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Medical Molecular Morphology

Akiko Iizuka-Kogo
The organ of Corti, an acoustic sensory organ, is a specifically differentiated epithelium of the cochlear duct, which is a part of the membranous labyrinth in the inner ear. Cells in the organ of Corti are generally classified into two kinds; hair cells, which transduce the mechanical stimuli of sound to the cell membrane electrical potential differences, and supporting cells. These cells emerge from homogeneous prosensory epithelium through cell fate determination and differentiation. In the organ of Corti organogenesis, cell differentiation and the rearrangement of their position proceed in parallel, resulting in a characteristic alignment of mature hair cells and supporting cells...
March 13, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Hitomi Aoki
Rest is a regulator of neuronal development and has been suggested to function in maintaining the pluripotent state of embryonic stem cells (ESCs); however, this remains controversial. Since Rest null mice show embryonic lethality, we herein generated conditional Rest knockout (CKO) models to investigate Rest functions in more detail. Our results revealed that Rest was not necessary for maintaining the pluripotency of ESCs and instead promoted primitive endoderm differentiation. In contrast to the repressive role of Rest in vitro, including ESCs, neural stem cells, and fibroblasts, on the expression of target neural genes, Rest CKO did not affect the in vivo development of brain tissue...
March 13, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Fumiya Harada, Osamu Uehara, Tetsuro Morikawa, Daichi Hiraki, Aya Onishi, Seiko Toraya, Bhoj Raj Adhikari, Rie Takai, Koki Yoshida, Jun Sato, Michiko Nishimura, Itsuo Chiba, Ching Zong Wu, Yoshihiro Abiko
Although an association between periodontitis and chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been suggested, the mechanism involved remains unclear. Herein, we examined the global gene expression profile in a mouse model that showed no acute inflammation in the kidney following stimulation with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) derived from Porphyromonas gingivalis (PG-LPS). The mice were injected with PG-LPS at a concentration of 5 mg/kg intraperitoneally, every 3 days, for 1 month. Microarray analysis was used to identify 10 genes with the highest expression levels in the kidney stimulated with PG-LPS...
January 31, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Makoto Toi, Yoshihiro Hayashi, Ichiro Murakami
Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play a principal role in Vitamin A metabolism and are considered the major matrix-producing cell type in the diseased liver. Rat HSCs are identified by immunohistochemistry with myogenic or mesenchymal (desmin, vimentin, and alpha-smooth muscle actin) or neural (e.g., GFAP or neuronal cell adhesion molecule) markers. Embryonic origin of rat HSCs was determined using these markers. Nestin, an intermediate filament protein originally identified in neuronal stem or progenitor cells, is widely used as a stem cell marker, including hepatic stem cells in adult rat livers...
January 29, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Manabu Hayashi, Kazumichi Abe, Masashi Fujita, Ken Okai, Atsushi Takahashi, Yoshihiro Nozawa, Hiromasa Ohira
Non-invasive predictors for the development of cirrhosis-related conditions are needed for patients with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). We investigated the association between cytokeratin-18 fragments (M30 and M65) and liver histology, treatment response and the development of cirrhosis-related conditions in patients with PBC. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data of 111 individuals with biopsy-proven PBC. Serum M30 and M65 levels were measured using stored sera. M30 were significantly decreased after treatment, but there was no significant change in the M65 levels...
January 29, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Hidehiko Nakanishi, Shunichi Morikawa, Shuji Kitahara, Asuka Yoshii, Atsushi Uchiyama, Satoshi Kusuda, Taichi Ezaki
PURPOSE: Pulmonary microvascular injury is associated with the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). To characterize the mechanisms of pulmonary vascular disease resulting from BPD, we studied the ultrastructural changes affecting pulmonary microvasculature. METHODS: Newborn ICR mice were exposed to 85% hyperoxia or normoxia for 14 days, and then normal air replacement conditions for the following 7 days. At postnatal day (P)14 and P21, lungs were harvested for ultrastructural examination and assessment of pulmonary hypertension...
January 23, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Depicha Jindatip, Ken Fujiwara, Tewarit Sarachana, Apiwat Mutirangura, Takashi Yashiro
Prolactinomas are the most common tumor of the human pituitary. They result in excessive prolactin secretion and important changes in the vasculature. Pericytes are perivascular cells associated with capillaries and have crucial roles in physiological and pathological neovascularization. We previously reported that pericytes produce type I and III collagens in the anterior pituitary of adult rats. In addition, pituitary pericytes contained well-developed cell organelles and actively synthesized collagens during early postnatal development...
January 17, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Aparecida Gabriela Bexiga Veloso, Nathalia Edviges Alves Lima, Elisabete de Marco Ornelas, Clever Gomes Cardoso, Mara Rubia Marques, Beatriz da Costa Aguiar Alves Reis, Fernando Luiz Affonso Fonseca, Laura Beatriz Mesiano Maifrino
Menopausal women are at high risk of developing heart disease. However, physical exercise practice can reverse this scenario. We evaluated the biochemical, morphological, and physiological effects of moderate aerobic physical exercise on the pancreas of knockout mice for LDL receptor with estrogen deprivation by ovariectomy. Animals were divided into six groups (n = 5): sedentary non-ovariectomized control; sedentary ovariectomized control; trained ovariectomized control; sedentary non-ovariectomized LDL-R knockout; sedentary ovariectomized LDL-R knockout; and trained ovariectomized LDL-R knockout...
January 15, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Akihiro Tojo, Saaya Hatakeyama, Masaomi Nangaku, Toshihiko Ishimitsu
Vacuolar H+-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) plays important roles in urinary acid excretion, vesicular acidification to activate enzymes, and the membrane recycling of transporters in the kidney. As acidosis stimulates renal gluconeogenesis, we investigated the effect of blockade of H+-ATPase on renal gluconeogenesis in diabetic rats. Diabetes mellitus was induced by a single injection of streptozotocin, and a group of DM rats was treated with bafilomycin B1 intraperitoneally for 8 days. In diabetic rats, the renal expression and activity of H+-ATPase were increased with elevated urinary ammonium excretion...
January 9, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Yu Wang, Ying Sun, Xin Guo, Yao Fu, Jie Long, Cheng-Xi Wei, Ming Zhao
Inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS)-induced apoptosis may be a new therapeutic target in cardiovascular diseases. Creatine phosphate disodium salt (CP) has been reported to have cardiovascular protective effect, but its effects on ERS are unknown. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism by which CP exerts its cardioprotection in doxorubicin (Dox)-induced cardiomyocytes injury. In our study, neonatal rats cardiomyocytes (NRC) was randomly divided into control group, model group, and treatment group...
December 27, 2017: Medical Molecular Morphology
Nanako Hamada, Makoto Mizuno, Hiroyuki Tomita, Ikuko Iwamoto, Akira Hara, Koh-Ichi Nagata
Dusp22 (dual-specificity phosphatase 22) is considered to regulate various cellular processes through the regulation of protein dephosphorylation. In this study, we prepared a specific antibody against Dusp22, anti-Dusp22, and carried out expression analyses with mouse tissues and cultured cell lines. Western blotting analyses demonstrated a tissue-dependent expression profile of Dusp22 in the adult mouse, and strongly suggested the presence of isoforms with larger molecular masses. In fibroblast NIH3T3 cells, while both endogenous and Myc-tagged Dusp22 was diffusely distributed in the cytoplasm, Myc-Dusp22 was partially colocalized with actin cytoskeleton...
December 27, 2017: Medical Molecular Morphology
Ken Nakamura, Jun Akiba, Sachiko Ogasawara, Yoshiki Naito, Masamichi Nakayama, Yushi Abe, Jingo Kusukawa, Hirohisa Yano
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common malignant tumor in the head and neck region. The aim of this study was to identify the key molecules and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of OSCC carcinogenesis through a microarray analysis of RNA extracted from normal epithelium, dysplasia, and squamous cell carcinoma components. Out of molecules that showed changes in gene expression in the microarray analysis, we focused on Sulfite oxidase (SUOX), which correlated significantly with carcinogenic process and exhibited a stepwise decrease in expression...
December 26, 2017: Medical Molecular Morphology
Takanobu Motoshima, Yuji Miura, Nanako Wakigami, Natsuki Kusada, Toshimi Takano, Naoko Inoshita, Toshikazu Okaneya, Yutaka Sugiyama, Tomomi Kamba, Motohiro Takeya, Yoshihiro Komohara
Macrophages are the main immune cells of the tumor microenvironment in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). A high density of CD163+ or CD204+ tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), rather than the density of total TAMs, is known to be linked to poor clinical outcome. In the present study, we investigated the phenotypical differences between the paired primary and metastatic lesions in ccRCC cases. Using immunostaining, the densities of CD163+ and CD204+ TAMs in metastatic lesions were found to be significantly lower compared to primary lesions, although the total number of TAMs was increased in metastatic lesions...
March 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Ali Golchin, Simzar Hosseinzadeh, Leila Roshangar
In more than one decade, cell transplantation has created an important strategy to treat a wide variety of diseases characterized by tissue and cell dysfunctions. In this course of action, cell delivery to target site has been always one of the most important constraints and complications, as only a small proportion of the cells are housed in the target sites. Nanotechnology and nanoscale biomaterials have been helpful for cell transplantation in various fields of regenerative medicine including diagnosis, delivery systems for the cell, drug or gene, and cells protection system...
March 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Yoshikazu Kuwahara, Mehryar Habibi Roudkenar, Yusuke Urushihara, Yohei Saito, Kazuo Tomita, Amaneh Mohammadi Roushandeh, Tomoaki Sato, Akihiro Kurimasa, Manabu Fukumoto
Radiotherapy (RT) is one of the major modalities for the treatment of human cancers and has been established as an excellent local treatment for malignant tumors. Conventional fractionated RT consists of 2-Gy X-rays, fractionated once a day, 5 days a week for 5-7 weeks in total 60 Gy. The efficacy of RT depends on the existence of radioresistant cells, which remains one of the most critical obstacles in RT and radio-chemotherapy. To improve the efficacy of RT, understanding the characteristics of radioresistant cells is one of the important subjects in radiation biology...
December 2017: Medical Molecular Morphology
Sasagu Kurozumi, Takaaki Fujii, Hiroshi Matsumoto, Kenichi Inoue, Masafumi Kurosumi, Jun Horiguchi, Hiroyuki Kuwano
The immune system affects all phases of tumor growth from initiation to progression and dissemination. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are mononuclear immune cells that infiltrate tumor tissue. Several retrospective studies have suggested the potential of TILs as a prognostic as well as predictive factor of chemotherapy in some breast cancers. On the other hand, programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) and programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) eliminate T cell activation in various types of cancers. Prospective trials to evaluate the efficacy of antibody agents to PD-1 and PD-L1 are ongoing in patients with breast cancer...
December 2017: Medical Molecular Morphology
Yasuaki Takeyama, Yuko Uehara, Akira Anan, Daisuke Morihara, Keiji Yokoyama, Kazuhide Takata, Takashi Tanaka, Makoto Irie, Kaoru Iwata, Satoshi Shakado, Tetsuro Sohda, Shotaro Sakisaka
Hepatic ATP-binding cassette A1 (ABCA1) transporter is the modulator of intrahepatic cholesterol levels via the efflux of cholesterol into plasma. This study aimed to determine the expression of hepatic ABCA1 levels in a cholestatic rat model and patients with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). A cholesterol efflux study was conducted with Abca1 knock down using siRNA in WIF9 cells. Cholesterol levels in the ABCA1 siRNA cells in the medium were significantly decreased compared with those in controls (P < 0...
December 2017: Medical Molecular Morphology
Hiromu Yano, Takanobu Motoshima, Chaoya Ma, Cheng Pan, Sohsuke Yamada, Toshiyuki Nakayama, Shohei Kitada, Naohiro Fujimoto, Tomomi Kamba, Motohiro Takeya, Yoshihiro Komohara
T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (TIMD) family genes are related to innate immune responses. TIMD4 is a receptor for phosphatidylserine and is involved in the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by macrophages. In the present study, we found that TIMD4 is expressed on the cancer cells of patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). TIMD4 was immunostained in the resected samples of 89 patients diagnosed as ccRCC. High expression of TIMD4 in cancer cells was closely related to short progression free survival time; however, it was not correlated with other clinicopathological factors...
December 2017: Medical Molecular Morphology
Hisao Hayashi, Yasuaki Tatsumi, Shinya Wakusawa, Ryota Shigemasa, Ryoji Koide, Ken-Ichi Tsuchida, Natsuko Morotomi, Tetsuji Yamashita, Kotaro Kumagai, Yukiya Ono, Kazuhiko Hayashi, Masatoshi Ishigami, Hidemi Goto, Ayako Kato, Koichi Kato
Hemosiderin formation is a structural indication of iron overload. We investigated further adaptations of the liver to excess iron. Five patients with livers showing iron-rich inclusions larger than 2 µm were selected from our database. The clinical features of patients and structures of the inclusions were compared with those of 2 controls with mild iron overload. All patients had severe iron overload with more than 5000 ng/mL of serum ferritin. Etiologies were variable, from hemochromatosis to iatrogenic iron overload...
December 2017: Medical Molecular Morphology
Hiroaki Yokomori, Masaya Oda, Wataru Ando, Yutaka Inagaki, Isao Okazaki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Medical Molecular Morphology
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