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Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment

Tamara Tompsett, Kate Masters, Parastou Donyai
Background: A number of naturalistic studies have investigated paliperidone palmitate (PP) using proxy measures of effectiveness. An unexplored option is to examine the utility of the mental health clustering tool (MHCT), which is used in UK clinical practice to measure patient well-being and is linked to allocation of resources. This study evaluated the effectiveness of PP using the MHCT, the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS), and, for comparison, more conventional outcome measures...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
David W Morris, Subroto Ghose, Ella Williams, Kevin Brown, Fuad Khan
Introduction: Hospital emergency departments (EDs) around the country are being challenged by an ever-increasing volume of patients seeking psychiatric services. This manuscript describes a study performed to identify internal and external factors contributing to repeated psychiatric patient admissions to the hospital main ED. Methods: Data from ED visits of patients who were admitted to the Parkland Memorial Hospital ED (the community hospital for Dallas County, TX, USA) with a psychiatric complaint more than once within a 30-day period were evaluated (n=202)...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Tadasu Horai, Akitoyo Hishimoto, Ikuo Otsuka, Tatsuhiro So, Kentaro Mouri, Naofumi Shimmyo, Shuken Boku, Noriaki Okishio, Ichiro Sora
Background: Alcohol dependence induces low bone mineral density (BMD), predicting osteoporosis, while low and moderate alcohol consumption may even increase BMD. In recent years, undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5b (TRACP-5b), bone turnover markers, have gained special interest as useful indicators of low BMD. However, it remains unclear whether other alcohol-related variables (eg, duration of abstinence and continuous drinking) are linked to aberrant BMD...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Mario F Mendez
Studies suggest a relationship of manic behavior and bipolar disorder (BD) with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). The nature of this relationship is unclear. This report presents a patient with initial manic behavior as the main manifestation of familial bvFTD from a novel progranulin (GRN) mutation. In contrast, there are other reports of a long background of BD preceding a diagnosis of bvFTD. A review of the literature and this patient suggest that manic symptoms result from damage to right frontotemporal neural structures from longstanding BD, as well as from bvFTD and other focal neurological disorders...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Jian-Jun Chen, Peng Zheng, Yi-Yun Liu, Xiao-Gang Zhong, Hai-Yang Wang, Yu-Jie Guo, Peng Xie
Objective: Our previous studies found that disturbances in gut microbiota might have a causative role in the onset of major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this study was to investigate whether there were sex differences in gut microbiota in patients with MDD. Patients and methods: First-episode drug-naïve MDD patients and healthy controls were included. 16S rRNA gene sequences extracted from the fecal samples of the included subjects were analyzed. Principal-coordinate analysis and partial least squares-discriminant analysis were used to assess whether there were sex-specific gut microbiota...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Beliz Özen, Y Özay Özdemir, E Emrem Beştepe
Objective: Causes such as childhood trauma, negative attitude about sexuality, inadequate sexual knowledge and education, relationship problems, and unconscious motivation are reported about psychosexual development in the etiology of genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder (GPP/PD). There are few studies that focus directly on research etiology of GPP/PD and use structured scales. The aim of this study was to research childhood trauma and dissociation forms among women with GPP/PD. Patients and methods: Fifty-five women with GPP/PD according to the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and 61 healthy women with no complaints of sexual function as a control group, in the age range of 18-60 years, were included in this study...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Sherif M Hamdy, Maged Abdel-Naseer, Nevin M Shalaby, Alaa Elmazny, Marian Girgis, Mona A Nada, Amr Hassan, Husam S Mourad, Mohamed I Hegazy, Ahmed Abdelalim, Nirmeen A Kishk, Noha T Abokrysha, Shaimaa A Genedy, Ehab A Essawy, Hatem S Shehata
Introduction: Although the frequency of pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (POMS) has increased in recent decades, it is still highly uncommon, which creates a need for the involvement of more registries from various clinical centers. Objective: To characterize the demographic, clinical, and paraclinical features of Egyptian patients with POMS. Patients and methods: A retrospective chart review study was undertaken on 237 Egyptian patients with demyelinating events which started before the age of 18 years who attended one of five tertiary referral centers in Cairo, Egypt...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Chien-Lin Lin, Chin-Kai Lin, Jia-Jhen Yu
Introduction: This study aims to explore the impact of Parent Participation Program on the development of developmental delay children. Methods: Pretest-posttest equivalent-group experimental design study was used in this paper. A total of 30 pairs of developmental delay children aged 0-72 months and their parents participated into this study. They were divided into two groups, namely control group and experimental group, according to parents' wishes. The objects of study in control group received 16 courses of direct rehabilitation therapy; those in experimental group received 8 courses of direct rehabilitation therapy and 8 courses of instruction and tracking of Parent Participation Program...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Hideyuki Imagawa, Saurabh P Nagar, William Montgomery, Tomomi Nakamura, Masayo Sato, Keith L Davis
Objective: To describe the characteristics and medication treatment patterns of adult patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) prescribed atomoxetine in Japan. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis of insurance claims data was conducted using the Japan Medical Data Center database. Adults (≥18 years) with ADHD who had ≥1 atomoxetine claim from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2014, and ≥180 to ≤900 days of follow-up were included...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Hirotsugu Kawashima, Yuko Kobayashi, Taro Suwa, Toshiya Murai, Ryuichi Yoshioka
Inducing adequate therapeutic seizures during electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is sometimes difficult due to a high seizure threshold, even at the maximum stimulus charge. Previous studies have demonstrated that seizure threshold is lower in patients treated with right unilateral ultrabrief pulse (RUL-UBP) ECT than in those treated with bilateral or brief pulse (BL-BP) ECT. Therefore, switching to RUL-UBP ECT may be beneficial for patients in whom seizure induction is difficult with conventional ECT. In the present report, we discuss the case of a patient suffering from catatonic schizophrenia in whom BL-BP ECT failed to induce seizures at the maximum charge...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Tzu-Ying Yu, Willy Chou, Julie Chi Chow, Chien-Ho Lin, Li-Chen Tung, Kuan-Lin Chen
Purpose: We investigated 1) the impact of differences in intelligence quotient discrepancy (IQD) on motor skills of preschool-aged children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD); 2) the relationships between IQD and motor skills in preschool-aged children with ASD. Methods: A total of 127 ASD preschool-aged children were divided into three groups according to the size of the IQD: IQD within 1 standard deviation (1SD; EVENIQ; n=81), discrepantly higher verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ; n=22; VIQ>performance intelligence quotient [PIQ] above 1SD [≥15 points]), and discrepantly higher PIQ (n=24; PIQ>VIQ above 1SD [≥15 points])...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Zhihua Liu, Yan Cai, Jincai He
Purpose: Although previous studies have investigated oxidative stress biomarkers in association with depression in non-stroke subjects, the association between oxidative deoxyribonucleic acid damage and post-stroke depression (PSD) remains unelucidated. Patients and methods: Two hundred forty-one first-ever ischemic stroke patients were consecutively recruited within the first 24 h of stroke onset and were followed up at 1 month. Serum 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and catalase (CAT) levels were measured within 24 h of admission using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Nilfer Sahin, Hatice Altun, Ergül Belge Kurutas, Damla Balkan
Objective: In this study, we aimed to evaluate vitamin D and vitamin D receptor levels in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Patients and methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 80 children including 40 ADHD patients (aged 6-12 years; 28 males and 12 females) and 40 age-, sex-, and season of blood collection-matched controls (aged 6-12 years; 25 males and 15 females) were enrolled. Serum vitamin D and vitamin D receptor levels and calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase were measured...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Yvette Low, Sajita Setia, Graca Lima
Psychiatric and physical conditions often coexist, and there is robust evidence that associates the frequency of depression with single and multiple physical conditions. More than half of patients with depression may have at least one chronic physical condition. Therefore, antidepressants are often used in cotherapy with other medications for the management of both psychiatric and chronic physical illnesses. The risk of drug-drug interactions (DDIs) is augmented by complex polypharmacy regimens and extended periods of treatment required, of which possible outcomes range from tolerability issues to lack of efficacy and serious adverse events...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Timothy Peters-Strickland, Ainslie Hatch, Anke Adenwala, Katie Atkinson, Benjamin Bartfeld
Background: The digital medicine system (DMS), a drug-device combination developed for patients with serious mental illness, integrates adherence measurement with pharmacologic treatment by embedding an ingestible sensor in a pill, allowing for information sharing among patients, health care providers (HCPs), and caregivers via a mobile interface. Studies conducted during the DMS development process aimed to minimize cognitive burden and use-related risks and demonstrated effective use of the technology...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Jian-Wei Chen, Shu-Qin Xie
Objective: Depressive and anxiety symptoms could affect the quality of life and prognostic outcomes in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, but only a few studies focus on the interventions to manage or prevent these symptoms in CKD patients. Therefore, this study was conducted to compare the efficacy and acceptability of agomelatine versus paroxetine in treating depressive and anxiety symptoms in CKD patients. Methods: CKD stage 2-4 patients with depressive and anxiety symptoms were included...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Leslie Citrome, Judith C Kando, Caleb Bliss
Objectives: In two Phase III studies, lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) reduced binge eating (BE) days/week in adults with moderate to severe binge eating disorder (BED) and was associated with improvement based on the Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement (CGI-I) scale. In this study, post hoc analyses examined the relationships between clinical observations and clinical rating scales in individuals with BED. Clinical trial registration: NCT01718483 (ClinicalTrials...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Ling Ma, Yong Jiang, Yanan Dong, Jun Gao, Bin Du, Dianwei Liu
Background: Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) can induce apoptosis in many regions of the brain including the cortex and hippocampus. However, few studies have focused on apoptosis in the hypothalamus after SAH. Although some antiapoptotic strategies have been developed for SAH, such as anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) antibody, the molecular mechanisms underlying this condition have yet to be elucidated. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate whether SAH could induce apoptosis in the hypothalamus and identify the potential molecular mechanisms underlying the actions of anti-TNF-α antibody, as a therapeutic regimen, upon apoptosis...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Alberta Sj Van der Watt, Alexandra Psp Suryapranata, Soraya Seedat
Objectives: Our primary objective was to assess the feasibility of interepisodal telephonic mood monitoring in patients with affective disorders in a low-resource setting. Secondary objectives included gathering data on longitudinal mood trajectories and assessing patient acceptance of mood monitoring. Methods: Inpatients with a primary mood or anxiety disorder were recruited predischarge. Assessment at intake included demographic information, the Life Events Checklist, and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Jianyu Zhang, Yi Tang, Yongan Sun, Yingda Xu, Lingen Pang, Jiaojiao Li, Taotao Wu, Mingli He
Introduction: The incidence of corpus callosum infarction is low, and sudden cognitive dysfunction caused by corpus callosum infarction is very rare. We report two cases of acute corpus callosum infarction with sudden cognitive impairment, and the related basis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of this disease are reviewed. Cases presentation: The two patients had sudden and severe memory impairment and spatial orientation disorder...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
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