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Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment

Martin Černý, Sheilagh Hodgins, Radmila Kučíková, Ladislav Kážmér, Alena Lambertová, Alexander Nawka, Lucie Nawková, Anna Parzelka, Jiří Raboch, Petr Bob, Jan Vevera
Purpose: To prevent violence among persons with psychosis, further knowledge of the correlates and risk factors is needed. These risk factors may vary by nation. Patients and methods: This study examined factors associated with violent assaults in 158 patients with psychosis and in a matched control sample of 158 adults without psychosis in the Czech Republic. Participants completed interviews and questionnaires to confirm diagnoses, report on aggressive behavior, current and past victimization, and substance use...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Wen-Jiun Chou, Liang-Jen Wang, Chien-Ho Lin, Sun-Yuan Liang, Vincent Chin-Hung Chen, Yuh-Ming Hou, Rong-Rong Huang, Miao-Chun Chou, Chi-Yung Shang, Chi-Pui Ho, Meng-Chuan Lai
Purpose: This prospective, single-arm, open-label, 8-week, multicenter study investigated the effectiveness of switching from immediate-release methylphenidate (IR-MPH) to osmotic controlled-release methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Patients and methods: Overall, 296 patients with ADHD (mean age: 9.5 years) already on IR-MPH treatment were enrolled. Upon enrollment, a flexible dose of OROS-MPH was administered, replacing IR-MPH...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Qian Liu, Yaguang Hu, Min Zhang, Yousheng Yan, Hongmei Yu, Li Ge
Objectives: miRNAs are a family of non-coding RNAs that affect cell growth, migration and apoptosis. However, little is known on the behavior of miRNAs in neurons. Hence, this work aimed to investigate the functions and roles of miRNA-451 in neurons induced by ischemia/reperfusion injury. Materials and methods: In this study, we established a 12- or 24-hour oxygen and glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) cell model. miR-451 mimic, si-CUGBP Elav-like family member 2 (siCELF2), oeCELF2 and the corresponding negative controls were transfected into the 24-hour OGD/R cells...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Wenjing Wang, Haijun Li, Dechang Peng, Juan Luo, Huizhen Xin, Honghui Yu, Jingjing Yu
Objective: The majority of previous neuroimaging studies have reported both structural and functional changes in COPD, whereas the intrinsic low-frequency oscillations changes and the relationship between the abnormal brain regions and the clinical performances remain unknown. The present study was conducted with the aim of evaluating the intrinsic brain activity in COPD patients using the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) method. Methods: All participants, including 19 stable patients with COPD and 20 normal controls (NCs) matched in age, sex, and education, underwent resting-state functional MRI scans and performed cognitive function tests and respiratory functions tests...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Tariq Al Bahhawi, Osama B Albasheer, Anwar M Makeen, Abdulelah Mohammed Arishi, Othman Mohammed Hakami, Sultan Mohsen Maashi, Hamood Khairat Al-Khairat, Omar Madiny Alganmy, Yasir Adnan Sahal, Abdulaziz Aaref Sharif, Mohamed Salih Mahfouz
Background: Depression, anxiety, and stress levels are considered important indicators for mental health. Khat chewing habit is prevalent among all segments of Jazan population in Saudi Arabia. Few studies have been conducted to evaluate depression, anxiety, and stress among Jazan University students, and information about the correlation between khat use and these disorders is scarce. Thus, this study aims to evaluate the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress and their correlation with khat chewing and other risk factors among Jazan University students...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Gabriele Masi, Annarita Milone, Giulia Scrinzi, Maria Mucci, Valentina Viglione, Gabriella Bruni, Stefano Berloffa, Simone Pisano
Background: Although lithium is currently approved for the treatment of bipolar disorders in youth, long term data, are still scant. The aim of this study was to describe the safety and efficacy of lithium in referred bipolar adolescents, who were followed up at the 4th (T1) and 8th (T2) month of treatment. Methods: The design was naturalistic and retrospective, based on a clinical database, including 30 patients (18 males, mean age 14.2±2.1 years). Results: Mean blood level of lithium was 0...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Katharina Helm, Kathrin Viol, Thomas M Weiger, Peter A Tass, Christian Grefkes, Damir Del Monte, Günter Schiepek
Background: The causes of major depressive disorder (MDD), as one of the most common psychiatric disorders, still remain unclear. Neuroimaging has substantially contributed to understanding the putative neuronal mechanisms underlying depressed mood and motivational as well as cognitive impairments in depressed individuals. In particular, analyses addressing changes in interregional connectivity seem to be a promising approach to capture the effects of MDD at a systems level. However, a plethora of different, sometimes contradicting results have been published so far, making general conclusions difficult...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Wallace C Duncan, Elizabeth E Slonena, Nadia S Hejazi, Nancy Brutsche, Lawrence T Park, Ioline D Henter, Elizabeth D Ballard, Carlos A Zarate
Purpose: This study examined the links between 24-hour activity patterns (specifically, amplitude and timing of wrist activity) and the persisting qualities of clinical antidepressant response to the glutamatergic modulator ketamine. Methods: Twenty-four-hour activity patterns were compared across 5 days of 24-hour activity rhythms in patients with major depressive disorder who displayed either a brief antidepressant response (24-48 hours), a continued antidepressant response (>72 hours), or no antidepressant response to ketamine...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Hsuan-Han Lee, Cheng-Ho Chang, Liang-Jen Wang, Chih-Ching Wu, Hsing-Ling Chen, Ti Lu, Ru-Band Lu, Sheng-Yu Lee
Introduction: In this study, we aim to determine 1) the differences in cortisol in patients with bipolar II disorder (BD-II) and control subjects and 2) the correlation between cortisol levels and cognitive function in patients with BD-II during a 24-week follow-up period. Methods: We recruited a total of 32 BD-II patients and 30 healthy control subjects. The BD-II patients were assessed for clinical severity and serum cortisol level at baseline and at weeks 8, 16, and 24...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Xiaohua Chen, Zhenzhen Xiong, Zhixiong Li, Yali Yang, Zhanying Zheng, Yonghong Li, Yan Xie, Zhe Li
The pathophysiology of schizophrenia may involve increased production of inflammatory cytokines by activated microglia. Minocycline can inhibit activated microglia and may improve secondary negative symptoms and/or cognitive functions when used as adjuvant to antipsychotics. Effects on minocycline on primary and enduring negative symptoms in deficit schizophrenia (DS) are unknown. We present a male patient with a 3-year history of DS. He was treated for 12 weeks with risperidone at a maximal dose of 6 mg per day, then for 10 weeks with olanzapine at 20 mg per day...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Xiaodong Duan, Lei Zhang, Jihua Yu, Wei Wei, Xi Liu, Fangyuan Xu, Shengmin Guo
Objective: The aim of this study was to observe the effects of different frequencies of electroacupuncture (EA) on expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) in the hippocampal CA3 region of cerebral ischemic rats. Methods: Middle cerebral artery occlusion was successfully introduced to simulate cerebral infarction in 48 healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats. Totally, 48 rats were randomly divided into three groups: the control group, the EA 5-Hz group, and the EA 50-Hz group, 16 in each group...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Wojciech Łukasz Dragan, Wojciech Domozych, Piotr M Czerski, Małgorzata Dragan
Background: Previous research has shown that polymorphisms in the FKBP5 gene are related to some psychiatric conditions, including alcohol dependence. These relationships are moderated by the level of adverse childhood experiences that one has undergone. Maladaptive metacognition, associated with symptoms of psychiatric disorders and disturbed emotional self-regulation, is also a strong predictor of problematic alcohol use. Recent studies suggest that maladaptive metacognitions may be part of the developmental pathway from childhood abuse to drinking problems...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Fen Pan, Da Li, Xiaojing Wang, Shaojia Lu, Yi Xu, Manli Huang
Background: A high proportion of adolescents with major depressive disorder currently do not respond to conventional treatment. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a promising treatment for major depressive disorder. Case: We report on 3 cases of adolescents with suicidal ideation receiving 7 daily 10 Hz left prefrontal rTMS combined with pharmacotherapy treatment over 1 week for major depressive episode. The left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was identified using magnetic resonance imaging-guided neuronavigation prior to stimulation...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Huihua Qiu, Wenwei Ren, Yanjie Yang, Xiongzhao Zhu, Guangyun Mao, Shanping Mao, Yan Lin, Shanshan Shen, Changjin Li, Hongying Shi, Suo Jiang, Jingjing He, Ke Zhao, Ye Fu, Xiaoqu Hu, Yingying Gu, Kai Wang, Xiuchan Guo, Jincai He
Purpose: Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression had been found to be effective in reducing depressive and anxiety symptoms in breast cancer survivors. It is not known whether CBT for depression would also improve insomnia and quality of life (QOL). The aim of this study was to investigate whether CBT for depression would improve insomnia and QOL in a randomized controlled multicenter trial. Patients and methods: In this study, breast cancer survivors (n=392) were randomly allocated to the following three groups: CBT (n=98), self-care management (SCM, n=98), and usual care (UC, n=196) in a ratio of 1:1:2...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Magdalena Bosak, Agnieszka Słowik, Wojciech Turaj
Introduction: The purpose of the present study was to assess the prevalence and determinants of menstrual cycle disorders among women with epilepsy. Materials and methods: The study included consecutive women with epilepsy who visited a university epilepsy clinic. A number of variables, including demographics, characteristics of epilepsy and its treatment, and data related to reproductive health (regularity of menstrual cycle, number of pregnancies and childbirths), were collected from medical records, seizure diaries, and a dedicated questionnaire...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Daniele Belvisi, Isabella Berardelli, Antonio Suppa, Andrea Fabbrini, Massimo Pasquini, Maurizio Pompili, Giovanni Fabbrini
Multiple system atrophy (MSA), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and corticobasal degeneration (CBD) are the most common atypical parkinsonisms. These disorders are characterized by varying combinations of autonomic, cerebellar and pyramidal system, and cognitive dysfunctions. In this paper, we reviewed the evidence available on the presence and type of neuropsychiatric disturbances in MSA, PSP, and CBD. A MedLine, Excerpta Medica, PsycLit, PsycInfo, and Index Medicus search was performed to identify all articles published on this topic between 1965 and 2018...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Koki Takagaki, Yasumasa Okamoto, Ran Jinnin, Asako Mori, Yoshiko Nishiyama, Takanao Yamamura, Satoshi Yokoyama, Syouichi Shiota, Yuri Okamoto, Yoshie Miyake, Akiko Ogata, Yoshihiko Kunisato, Haruki Shimoda, Norito Kawakami, Toshi A Furukawa, Shigeto Yamawaki
Background: No significant effect of psychological treatment has been reported from meta-analysis of subthreshold depression patients and control subjects at 1-year follow-up. However, behavioral activation is a simpler and more cost-effective treatment than cognitive behavioral therapy. The primary purpose of this study was to assess by comparison to an assessment-only control group whether the effects of behavioral activation program for depressive symptoms can persist up to 1-year follow-up without the use of antidepressants or other psychotherapy...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Elena-Ioanna Nazlidou, Despina Moraitou, Demetrios Natsopoulos, Vasileios Papaliagkas, Elvira Masoura, Georgia Papantoniou
Introduction: Mental verbs denote inner mental states and are an important link between language and Theory of Mind ability conceptualized as mental state understanding. Non-factive mental verbs denote an obligation or intention and constitute a discrete class of mental verbs which are characterized by their social aspect. This study aimed to examine adults' ability to understand non-factive mental verbs with the social aspect as compared to cognitive factive mental verbs which denote a true event...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Yantong Fang, Mei Li, Minjun Mei, Xiaofei Sun, Dai Han
Background: Alexithymia is a multifaceted personality trait and a risk factor for several mental and physical diseases. Methods: In this study, 21 alexithymic students and 21 nonalexithymic students were recruited from the local university and assigned to the alexithymic group and the control group, respectively. Then, the functional connectivity and the structural connectivity among the brain regions of the students were investigated using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI), function connection (FC) analysis, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Dorota Szcześniak, Agnieszka Kobyłko, Irena Wojciechowska, Michał Kłapciński, Joanna Rymaszewska
Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the perceived level of internalized stigma among patients with severe mental illnesses and its relationship with demographic and clinical variables in Poland. Patients and methods: A study sample (n=114, mean age=42.46±14.1 years; 55% of females) consisting of patients with nonorganic psychotic disorders as well as unipolar and bipolar affective disorders was evaluated (58% of outpatients and 39% of inpatients)...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
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