semantic transparency: Is a complex verb like understand lexically represented as a whole word or via its base stand, given that its meaning is not transparent from the meanings of its parts? To study this issue, a number of stimulus characteristics are of interest that are not yet available in public databases of German. This article provides semantic association ratings, lexical paraphrases, and vector-based similarity measures for German verbs, measuring (a) the semantic transparency between 1,259 complex verbs and their bases, (b) the semantic relatedness between 1,109 verb pairs with 432 different bases, and (c) the vector-based similarity measures of 846 verb pairs...
June 18, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Benjamin V Tucker, Daniel Brenner, D Kyle Danielson, Matthew C Kelley, Filip Nenadić, Michelle Sims
The Massive Auditory Lexical Decision (MALD) database is an end-to-end, freely available auditory and production data set for speech and psycholinguistic research, providing time-aligned stimulus recordings for 26,793 words and 9592 pseudowords, and response data for 227,179 auditory lexical decisions from 231 unique monolingual English listeners. In addition to the experimental data, we provide many precompiled listener- and item-level descriptor variables. This data set makes it easy to explore responses, build and test theories, and compare a wide range of models...
June 18, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Anna K Laurinavichyute, Irina A Sekerina, Svetlana Alexeeva, Kristine Bagdasaryan, Reinhold Kliegl
This article introduces a new corpus of eye movements in silent reading-the Russian Sentence Corpus (RSC). Russian uses the Cyrillic script, which has not yet been investigated in cross-linguistic eye movement research. As in every language studied so far, we confirmed the expected effects of low-level parameters, such as word length, frequency, and predictability, on the eye movements of skilled Russian readers. These findings allow us to add Slavic languages using Cyrillic script (exemplified by Russian) to the growing number of languages with different orthographies, ranging from the Roman-based European languages to logographic Asian ones, whose basic eye movement benchmarks conform to the universal comparative science of reading (Share, 2008)...
June 15, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Zhehan Jiang, Richard Carter
The Bayesian literature has shown that the Hamiltonian Monte Carlo (HMC) algorithm is powerful and efficient for statistical model estimation, especially for complicated models. Stan, a software program built upon HMC, has been introduced as a means of psychometric modeling estimation. However, there are no systemic guidelines for implementing Stan with the log-linear cognitive diagnosis model (LCDM), which is the saturated version of many cognitive diagnostic model (CDM) variants. This article bridges the gap between Stan application and Bayesian LCDM estimation: Both the modeling procedures and Stan code are demonstrated in detail, such that this strategy can be extended to other CDMs straightforwardly...
June 12, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Dennis L Barbour, James C DiLorenzo, Kiron A Sukesan, Xinyu D Song, Jeff Y Chen, Eleanor A Degen, Katherine L Heisey, Roman Garnett
Behavioral testing in perceptual or cognitive domains requires querying a subject multiple times in order to quantify his or her ability in the corresponding domain. These queries must be conducted sequentially, and any additional testing domains are also typically tested sequentially, such as with distinct tests comprising a test battery. As a result, existing behavioral tests are often lengthy and do not offer comprehensive evaluation. The use of active machine-learning kernel methods for behavioral assessment provides extremely flexible yet efficient estimation tools to more thoroughly investigate perceptual or cognitive processes without incurring the penalty of excessive testing time...
June 12, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Udo Boehm, Maarten Marsman, Dora Matzke, Eric-Jan Wagenmakers
Psychological experiments often yield data that are hierarchically structured. A number of popular shortcut strategies in cognitive modeling do not properly accommodate this structure and can result in biased conclusions. To gauge the severity of these biases, we conducted a simulation study for a two-group experiment. We first considered a modeling strategy that ignores the hierarchical data structure. In line with theoretical results, our simulations showed that Bayesian and frequentist methods that rely on this strategy are biased towards the null hypothesis...
June 12, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Lydia M Hopper, Crystal L Egelkamp, Mason Fidino, Stephen R Ross
Typically, animals' food preferences are tested manually, which can be both time-consuming and vulnerable to experimenter biases. Given the utility of ascertaining animals' food preferences for research and husbandry protocols, developing a quick, reliable, and flexible paradigm would be valuable for expediting many research protocols. Therefore, we evaluated the efficacy of using a touchscreen interface to test nonhuman primates' food preferences and valuations, adapting previously validated manual methods...
June 8, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
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