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Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment

Na Wu, Ying Wan, Lu Song, Chen Qi, Zhenguo Liu, Jing Gan
Background: Levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) is a troublesome problem in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). The mechanisms of LID are still mysterious. Recently, the interaction between Shp-2 and D1 dopamine receptor (D1R) has been identified to be indispensable in the D1R-mediated extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) activation and the occurrence of LID. However, the role of Shp-2 in the D1R-mediated signaling pathway of dyskinetic rat models is not fully clear...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Keiko Akahoshi, Toshiyuki Yamamoto
We report the case of a Japanese woman with an interstitial deletion within the 7q31.1q31.3 region, she presented with mild intellectual disability since infancy, and later developed characteristic psychiatric manifestations, including abnormal behavior, delusions, and hallucinations. She was diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia (F20.0, International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision). Array comparative genomic hybridization examination revealed the deletion involving several important genes for neurodevelopment...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Zhi Chen, Shunjie Bai, Qingchuan Hu, Peng Shen, Ting Wang, Zihong Liang, Wei Wang, Xunzhong Qi, Peng Xie
Introduction: Although recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) is a widely used therapy in patients with acute ischemic stroke, rtPA-induced toxicity or its adverse effects have been reported in our previous studies. However, Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) may provide neuroprotective effects against rtPA-induced toxicity. Thus, in the present study, we investigated whether a single administration of rtPA caused neurotoxicity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of rats and determined whether GBE or its diterpene ginkgolide (DG) constituents were neuroprotective against any rtPA-induced toxicity...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Dai Miyawaki, Ayako Goto, Yoshihiro Iwakura, Kaoru Hirai, Yusuke Miki, Naomi Asada, Hiroki Terakawa, Koki Inoue
Early-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is more severe than later-onset OCD. There are no reports of any early-onset OCD patients being cured, especially with respect to preschoolers. In this case report, we describe the successful treatment and cure of a 6-year-old preschool girl with severe OCD since the age of 3. At the age of 3, the patient began to fear contamination and danger to herself and her family, leading to excessive hand-washing, and several months later, ritualized checking. The OCD symptoms waxed and waned for about 3 years and thereafter worsened gradually over a few weeks, culminating in a refusal to eat and dress...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Qibin Chen, Li Ren, Su Min, Xuechao Hao, Hengsheng Chen, Jie Deng
Background: Accompanied with the effective antidepressant effect, electroconvulsive shock (ECS) can induce cognitive impairment, but the mechanism is unclear. Synaptic plasticity is the fundamental mechanism of learning and memory. This study aimed to investigate the effect of ECS on synaptic plasticity changes in rats with depression-like behavior. Methods: Chronic unpredictable mild stress procedure was conducted to establish a model of depression-like behavior...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Ana Lusicic, Koen Rj Schruers, Stefano Pallanti, David J Castle
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive neurostimulation technique receiving increasing attention in the treatment of different psychiatric disorders. Evidence for rTMS use in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is accumulating and informing further developments in the neurostimulation field, the latest being deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (dTMS). dTMS allows direct stimulation of deeper subcortical structures and larger brain volume than conventional rTMS. Underlying neurobiological mechanisms related to transcranial magnetic stimulation are still under evaluation, but appear to offer a novel "third" way of addressing symptoms via localized electrical stimulation compared to pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy approaches...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Mamdouh Abdel Maksoud, Solaf Mohamed ELsayed, Rania H Shatla, Abdulbasit Abdulhalim Imam, Riad M Elsayed, Amira Aa Mosabah, Ashraf M Sherif
Objective: Our study aimed to estimate the frequency of inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) in patients presenting with acute encephalopathy-like picture at an emergency department (ED). Subjects and methods: Our study was a prospective observational study conducted on 30 patients admitted to the pediatric ED with unexplained acute encephalopathy. The study included 30 children with an age ranging from 1 month to 5 years. All patients were subjected to full history taking, thorough clinical examination, and laboratory investigations including serum ammonia, serum lactate, arterial blood gases, tandem mass spectroscopy, organic acid of urine, cerebrospinal fluid examination to exclude central nervous system infection plus the routine laboratory tests (kidney functions, liver functions, random blood glucose, complete blood picture), and brain imaging computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging brain...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Yu Lee, Pao-Yen Lin, Chih-Yen Chien, Fu-Min Fang, Liang-Jen Wang
Objective: The caregivers of patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) may suffer from impaired psychological well-being and a decreased quality of life (QOL) related to the chronic burden of caring for patients' physical conditions and their mood changes. In this study, we aimed to compare the psychological well-being and QOL between spouse caregivers and non-spouse caregivers of patients with HNC over a 6-month follow-up period. Patients and methods: This study was conducted using a prospective design with consecutive sampling...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Chunzi Nie, Zhan Wang, Xufeng Liu
Background: Depressive disorder has been proven to be associated with disturbed bone metabolism. However, the effect of depression on fracture healing still lacks evidence. Materials and methods: A rat depressive model was first established by exposing the animals to chronic unpredictable stress, which was assessed using the sucrose preference test, forced swimming test, and open field test. Subsequently, the bone repairing ability was detected by micro-computed tomography and histological analysis of the femoral condyle defect rats with or without depression...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Tom Carnwath, Raihan Mohammed, Daniel Tsiang
Despite decades of research, the mechanism of Parkinson's disease pathogenesis remains unclear. Studies have focused heavily on the protein α-synuclein, which is the primary component of Lewy bodies, the pathologic inclusions that are the hallmark of Parkinson's on the cellular level. While the roles of α-synuclein in causing mitochondrial dysfunction and disruptions to the proteasomal system have been well documented, recently, its role in effecting microtubule dynamics has been investigated as a potential source of pathogenicity...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Amy Lawson Moore, Dick M Carpenter, Terissa M Miller, Christina Ledbetter
Purpose: The impact of attention problems on academic and social functioning coupled with the large number of children failing to respond to stimulant medication or behavioral therapy makes adjunctive therapies such as cognitive training appealing for families and clinicians of children with attention difficulties or childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, the results of cognitive training studies have failed to find far transfer effects with this population. This study examined the quantitative cognitive effects and parent-reported behavioral effects of a clinician-delivered cognitive training program with children who have attention problems...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Sergio L Schmidt, Michele Santos da Silva, Juliana J Schmidt, Ana Lucia Novais Carvalho, Claudia Cristina Ferreira Vasconcelos, Renata Alves Paes, Yolanda Em Boechat, Rafael Neder, Regina P Alvarenga
Background: In the early phases of multiple sclerosis (MS), patients exhibit slight neuropsychiatric deficits that can only be detected using reliable tools. Aim: The present investigation aimed to examine neuropsychological performance in 35 patients with incipient MS. Patients and methods: For the MS group, the inclusion criteria included time of disease <3 years and low disability. The neuropsychological battery consisted of Rey Auditory Learning Test, Controlled Oral Word Association Test, Hooper Visual Organization Test, and Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT)...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Haruka Kaneko, Itaru Miura, Keiko Kanno-Nozaki, Sho Horikoshi, Mizuki Hino, Hirooki Yabe
Introduction: The COMT Val 108/158 Met polymorphism (rs4680) may affect treatment response to antipsychotics, as well as metabolism and dynamics of neurotransmitters during the treatment of schizophrenia. We investigated the effects of the COMT Val 108/158 Met polymorphism on treatment response to aripiprazole and plasma monoamine metabolite levels in patients with acute schizophrenia. Materials and methods: Forty patients with schizophrenia were treated with aripiprazole for 6 weeks...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Ilaria Cuomo, Georgios D Kotzalidis, Simone de Persis, Daria Piacentino, Filippo Perrini, Emanuela Amici, Sergio De Filippis
Background: To overcome nonadherence in patients with psychosis switch to long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotic formulations is adopted. Most oral versus LAI comparisons showed similar antipsychotic responses. Psychoses often overlap with substance use disorder (SUD). Head-to-head LAI comparisons have hitherto focused only on non-comorbid populations. Objective: The objective of this study was to compare two LAIs, administered for 12 months, in initially hospitalized patients with psychosis comorbid with SUD in their clinical and quality of life (QoL) outcomes...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Anri Watanabe, Takashi Nakamae, Yuki Sakai, Seiji Nishida, Yoshinari Abe, Kei Yamada, Isao Yokota, Jin Narumoto
Purpose: In recent years, a large number of studies have investigated obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) using diffusion-weighted images (DWIs) and have reported microstructural abnormalities in various regions, mainly the corpus callosum and cingulum. In the present study, we aimed to detect microstructural changes in the white matter using whole-brain tractography. Patients and methods: We obtained MRI data from 25 adult non-medicated OCD patients and 27 healthy controls...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Shuang He, Shuai Chen, Ming-Rong Xia, Zhi-Kun Sun, Yue Huang, Jie-Wen Zhang
Background and purpose: Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is the second most common presenile dementia characterized by behavioral changes and language impairment. The diagnosis of FTD relies heavily on neuroimaging, and sometimes on genetic screening. However, the genetic components in Chinese FTD patients remain largely unknown. Only a few FTD cases with established mutations have been reported in China. This study reported the detailed clinical and neuroimaging features in a Chinese behavioral variant FTD family...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Ramona Ritzmann, Christina Stark, Anne Krause
The neurological disorder cerebral palsy (CP) is caused by unprogressive lesions of the immature brain and affects movement, posture, and the musculoskeletal system. Vibration therapy (VT) is increasingly used to reduce the signs and symptoms associated with this developmental disability. The purpose of this narrative review was systematically to appraise published research regarding acute and long-term effects of VT on functional, neuromuscular, and structural parameters. Systematic searches of three electronic databases identified 28 studies that fulfilled the inclusion criteria...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Meagan B MacKenzie, Kayleigh A Abbott, Nancy L Kocovski
Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) was developed to prevent relapse in individuals with depressive disorders. This widely used intervention has garnered considerable attention and a comprehensive review of current trends is warranted. As such, this review provides an overview of efficacy, mechanisms of action, and concludes with a discussion of dissemination. Results provided strong support for the efficacy of MBCT despite some methodological shortcomings in the reviewed literature. With respect to mechanisms of action, specific elements, such as mindfulness, repetitive negative thinking, self-compassion and affect, and cognitive reactivity have emerged as important mechanisms of change...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Michael De Santis, Xu-Feng Huang, Chao Deng
Background: Antipsychotic drug (APD) prescription/use in children has increased significantly worldwide, despite limited insight into potential long-term effects of treatment on adult brain functioning. While initial long-term studies have uncovered alterations to behaviors following early APD treatment, further investigations into potential changes to receptor density levels of related neurotransmitter (NT) systems are required. Methods: The current investigation utilized an animal model for early APD treatment with aripiprazole, olanzapine, and risperidone in male and female juvenile rats to investigate potential long-term changes to the adult serotonin (5-HT) NT system...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Kai Jia, Xin Tong, Fang Liang
Objective: To investigate the effects of sequential nutritional support on nutritional status and immune regulation in patients with early severe traumatic brain injury (STBI). Patients and methods: A total of 62 patients diagnosed with STBI enrolled from Chaoyang Hospital (Beijing, China) from February 2015 to October 2016 were divided into two groups. The observational group (n=34) was given sequential nutritional support and the control group (n=28) was given the standard formula of whole protein enteral preparations...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
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