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Current Pediatric Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848890/the-impact-of-cancer-and-its-treatment-on-the-growth-and-development-of-the-pediatric-patient
#1
Michael Silbermann, Sarah Brand, Joanne Wolfe, Chase Samsel
While pediatric survival rates have increased over the past 40 years, it has been well established that cancer and its treatment significantly impact children and their families. For the majority of families, a child's cancer diagnosis and treatment is the most difficult life experience they will face. While most families adjust to this significant stressor, there is no doubt that coping with the treatment process is an extremely difficult experience with multiple psychosocial consequences (Liptak, Zelter, & Recklitis, 2015)...
November 15, 2016: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848889/contemporary-pediatric-palliative-care-myths-and-barriers-to-integration-into-clinical-care
#2
Stefan J Friedrichsdorf
At least 20 million children would benefit from Pediatric Palliative Care (PPC) annually, and 8 million children would need specialized PPC services. In the USA alone, more than 42,000 children 0-19 years died in 2013, fifty-five percent of them infants younger than 1 year. This article aims to critically review eight common assumptions, myths and barriers, which may hinder the implementation of PPC into the care of a child with advanced serious illnesses. Interdisciplinary PPC is about matching treatment to patient goals and is considered specialized medical care for children with serious illness...
November 15, 2016: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848891/second-malignant-neoplasms-in-childhood-cancer-survivors
#3
Rejin Kebudi, Gül Nihal Özdemir
The survival of children with cancer have improved dramatically in the last decades. Survivors of childhood cancer are at increased risk of long-term complications of therapeutic exposure. Second malignant neoplasms are one of the most severe side effects of cancer treatment. The frequency and type of secondary cancers may vary depending on the initial diagnosis, treatment administered and genetic predisposition. This review highlights the risk factors in the development of SMNs in survivors of pediatric cancers and their differences according to primary cancer type, genetic predisposition and treatment admistered...
November 14, 2016: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834132/surgical-management-of-medullary-thyroid-carcinoma-in-pediatric-age
#4
Claudio Spinelli, Leonardo Rossi, Silvia Strambi, Jessica Piscioneri, Rossella Elisei, Maura Massimino, Paolo Miccoli
Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a rare, accounting for 5% of thyroid malignancies. It is a neuroendocrine tumor wich origins from thyroid parafollicular cells. It may be sporadic, mostly in adult patients, or inherited as autosomal dominant pattern, mostly in pediatric patients. As familial cancer, MTC may presented isolated as familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC) - 10% of cases - or, most often, as part of multiple endocrine neoplasm type 2 (MEN 2A or MEN 2B) syndromes - 90% of cases. The therapy for sporadic or hereditary MTC is surgical resection and consists in total thyroidectomy associated with central compartment lymph nodal dissection; the radicality of this intervention is fundamental to obtain a definitive cure...
November 11, 2016: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804857/histopathology-immunohistochemistry-and-molecular-biology-of-follicular-epithelium-derived-pediatric-thyroid-carcinomas
#5
Claudio Spinelli, Paola Collini, Marta Barisella, Angela Greco
Thyroid carcinomas derived from the follicular epithelium are rare in children up to 18 years of age. While the morphological features are superimposable in children and adults, the age at onset is relevant to both the frequency of histotypes and variants, and to their biologic behaviour. Papillary carcinomas (PCs) represent more than 90% of cases. Follicular carcinomas (FCs) rarely occur, and they are mostly represented by minimally invasive (encapsulated) FCs (MIFCs). Poorly differentiated carcinomas (PDCs) are very rare, while anaplastic (undifferentiated) carcinomas are practically nonexistent...
November 1, 2016: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804856/a-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma-in-pediatric-age-an-example-of-a-rare-tumour-managed-within-a-cooperative-comprehensive-project
#6
Claudio Spinelli, Maura Massimino, Giovanna Sironi, Andrea Ferrari, Marta Podda, Stefano Chiaravalli
Though rare in childhood, thyroid cancers represent the most frequent tumours of endocrine glands in childhood and adolescence. Papillary thyroid carcinoma is a non-medullary, follicular-derived differentiated tumour of the thyroid. There is still controversy concerning the therapeutic approach of PTCs in the paediatric population; regarding which should be the extent of the surgical approach, and the need for radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy. The cooperative TREP project (Tumori Rari in Età Pediatrica [Rare Tumours in Paediatric Age]) was launched in Italy in 2000 (under the patronage of AIEOP - Associazione Italiana Ematologia Oncologia Pediatrica) with a view to improving both research the clinical management on the less common paediatric cancers...
October 31, 2016: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804855/the-thyroid-ultrasound-and-other-imaging-procedures-in-the-pediatric-age
#7
Claudio Spinelli, Federica Guidoccio, Mariano Grosso
The purpose of this review is to provide a reappraisal of the diagnostic imaging procedures for thyroid carcinoma in pediatric patients, including thyroid ultrasound (US), ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB), scintigraphy, radiological techniques (CT, MR), and PET/CT. The most frequent indication for thyroid imaging is characterization of a palpable mass in the neck or thyroid gland. Thyroid US is a first-line examination for visualizing the thyroid gland as it provides anatomic and perfusion information; on the other hand, scintigraphy mostly provides functional information but combined with some anatomic information as well...
October 31, 2016: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27745544/pediatric-differentiated-thyroid-cancer-when-to-perform-conservative-and-radical-surgery
#8
Claudio Spinelli
Thyroid tumors affect all age groups, including children and adolescents. Malignant cancer of the thyroid is a relatively uncommon disease in pediatric age. In the recent decades the incidence of paediatric differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) has increased. DTC in paediatric age is rare and has an excellent prognosis. Compared to adult counterpart, DTC in childhood presents some different features as follows: larger volume at the diagnosis, more frequent multicentricity (both mono- and bilateral), earlier local involvement of soft tissue of the neck, earlier lymph node involvement, distant metastases 3-4 times more frequent (most often in the lungs and almost always functional) and more common post-operatory recurrence; nevertheless, the prognosis of DTC in childhood is better and the survival greater than in adult...
October 13, 2016: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634538/child-abuse-and-neglect-a-review-of-the-literature
#9
Pietro Ferrara, Chiara Guadagno, Annamaria Sbordone, Maria Amato, Giulia Spina, Giacomo Perrone, Maria Cristin Basile, Francesca Ianniello, Giovanna Carmela Fabrizio, Massimo Pettoello-Mantovani, Alberto Verrotti, Alberto Villani, Giovanni Corsello
Child maltreatment is a complex life experience happening when a parent or caregiver does an intentional or potential damage to a child, including acts of commission and omission. Child abuse is not an uncommon event, but it is not always recognized. Identifying the real number of maltreated children is a challenge because of the large variability in reported prevalence data across studies. Unfortunately, in the United States, it affects 1 in 8 children, by the age of 18 years, annually. Paediatricians may encounter a variety of forms of maltreatment such as neglect, emotional, physical and sexual abuse...
September 14, 2016: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539311/dysfunctional-voiding-in-pediatrics-a-review-of-pathophysiology-and-current-treatment-modalities
#10
María Fernández-Ibieta
In Dysfunctional Voiding (DV), the patient contracts the external urethral sphincter or pelvic diaphragm (consisting of striated muscle) during voiding, contrary to normal physiological mechanism. In Flowmetry plus pelvic Electromyography (EMG), the perineal surface electrodes will show a persistent activity during voiding. The cause is believed to be the persistence of an immature bladder control. The overall prevalence of DV is estimated between 7 and 11% of girls of school age. Symptoms of DV comprises a range of symptoms, deriving from outlet obstruction, incomplete voiding and elevated Post Micturition Residual (PMR): from daytime urine leaks, nocturnal enuresis, Urinary Tract Infections (UTI), or Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), to the final decompensation of upper urinary tract in extreme cases...
August 16, 2016: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27515035/convulsions-with-gastroenteritis-reflections-on-some-cases-and-tentative-diagnostic-score
#11
Sara Lunardi, Simona Maddaluno, Monica Barrani, Francesca Ginocchio, Stefano Parmigiani
BACKGROUND: Since 1980 a form of benign convulsion during mild gastroenteritis, called Convulsion With Gastroenteritis (CWG) has been described. However diagnostic criteria has not been well defined yet, given the similarity of CWG with other diseases of young age. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: We here report a series of cases admitted at our hospital and propose a diagnostic score in order to help the Pediatrician to rapidly individuate the disease. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: we try to propose a diagnostic score to help the clinician in diagnosing CWG and so avoiding as much as possible invasive procedures and reassuring parents...
August 10, 2016: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27515036/the-intrauterine-intervention-for-the-treatment-of-fetal-growth-restriction
#12
Frank H Bloomfield
Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is associated with an increased incidence of fetal and neonatal death, and of neonatal morbidity. Babies born following FGR also are at risk of a range of postnatal complications, which may contribute to an increased incidence of disease later in life. There currently are no effective clinical interventions which improve perinatal survival, intrauterine growth and later outcomes of the FGR baby. Postnatal interventions aimed at promoting or accelerating growth in FGR babies to improve outcome, particularly neurodevelopmental outcomes, may further increase the risk of metabolic dysregulation and, therefore, the risk of developing chronic disease in adulthood...
August 8, 2016: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27470148/attention-deficit-hyperactive-disorder-and-occurrence-of-tic-disorders-in-children-and-adolescents-what-is-the-verdict-now
#13
Tommi Cooke, Tsz-Yin So
The United States Food and Drug Administration currently states that the use of stimulants in patients with tic disorders and/or family history of tic disorders including Tourette's syndrome is contraindicated. Patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), however, are at increased risk of tics regardless of stimulants use. After evaluating the most recent literature on the incidence of tic disorders in pediatric patients treated with stimulants for ADHD, it is reasonable to say that the incidence of tics and the severity of tics are not increased by the use of these medications...
July 28, 2016: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27396910/the-faulty-perinatal-hormonal-imprinting-as-functional-teratogen
#14
György Csaba
Perinatally, the developmental window for the adjustment of hormone receptors to their target hormones is open. The hormonal imprinting which determines the relationship of hormones and receptors for life takes place in this time period. The recognition ability of developing receptors is not yet entirely specific, so they could be 'cheated' by false imprinters such as related hormones, drugs, environmental pollutants or certain food components and faulty imprinting may result. This causes a functional developmental abnormality, which then is manifested, at any later time in life, as the alteration of the binding capacity of hormone receptors...
July 8, 2016: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27357084/long-term-complications-in-pediatric-liver-transplant-recipients-what-every-pediatrician-should-know
#15
Dalia Youssef, Azfar Niazi, Naim Alkhouri
The outcomes of liver transplantation in the pediatric population have improved significantly over the past two decades. As long-term survival improves, potential complications related to immunosuppression, delayed growth and development, and metabolic issues have started to be seen more commonly in long-term survivors. Hence, general pediatricians should to be aware of these potential complications in order to optimize the medical care and the quality of life for children with liver transplantation.
June 27, 2016: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27262336/treatment-options-for-persistent-coagulase-negative-staphylococcal-bacteremia-in-neonates
#16
Despoina Gkentzi, Soultana Kolyva, Iris Spiliopoulou, Markos Marangos, Gabriel Dimitriou
BACKGROUND: Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are the leading cause of late-onset sepsis in neonatal intensive-care units (NICUs). Despite adequate therapeutic levels and in vivo susceptibility, vancomycin is not always adequate in clearing CoNS bacteremias and other theurapeutic regimens are warranted especially when dealing with persistent CoNS bacteremias. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of neonates with persistent CoNS bacteremias in a tertiary NICU in two study periods (January 2006 to December 2007 and January 2011 to December 2012)...
June 3, 2016: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26775810/the-evolution-of-diagnosis-and-management-of-pediatric-biliary-tract-rhabdomyosarcoma
#17
Alpin D Malkan, Israel Fernandez-Pineda
BACKGROUND: The discovery and accurate diagnosis of a biliary tract mass in the pediatric population can prove to be extremely challenging. The purpose of this article is to give an overview of the evolution of management with regard to biliary tract rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) in the pediatric population. METHODS: Clinical research related to biliary tract RMS in the pediatric population is reviewed, focusing on the diagnosis, staging and treatment. RESULTS: Over the past century the management of biliary tract RMS has transitioned through a spectrum of radical surgical procedures with poor outcomes...
January 17, 2016: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27585455/allergic-bronchopulmonary-aspergillosis-alla-radiologist-needs-to-know
#18
REVIEW
Mandeep Kumar Garg, Madhurima Sharma, Ritesh Agarwal, Ashutosh N Aggarwal, Pankaj Gupta, Kushaljit Singh Sodhi, Arunaloke Chakrabarty, Niranjan Khandelwal
BACKGROUND: Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is an immunological lung disorder occurring due to hypersensitivity to fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. Early diagnosis of ABPA is desirable as the disease can cause irreversible damage and end stage lung disease. Diagnosis of ABPA is based upon a set of clinical, serological and radiological criteria. Radiology plays an important role in the diagnosis of ABPA. However a radiologist should also be familiar with various clinical and serological criteria, so as to have a complete understanding of the disease process and to give a confident diagnosis...
2016: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27197955/patent-ductus-arteriosus-in-extreme-prematurity-role-of-echocar-diography-and-other-imaging-techniques
#19
Norah Yap, Tara Bharucha
Clinical signs alone are unreliable in the diagnosis of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in preterm infants, and therefore echocardiography remains the mainstay of diagnosis of this common condition. Echocardiography also facilitates understanding of the hemodynamic effects of a PDA, and thus aids in management decisions. Several echocardiographic parameters, including duct size, maximum ductal velocity, left atrial: aorta ratio, mitral inflow E:A ratio, and isovolumic relaxation time, have been utilized in the assessment of PDA, but no single measurement can be used in isolation to inform clinical judgement...
2016: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27197954/surgical-intervention-in-preterm-neonates-with-patent-ductus-arteriosus
#20
Marcus P Haw
The ductus arteriosus is a fetal vascular connection between the pulmonary and systemic circulations. It fails to close after birth in a small number of term infants, and in a larger number of infants with cyanotic congenital heart disease. In contemporary practice the majority of patients present with a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) are premature infants before the gestational age of 28 weeks. The surgical management of PDA in preterm infants is critical for optimal outcomes and is discussed in this article...
2016: Current Pediatric Reviews
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