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Current Pediatric Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766815/old-and-new-treatments-for-pediatric-autoimmune-hepatitis
#1
Silvia Nastasio, Giuseppe Maggiore, Marco Sciveres, Lorenza Matarazzo
Autoimmune hepatitis is a rare inflammatory disease of the liver that most frequently affects children and young adults. It is a multifactorial disease of unknown etiology, characteristically progressive in nature, and if left untreated, may lead to cirrhosis and terminal liver failure. It has been known for several decades now that immunosuppressive treatment convincingly alters the outcome of most patients with autoimmune hepatitis and as such it should be started as soon as diagnosis is made. Primary goals of treatment are: normalization of hepatocellular function, extinction of the hepatic necroinflammatory process, and maintenance of a stable remission, thus preventing progression to cirrhosis and its complications...
May 16, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766816/a-systematic-review-of-the-literature-of-the-three-related-disease-entities-cheilitis-granulomatosa-orofacial-granulomatosis-and-melkersson-rosenthal-syndrome
#2
Goetz Wehl, Markus Rauchenzauner
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Melkersson Rosenthal syndrome (MRS) is a rare disorder of unknown etiology and comprises the triad: orofacial edema, recurrent facial paralysis and lingua plicata. In the current literature confusing heterogeneity exists, mixing together the historically grown terms cheilitis granulomatosa or granulomatous cheilitis, Melkersson Rosenthal syndrome and the umbrella term orofacial granulomatosis (OFG). METHODS: We provide a systematic review comprising all three disease entities of orofacial granulomatosis using the computerized database "Pubmed Medline" entering the key words "orofacial granulomatosis" (141 references), "Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome" (207 references), "granulomatous cheilitis" or "cheilitis granulomatosa" (102 references) back to 1956...
May 14, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756579/recent-changes-in-the-management-of-patients-with-food-allergy-in-a-tertiary-referral-centre-a-dietitian-s-perspective
#3
Rachel de Boer, Ruth Chalmers
It is has been suggested that the prevalence of food allergy has increased over the last few decades with estimates now suggesting between 3.9-8% of children are food allergic (Kattan, 2016). Studies also suggest that rates of food allergy resolution are slowing, meaning more children are remaining allergic for longer (Sicherer et al, 2014). The mainstay of food allergy management is dietary exclusion of known food allergen/s. Exclusion diets are frequently difficult for patients and their families to manage and the literature highlights that they impact negatively on quality of life (Valentine et al, 2011) ...
May 14, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745336/advances-in-the-management-of-food-allergy-in-children
#4
Stiefel Gary, Sadreddini Helyeh, Luyt David
Food allergy is common in children. An accurate diagnosis remains a key element in order to instigate an effective management plan. Traditional management strategies have relied on a reactive approach, with allergen avoidance, management of accidental ingestion and monitoring for resolution. Active management of food allergies relies on strategies to prevent food allergy through early introduction of allergenic foods and anticipatory testing. With an established food allergy diagnosis, active management through modifying the natural history, and risk management strategies can be instigated...
May 8, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737253/febrile-neutropenia-in-children-with-cancer-approach-to-diagnosis-and-treatment
#5
Rejin Kebudi, Hande Kizilocak
Febrile neutropenia is one of the major acute side effects of intensive treatment in pediatric cancer, necessitating prompt initiation of empirical broad-spectrum antibiotics. Patients may be classified as low or high risk according some risk factors (duration of neutropenia, depth of neutropenia, type of cancer, state of disease, bone marrow involvement, type of treatment, additional health problems). Initial evaluation of the febrile neutropenic child should include the history of the child, a detailed physical examination, blood culture (peripheral and catheter), urinalysis and culture, cultures of lesions...
May 8, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732975/demystifying-dysbiosis-can-the-gut-microbiome-promote-oral-tolerance-over-ige-mediated-food-allergy
#6
Tom Marrs, K Sim
The growing burden of food allergy is being driven by environmental exposures and the potential role of gut micro-organisms (or 'microbiota') is hotly debated. Early culture-based studies outlined that imbalances between commensal gut constituents ('dysbiosis') early in life may raise the risk of developing allergic disease. A number of studies using animal models describe mechanisms by which specific bacterial taxa within the gut microbiota, their diversity and dietary substrates such as fibre may promote oral tolerance...
May 7, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732974/mini-review-asthma-and-food-allergy
#7
Adam Fox, George du Toit, Ru-Xin Foong
It is well known that there is a common interplay between atopic conditions and that having one atopic condition can predispose to the development of others. The link between asthma and food allergy has been well researched over the years; although the exact interplay between the two atopic conditions is yet to be fully described. Research suggests that children who have both asthma and food allergy are at greater risk of more severe asthmatic episodes. They are also at risk of food allergen triggered asthmatic episodes as well as food-allergen induced anaphylaxis...
May 7, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732976/anaphylaxis-in-children-epidemiology-risk-factors-and-management
#8
Aikaterini Anagnostou
Anaphylaxis is defined as a serious, generalized or systemic allergic reaction that is rapid in onset and may cause death. It is unpredictable and can be the result of various allergic triggers including food, insect venom and medication. The European Anaphylaxis Registry confirmed food as the major elicitor of anaphylaxis in children, specifically hen's egg, cow's milk and nuts. It has been reported that the incidence of anaphylaxis is on the rise. In the US, there is a continued trend of increasing food-induced anaphylaxis hospitalizations among children, which is supported by nationally representative data...
May 6, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692253/advances-in-food-allergy-diagnosis
#9
Alexandra F Santos, Joana Gomes-Belo, Farah Hannachi, Kate Swan
An accurate diagnosis of food allergy is extremely important to guide safe and yet not overly restrictive dietary management. The cornerstone of the diagnosis of food allergy is the clinical history; it allows appropriate selection of the allergens to be tested and interpretation of the results of allergy tests, namely skin prick test (SPT), specific IgE (sIgE) to allergen extracts and, more recently, specific IgE to allergen components and the basophil activation test (BAT). SPT and sIgE to allergen extracts are very sensitive methods to detect IgE sensitization to a specific food...
April 22, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651952/special-traumatized-populations-burns-and-hypothermia
#10
Shruti Mehrotra, Amita Misir
It is important for physicians treating children to be aware of unique presentation that require expertise and knowledge. Two areas of importance when caring for traumatized children are Thermal Burn Injuries, and Hypothermia. Burns commonly result in morbidity in children; as such, the appropriate identification of the severity of the burn and appropriate management are integral to minimize the complications of burns during the acute phase. Attention to proper fluid management is paramount. Knowledge of types of solutions to use during Burn treatment is important...
April 11, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521242/ceftazidime-avibactam-and-ceftolozane-tazobactam-novel-therapy-for-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-infections-in-children
#11
Brittany A Rodriguez, Jennifer E Girotto, David P Nicolau
The rise in multidrug-resistant (MDR) infections has become a significant problem in both the developing countries and in the United States (U.S.). Specifically, MDR gram-negative infections are emerging, affecting not only adults but children as well. The specific gram-negative organisms that have been most concerning within the pediatric population include MDR P. aeruginosa, Enterobacteriaceae, and Acinetobacter spp. The increase in antimicrobial resistance rates are associated with various mechanisms, with, one of the most common being the production of beta-lactamases...
March 8, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149811/testing-the-actions-of-a-multi-action-emollient-patient-acceptability-determines-product-efficacy
#12
Kam Lun Hon, Jeng Sum C. Kung, Kathy Yin Ching Tsang, Jasmine W S Yu, Vivian W Lee, Ting Fan Leung
Aim: Eczema or atopic dermatitis (AD) is associated with itch, sleep disturbance, impaired life quality, reduced skin hydration, impaired epidermal barrier function and colonization by Staphylococcus aureus (SA). We investigated an emollient with claimed multi-actions on barrier repair, antihistaminergic and antimicrobial effects. Methods: Consecutive AD patients were recruited. Swabs and cultures from eczematous areas, disease severity (SCOring Atopic Dermatitis score: SCORAD), quality-of-life (Children Dermatology Life Quality Index, CDLQI), skin hydration (SH), and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) were obtained before and 4-week following usage of the emollient...
February 20, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422005/the-role-of-point-of-care-ultrasound-in-the-injured-paediatric-patient
#13
Victor Istasy, Drew Thompson, Mirielle Gharib, Rodrick Lim
The focus of this review is to examine the current state of paediatric Point of Care Ultrasound (POCUS) in the injured patient. POCUS has become useful across various medical specialties owing to its ease of use, reproducibility and non-ionizing qualities. Point of care ultrasound has advanced over the past years and has proven to be an extremely useful adjunct in the injured child. Discussion will center around the challenges on when and how to best utilize POCUS. This includes but is not limited to: detection of peritoneal free fluid, pneumothoraces, hemothoraces, pericardial effusions, a wide array of fractures, lung contusions and many other applications...
February 1, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380702/biological-and-genetic-features-of-neuroblastoma-and-their-clinical-importance
#14
Nevim Aygun
Neuroblastoma derived from primitive cells of the sympathetic nervous system typically develops in the adrenal medulla or paraspinal ganglia. Neuroblastoma usually occurs sporadically, but familial cases are also observed. ALK and PHOX2B germline mutations can cause hereditary neuroblastoma, while a common genetic variation in chromosome 6p22 is associated to sporadic neuroblastoma. However, the aetiology of sporadic neuroblastoma is not exactly known. This embryonic malignancy generally represents the second most common solid tumour after central nervous system tumours throughout the world in childhood...
January 28, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366421/radial-polydactyly-what-s-new
#15
Laura M Perez-Lopez, Diego Gutierrez-de la Iglesia, Marisa Cabrera-Gonzalez
Background: Thumb duplication, also called radial or preaxial polydactyly, is classified as an alteration of the radio-ulnar axis in the formation and differentiation of the hand plate, according to the Oberg, Manske and Tonkin classification. Objective: Radial polydactyly is a common upper limb malformation. This paper is a comprehensive analysis of radial polydactyly, its genetic explanation, classification, surgical techniques, functional results, as well as present and future scientific evidence on this congenital pathology...
January 23, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366420/predictors-of-non-alcoholic-liver-disease-in-ethnically-diverse-overweight-children-and-adolescents
#16
Pamela Botero, Elizabeth M. Hoy, Maria C. Jimenez, Tulay Koru-Sengul, Sarah E. Messiah
OBJECTIVES: To study the relationship between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and sleep, physical activity (PA), and screen-time habits/behaviors among a multiethnic sample of overweight children/adolescents. METHODS: A retrospective medical chart review (6/2013-7/2014) identified 209 patients (7-21 years old) who were overweight/obese (BMI > 85th% for age/sex). A follow-up telephone survey was completed among 130 of these patients' parents to obtain information on sleep, screen-time, PA habits, and socio-demographics...
January 23, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366419/efficacy-of-supplementation-with-iron-sulfate-compared-to-iron-bisglycinate-chelate-in-preterm-infants
#17
Rossana Bagna, Elena Spada, Raffaella Mazzone, Paola Saracco, Tatiana Boetti, Elena Andrea Cester, Enrico Bertino, Alessandra Coscial
BACKGROUND: Strategies to prevent anaemia in preterm newborns include drawing fewer blood samples, the use of recombinant human erythropoietin and iron supplementation. Although iron sulphate is the most commonly used pharmaceutical formulation for iron supplementation, there are few studies comparing different iron salts in newborns. OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of iron bisglycinate chelate to iron sulfate in preterm newborns receiving erythropoietin. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Three-hundred newborns of gestational age ≤32 weeks were enrolled: 225 were supplemented with iron sulfate (3 mg/kg/day) and 75 were supplemented with iron bisglycinate chelate (0...
January 23, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345597/pediatric-markers-of-adult-cardiovascular-disease
#18
Micah Olson, Melissa Chambers, Gabe Shaibi
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality in the United States . Atherosclerotic CV events do not occur until adulthood, except in the context of rare genetic disorders such as homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. However, the atherogenic process that leads to CVD begins in childhood and progresses throughout the lifespan . The degree of atherosclerosis early in life is associated with established risk factors for CVD (e.g. family history, obesity, dyslipidemia), indicating that the development and progression of atherosclerosis in childhood is driven by genetic as well as environmental factors...
January 16, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345596/the-coronary-artery-risk-detection-in-appalachian-communities-cardiac-project-an-18-year-review
#19
Eloise Elliott, Christa Lilly, Emily Murphy, Lee A Pyles, Lesley Cottrell, William A Neal
The Coronary Artery Risk Detection in Appalachian Communities (CARDIAC) Project is a chronic disease risk factor surveillance, intervention, and research initiative aimed at combating the unacceptably high prevalence of heart disease, diabetes, and other chronic illnesses in West Virginia. The initial goal of the CARDIAC Project when it was implemented in elementary schools in West Virginia during the 1998-1999 school year was to identify dyslipidemic children and their parents, and apply novel intervention strategies...
January 16, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345595/hospital-management-of-severe-hypertriglyceridemia-in-children
#20
Ambika Ashraf, Badhma Valaiyapathi
Severe hypertriglyceridemia (HTG), i.e., triglyceride levels exceeding 1000 mg/dL, is one of the established causes of acute pancreatitis and severe abdominal pain. There are no established pediatric guidelines for treatment of children and adolescents with severe HTG. Management often includes hospital admission, fasting followed by fat free diet until the triglyceride (TG) levels are below 1000 mg/dL. Insulin infusion lowers TG levels in patients, especially in those with diabetes. Plasmapheresis is a limited option due to its restricted availability and scarcity of studies on its efficacy and safety in children...
January 16, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
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