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Clinical Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107093/adult-clonidine-overdose-prolonged-bradycardia-and-central-nervous-system-depression-but-not-severe-toxicity
#1
Geoffrey K Isbister, Simon P Heppell, Colin B Page, Nicole M Ryan
CONTEXT: There are limited reports of adult clonidine overdose. We aimed to describe the clinical effects and treatment of clonidine overdose in adults. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of a prospective cohort of poisoned patients who took clonidine overdoses (>200 μg). Demographic information, clinical effects, treatment, complications (central nervous system and cardiovascular effects) and length of stay (LOS) were extracted from a clinical database or medical records...
January 20, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103732/evaluation-of-antivenom-therapy-for-vipera-palaestinae-bites-in-children-experience-of-two-large-tertiary-care-pediatric-hospitals
#2
Dikla Pivko-Levy, Itamar Munchnak, Ayelet Rimon, Uri Balla, Dennis Scolnik, Christopher Hoyte, Yair Voliovitch, Miguel Glatstein
BACKGROUND: Antivenom has been successfully used to treat systemic and progressive, local manifestations of envenomation inflicted by Vipera (V.) palaestinae, the most common venomous snake in Israel. The objective of this study was to evaluate the fixed dose V. palaestinae monovalent (equine) immunoglobulin G antivenom used in two pediatric emergency departments. In particular, we wanted to assess the need for repeated antivenom administration and the rate of adverse antivenom effects in children...
January 20, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092984/vipera-ammodytes-bites-treated-with-antivenom-viperatab-a-case-series-with-pharmacokinetic-evaluation
#3
Miran Brvar, Tihana Kurtović, Damjan Grenc, Maja Lang Balija, Igor Križaj, Beata Halassy
CONTEXT: In clinical practice it is difficult to differentiate between V. berus and V. ammodytes venomous bites. In the past this was not a concern, but due to the current shortage in Viperfav™ and European viper venom antiserum availability, V. a. ammodytes venomous bites have recently been treated with ViperaTAb(®), which is a pharmaceutical formulation containing a monospecific ovine Fab fragments against the venom of V. berus. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate ViperaTAb(®) in V...
January 17, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084855/occupational-transdermal-poisoning-with-synthetic-cannabinoid-cumyl-pinaca
#4
Mojca Dobaja, Damjan Grenc, Gordana Kozelj, Miran Brvar
CONTEXT: Synthetic cannabinoids are getting more popular among young people and illicit manufacturers. We report a case series of occupational transdermal poisoning with synthetic cannabinoids. CASE DETAILS: Three customs inspectors got in contact with a sticky substance with their fingertips because they were not wearing protection gloves and the delivered package was damaged. Despite washing their hands with water, signs of synthetic cannabinoids intoxication started occurring half an hour after exposure...
January 13, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084844/poison-exposures-in-young-israeli-military-personnel-a-national-poison-center-data-analysis
#5
Ophir Lavon, Yedidia Bentur
CONTEXT: To characterize poison exposures in young Israeli military personnel as reported to the national poison center. METHODS: Retrospective poison center chart review over a 14-year period. Cases included were Israeli soldiers aged 18-21 years, the compulsory military service age required by the Israeli law. RESULTS: 1770 records of poison exposures in young military personnel were identified. Most exposed individuals involved males (n = 1268, 71...
January 13, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081653/toxicity-from-automotive-screenwashes-reported-to-the-united-kingdom-national-poisons-information-service-npis-from-2012-to-2015
#6
Rachael Day, Michael Eddleston, Simon H L Thomas, John P Thompson, Sally M Bradberry, J Allister Vale
BACKGROUND: Automotive screenwashes commonly contain ethylene glycol, methanol, and/or isopropanol; ethanol is also included in many formulations. The concentrations and combinations of each constituent vary considerably between the products. This study was undertaken to investigate the toxicity of automotive screenwashes as reported by telephone to the United Kingdom National Poisons Information Service (NPIS). METHODS: Enquiries to the NPIS relating to automotive screenwashes were analyzed retrospectively for the period January 2012 to December 2015...
January 13, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075189/11-analytically-confirmed-cases-of-mexedrone-use-among-polydrug-users
#7
Liam Roberts, Loretta Ford, Neel Patel, J Allister Vale, Sally M Bradberry
INTRODUCTION: Mexedrone, 3-methoxy-2-(methylamino)-1-(4-methylphenyl)propan-1-one, is the alpha-methoxy-derivative of mephedrone (4-methyl-N-methyl cathinone). Mexedrone inhibits the re-uptake of serotonin and dopamine in a dose-dependent manner and has affinity for serotonin and dopamine membrane transporters and receptors (5-HT2 and D2 receptors), producing sympathomimetic effects similar to amfetamines. To date there are no published clinical reports on mexedrone use that are analytically confirmed...
January 11, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074704/the-toxicology-of-zinc-chloride-smoke-producing-bombs-and-screens
#8
Ayman El Idrissi, Lisanne van Berkel, Nadia E Bonekamp, Diana J Z Dalemans, Marcel A G van der Heyden
CONTEXT: Zinc chloride (ZnCl2)-based smoke bombs and screens are in use since the Second World War (1939-1945). Many case descriptions on ZnCl2 smoke inhalation incidents appeared since 1945. OBJECTIVE: We provide a comprehensive overview of the clinical symptoms and underlying pathophysiology due to exposure to fumes from ZnCl2 smoke producing bombs. In addition, we give a historical overview of treatment regimens and their outcomes. METHODOLOGY: We performed a literature search on Medline, Scopus and Google Scholar databases using combinations of the following search terms "smoke bomb", "smoke screen", "ZnCl2", "intoxication", "poisoning", "case report", "HE smoke", "hexachloroethane smoke", "smoke inhalation" and "white smoke"...
January 11, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074668/in-vivo-evidence-of-nephrotoxicity-and-altered-hepatic-function-in-rats-following-administration-of-diglycolic-acid-a-metabolite-of-diethylene-glycol
#9
Corie N Robinson, Brian Latimer, Fleurette Abreo, Kiera Broussard, Kenneth E McMartin
CONTEXT: Diglycolic acid (DGA) is one of the two primary metabolites of diethylene glycol (DEG). DEG is an industrial solvent that has been implicated in mass poisonings resulting from product misuse in the United States and worldwide, with the hallmark toxicity being acute kidney injury, hepatotoxicity, encephalopathy and peripheral neuropathy. Our laboratory has generated in-vitro evidence suggesting that DGA is the metabolite responsible for the proximal tubule necrosis and decreased kidney function observed following DEG ingestion...
January 11, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074667/a-systematic-analysis-of-methylene-blue-for-drug-induced-shock-in-humans
#10
Anita Paula Tataru, Brandon J Warrick, Susan Smolinske
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074662/misuse-of-2-ethylamino-1-4-methylphenyl-1-pentanone-4-meap-a-synthetic-cathinone
#11
Anneka Varma, Neel Patel, Loretta Ford, Rachel Jones, J Allister Vale
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073321/in-response-to-a-systematic-analysis-of-methylene-blue-for-drug-induced-shock
#12
Stephen A Harding, Robert S Hoffman, David H Jang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073319/no-clinically-relevant-effects-in-children-after-accidental-ingestion-of-panaeolina-foenisecii-lawn-mower-s-mushroom
#13
Katharina M Schenk-Jaeger, Katharina E Hofer-Lentner, Bettina Plenert, Dagmar Eckart, Bettina Haberl, Gabriele Schulze, Janine Borchert-Avalone, Uwe Stedtler, Rudolph Pfab
INTRODUCTION: Panaeolina foenisecii is one of the most common and widely distributed lawn mushrooms in Europe and North America, and frequently involved in accidental mushroom ingestion, mainly in children. Nevertheless, there is contradictory information regarding the toxicity profile of P. foenisecii in the literature. Objective of the study was to assess clinical effects with particular attention on psychoactive properties of P. foenisecii in case of accidental oral exposure. METHODS: This observational case series is based on prospectively collected data on mushroom poisoning using a structured data collection form, and it was performed in seven poisons centres in Germany and Switzerland...
January 11, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064509/acute-salicylate-poisoning-risk-factors-for-severe-outcome
#14
Rachel M Shively, Robert S Hoffman, Alex F Manini
CONTEXT: Salicylate poisoning remains a significant public health threat with more than 20,000 exposures reported annually in the United States. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to establish early predictors of severe in-hospital outcomes in Emergency Department patients presenting with acute salicylate poisoning. METHODS: This was a secondary data analysis of adult salicylate overdoses from a prospective cohort study of acute drug overdoses at two urban university teaching hospitals from 2009 to 2013...
January 9, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058858/the-impact-of-an-international-initiative-on-exposures-to-liquid-laundry-detergent-capsules-reported-to-the-united-kingdom-national-poisons-information-service-between-2008-and-2015
#15
Rachael Day, Michael Eddleston, Simon H L Thomas, John P Thompson, J Allister Vale
INTRODUCTION: Although the majority of those exposed to liquid laundry detergent capsules remain asymptomatic or suffer only minor clinical features after exposure, a small proportion develop central nervous system depression, stridor, pulmonary aspiration and/or airway burns following ingestion or conjunctivitis and corneal ulceration following eye exposure. As a consequence, the International Association for Soaps, Detergents and Maintenance Products (AISE) established a Product Stewardship Programme in Europe, requiring that safety measures be implemented to reduce the visibility of, and restrict access to, these detergent capsules by small children...
January 6, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27967233/new-evidence-for-oxetorone-toxicity
#16
Marie Deguigne, Chloé Bruneau, Ali Touré, Alain Turcant, Gaël Le Roux
CONTEXT: Oxetorone is a serotonin antagonist antimigraine drug but literature relating to its toxic properties is poor. The aim of this study is to describe the toxicological profile of oxetorone and to highlight any relationship between clinical and analytical findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective and observational study of cases exposure to oxetorone, reported to the Angers Poison and Toxicovigilance Centre between January 2002 and May 2016...
December 14, 2016: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957879/lead-intoxication-due-to-ayurvedic-medications-as-a-cause-of-abdominal-pain-in-adults
#17
Varun Mehta, Vandana Midha, Ramit Mahajan, Vikram Narang, Praneet Wander, Ridhi Sood, Ajit Sood
BACKGROUND: Though a majority of cases of lead intoxication come from occupational exposures, traditional and folk remedies have also been reported to contain toxic amounts of lead. We present a large series of patients with lead poisoning due to intake of Ayurvedic medicines, all of whom presented with unexplained abdominal pain. METHODOLOGY: This was a retrospective, observational case series from a tertiary care center in India. The charts of patients who underwent blood lead level (BLL) testing as a part of workup for unexplained abdominal pain between 2005 and 2013 were reviewed...
December 13, 2016: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931130/exposures-to-traditional-automatic-dishwashing-tablets-and-a-comparison-with-exposures-to-soluble-film-tablets-reported-to-the-united-kingdom-national-poisons-information-service-2008-2015
#18
Rachael Day, Michael Eddleston, Simon H L Thomas, John P Thompson, J Allister Vale
INTRODUCTION: Traditional automatic dishwashing tablets are contained within an external wrapper that requires removal prior to use. OBJECTIVE: To determine the toxicity of traditional tablets and to compare this with our previously reported experience of soluble film dishwashing tablets. METHODS: Telephone enquiries regarding traditional tablets were analysed retrospectively for the period January 2008 to December 2015. RESULTS: Traditional tablets: There were 503 enquiries relating to 492 patients who had been exposed to a traditional tablet...
December 8, 2016: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921461/radical-7-co-oximeter-inaccuracies-reply
#19
Elspeth Hulse, Fathima Shihana, Nick A Buckley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 6, 2016: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921441/re-methemoglobin-measurements-are-underestimated-by-the-radical-7-co-oximeter-experience-from-a-series-of-moderate-to-severe-propanil-poisonings
#20
Nasim Zamani, Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 6, 2016: Clinical Toxicology
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