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Current Hypertension Reviews

Anish Pillai, Deepak Sharma, Pratichi Kadam
There has been a growing interest among neonatologists and paediatricians regarding identification and evaluation of hypertension in the neonatal period. Despite the emergent normative data on blood pressure values in term and preterm neonates over the last two decades, there is still controversy regarding correct definition and classification of hypertension. This article will discuss the current definitions, the available normative data and etiology of neonatal hypertension. There is paucity of records in terms of efficacy of antihypertensive drugs in this specific population and management is usually experience based, causing considerable heterogeneity amongst different units...
November 29, 2016: Current Hypertension Reviews
Qi-Fang Huang, Satoshi Hoshide, Hao-Min Cheng, Sungha Park, Chang-Gyu Park, Chen-Huan Chen, Kazuomi Kario, Ji-Guang Wang
Hypertension is both a cause and consequence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). According to the Chinese national survey in 2007-2010, the prevalence of CKD was much higher in hypertensive patients (18.9%, n=16,691) than in the overall population sample (10.8%, n=47,204). CKD in hypertension confers risks to the kidneys as well as other organs. Probably because of high dietary salt intake, Asian hypertensive patients with CKD show high prevalence of non-dipping and reversed dipping blood pressure pattern, and may have even higher risks of cardiovascular disease...
November 22, 2016: Current Hypertension Reviews
Simmi Kharb, D Aggarwal, J Bala, S Nanda
BACKGROUND: Folate, vitamin B12 and vitamin B6 are required for homocysteine metabolism and their deficiency can result in increased homocysteine concentration. Homocysteine concentrations have been found to be increased in late pregnancy toward nonpregnant values. OBJECTIVE: To study folate, vitamin B12 and homocysteine levels in cord blood and maternal blood in preeclampsia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred fifty pregnant women attending Out Patient Department of Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology were recruited for the study...
October 10, 2016: Current Hypertension Reviews
Simmi Kharb, P Panjeta, V S Ghalaut, J Bala, S Nanda
The present study was planned to assess IGF-1, leptin and cholinesterase levels in maternal blood of both normoglycaemics and hyperglycaemics preeclampsia. Twenty five normotensive pregnant women at the time of delivery were selected in as group I and sub grouped according to blood glucose less than or more than 85 mg/dL as I A (<85mg/dL) and I B (>85mg/dL). Study group (group II, n=25) comprised of preeclamptic women and was further divided into group II A (<85mg/dL) and group II B (>85mg/dL). Routine biochemical investigations along with IGF-1, leptin and cholinesterase levels were analyzed in maternal and cord blood of preeclamptic and normotensive pregnant women...
July 29, 2016: Current Hypertension Reviews
Rashmi Ramachandran, Vimi Rewari, Ankur Sharma, Rajeev Kumar, Anjan Trikha
INTRODUCTION: Minimal invasive approaches to pheochromocytoma (PCC) and paraganglioma (PGL) removal may be complicated by the hemodynamic disturbances that are associated with the catecholamine secretion from the tumour. The anaesthetic and perioperative monitoring techniques need to be customized to handle these complications effectively. This retrospective analysis was undertaken to review the perioperative management of these patients handled by the same anaesthetic and surgical team...
May 10, 2016: Current Hypertension Reviews
Sebastian Schmull, Zhenhua Wang, Liping Gao, Jingjing Lv, Jun Li, Song Xue
The renin-angiotensin system is involved in hypertension and, thus, in cardiac and vascular injury. In general, angiotensin II is considered as the main mediator of this system but angiotensin II-derived peptides were also shown to exert effects in such diseases. Moreover, it became obvious that different cell and corresponding tissue types are characterized by their own renin-angiotensin system. This system is composed of various peptidic derivatives of the precursor angiotensinogen. Those angiotensinogen-derived peptides can be processed further by peptidases and can bind corresponding receptors...
March 1, 2016: Current Hypertension Reviews
Mirza Jusufovic, Else Charlotte Sandset, Karolina Skagen, Mona Skjelland
Stroke is the second most common cause of death and the most common cause of disability worldwide. Up to 30% of ischaemic strokes are caused by carotid atherosclerosis, usually due to thromboemboli from an atherosclerotic plaque at the carotid bifurcation. High blood pressure is an important risk factor for atherosclerosis, the development of unstable carotid plaques, and ischaemic strokes. Differentiation between asymptomatic and symptomatic carotid atherosclerosis is critical to treatment management because of the difference in natural history...
2016: Current Hypertension Reviews
Finn Friis Lauszus
The most recent Cochrane reviews on oral antihypertensive drugs in pregnancy conclude that no substantial benefits for the mother or fetus are demonstrated so far. Whether this applies for a high-risk and diabetic pregnancy is doubtful. The aim of this short review is an introduction to the field of ambulatory blood pressure measurements in pregnancy and in particular in women with type 1 diabetes. Diabetic pregnancy is complicated with a 50% risk of hypertension/preeclampsia. In the nonpregnant, diabetic women minute increases in blood pressure as well as in albuminuria are forerunners for incipient and overt nephropathy...
2016: Current Hypertension Reviews
Kaori Hayashi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Current Hypertension Reviews
Masaki Mogi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Current Hypertension Reviews
Shin-ichi Ando
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Current Hypertension Reviews
Carmen P Escalante, Maggie Lu, Claire A Marten
Over the past several years, cancer treatments have expanded from usual chemotherapy standards with introduction of newer targeted therapies. As with chemotherapy, the targeted therapies also have unique side effects affecting various organ systems producing toxicities, such as cardiac and renal. This manuscript focuses on hypertension induced by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). Hypertension due to these cancer therapies is important because these agents are now frequently used in common cancers...
2016: Current Hypertension Reviews
Kazuhiro Hasegawa, Shu Wakino, Yusuke Sakamaki, Hirokazu Muraoka, Hiroyuki Umino, Hitoshi Minakuchi, Ayumi Yoshifuji, Makiko Naitoh, Keisuke Shinozuka, Koji Futatsugi, Hidenori Urai, Takeshi Kanda, Hirobumi Tokuyama, Koichi Hayashi, Hiroshi Itoh
We have recently published that tubular epithelial cells affect the podocyte epigenome though nicotinic acid metabolism in diabetic nephropathy (DN), and we have named this relationship "proximal tubule-podocyte communication". In this review, we describe this novel mechanism in the early stage of DN, focusing on the function of renal tubular Sirt1 and Sirt1-related nicotinic acid metabolism. Mainly, we discuss the following three findings. First, we described the details of proximal tubule-podocyte communication...
2016: Current Hypertension Reviews
Kaori Hayashi, Akihito Hishikawa, Hiroshi Itoh
Recently it has been shown that epigenetic mechanisms are involved in initiation and progression of caridiovascular and metabolic diseases, including diabetes, obesity, atherosclerosis, heart failure, hypertension and kidney diseases. In these chronic diseases, various exogenous and endogenous stresses cause DNA damage, followed by DNA repair process. Accumulation of DNA damages and impaired repair process can lead to epigenetic changes, which may contribute to onset and progression of diseases. Recently we have shown that therapeutic effect of transcription factor KLF4 (Kruppel-like factor 4) in kidney glomerular epithelial cells (podocytes) on proteinuric kidney diseases through epigenetic mechanisms...
2016: Current Hypertension Reviews
Yoshihisa Nakatani, Reiko Inagi
SIRT1 is an NAD-dependent deacetylase. One important role of SIRT1 is its deacetylation activity in the modulation of cell stress signals via epigenetics. In podocytes, SIRT1 regulates the expression of important genes such as PGC-1α, Foxo4, p65 and STAT3, which act to maintain podocyte function by modulating the levels of histone acetylation. Here, we confirmed that SIRT1 protects podocytes by maintaining PGC-1α via its deacetylase-activated transcriptional activity in mitochondria and podocytes. We then showed that the alteration of Foxo4 (forkhead box O4) acetylation and decrease in SIRT1 promote podocyte apoptosis in diabetic nephropathy, resulting in the gradual development of diabetic nephropathy...
2016: Current Hypertension Reviews
Mirza Jusufovic, Nishant K Mishra, Maarten G Lansberg, Philip M Bath, Eivind- Berge, Else Charlotte Sandset
Raised blood pressure is common in ischaemic stroke and intracerebral haemorrhage and is an independent risk factor for unfavourable outcome. Yet, the approach to blood pressure management represents an unresolved issue in acute stroke treatment. The aim of this review is to present the current knowledge regarding the management of raised blood pressure in patients with acute ischaemic stroke or intracerebral haemorrhage. In ischaemic stroke, several large clinical trials have tested the efficacy of several strategies that lower blood pressure...
2016: Current Hypertension Reviews
Kazuomi Kario, Ayako Okura, Yukie Okawara, Naoko Tomitani, Tomokazu Ikemoto, Satoshi Hoshide
BACKGROUND: New medical approaches to the autonomic nervous system, such as catheterbased renal denervation, have been introduced into clinical practice in the recent years for patients who have resistant hypertension. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: We estimate the number of subjects in Japan who would benefit from renal denervation when this treatment is introduced into Japan, based on data from the Jichi Medical University clinical trials. We also discuss the logical basis of changing the formerly used primary endpoint, i...
2016: Current Hypertension Reviews
Hiroyuki Sawatari, Akiko Chishaki, Shin-ich Ando
Hypertension is prevalent in patients with sleep disordered breathing (SDB). Since hypertension significantly relates to cardiovascular diseases, the treatment and prevention of SDB could be targets for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. In this article, we summarize about epidemiology of SDB and hypertension in various populations. General population based studies on the prevalence of SDB reported that 24 to 47% male and 9 to 30% female had SDB. Furthermore, the prevalence of hypertension in individuals with SDB was high, ranging from 36 to 57%...
2016: Current Hypertension Reviews
John S Floras
Acute and sustained activation of the sympathetic nervous system are clinical hallmarks of both obstructive and central sleep apnea. Conversely, their treatment has been shown to reverse these abnormalities. The objectives of this brief review are to summarize: 1) present knowledge concerning the mechanisms, magnitude and consequences of night- and day-time sympathetic nervous system activation in patients with these sleep-related breathing disorders; and 2) the impact on the sympathetic nervous system and on blood pressure of their specific treatment...
2016: Current Hypertension Reviews
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