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Sexual Health

Preethi Rajagopal, Sian L Goddard, David J Templeton
Background: A substantial increase in gonorrhoea notifications in New South Wales has been observed in recent years. Methods: We assessed yield of testing and characteristics of those diagnosed with gonorrhoea from January 2008 to December 2013 at RPA Sexual Health in the inner-west of Sydney. Yield was defined as the proportion of testing occasions which were positive for gonorrhoea. Generalised estimating equations were used to calculate trends in yield over time. Results: During the 6-year study period, 6456 individuals (4308 males, 2124 females, 24 transgender individuals) were tested on 12799 occasions; this included 2441 gay and bisexual men (GBM) who were tested on 6945 occasions...
October 12, 2017: Sexual Health
Elizabeth Peach, Shelley Cogger, Kat Byron, Penny Francis, Daniel O'Keefe, Peter Higgs, Mark Stoove, Kasey Elmore, Paul Dietze, Margaret Hellard
Background: Following a HIV outbreak among Aboriginal people in a culturally diverse inner-city suburb of Melbourne, a blood-borne virus (BBV) screening program was conducted to inform public health interventions to prevent transmission and facilitate timely diagnosis and linkage to care. Methods: In August-September 2014, community health workers recruited people who inject drugs (PWID) from a local needle and syringe program. Participants were tested for hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), HIV and syphilis and completed a bio-behavioural questionnaire...
October 12, 2017: Sexual Health
Anandi Alperin, Fiona K Barlow
Background: Negative body image can result in sexual dysfunction for both women and men. Drive for thinness, drive for muscularity and drive for leanness have all been associated with poor body image. However, research to date has not examined which is the strongest predictor of sexual problems in each gender. Methods: The present study used measures of drive for muscularity and drive for thinness simultaneously to predict sexual functioning in both genders. Participants (n=519) completed measures of drive for thinness, drive for muscularity, sexual esteem, sexual assertiveness, discomfort exposing their bodies during sex and genital satisfaction...
October 12, 2017: Sexual Health
Tsen-Fang Tsai, Smita Kothari-Talwar, Karen Yee, Amit Kulkarni, Nuria Lara, Montserrat Roset, Anna R Giuliano, Suzanne M Garland
Background: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of genital warts in Taiwan among those seeking healthcare, as well as genital-warts-related healthcare resource use and costs, and self-reported genital-warts-related psychosocial impact. Methods: Genital warts prevalence estimates were extracted from a daily record of patients examined from 31 October 2011 to 4 May 2012 by 67 physicians in Taiwan. Physicians recorded the total number of patients and genital warts patients seen daily for 2 weeks. These physicians also completed a survey regarding healthcare resource use, treatment, follow-up care, and referral patterns...
October 3, 2017: Sexual Health
David J Templeton, Phillipe C G Adam, Rajesh Varma, Phillip Read, Chistopher Bourne, Shih-Chi Kao, On Behalf Of The Sexually Transmissible
The Australian sexually transmissible infection and HIV testing guidelines for asymptomatic men who have sex with men were updated in 2014. An evaluation study targeting Sydney-based general practitioners was conducted among 85 clinicians. Respondents with knowledge of guideline recommendations were significantly more likely to feel comfortable asking men who have sex with men about their sexual history (98.1% vs 81.3%, P=0.039), and to recommend at least annual testing (94.0% vs 68.8%, P=0.015), 3-month retesting after chlamydia or gonorrhoea treatment (96...
September 20, 2017: Sexual Health
Shu Su, Limin Mao, Jianmei He, Xiuqing Wei, Jun Jing, Xi Chen, Lei Zhang
Background: Routine HIV clinical monitoring is vital for people living with HIV (PLHIV) after treatment initiation. The relationship between clinical visits during the first 6 months after initial antiretroviral therapy (ART) and long-term, HIV-related mortality and service retention was investigated. Methods: A retrospective ART observational research database was established based on de-identified data extracted from 6959 records of adult HIV-positive registrants held by Hunan CDC (Center for Disease Control and Prevention) between 2003 and 2013...
September 14, 2017: Sexual Health
Richard T Gray, Jo Watson, Aaron J Cogle, Don E Smith, Jennifer F Hoy, Lisa A Bastian, Robert Finlayson, Fraser M Drummond, Bill Whittaker, Matthew G Law, Kathy Petoumenos
Background: The aim of this study is to estimate the reduction in new HIV infections and resultant cost outcomes of providing antiretroviral treatment (ART) through Australia's 'universal access' health scheme to all temporary residents with HIV infection living legally in Australia, but currently deemed ineligible to access subsidised ART via this scheme. Methods: A mathematical model to estimate the number of new HIV infections averted and the associated lifetime costs over 5 years if all HIV-positive temporary residents in Australia had access to ART and subsidised medical care was developed...
September 6, 2017: Sexual Health
Seth C Kalichman, Dominica Hernandez, Stephanie Finneran, Devon Price, Redd Driver
Background: Transgender women living with HIV infection experience poorer health outcomes across the HIV continuum of care. While disparities are well established, their underlying mechanisms are not well understood. This study examined the HIV continuum of care (also known as the HIV treatment cascade), including linkage and engagement in care and health status among transgender women and cisgender women and cisgender men living with HIV. Method: Case-control matching was applied to a cohort of 1101 people living with HIV; 70 transgender women living with HIV were matched on years since testing HIV positive with cisgender women and cisgender men...
September 5, 2017: Sexual Health
Jessamyn Bowling, Brian Dodge, Swagata Banik, Elizabeth Bartelt, Shruta Rawat, Lucia Guerra-Reyes, Devon Hensel, Debby Herbenick, Vivek Anand
Background: This multi-method study explores the perceived health status and health behaviours of sexual minority (i.e. self-identifying with a sexual identity label other than heterosexual) females (i.e. those assigned female at birth who may or may not identify as women) in Mumbai, India, a population whose health has been generally absent in scientific literature. Methods: Using community-based participatory research approaches, this study is a partnership with The Humsafar Trust (HST). HST is India's oldest and largest LGBT-advocacy organisation...
September 1, 2017: Sexual Health
Chunxing Liu, Yingying Ding, Zhen Ning, Meiyang Gao, Xing Liu, Frank Y Wong, Na He
Background: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a biomedical approach for preventing the acquisition of HIV in populations at substantial risk for HIV. However, its uptake among men who have sex with men (MSM) is low in China. The study aimed to identify factors that might influence MSM's uptake and use of PrEP. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with 32 self-identified MSM from a PrEP intervention study evaluating daily oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) to prevent HIV infection. Of these men, 11 were presently using the 'TDF' group; 8 from the 'change-over' group (i...
September 1, 2017: Sexual Health
Mohammad Karamouzian, Rod Knight, Wendy M Davis, Mark Gilbert, Jean Shoveller
Background: Online sexually transmissible infection (STI) testing is increasingly available and has shown promising results across different settings. However, evidence on how stigma associated with STI testing may be experienced by youth in the context of these online services is limited. Methods: A convenience sample of 71 youth (aged 15-24 years) both male and female was engaged through online and offline recruitment strategies in Vancouver, Canada. Through semistructured and exploratory interviews, participants were asked about their perceptions of stigma associated with STI testing in an online testing environment...
September 1, 2017: Sexual Health
C Thng, E Blackledge, R McIver, L Watchirs Smith, A McNulty
This study examined where private sex workers (PSW) present for sexual health services, disclosure, services received, and their satisfaction with care. An online anonymous survey was conducted via SurveyMonkey ( Among the 53 participants, 42% attended a sexual health clinic, 24% attended a general practitioner (GP) and 34% attended both. Participants attending GPs were less likely to be offered a throat swab and opportunities for cervical screening, contraception and vaccination were often missed in both service models...
September 1, 2017: Sexual Health
Loretta Healey, Catherine C O'Connor
In 2013 a personalised approach to follow-up of HIV patients who had withdrawn from HIV care was taken at RPA Sexual Health, a Sydney metropolitan sexual health service. HIV patients were telephoned, sent text messages, emailed and sent letters multiple times where applicable. With this intervention 20 of 23 people who had withdrawn from HIV care re-engaged. Since that time, active follow-up of all people diagnosed with HIV has resulted in only 2% of HIV patients at RPA Sexual Health being lost to follow-up...
September 1, 2017: Sexual Health
Vincent J Cornelisse, Rosemary A Jones, Christopher K Fairley, Sonia R Grover
For transgender women, genital adjustment surgery involves removal of the natal reproductive organs and creation of a neovagina, vulva and clitoris. We conducted a review of the medical literature in order to summarise the issues that can affect the health of the neovagina in the long term, and to make recommendations on how to manage these issues.
August 25, 2017: Sexual Health
Kenneth J Zucker
This review provides an update on the epidemiology of gender dysphoria and transgender identity in children, adolescents and adults. Although the prevalence of gender dysphoria, as it is operationalised in the fifth edtion of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), remains a relatively 'rare' or 'uncommon' diagnosis, there is evidence that it has increased in the past couple of decades, perhaps reflected in the large increase in referral rates to specialised gender identity clinics...
August 25, 2017: Sexual Health
Caroline van Gemert, Margaret Hellard, Catriona S Bradshaw, Freya J I Fowkes, Paul A Agius, Mark Stoove, Catherine M Bennett
Background: Syndromic management of sexually transmissible infections is commonly used in resource-poor settings for the management of common STIs; abnormal vaginal discharge (AVD) flowcharts are used to identify and treat cervical infection including Neisseria gonorrhoea and Chlamydia trachomatis. A systematic review and meta-analysis was undertaken to measure the diagnostic test performance of AVD flowcharts, including both World Health Organization (WHO)- and locally-adapted AVD flowcharts. Methods: A systematic search of multiple electronic databases was conducted to locate eligible studies published between 1991 and 2014...
August 25, 2017: Sexual Health
Anna McNulty, Chris Bourne
Transgender women across a range of different populations and settings have a high prevalence of HIV infection. There are fewer and often poorer quality studies of sexually transmissible infection (STI) prevalence. There are fewer studies in transgender men and, in general, the prevalence of HIV and STIs is lower than that of transgender women. Susceptibility to HIV and STI infection is inextricably linked to the increased vulnerability of transgender populations, a consequence of a lack of legal and social recognition that results in reduced access to educational and employment opportunities, which can result in high rates of transactional sex...
August 25, 2017: Sexual Health
Julie E Bayley, Darrin Baines, Katherine E Brown
Background: Positive adolescent sexual health is supported by effective school-based sex education. Methods to promote positive sexual health need to reflect determinants of contraception intention, which must include understanding gender and age (year group) differences. To date, there has been limited theory-based exploration of these determinants in school age participants, placing limitations on sexual health educators to tailor learning most effectively. Methods: Cross-sectional survey data were collected from UK school pupils (n=1378) aged 12-16 years...
August 24, 2017: Sexual Health
Elizabeth Riley
Background: The Gender Feeling Amplitude (GFA) is a 68-item list of words and phrases with which to identify the feelings and severity of a young person's distress regarding their gender identity and gender diversity, and takes ~1min to administer. Method: For this pilot study, 67 adolescents and youth who sought support, confirmation or intervention (either via themselves or their parents) regarding gender diversity or gender transition were given the GFA in a face-to-face meeting before the beginning of an assessment procedure for gender diversity...
August 24, 2017: Sexual Health
Sam Emmanuel, James Nadel, Damien Fagan, Sirinya Teeraananchai, Matthew Law, Cameron J Holloway
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has a higher incidence in patients with HIV infection. This study sought to determine whether HIV-infected patients with established CVD were being managed according to national guidelines. Data were collected from Australian general practitioners for 77 HIV-infected patients with a median age of 59 (range 54-64). There was good adherence to guidelines with regards to anti-platelet (84%; n=65; 95% confidence interval (CI) 74-92%) and statin therapy (97%; n=75; 95% CI 91-100%), despite a failure to meet cholesterol targets, with only 31% (n=24; 95% CI 21-42%) of the cohort meeting low-density lipoprotein target values...
July 20, 2017: Sexual Health
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