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Current Pediatric Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30205800/therapeutic-potential-of-stem-cells-for-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-it-s-about-time-or-not-so-fast
#1
Mong Tieng Ee, Bernard Thebaud
While the survival of extremely premature infants improved over the past decades, the rate of complications - especially for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) - remains unacceptably high. Over the past 50 years, no safe therapy has had a substantial impact on the incidence and severity of BPD. This may stem from the multifactorial disease pathogenesis and the increasing lung immaturity. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) display pleiotropic effects and showed promising results in neonatal rodents in preventing or rescuing lung injury without adverse effects...
September 10, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30124157/hydrops-fetalis-and-the-parvovirus-b-19
#2
E N Kontomanolis, Z Fasoulakis
DEFINITION: Hydrops fetalis (HF) or fetal hydrops is identified as an abnormal interstitial collection of fluid in at least 2 or more compartments of the fetal torso (peritoneal cavity, pleura, and pericardium). An alternative definition discusses about liquor accumulation in two fetal anatomical areas or an effusion in one site and anasarca. BACKGROUND: Parvovirus B-19 is a common childhood illness; the virus can cause fetal anemia, non-immune fetal hydrops, and spontaneous abortion and might lead to fetal demise...
August 20, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30101715/preterm-birth-long-term-cardiovascular-and-renal-consequences
#3
Hassib Chehade, Umberto Simeoni, Jean-Pierre Guignard, Farid Boubred
Cardiovascular and chronic kidney diseases are part of non-communicable chronic diseases, the leading causes of premature death worldwide. They are recognized as having early origins through altered developmental programming, due to adverse environmental conditions during development. Preterm birth is increasingly recognized as such an adverse factor. Rates of preterm birth have increased the last decades, however, with the improvement in perinatal and neonatal care, a growing cohort have survived to the neonatal period and are now entering adulthood...
August 13, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29998808/neonatal-and-long-term-consequences-of-fetal-growth-restriction
#4
Marina Colella, Alice Frerot, Aline Rideau Batista Novais, Olivier Baud
Fetal Growth Restriction (FGR) is one of the most common noxious antenatal conditions in humans, affecting 10% of all pregnancies, inducing a substantial proportion of preterm delivery and leading to a significant increase in perinatal mortality, neurological handicaps and chronic diseases in adulthood. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the postnatal consequences of FGR, with a particular emphasis on the long-term consequences on respiratory, cardiovascular and neurological structures and functions...
July 11, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895253/the-atopic-dermatitis-and-food-allergy-a-paediatric-approach
#5
Natalia Cartledge, Susan Chan
Atopic dermatitis and food allergy are common conditions of childhood that are closely linked. 30% of children with moderate to severe eczema suffer from food allergy and can present with different types of reactions: immediate or IgE-mediated reactions, delayed or non-IgE-mediated eczematous flares, or a combination of the two. A detailed history is very important when approaching such patients. The presence of IgE-mediated symptoms warrants investigation and management requires avoidance of the culprit allergen, an emergency care plan and appropriate follow up...
June 12, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766815/old-and-new-treatments-for-pediatric-autoimmune-hepatitis
#6
Silvia Nastasio, Marco Sciveres, Lorenza Matarazzo, Giuseppe Maggiore
Autoimmune hepatitis is a rare inflammatory disease of the liver that most frequently affects children and young adults. It is a multifactorial disease of unknown etiology, characteristically progressive in nature, and if left untreated, may lead to cirrhosis and terminal liver failure. It has been known for several decades now that immunosuppressive treatment convincingly alters the outcome of most patients with autoimmune hepatitis and as such it should be started as soon as diagnosis is made. Primary goals of treatment are: normalization of hepatocellular function, extinction of the hepatic necroinflammatory process, and maintenance of a stable remission, thus preventing progression to cirrhosis and its complications...
May 16, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766816/a-systematic-review-of-the-literature-of-the-three-related-disease-entities-cheilitis-granulomatosa-orofacial-granulomatosis-and-melkersson-rosenthal-syndrome
#7
Goetz Wehl, Markus Rauchenzauner
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Melkersson Rosenthal syndrome (MRS) is a rare disorder of unknown etiology and comprises the triad: orofacial edema, recurrent facial paralysis and lingua plicata. In the current literature confusing heterogeneity exists, mixing together the historically grown terms cheilitis granulomatosa or granulomatous cheilitis, Melkersson Rosenthal syndrome and the umbrella term orofacial granulomatosis (OFG). METHODS: We provide a systematic review comprising all three disease entities of orofacial granulomatosis using the computerized database "Pubmed Medline" entering the key words "orofacial granulomatosis" (141 references), "Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome" (207 references), "granulomatous cheilitis" or "cheilitis granulomatosa" (102 references) back to 1956...
May 14, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756579/recent-changes-in-the-management-of-patients-with-food-allergy-in-a-tertiary-referral-centre-a-dietitian-s-perspective
#8
Rachel de Boer, Ruth Chalmers
It is has been suggested that the prevalence of food allergy has increased over the last few decades with estimates now suggesting between 3.9-8% of children are food allergic (Kattan, 2016). Studies also suggest that rates of food allergy resolution are slowing, meaning more children are remaining allergic for longer (Sicherer et al, 2014). The mainstay of food allergy management is dietary exclusion of known food allergen/s. Exclusion diets are frequently difficult for patients and their families to manage and the literature highlights that they impact negatively on quality of life (Valentine et al, 2011) ...
May 14, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745336/advances-in-the-management-of-food-allergy-in-children
#9
Stiefel Gary, Sadreddini Helyeh, Luyt David
Food allergy is common in children. An accurate diagnosis remains a key element in order to instigate an effective management plan. Traditional management strategies have relied on a reactive approach, with allergen avoidance, management of accidental ingestion and monitoring for resolution. Active management of food allergies relies on strategies to prevent food allergy through early introduction of allergenic foods and anticipatory testing. With an established food allergy diagnosis, active management through modifying the natural history, and risk management strategies can be instigated...
May 8, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737253/febrile-neutropenia-in-children-with-cancer-approach-to-diagnosis-and-treatment
#10
Rejin Kebudi, Hande Kizilocak
Febrile neutropenia is one of the major acute side effects of intensive treatment in pediatric cancer, necessitating prompt initiation of empirical broad-spectrum antibiotics. Patients may be classified as low or high risk according some risk factors (duration of neutropenia, depth of neutropenia, type of cancer, state of disease, bone marrow involvement, type of treatment, additional health problems). Initial evaluation of the febrile neutropenic child should include the history of the child, a detailed physical examination, blood culture (peripheral and catheter), urinalysis and culture, cultures of lesions...
May 8, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732975/demystifying-dysbiosis-can-the-gut-microbiome-promote-oral-tolerance-over-ige-mediated-food-allergy
#11
Tom Marrs, K Sim
The growing burden of food allergy is being driven by environmental exposures and the potential role of gut micro-organisms (or 'microbiota') is hotly debated. Early culture-based studies outlined that imbalances between commensal gut constituents ('dysbiosis') early in life may raise the risk of developing allergic disease. A number of studies using animal models describe mechanisms by which specific bacterial taxa within the gut microbiota, their diversity and dietary substrates such as fibre may promote oral tolerance...
May 7, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732974/mini-review-asthma-and-food-allergy
#12
Adam Fox, George du Toit, Ru-Xin Foong
It is well known that there is a common interplay between atopic conditions and that having one atopic condition can predispose to the development of others. The link between asthma and food allergy has been well researched over the years; although the exact interplay between the two atopic conditions is yet to be fully described. Research suggests that children who have both asthma and food allergy are at greater risk of more severe asthmatic episodes. They are also at risk of food allergen triggered asthmatic episodes as well as food-allergen induced anaphylaxis...
May 7, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732976/anaphylaxis-in-children-epidemiology-risk-factors-and-management
#13
Aikaterini Anagnostou
Anaphylaxis is defined as a serious, generalized or systemic allergic reaction that is rapid in onset and may cause death. It is unpredictable and can be the result of various allergic triggers including food, insect venom and medication. The European Anaphylaxis Registry confirmed food as the major elicitor of anaphylaxis in children, specifically hen's egg, cow's milk and nuts. It has been reported that the incidence of anaphylaxis is on the rise. In the US, there is a continued trend of increasing food-induced anaphylaxis hospitalizations among children, which is supported by nationally representative data...
May 6, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692253/advances-in-food-allergy-diagnosis
#14
Joana Gomes-Belo, Farah Hannachi, Kate Swan, Alexandra F Santos
An accurate diagnosis of food allergy is extremely important to guide safe and yet not overly restrictive dietary management. The cornerstone of the diagnosis of food allergy is the clinical history; it allows appropriate selection of the allergens to be tested and interpretation of the results of allergy tests, namely skin prick test (SPT), specific IgE (sIgE) to allergen extracts and, more recently, specific IgE to allergen components and the basophil activation test (BAT). SPT and sIgE to allergen extracts are very sensitive methods to detect IgE sensitization to a specific food...
April 22, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345597/pediatric-markers-of-adult-cardiovascular-disease
#15
Micah Olson, Melissa Chambers, Gabe Shaibi
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality in the United States . Atherosclerotic CV events do not occur until adulthood, except in the context of rare genetic disorders such as homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. However, the atherogenic process that leads to CVD begins in childhood and progresses throughout the lifespan . The degree of atherosclerosis early in life is associated with established risk factors for CVD (e.g. family history, obesity, dyslipidemia), indicating that the development and progression of atherosclerosis in childhood is driven by genetic as well as environmental factors...
January 16, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30033864/the-acutely-traumatized-child-advances-and-opportunities
#16
EDITORIAL
Rodrick Lim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30033863/preface
#17
Giuseppe Buonocore
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879889/special-traumatized-populations-burns-injuries
#18
REVIEW
Shruti Mehrotra, Amita Misir
BACKGROUND: It is important for physicians treating children to be aware of unique presentations that require expertise and knowledge. One area of importance when caring for traumatized children is Thermal Burn Injuries. Burns commonly result in morbidity in children; as such, the appropriate identification of the severity of the burn and appropriate management are integral to minimize the complications of burns during the acute phase. Attention to proper fluid management is paramount...
2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651952/special-traumatized-populations-accidental-hypothermia-in-children
#19
REVIEW
Shruti Mehrotra, Amita Misir
Physicians caring for children in trauma settings must consider and treat hypothermia as a cause for morbidity and mortality. Knowledge of treatment of accidental hypothermia with and without an asphyxial event is paramount. Clinicians need to identify hypothermia immediately and be aware of the overall management utilizing aggressive rewarming and cardiopulmonary resuscitation to help improve the survival of these critically ill children. This section reviews the epidemiology, clinical effects, and management options for accidental hypothermia in children...
2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521242/ceftazidime-avibactam-and-ceftolozane-tazobactam-novel-therapy-for-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-infections-in-children
#20
REVIEW
Brittany A Rodriguez, Jennifer E Girotto, David P Nicolau
The rise in Multidrug-resistant (MDR) infections has become a significant problem in both the developing countries and in the United States (U.S.). Specifically, MDR gram-negative infections are emerging, affecting not only adults but children as well. The specific gram-negative organisms that have been most concerning within the pediatric population include MDR P. aeruginosa, Enterobacteriaceae, and Acinetobacter spp. The increase in antimicrobial resistance rates is associated with various mechanisms with one of the most common being the production of beta-lactamases...
2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
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