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Current Hypertension Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637401/relationship-between-ambulatory-arterial-stiffness-index-aasi-and-night-day-blood-pressure-ratio-in-essential-hypertensives
#1
Domenico Di Raimondo, Alessandra Casuccio, Rosangela Di Liberti, Gaia Musiari, Valentina Zappulla, Alessandra D'angelo, Antonio Pinto
BACKGROUND: Ambulatory Arterial Stiffness Index (AASI) has been proposed as an indirect and simpler method to estimate the Arterial Stiffness (AS). AASI, calculated from a set of data collected during a 24-hours ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), is defined as 1 minus the regression slope of diastolic on systolic blood pressure (BP) values. For a given increase in diastolic BP, the increase in systolic BP is smaller in a compliant compared to a stiff artery; the stiffer the arterial tree, the closer AASI is to 1...
June 21, 2017: Current Hypertension Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606037/is-there-a-role-for-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-treatment-in-the-management-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-related-hypertension
#2
Savvas Kolanis, Michalis Pilavakis, Areti Sofogianni, Konstantinos Tziomalos
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a major cause of secondary hypertension. Moreover, a considerable proportion of patients with essential hypertension have OSA. OSA also appears to increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment substantially reduces daytime somnolence and improves quality of life in patients with OSA. However, the effects of CPAP treatment on blood pressure (BP) are questionable. The aim of the present review is to summarize the evidence regarding the association between OSA with hypertension and the effects of CPAP treatment on BP in patients with OSA...
June 11, 2017: Current Hypertension Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554307/hypertensive-disorders-in-pregnancy-current-practice-review
#3
Kim Turner, Afshan B Hameed
Hypertensive disorders (preeclampsia, eclampsia gestational hypertension, and chronic hypertension with superimposed preeclampsia) are common complications of pregnancy [1]. Women with chronic hypertension and gestational hypertension are at increased risk of preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is a multi-system disorder with a global prevalence of 3-5% [2] that may lead to significant maternal or fetal morbidity and even mortality. The cornerstone of management of all hypertensive disorders in pregnancy is close monitoring of blood pressure (BP) and/or end organ damage and delivery planning in select patients [3]...
May 28, 2017: Current Hypertension Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474545/microvascular-alterations-in-hypertension-and-vascular-aging
#4
Carmine Savoia, Alleggra Battistoni, Valentin Calvez, Vincezo Cesario, Giulio Montefusco, Antonio Filippini
Hypertension and aging are characterized by vascular remodelling and stiffness as well as endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial function declines with age, since aging is associated with senescence of the endothelium due to increased rate of apoptosis and reduced regenerative capacity of the endothelium. Different phenotypes of hypertension have been described in younger and adult subjects with hypertension. In younger patients functional and structural alterations of resistance arteries occur as the earliest vascular alterations which have prognostic significance and may contribute to stiffness of large arteries through wave reflection...
May 4, 2017: Current Hypertension Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460625/effect-of-statin-therapy-on-the-progression-of-autosomal-dominant-polycystic-kidney-disease-a-secondary-analysis-of-the-halt-pkd-trials
#5
Godela Brosnahan, Kaleab Z Abebe, Frederic F Rahbari-Oskoui, Charity G Patterson, Kyongtae T Bae, Robert W Schrier, William E Braun, Arlene B Chapman, Michael F Flessner, Peter C Harris, Ronald D Perrone, Theodore I Steinman, Vicente E Torres, The Halt Pkd Investigators
BACKGROUND: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) commonly results in end-stage renal disease (ESRD), yet a long-term treatment that is well tolerated is still lacking. In a small randomized trial in children and adolescents pravastatin administration for 3 years was associated with reduced renal cyst growth, but no large trial has tested the effect of statins in adults. METHODS: We performed a post-hoc analysis of the HALT PKD trials to compare outcomes of participants who never used statins with those who used statin for at least 3 years...
April 27, 2017: Current Hypertension Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413991/potential-role-of-endothelin-in-early-vascular-aging
#6
Michelle Trindade, Wille Oigman, Mario Fritsch Neves
Early vascular aging is a process associated with gradual alterations in the vessels, regarding to their structure and function, taking a more rapid course than normal biological aging in the arteries. In the presence of cardiovascular disease, these age-associated alterations are accelerated, contributing for the appearance or the progression of cardiovascular disease, such as high blood pressure, dyslipidemia, smoking and diabetes. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is the most abundant and important endothelin produced by vascular cells...
April 14, 2017: Current Hypertension Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412915/early-functional-and-structural-microvascular-changes-in-hypertension-related-to-aging
#7
Roger de Moraes, Eduardo Tibirica
It is becoming increasingly clear that both microvascular network alterations and subsequent tissue perfusion defects may precede and predict the development of arterial hypertension and other cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, including diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Moreover, the subsequent functional and structural alterations in microvascular reactivity and density, as well as alterations in the macrocirculation characteristic of physiologic vascular aging, contribute to the development of target organ damage...
April 12, 2017: Current Hypertension Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412914/early-vascular-ageing-eva-definitions-and-clinical-applicability
#8
Pedro Guimarães Cunha, Pierre Boutouyrie, Peter M Nilsson, Stéphane Laurent
Arterial stiffness has been accumulating evidence as an intermediate cardiovascular endpoint. It has been established as an independent risk marker for cardiovascular disease, and reflects the dissociation between chronologic and biologic age of large arteries - attributing earlier the risk that a normal vascular ageing process had installed to occur several years later. The construct of Early Vascular Ageing (EVA) is developed to establish primordial prevention, identifying individuals whose ageing path has been accelerated either by inherent features, interaction with the environment or arterial exposure to several types of insults that evolve to medial layer morphological changes...
April 12, 2017: Current Hypertension Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266276/alerting-reaction-in-office-blood-pressure-and-target-organ-damage-an-innocent-phenomenon
#9
Jessica Barochiner, Lucas S Aparicio, Jose Alfie, Paula E Cuffaro, Marcos J Marin, Margarita S Morales, Marcelo Rada, Gabriel D Waisman
BACKGROUND: An alerting reaction is a physician-induced phenomenon which produces a transient blood pressure rise in the office. OBJECTIVE: To determine its relationship with target organ damage in treated hypertensives. METHOD: We used three different indexes for calculating alerting reaction depending on the first, second or third office blood pressure measurement. We correlated these indexes with glomerular filtration rate, left ventricular mass index and pulse wave velocity...
March 6, 2017: Current Hypertension Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245786/management-of-hypertension-in-patients-with-aortic-valvular-stenosis
#10
Kanishk Agnihotri, Vikas Singh, Sidakpal S Panaich, Nileshkumar J Patel, Nilay Patel, Shilpkumar Arora, Dhaval Pau, Abhishek Deshmukh, Apurva O Badheka
Aortic stenosis (AS) has an increasing prevalence with age and is commonly associated with hypertension. While it has been established that hypertension is associated with increased mortality in patients with AS, further randomized control trials addressing the use of anti-hypertensives specifically in patients with AS are needed. The management of hypertension in patients with AS needs a cautious approach due to complex hemodynamic and structural changes involved. Comorbidities like coronary artery disease, heart failure and arrhythmias further dictate management of hypertension in patients with AS ...
February 28, 2017: Current Hypertension Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245785/vascular-consequences-of-aldosterone-excess-and-mineralocorticoid-receptor-antagonism
#11
Sophocles Chrissobolis
Aldosterone binds to mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) on renal epithelial cells to regulate sodium and water reabsorption, and therefore blood pressure. Recently, the actions of aldosterone outside the kidney have been extensively investigated, with numerous reports of aldosterone having detrimental actions, including in the vasculature. Notably, elevated aldosterone levels are an independent cardiovascular risk factor, and in addition to causing an increase in blood pressure, aldosterone can have blood pressure-dependent and -independent effects commonly manifested in the vasculature in cardiovascular diseases, including vascular oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, remodeling, stiffening, and plaque formation...
February 28, 2017: Current Hypertension Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240186/plasma-potassium-levels-in-healthy-prehypertension-subjects-and-the-role-of-a-high-potassium-drink
#12
Farapti Farapti, Savitri Sayogo, Parlindungan Siregar
Most populations around the world consume less than the recommended levels of potassium. Long term low potassium intake could lead to decreased plasma potassium levels and induce hypokalemia. The increasing of plasma potassium levels 0,2-0,4 mmol/L by improving potassium intake decreased significantly blood pressure (BP). Assessing plasma potassium levels in healthy people related to potassium intake have not been studied. In this study, we analysed plasma potassium levels in prehypertension (PHT) subjects and to evaluate the effect of tender coconut water (TCW) as a high potassium drink on plasma potassium levels in PHT adults...
February 24, 2017: Current Hypertension Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128050/patterns-of-biomarkers-in-cord-blood-during-pregnancy-and-preeclampsia
#13
Simmi Kharb, Smiti Nanda
Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is in contact with all the fetal tissues and can reflect the state of fetus and UCB can be compared with maternal blood. Inflammatory, metabolic and immunological disorders during pregnancy can affect the environment in which the fetus is developing and may produce various alterations. OBJECTIVE: To analyze different biochemical parameters in maternal venous blood and new born umbilical cord blood from healthy normotensive pregnant and preeclamptic women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Homocysteine, folate, B12, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), endoglin, leptin, cholinesterase, IGF-1, Apo A, lipoproteins, TSH, fT3, fT4 were analyzed in maternal sera and venous umbilical cord sera of newborns of twenty five preeclamptics (group II) and twenty five normotensive pregnant women (group I)...
January 25, 2017: Current Hypertension Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034358/high-blood-pressure-combined-with-sedentary-behavior-in-young-people-a-systematic-review
#14
Loreana Sanches Silveira, Daniela Sayuri Inoue, José Messias Rodrigues da Silva, Suziane Ungari Cayres, Diego Giulliano Destro Christofaro
BACKGROUND: High blood pressure (HBP) is a cardiovascular risk factor that can initiate in childhood and adolescence and may be associated with other risk factors such as sedentary lifestyles. Therefore, verifying if these associations occur from the earliest ages is of fundamental importance. OBJECTIVES: to report the prevalence of HBP combined with sedentary behavior through a systematic review. DESIGN AND METHODS: The research was performed based on studies published between 2010 and 2016 in Medline, Web of Science, Excerpta Medica (EMBASE), and Scielo, using terms related to: 'sedentary behavior' OR 'screen time' AND ' high blood pressure'...
December 30, 2016: Current Hypertension Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034287/the-ignored-role-of-intraoperative-hypotension-in-producing-postoperative-acute-kidney-injury-an-obligatory-appeal-for-more-preventative-nephrology
#15
Macaulay Amechi Chukwukadibia Onuigbo, Nneoma Agbasi
Intraoperative hypotension (IOH) invariably follows the induction of general anesthesia. There is this general consensus that IOH is beneficial - less bleeding, less blood transfusions, shorter surgery times - and absent adverse consequences on renal, hepatic and neurological functions. Nevertheless, a critical review of the literature revealed that past research studied younger patients with normal kidney function, short surgery times while excluding patients with advanced CKD and uncontrolled hypertension...
December 29, 2016: Current Hypertension Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964699/a-review-of-hypertension-management-in-atrial-fibrillation
#16
Sidakpal S Panaich, Nilay Patel, Shilpkumar Arora, Kanishk Agnihotri, Nileshkumar J Patel, Samir V Patel, Rajesh Sonani, Achint Patel, Sopan Lahewala, Vikas Singh, Badal Thakkar, Parth Bhatt, Abhishek Deshmukh, Apurva O Badheka
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is one of the commonest arrhythmias in clinical practice and has major healthcare and economic implications. It is a growing epidemic with prevalence all set to double to 12 million by 2050. After adjusting for other associated conditions, hypertension confers a 1.5- and 1.4-fold risk of developing AF, for men and women respectively. Furthermore, in patients with AF, the presence of hypertension has a cumulative effect on the risk of stroke. Growing evidence suggests reversal or attenuation of various structural and functional changes predisposing to AF with the use of anti-hypertensive medications...
December 13, 2016: Current Hypertension Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748186/evaluation-of-homocysteine-vitamin-b12-and-folic-acid-levels-during-all-the-trimesters-in-pregnant-and-preeclamptic-womens
#17
Simmi Kharb, D Aggarwal, J Bala, S Nanda
BACKGROUND: Folate, vitamin B12 and vitamin B6 are required for homocysteine metabolism and their deficiency can result in increased homocysteine concentration. Homocysteine concentrations have been found to be increased in late pregnancy toward nonpregnant values. OBJECTIVE: To study folate, vitamin B12 and homocysteine levels in cord blood and maternal blood in preeclampsia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred fifty pregnant women attending Out Patient Department of Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology were recruited for the study...
October 10, 2016: Current Hypertension Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527900/biomarkers-in-preeclamptic-women-with-normoglycemia-and-hyperglycemia
#18
Simmi Kharb, P Panjeta, V S Ghalaut, J Bala, S Nanda
The present study was planned to assess IGF-1, leptin and cholinesterase levels in maternal blood of both normoglycaemics and hyperglycaemics preeclampsia. Twenty five normotensive pregnant women at the time of delivery were selected in as group I and sub grouped according to blood glucose less than or more than 85 mg/dL as I A (<85mg/dL) and I B (>85mg/dL). Study group (group II, n=25) comprised of preeclamptic women and was further divided into group II A (<85mg/dL) and group II B (>85mg/dL). Routine biochemical investigations along with IGF-1, leptin and cholinesterase levels were analyzed in maternal and cord blood of preeclamptic and normotensive pregnant women...
July 29, 2016: Current Hypertension Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034357/psychological-stress-in-pathogenesis-of-essential-hypertension
#19
Alexey V Ushakov, Vera S Ivanchenko, Alina A Gagarina
The article represents literature review and provides evidence for psychological stress to play essential role in the development of arterial hypertension. The pathogenesis of hypertension is complex with a significant diversity and variability of the mechanisms involved in individual patient. In this regard, the determination of specific pathogenic pathways underlying sustained blood pressure elevation in each patient would substantially individualize therapeutic approaches, and hence increase the effectiveness of treatment...
2016: Current Hypertension Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897107/hypertension-in-the-neonatal-period-an-update
#20
Anish Pillai, Deepak Sharma, Pratichi Kadam
There has been a growing interest among neonatologists and paediatricians regarding identification and evaluation of hypertension in the neonatal period. Despite the emergent normative data on blood pressure values in term and preterm neonates over the last two decades, there is still controversy regarding correct definition and classification of hypertension. This article will discuss the current definitions, available normative data and etiology of neonatal hypertension. There is paucity of records in terms of efficacy of antihypertensive drugs in this specific population and management is usually experience based, causing considerable heterogeneity amongst different units...
2016: Current Hypertension Reviews
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