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Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment

Laisheng Cai, Jingwei Huang
Purpose: There is a need for biomarkers in multiple sclerosis (MS) to make an early diagnosis and monitor its progression. This study was designed to evaluate the value of neurofilament light (NFL) chain levels as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or blood biomarker in patients with MS by using a quantitative meta-analysis. Methods: The PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases were systematically searched for relevant studies. Articles in English that evaluated the utility of NFL in CSF and blood in the diagnosis of MS were included...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Fan Gao, Chen Chen, Jun Lyu, Jie Zheng, Xian-Cang Ma, Xing-Yun Yuan, Kang Huo, Jian-Feng Han
Purpose: The platelet distribution width (PDW) reflects the status of platelet activity and may be useful for early predictions of the clinical outcome of stroke patients. The purpose of the study was to determine the associations between PDW and clinical outcomes after intravenous thrombolysis in stroke patients. Patients and methods: Acute ischemic stroke patients who received intravenous treatment with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator were selected for inclusion in the retrospective cohort of this study...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Shu-Jun Lu, Xiao-Sheng Zhou, Qi Zheng, Hong-Liang Chen, Yan-Lei Geng
Objectives: This study aimed to determine the relationship between the polymorphisms of the H1/H2 gene of platelet membrane receptor P2Y12 and cerebral infarction (CI) in a Han population in North Shandong Province, People's Republic of China. Patients and methods: A case-control study, which involved 168 nonstoke subjects (contrast group) and 152 CI patients (CI group), was conducted. The state of subjects in the CI group was validated by computed tomography or MRI...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Takeo Tominaga, Masahito Tomotake, Tomoya Takeda, Yoshinori Ueoka, Tsunehiko Tanaka, Shin-Ya Watanabe, Naomi Kameoka, Masahito Nakataki, Shusuke Numata, Yumiko Izaki, Satsuki Sumitani, Hiroko Kubo, Yasuhiro Kaneda, Tetsuro Ohmori
Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to examine clinical factors related to social function in people with schizophrenia. Patients and methods: The participants were 55 stabilized outpatients with schizophrenia. Their mean age was 39.36 (SD =10.65) years. Social function was assessed using the Quality of Life Scale (QLS). Cognitive function was evaluated with the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB)...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Onur Yilmaz, Yildizhan Şengül, Hakan Serdar Şengül, Fatma Büşra Parlakkaya, Ahmet Öztürk
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine alexithymia among restless legs syndrome (RLS) patients, compare with healthy controls, and argue the clinical inferences of this relationship. We searched for anxiety and depression and their clinical outcomes among patients and searched whether the results are similar to previous studies. Patients and methods: Eighty-seven RLS patients and 88 age, gender, and educationally matched healthy controls were assessed in Bezmialem Foundation University Hospital...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Yong Xiao, Lifang Zhou, Youbing Tu, Yuantao Li, Yubing Liang, Xu Zhang, Jing Lv, Yu Zhong, Yubo Xie
Background: Propofol induces short- and long-term neurotoxicity. Our previous study showed that dexmedetomidine (Dex) can attenuate the propofol-induced acute neurotoxicity in rodents by enhancing the PI3K/Akt signaling. However, whether treatment of young rats with Dex could protect them from long-term neurotoxicity induced by propofol is unclear. Materials and methods: Seven-day-old male Sprague Dawley rats were randomized and injected intraperitoneally with saline (100 μL, NS), propofol (100 mg/kg), Dex (75 μg/kg), propofol (100 mg/kg) plus Dex (25, 50 or 75 μg/kg), 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, 100 μL) or TDZD-8 (a GSK3β inhibitor, 1 mg/kg), or intracerebroventricularly with DMSO (5 μL) or LY294002 (a PI3K inhibitor, 25 μg/5 μL DMSO)...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Yi Zheng, Yasong Du, Lin Yan Su, Yanlei Zhang, Zheng Yuan, Yun Chen, Qing Qing Liu, Xiao Yan Ke
Purpose: The Questionnaire - Children with Difficulties (QCD) has been developed and used to evaluate daily-life problems in children during specified periods of the day. The objective of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the QCD for Chinese children or adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Patients and methods: Outpatients with ADHD aged 6-18 years who visited psychiatry clinics were enrolled at four study centers in China...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Pu Zhi, Yanqiong Wang, Wei Quan, Yanli Su, Hui Zhang
Hyperprolactinemia is a common side effect of antipsychotic drugs. Although changes of antipsychotic drugs or reduction of their doses can solve this problem, a modification of the treatment regimen can lead to instability in patients. Herein, we followed up a patient with elevated prolactin caused by paliperidone and found that the prolactin level was decreased after the administration of a combination with a low-dose aripiprazole. In addition, we summarized and analyzed the findings from the case and the literature review conducted...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Dana Kamaradova, Martin Brunovsky, Jan Prasko, Jiri Horacek, Miroslav Hajda, Ales Grambal, Klara Latalova
Background: The underlying symptomatology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) can be viewed as an impairment in both cognitive and behavioral inhibition, regarding difficult inhibition of obsessions and behavioral compulsions. Converging results from neuroimaging and electroencephalographic (EEG) studies have identified changes in activities throughout the medial frontal and orbital cortex and subcortical structures supporting the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit model of OCD...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Koki Takagaki, Yasumasa Okamoto, Ran Jinnin, Satoshi Yokoyama, Atsuo Yoshino, Fumi Kagawa, Yuri Okamoto, Yoshie Miyake, Shigeto Yamawaki
Background: A Japanese study revealed that 20.7% of first-year undergraduate students had a major depressive episode during the previous 12 months: first-year undergraduate students with depression need early support. Reportedly, antidepressant medication use during adolescence is associated with modestly increased risk of suicidality. This case study of a late-adolescent woman with depression illustrates the effects of behavioral activation without psychotropic medication. Case presentation: A first-year undergraduate student was diagnosed as having major depressive disorder...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Xiufang Su, Xingbing Huang, Yu Jin, Shouwen Wan, Zili Han
Background: The prevention of cognitive impairment is a crucial public health issue, and leisure activities have been studied as the strategy of the cognitive preservation. The aim of the study was to explore the possible relationship between social activity and cognitive function among community-dwelling Chinese elderly in two big cities of Southern China. Participants and methods: Altogether, 557 nondemented older adults aged 60 years and older (73.4±6.5 years) were recruited in the social centers in Hong Kong and Guangzhou...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Dejan Stevanovic, Rajna Knez, Tatjana Zorcec, Marija Anderluh, Jana Kodrič, Petar Petrov, Feriha Hadžagić Ćatibušić, Azra Deljković, Slavica Brkic Cvetkovic, Nikolina Vrljičak Davidovic, Radenka Kuzmanić Šamija, Ana Đorić, Christopher Gillberg
Purpose: The Early Symptomatic Syndromes Eliciting Neurodevelopmental Clinical Examinations - Questionnaire (ESSENCE-Q) was developed as a brief screener to identify children with developmental concerns who might have neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). This study aimed to translate the ESSENCE-Q into south Slavic languages, namely, Bosnian, Bulgarian, Croatian, Macedonian, Montenegrin, Serbian, and Slovenian, and to evaluate its psychometric properties for screening purposes in clinical settings...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Lin Huang, Ke-Liang Chen, Bi-Ying Lin, Le Tang, Qian-Hua Zhao, Ying-Ru Lv, Qi-Hao Guo
Objectives: To find out whether the Chinese version of Montreal Cognitive Assessment Basic (MoCA-BC) and its subtests could be applied in discrimination among cognitively normal controls (NC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), mild and moderate Alzheimer's Disease (AD), and furthermore, to determine the optimal cutoffs most sensitive to distinguish between them. Design: A cross-sectional validation study. Setting: Huashan Hospital, Shanghai, China...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Wafaa Ma Farghaly, Mohamed A Ahmed, Hamdy N El-Tallawy, Taha Ah Elmestikawy, Reda Badry, Mohammed Sh Farghaly, Montaser S Omar, Amr Sayed Ramadan Hussein, Mohammed Salamah, Adel T Mohammed
Purpose: The aim of this study was to design an Arabic computerized battery of cognitive skills for training children with specific learning disabilities (SLD). Subjects and methods: Nineteen students from fourth grade primary schools in Assiut, Egypt, who were previously diagnosed with SLD, agreed to participate in the rehabilitation program. The study passed through four stages: first stage, detailed analysis of the cognitive profile of students with SLD (n=19), using a previously constructed diagnostic cognitive skill battery, to identify deficits in their cognitive skills; second stage, construction of an Arabic computerized battery for cognitive training of students with SLD; third stage, implementation of the constructed training program for the students, each tailored according to his/her previously diagnosed cognitive skill deficit/deficits; and fourth stage, post-training re-evaluation of academic achievement and cognitive skills' performance...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Takashi Hirata, Akitoyo Hishimoto, Ikuo Otsuka, Satoshi Okazaki, Shuken Boku, Atsushi Kimura, Tadasu Horai, Ichiro Sora
Background: Life expectancy is 10-20 years lower in patients with schizophrenia than in the general population. In addition, men with schizophrenia have an earlier age at onset, more pronounced deficit symptoms, poorer course, and poorer response to antipsychotic medications than women. Recent studies have indicated that loss of chromosome Y (LOY) in peripheral blood is associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality. In order to elucidate the pathophysiology of male-specific features, we investigated the association between LOY and schizophrenia...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Zhi-Bi Zhang, Tian-Yong Xu, Ding-Yun You, Shuai Yi, Qing Liu, Huifang-Jie Li, Jin-Yun Gu
Background: A number of studies have demonstrated the significant and rapid antidepressant effects of ketamine, which is also known as a neurotoxic and illicit drug. Ketamine and alcohol are increasingly used together in clubs by teenagers and young adults. Previous studies have proven that chronic ketamine consumption induces a delayed and persistent activation of the dopamine (DA) system. However, the rewarding properties of recreational ketamine abuse remain unclear, and the underlying mechanisms of the effects on the DA system after administration of ketamine with ethanol are yet to be explored...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Yasunari Yamaguchi, Sohei Kimoto, Takeshi Nagahama, Toshifumi Kishimoto
Objective: Several studies have documented that treatment with various antidepressant agents can result in mood switching during major depressive episodes. Escitalopram, one of the newer selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), is considered preferable due to its relatively high efficacy and acceptability. Although a few cases of escitalopram treatment-emergent mania have been reported, it remains unknown whether this effect is dose-related. Method: In the present report, we discuss three cases of treatment-emergent mania/hypomania in patients receiving escitalopram for major depressive episodes...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Gang Wang, Xiumin You, Xueyi Wang, Xiufeng Xu, Ludong Bai, Jian Xie, Zhijian Yao, QiZhong Yi, Jun Ma, Jinan Wang, Jianmin Zhuo, Cuili Hu
Background: Anxiety symptoms usually worsen depression and functional impairment. The present study was aimed to evaluate the impact of escitalopram on social function and quality of life in major depressive disorder (MDD) patients with anxiety symptoms. Patients and methods: Adult MDD patients with functional impairment (Sheehan Disability Scale [SDS] score ≥9) and anxiety symptoms (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale [HAM-A] score ≥14) received escitalopram (10-20 mg/day) for 8 weeks...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Eva Bagyinszky, Vo Van Giau, Young Chul Youn, Seong Soo A An, SangYun Kim
Abnormal prion proteins are responsible for several fatal neurodegenerative diseases in humans and in animals, including Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease, and fatal familial insomnia. Genetics is important in prion diseases, but in the most cases, cause of diseases remained unknown. Several mutations were found to be causative for prion disorders, and the effect of mutations may be heterogeneous. In addition, different prion mutations were suggested to play a possible role in additional phenotypes, such as Alzheimer's type pathology, spongiform encephalopathy, or frontotemporal dementia...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Yojiro Umezaki, Anna Miura, Yukiko Shinohara, Lou Mikuzuki, Shiori Sugawara, Kaoru Kawasaki, Trang Th Tu, Takeshi Watanabe, Takayuki Suga, Motoko Watanabe, Miho Takenoshita, Tatsuya Yoshikawa, Akihito Uezato, Toru Nishikawa, Ken Hoshiko, Toru Naito, Haruhiko Motomura, Akira Toyofuku
Objective: Oral cenesthopathy is characterized by foreign body sensations without medical and dental evidence for them. It is thought to be a rare disease in psychiatry, but many patients are visiting dental clinics seeking treatment to remove a foreign body. Even though the features of oral cenesthopathy might be different between a psychiatric clinic and a dental clinic, there has been no clinic-statistical study from dentists. In this study, we report a clinico-statistical study of patients with oral cenesthopathy in dentistry...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
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