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Behavior Research Methods

Luke Tudge, Eugene McSorley, Stephan A Brandt, Torsten Schubert
In eye movements, saccade trajectory deviation has often been used as a physiological operationalization of visual attention, distraction, or the visual system's prioritization of different sources of information. However, there are many ways to measure saccade trajectories and to quantify their deviation. This may lead to noncomparable results and poses the problem of choosing a method that will maximize statistical power. Using data from existing studies and from our own experiments, we used principal components analysis to carry out a systematic quantification of the relationships among eight different measures of saccade trajectory deviation and their power to detect the effects of experimental manipulations, as measured by standardized effect size...
January 11, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
T Lee Gilman, Razan Shaheen, K Maria Nylocks, Danielle Halachoff, Jessica Chapman, Jessica J Flynn, Lindsey M Matt, Karin G Coifman
Emotions are highly influential to many psychological processes. Indeed, research employing emotional stimuli is rapidly escalating across the field of psychology. However, challenges remain regarding discrete evocation of frequently co-elicited emotions such as amusement and happiness, or anger and disgust. Further, as much contemporary work in emotion employs college students, we sought to additionally evaluate the efficacy of film clips to discretely elicit these more challenging emotions in a young adult population using an online medium...
January 11, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
Antonio Calcagnì, Luigi Lombardi, Simone Sulpizio
Mouse tracker methodology has recently been advocated to explore the motor components of the cognitive dynamics involved in experimental tasks like categorization, decision-making, and language comprehension. This methodology relies on the analysis of computer-mouse trajectories, by evaluating whether they significantly differ in terms of direction, amplitude, and location when a given experimental factor is manipulated. In this kind of study, a descriptive geometric approach is usually adopted in the analysis of raw trajectories, where they are summarized with several measures, such as maximum-deviation and area under the curve...
January 11, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
Dereje W Gudicha, Verena D Schmittmann, Jeroen K Vermunt
This paper discusses power and sample-size computation for likelihood ratio and Wald testing of the significance of covariate effects in latent class models. For both tests, asymptotic distributions can be used; that is, the test statistic can be assumed to follow a central Chi-square under the null hypothesis and a non-central Chi-square under the alternative hypothesis. Power or sample-size computation using these asymptotic distributions requires specification of the non-centrality parameter, which in practice is rarely known...
December 30, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
Marianna Bolognesi, Roosmaryn Pilgram, Romy van den Heerik
Semantic feature norms (e.g., STIMULUS: car → RESPONSE: <has four wheels>) are commonly used in cognitive psychology to look into salient aspects of given concepts. Semantic features are typically collected in experimental settings and then manually annotated by the researchers into feature types (e.g., perceptual features, taxonomic features, etc.) by means of content analyses-that is, by using taxonomies of feature types and having independent coders perform the annotation task. However, the ways in which such content analyses are typically performed and reported are not consistent across the literature...
December 30, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
Giacomo Spinelli, Simone Sulpizio, Cristina Burani
In languages where the position of lexical stress within a word is not predictable from print, readers rely on distributional information extracted from the lexicon in order to assign stress. Lexical databases are thus especially important for researchers willing to address stress assignment in those languages. Here we present Q2Stress, a new database aimed to fill the lack of such a resource for Italian. Q2Stress includes multiple cues readers may use in assigning stress, such as type and token frequency of stress patterns as well as their distribution with respect to number of syllables, grammatical category, word beginnings, word endings, and consonant-vowel structures...
December 30, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
Janet H Bultitude, Alessandro Farnè, Romeo Salemme, Danielle Ibarrola, Christian Urquizar, Jacinta O'Shea, Jacques Luauté
Prism adaptation induces rapid recalibration of visuomotor coordination. The neural mechanisms of prism adaptation have come under scrutiny since the observations that the technique can alleviate hemispatial neglect following stroke, and can alter spatial cognition in healthy controls. Relative to non-imaging behavioral studies, fMRI investigations of prism adaptation face several challenges arising from the confined physical environment of the scanner and the supine position of the participants. Any researcher who wishes to administer prism adaptation in an fMRI environment must adjust their procedures enough to enable the experiment to be performed, but not so much that the behavioral task departs too much from true prism adaptation...
December 30, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
Olivia Morgan Lapenta, Ana Paula Xavier, Sônia Cavalcanti Côrrea, Paulo Sérgio Boggio
Human action perception is so powerful that people can identify movement efficiently in the absence of pictorial information, such as in point-light displays. Interest is growing in this type of stimulus for research in neuroscience. This interest stems from the advantage of separating the component of pure human action kinematics from other pictorial information, such as facial expression and muscle contraction. Although several groups have previously developed datasets of human point-light actions, due to the lack of datasets composed of daily actions with short durations, we developed 20 biological and 40 control (scrambled) point-light movements by using the technique of recording people wearing reflector patches...
December 21, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
Ritayan Mitra, Karen S McNeal, Howard D Bondell
Pupil dilation is known to indicate cognitive load. In this study, we looked at the average pupillary responses of a cohort of 29 undergraduate students during graphical problem solving. Three questions were asked, based on the same graphical input. The questions were interdependent and comprised multiple steps. We propose a novel way of analyzing pupillometry data for such tasks on the basis of eye fixations, a commonly used eyetracking parameter. We found that pupil diameter increased during the solution process...
December 7, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
Robin S S Kramer, Rob Jenkins, A Mike Burton
We describe InterFace, a software package for research in face recognition. The package supports image warping, reshaping, averaging of multiple face images, and morphing between faces. It also supports principal components analysis (PCA) of face images, along with tools for exploring the "face space" produced by PCA. The package uses a simple graphical user interface, allowing users to perform these sophisticated image manipulations without any need for programming knowledge. The program is available for download in the form of an app, which requires that users also have access to the (freely available) MATLAB Runtime environment...
December 7, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
Catherine Monnier, Arielle Syssau
FANchild (French Affective Norms for Children) provides norms of valence and arousal for a large corpus of French words (N = 720) rated by 908 French children and adolescents (ages 7, 9, 11, and 13). The ratings were made using the Self-Assessment Manikin (Lang, 1980). Because it combines evaluations of arousal and valence and includes ratings provided by 7-, 9-, 11-, and 13-year-olds, this database complements and extends existing French-language databases. Good response reliability was observed in each of the four age groups...
December 7, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
Amy Dawel, Luke Wright, Jessica Irons, Rachael Dumbleton, Romina Palermo, Richard O'Kearney, Elinor McKone
In everyday social interactions, people's facial expressions sometimes reflect genuine emotion (e.g., anger in response to a misbehaving child) and sometimes do not (e.g., smiling for a school photo). There is increasing theoretical interest in this distinction, but little is known about perceived emotion genuineness for existing facial expression databases. We present a new method for rating perceived genuineness using a neutral-midpoint scale (-7 = completely fake; 0 = don't know; +7 = completely genuine) that, unlike previous methods, provides data on both relative and absolute perceptions...
December 7, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
María José Soler, Carmen Dasí, Juan Carlos Ruiz, Teresa Cervera
This study presents a normative database of Spanish restricted length word stems that provides useful information for the selection of stimuli in memory experiments with Word Stem Completion (WSC) tasks. The database includes indices relative to stems (total baseline completion, priming baseline completion, priming, number of completions, ratio between given and deleted letters, and syllabic structure), and indices relative to characteristics of the words used to obtain the stems (frequency, familiarity, number of meanings, length, number of syllables, arousal, and valence)...
December 6, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
Frédéric Roux, Blair C Armstrong, Manuel Carreiras
The analysis of speech onset times has a longstanding tradition in experimental psychology as a measure of how a stimulus influences a spoken response. Yet the lack of accurate automatic methods to measure such effects forces researchers to rely on time-intensive manual or semiautomatic techniques. Here we present Chronset, a fully automated tool that estimates speech onset on the basis of multiple acoustic features extracted via multitaper spectral analysis. Using statistical optimization techniques, we show that the present approach generalizes across different languages and speaker populations, and that it extracts speech onset latencies that agree closely with those from human observations...
December 6, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
Juan Haro, Marc Guasch, Blanca Vallès, Pilar Ferré
Previous word recognition studies have shown that the pupillary response is sensitive to a word's frequency. However, such a pupillary effect may be due to the process of executing a response, instead of being an index of word processing. With the aim of exploring this possibility, we recorded the pupillary responses in two experiments involving a lexical decision task (LDT). In the first experiment, participants completed a standard LDT, whereas in the second they performed a delayed LDT. The delay in the response allowed us to compare pupil dilations with and without the response execution component...
December 6, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
Stefano Balietti
nodeGame is a free, open-source JavaScript/ HTML5 framework for conducting synchronous experiments online and in the lab directly in the browser window. It is specifically designed to support behavioral research along three dimensions: (i) larger group sizes, (ii) real-time (but also discrete time) experiments, and (iii) batches of simultaneous experiments. nodeGame has a modular source code, and defines an API (application programming interface) through which experimenters can create new strategic environments and configure the platform...
November 18, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
Maxime Gingras, Monique Sénéchal
Silent-letter endings are often claimed to be a major source of inconsistency in the French orthography. In this report, we introduce Silex, a database designed to facilitate the study of spelling performance in general, and silent-letter endings in particular. It was derived from two large and recent corpora based on child- and adult-targeted material. Silex consists of three kinds of Excel workbooks: a set of Stimuli Selector workbooks that allow researchers to select words based on a variety of statistics and word characteristics; a Table Generator workbook that allows researchers to build consistency distribution tables by selecting specific phonological or orthographic units; and a Master File workbook, from which all statistics were derived, and that allows researchers to compute other statistics...
November 18, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
Pascale Bédard, Anne-Marie Audet, Patrick Drouin, Johanna-Pascale Roy, Julie Rivard, Pascale Tremblay
Sublexical phonotactic regularities in language have a major impact on language development, as well as on speech processing and production throughout the entire lifespan. To understand the impact of phonotactic regularities on speech and language functions at the behavioral and neural levels, it is essential to have access to oral language corpora to study these complex phenomena in different languages. Yet, probably because of their complexity, oral language corpora remain less common than written language corpora...
November 11, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
Felix Henninger, Pascal J Kieslich, Benjamin E Hilbig
We introduce a novel platform for interactive studies, that is, any form of study in which participants' experiences depend not only on their own responses, but also on those of other participants who complete the same study in parallel, for example a prisoner's dilemma or an ultimatum game. The software thus especially serves the rapidly growing field of strategic interaction research within psychology and behavioral economics. In contrast to all available software packages, our platform does not handle stimulus display and response collection itself...
November 11, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
Kerem Eryilmaz, Hannah Little
 In evolutionary linguistics, experiments using artificial signal spaces are being used to investigate the emergenceof speech structure. These signal spaces need to be continuous, non-discretized spaces from which discrete unitsand patterns can emerge. They need to be dissimilar from-but comparable with-the vocal tract, in order tominimize interference from pre-existing linguistic knowledge, while informing us about language. This is a hardbalance to strike. This article outlines a new approach that uses the Leap Motion, an infrared controller that canconvert manual movement in 3d space into sound...
November 8, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
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