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Sexual Health

Linda Garton, Amalie Dyda, Rebecca Guy, Bronwyn Silver, Skye McGregor, Belinda Hengel, Alice Rumbold, Debbie Taylor-Thomson, Janet Knox, Lisa Maher, John Kaldor, James Ward
Background: Extremely high rates of diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) have been recorded in remote communities across northern and central Australia. Re-testing at 3 months, after treatment administered, of CT or NG is recommended to detect repeat infections and prevent morbidity and ongoing transmission. Methods: Baseline CT and NG laboratory data (2009-2010) from 65 remote health services participating in a cluster randomised trial was used to calculate the proportion of individuals re-tested after an initial CT or NG diagnosis at <2 months (not recommended), 2-4 months (recommended) and 5-12 months and the proportion with repeat positivity on re-test...
October 21, 2016: Sexual Health
Jennifer H MacLachlan, Benjamin C Cowie
Background: The Department of Health and Human Services in Victoria provides funded hepatitis B vaccine to many priority groups at risk of acquiring infection. We aimed to determine the uptake of vaccine ordering for at-risk groups over time, to assess any trends and identify any gaps in prevention of hepatitis B for those at risk. Methods: Routinely collected administrative data regarding the indication for vaccine ordered by practitioners were analysed for the period June 2013 to December 2014. Number of doses and courses distributed was determined and compared with the estimated size of the priority populations...
October 21, 2016: Sexual Health
Mance E Buttram, Steven P Kurtz
Background: Limited information suggests that men who have sex with men (MSM) are informally obtaining antiretroviral medication (ARVs) and using them for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Methods: Data are drawn from an on-going study examining the use of non-prescribed ARVs for PrEP. To date, 24 qualitative interviews have been conducted with HIV-negative, substance-using MSM living in Miami, Florida, USA. Data are presented from two participants who reported HIV seroconversion while using non-prescribed ARVs for PrEP...
October 21, 2016: Sexual Health
Fengyi Jin, Gail V Matthews, Andrew E Grulich
A systematic review was performed on the evidence of sexual transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in gay and bisexual men (GBM). Studies conducted in industrialised countries and published in English from 2000 to 2015 with data on HCV in GBM were included. Pooled estimates of prevalence and incidence of HCV infection were stratified by study settings and participants' HIV status using random effect models. Case-series reports were summarised descriptively. Of the 38 cross-sectional studies, the pooled HCV prevalence was substantially higher in HIV-positive men (8...
October 7, 2016: Sexual Health
Carrie Llewellyn, Harriet Martin, Eileen Nixon
People who repeatedly present for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for prevention of HIV following a high-risk sexual exposure are of concern according to the British HIV Association PEP guidelines. The aim of this audit was to determine the extent of repeat PEP prescriptions for men who have sex with men (MSM) by conducting a retrospective review of patient notes from a 5-year period at one genitourinary medicine clinic. Over the 5 years, 107 of 929 MSM (11.5%; 95% confidence interval: 9.45-13.55) received more than one PEP prescription (repeat range 1-8; mean=3...
October 7, 2016: Sexual Health
Kane Race, Toby Lea, Dean Murphy, Kiran Pienaar
There are complex historical connections between sexual minoritisation and desires to chemically alter bodily experience. For gay men, drug and alcohol use can be a creative or experimental response to social marginalisation - and not necessarily a problematic one in every instance. Numerous studies have found that infection with HIV and other sexually transmissible infections (STIs) is more likely among gay and men who have sex with men (MSM) who use recreational drugs than those who do not, but the causal nature of these relations is uncertain...
October 7, 2016: Sexual Health
Bin Li, Peng Bi, Eric P F Chow, Basil Donovan, Anna McNulty, Alison Ward, Charlotte Bell, Christopher K Fairley
Background: After reviewing urethral gonorrhoea cases among men who have sex with men (MSM) at the South Australia Specialist Sexual Health (SASSH) in Adelaide, Australia, we noticed peaks of gonorrhoea among MSM occurred predominantly in the first quarter of the year (January-March). The aim of this study was to formally test this hypothesis against data from a similar period at three sexual health services, one each in Adelaide, Melbourne and Sydney. Methods: This study was a retrospective analysis of computerised records at the three Australian sexual health services...
October 7, 2016: Sexual Health
Megan S C Lim, Alyce M Vella, Danielle R Horyniak, Margaret E Hellard
Background: Sexting is a common emerging phenomenon. This study aims to explore young people's attitudes towards sexting. Methods: Participants (n=469, age range 15-29 years) were recruited at a music festival and self-completed a questionnaire. Attitudes towards sexting were assessed using a series of seven statements, rated on a five-point Likert scale from 'strongly agree' to 'strongly disagree'. Correlates of sexting attitudes were determined using multivariable regression. Results: Forty-six percent of respondents reported ever sexting...
October 7, 2016: Sexual Health
Francesco Drago, Astrid Herzum, Giulia Ciccarese, Roberto Bandelloni
A high-risk population, formed by 79 consecutive male attendees of our sexually transmissible infections clinic, and who did not have any overt signs of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, were examined. Oral HPV prevalence (37%) was much higher than previously reported. Periurethral HPV-DNA was found in 49% of the patients and anal HPV-DNA was found in 43% of the patients. Considering the high prevalence of oral HPV obtained in the current study, it is important to further investigate the burden of oral HPV, not only in men who have sex with men, but also in heterosexual men and in women...
October 7, 2016: Sexual Health
William C Goedel, Dustin T Duncan
Background: Geosocial-networking smartphone applications (apps) have been used increasingly by men who have sex with men (MSM) to meet new sexual partners. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between contexts of app use (e.g. using apps when drinking) and condomless anal intercourse among a sample of MSM who use these apps. Methods: MSM (n=174) in New York City were recruited through Grindr, a geosocial-networking app popular among MSM, using broadcast advertisements asking MSM to complete an Internet-based survey about their app use and sexual behaviours...
October 7, 2016: Sexual Health
Christopher K Fairley, Huachun Zou, Lei Zhang, Eric P F Chow
This paper addresses the issue of whether men who have sex with men (MSM) will share the spectacular reductions in human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and its associated neoplasia that we are currently witnessing in heterosexuals. The reproductive rate for HPV infection in heterosexuals is not well established, but 70% vaccination coverage in women has resulted in a fall of more than 90% in genital warts and HPV types 16/18 in young women and 80% fall in young men indicating that the critical vaccination threshold has been exceeded for this group...
September 23, 2016: Sexual Health
Susan Mundt, Simon Briggs
Background: People living with HIV (PLHIV) assume that healthcare workers have an adequate knowledge of HIV and expect that they will be treated with respect and compassion in the healthcare setting. Despite the remarkable advances in HIV treatment in the past two decades, PLHIV have continued to experience HIV-related stigma and discrimination by healthcare workers worldwide. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence and nature of stigma and discrimination experienced by PLHIV in the healthcare setting in New Zealand...
September 23, 2016: Sexual Health
Stella Pendle, Timothy Barnes
We describe a case of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolated from a nipple piercing wound in a homosexual man with pharyngeal gonococcal carriage.
September 9, 2016: Sexual Health
Michael C Clatts, Lloyd A Goldsamt, Lê Minh Giang, Lê Quốc Bảo, Gary Yu, Donn Colby
Background: Urban centres in Vietnam have high rates of HIV infection, especially among men who have sex with men (MSM). A subgroup of MSM, young male sex workers (YMSW), are at especially high risk due to concurrent sex with multiple male and female partners, low levels of knowledge regarding HIV and sexually transmissible infection (STI) transmission, and limited engagement with health services, including STI and HIV screening and treatment. Methods: A targeted intervention (SHEATH) derived from Harm Reduction and Sexual Health Promotion intervention technology was implemented in an out-of-treatment population of YMSW in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City (n=919)...
September 9, 2016: Sexual Health
Richard A Crosby
The behavioural aspects of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) are challenging, particularly the issue of condom migration. Three vital questions are: (1) at the population-level, will condom migration lead to increases in non-viral sexually transmissible infections?; (2) how can clinic-based counselling best promote the dual use of condoms and PrEP?; and (3) in future PrEP trials, what are the 'best practices' that should be used to avoid type 1 and type 2 errors that arise without accounting for condom use behaviours? This communication piece addresses each question and suggests the risk of a 'PrEP only' focus to widening health disparities...
September 2, 2016: Sexual Health
Mark Richard Stenger, Stefan Baral, Shauna Stahlman, Dan Wohlfeiler, Jerusha E Barton, Thomas Peterman
The trajectory of sexually transmissible infection (STI) incidence among gay and other men who have sex with men (MSM) suggests that incidence will likely remain high in the near future. STIs were hyperendemic globally among MSM in the decades preceding the HIV epidemic. Significant changes among MSM as a response to the HIV epidemic, caused STI incidence to decline, reaching historical nadirs in the mid-1990s. With the advent of antiretroviral treatment (ART), HIV-related mortality and morbidity declined significantly in that decade...
September 2, 2016: Sexual Health
Danielle German, Mary Kate Grabowski, Chris Beyrer
The multidimensional nature and continued evolution of HIV epidemics among men who have sex with men (MSM) requires innovative intervention approaches. Strategies are needed that recognise the individual, social and structural factors driving HIV transmission; that can pinpoint networks with heightened transmission risk; and that can help target intervention in real time. HIV phylogenetics is a rapidly evolving field with strong promise for informing innovative responses to the HIV epidemic among MSM. Currently, HIV phylogenetic insights are providing new understandings of characteristics of HIV epidemics involving MSM, social networks influencing transmission, characteristics of HIV transmission clusters involving MSM, targets for antiretroviral and other prevention strategies and dynamics of emergent epidemics...
September 2, 2016: Sexual Health
Christine Staples, Michelle Butler, Jennifer Nguyen, David N Durrheim, Patrick Cashman, Julia M L Brotherton
Background: The National Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination Program provides HPV vaccine to high school students through school-based vaccination. We aimed to: 1) assess the vaccine completion rates achieved when general practice is used for completing doses missed at school; 2) estimate the extent of under-notification by general practices of vaccine doses administered; and 3) assess the reasons reported by parents of students for non-completion of HPV vaccination. Methods: A postal survey was conducted of parents and carers of students and identified, using school-program records, as incompletely vaccinated in a large regional area of northern NSW vaccinated during 2010...
August 29, 2016: Sexual Health
Kenneth H Mayer, Rodney Vanderwarker, Chris Grasso, Stephen L Boswell
By the early 1970s, it was increasingly recognised that men who have sex with men (MSM) were at risk for specific sexually transmissible infections (STI), and clinician awareness regarding MSM STI grew significantly after the AIDS epidemic was first recognised in 1981. In many urban centres in the USA and other resource-rich countries, the development of clinical infrastructure to address the AIDS epidemic led to the creation of clinics that provided services for large numbers of MSM. During the same time period, other health centres were created that were community-focused, providing comprehensive behavioural health and medical services for all sexual and gender minority patients...
August 29, 2016: Sexual Health
Martin Holt, Toby Lea, Limin Mao, Iryna Zablotska, Evelyn Lee, John B F de Wit, Garrett Prestage
Background: In Australia, the preventative use of antiretroviral drugs [pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and treatment as prevention] is being embraced to protect individuals at high risk of HIV and reduce onward transmission. Methods: The adaptation of a behavioural surveillance system, the Gay Community Periodic Surveys, was reviewed to monitor the uptake and effect of new prevention strategies in Australia's primary HIV-affected population (gay and bisexual men, GBM). The national trends in key indicators during 2000-15 were reviewed and a new measure to take account of antiretroviral-based prevention was developed...
August 29, 2016: Sexual Health
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