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Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health

Nataly Woollett, Lucie Cluver, Monica Bandeira, Heena Brahmbhatt
BACKGROUND: Mental health problems of adolescents are underserved in low and middle-income countries where they account for a significant proportion of disease burden. Perinatally infected HIV-positive adolescents have a high prevalence of mental health disorders; however, little is known about those retained in care in South Africa. METHODS: HIV-positive adolescents aged 13-19 years (n = 343) accessing five paediatric antiretroviral clinics in Johannesburg were assessed using standardized measures for depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and suicidality...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health
Deirdre Pieterse, Henk Temmingh, Wendy Vogel
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe the socio-demographic and clinical factors associated with readmission in an adolescent population discharged from two inpatient psychosocial rehabilitation (PSR) units in Cape Town, South Africa. METHOD: Data were obtained from 97 consecutive patients discharged from two adolescent psychiatric PSR units over a period of one year. Patients were followed up for readmission to hospitals offering specialised psychiatric care in the Western Cape Province over a period of 18 months...
October 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health
Adeniran O Okewole, Adegboyega Ogunwale, Temilola J Mosanya, Babatunde M Ojo
OBJECTIVES: To review the profile of children and adolescents presenting with psychosis at a specialist mental health facility, and to compare childhood with adolescent onset psychosis. METHOD: Hospital records of all children and adolescents over a 12-year period (1999-2010) were perused to identify those falling under the categories of psychotic disorders. Clinical, socio-demographic, obstetric, and developmental information was extracted. RESULTS: Mean age of the children ((n = 409)) was 15...
October 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health
Katie Hamilton, Michelle Hoogenhout, Susan Malcolm-Smith
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is characterised by poor social competence; and since Theory of Mind (ToM) is a building block for social-communicative skills and successful social integration, these skills are important to assess when preparing and monitoring educational and therapeutic plans. ToM is a complex skill requiring the ability to form mental concepts, to represent complex constructs verbally, to inhibit some mental states in favour of others, and to consider and compare multiple perspectives. It is critical to consider cognitive influences on the ability to develop and convey ToM skills to ensure that deficits in other cognitive domains do not falsely present as ToM deficits...
October 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health
David T Lardier, Veronica R Barrios, Pauline Garcia-Reid, Robert J Reid
OBJECTIVE: Prior research has identified multiple factors that influence suicidal ideation (SI) among bullied youth. The effects of school bullying on SI cannot be considered in isolation. In this study, we examined the influence of school bullying on SI, through a constellation of risks, which include depressive and anxiety symptoms, family conflict, and alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use. We also provide recommendations for therapists working with bullied youth. METHOD: Our sample consisted of 488 adolescents (ages 10-18 years) from a northern New Jersey, United States suburban community...
October 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health
Astrid Berg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health
Anne Kramers-Olen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health
Comfort Asanbe, Anne-Gloria Moleko, Maretha Visser, Angela Thomas, Catherine Makwakwa, Waleska Salgado, Alexandra Tesnakis
OBJECTIVE: We examined several indicators of psychological health in a sample of orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) to determine if there were significant differences between those orphaned by AIDS and those orphaned by other causes, and if there were gender differences. METHOD: Our sample consisted of 119 young children (ages 6-10 years) who participated in a non-governmental organisation (NGO)-supported social services programme in a low-resource, non-urban community in South Africa...
July 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health
Tory M Taylor, Tonya R Thurman, Lineo Nogela
OBJECTIVE: To assess standard grief measures through cognitive interviews with bereaved adolescents in Free State, South Africa, and make recommendations designed to improve the measurement of grief in this and similar populations. METHODS: Twenty-one parentally bereaved adolescents participated in semi-structured cognitive interviews about the Core Bereavement Items (CBI) questionnaire, Grief Cognitions Questionnaire for Children (GCQ-C), or Intrusive Griefs Thoughts Scale (IGTS)...
July 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health
Tyrone B Pretorius, Anita Padmanabhanunni, Jerome Campbell
OBJECTIVE: There is compelling evidence that a significant proportion of adolescents exposed to violence do not develop trauma-related symptoms, but adapt successfully. This differential vulnerability has propelled research into identifying factors that promote coping. This study focused on the role of fortitude in the relationship between violence and trauma-related symptoms among South African adolescents living in two low-income communities. Fortitude is derived from positive cognitive appraisals of the self, the family and external sources of support...
July 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health
Neo K Morojele, Judith S Brook, David W Brook
OBJECTIVE: Tobacco and alcohol use by adolescents are major public health concerns in South Africa. However, the extent to which key psychosocial risk factors for tobacco use and alcohol use by adolescents in South Africa are shared or unshared is unclear. This study sought to examine the shared and unshared risk factors for tobacco and alcohol use among adolescents in Johannesburg. METHOD: Participants comprised 736 males and females aged 12-17 years who were recruited via a household survey conducted during 2004...
July 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health
Steven J Collings, Nirmala D Gopal
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the extent to which the primary tenets of Conservation of Resources theory provide an adequate basis for categorising and conceptualising normative adolescent fears. METHOD: Initial descriptive research, using data obtained from a sample of South African adolescents (n = 163), used systematic emergent content analysis to develop a test specification (i.e., content domains and manifestations of content domains) relevant to measures of normative adolescent fears, with subsequent a priori content analyses being used to explore the content validity of the test specification with respect to the item-content of selected normative childhood and adolescent fear schedules...
July 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health
Refilwe Gloria Pila-Nemutandani, Anneke Meyer
OBJECTIVE: To compare planning behaviour (frontal lobe functioning) in children with and without symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHOD: A total of 90 children (45 with symptoms of ADHD and 45 matched controls without ADHD symptoms) of both genders, who were medication naïve, from the Balobedu culture (Limpopo province, South Africa), aged 7-13 years, participated in the study. The performance of the two groups was compared on a test of planning and problem solving, the Tower of London (ToL) task...
July 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health
Michelle Nortje
This paper expands on the continuing understanding of the Ububele Baby Mat Project - a community-based parent-infant mental health intervention now offered at six primary healthcare clinics in Alexandra, Johannesburg. This paper describes the influence of cultural diversity and the complex layers of meaning-making involved in the Baby Mat intervention. Meaning-making is a collaborative process between the caregiver-infant dyad's cultural beliefs and experiences, the Baby Mat couple's relationship, knowledge and skills, and the additional minds of the multicultural supervision group...
July 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health
Katherine Bain, Jade Richards
OBJECTIVE: This paper examines maternal knowledge regarding perinatal and infant mental health amongst mothers in Alexandra township, Johannesburg. The applicability and utility of these Western-derived concepts in a low socio-economic South African setting is examined. METHOD: A concurrent mixed methods approach was used. Descriptive statistical analysis was conducted on the responses of 255 mothers on a structured questionnaire, designed to elicit levels of knowledge about the relational needs and awareness of infants and the psychosocial needs of mothers, to determine trends in mothers' knowledge...
July 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health
Olayinka Atilola, Bolanle Ola
BACKGROUND: School-based mental health programmes, a potential avenue to reach many children and youth, are not yet developed in Nigeria. In view of the importance of cultural nuances in mental health issues, initial groundwork towards the establishment of these programmes in Nigeria must be cognizant of cultural peculiarities at the outset. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to critically examine, through the lens of transcultural psychiatry, all the currently available epidemiological studies and needs assessments relevant to school-based mental health programmes in Nigeria...
2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health
Ciara Wynne, Caoimhe Doyle, Rachel Kenny, Eileen Brosnan, John Sharry
UNLABELLED: This study is a first-level evaluation of a family intervention targeted at adolescents with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties (SEBD) attending Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) in Ireland. It is a combined implementation of the Working Things Out adolescent programme and the Parents Plus Adolescent Programme (WTOPPAP). METHOD: A total of 93 adolescents aged 11-17 years (M = 14.64, SD = 1.31; 39% male) and their parents took part in the study...
2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health
Inge Wessels, Catherine L Ward
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the opinions of mothers living in battered women's shelters about the acceptability of programme materials, preferences for delivery methods, and barriers to use of the Positive Parenting Programme (Triple P). METHOD: Thirty-two mothers of three- to eight-year-olds were recruited from three shelters in Cape Town, South Africa. These mothers received Triple P tip-sheets and watched a Triple P DVD which described the strategies used by the programme...
2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health
Kim Vrba, Wendy Vogel, Petrus J de Vries
OBJECTIVES: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common, yet under-recognised and undertreated, particularly in low socio-economic settings. Little is known about compliance to evidence- based guidelines in low- and middle-income countries, and no clinical audits have been published in Africa. We undertook to measure compliance in a South African setting using the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines for ADHD as the gold standard to compare compliance and socio-demographic characteristics between two treatment locations in Cape Town and to generate an audit checklist for standardising care...
2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health
Adeniran O Okewole, Sewanu S Awhangansi, Mojisola Fasokun, Adetayo A Adeniji, Omotilewa Omotoso, Daniel Ajogbon
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between prodromal psychotic symptoms and psychological distress among Nigerian adolescents. METHOD: Students (n=508) were randomly selected from secondary schools in Abeokuta, Nigeria. A socio-demographic questionnaire, the Prodromal Questionnaire-Brief Version (PQ-B) and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) were administered to each student. RESULTS: The mean age of the students was 15...
2015: Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health
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