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Medical Molecular Morphology

Takashi Nakakura, Takeshi Suzuki, Kotaro Horiguchi, Ken Fujiwara, Takehiro Tsukada, Anshin Asano-Hoshino, Hideyuki Tanaka, Kenjiro Arisawa, Yoshimi Nishijima, Yoko Nekooki-Machida, Yoshiko Kiuchi, Haruo Hagiwara
S100β-positive cells exist in the marginal cell layer (MCL) of the adenohypophysis and follicle structure in the parenchyma of anterior lobe (ALFS) in pituitary. They have multiple functions as phagocytes or cells that regulate hormone secretion. Majority of S100β-positive cells in the adenohypophysis express sex determining region Y-box 2 protein (SOX2), a stem cell marker; therefore, S100β/SOX2 double positive cells are also considered as one type of stem/progenitor cells. MCL and ALFS are consisting of morphologically two types of cells, i...
September 22, 2016: Medical Molecular Morphology
Fu-Fang Wang, Bing-Xin Guan, Jing-Yan Yang, Hai-Tao Wang, Cheng-Jun Zhou
Carcinoembryonic antigen-related adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) is a type 1 transmembrane glycoprotein belonging to the CEA family, which has been known to exist as either soluble forms in body fluids or membrane-bound forms on the cell surface. Aberrant CEACAM1 expression is associated with tumorigenesis and has been reported in a variety of human tumors, especially malignancies. The aim of this study is to determine the expression of CEACAM1 in oral tumors, trying to study CEACAM1 different expressions as a function of histotype...
July 27, 2016: Medical Molecular Morphology
Yohei Natsuaki, Kenji Kabashima
Antigen presentation to peripheral memory T cells is a key step in the prompt elicitation of acquired immune responses. In the mucosa, specific sentinel lymphoid tissues called mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue serve as antigen presentation sites. Correspondingly, the concept of skin-associated lymphoid tissue (SALT) has been proposed in the 1980s. However, the details of SALT have not been clarified so far. Recently, the live imaging analysis using two photon microscopes are developed. Here, we have identified inducible lymphoid clusters in the skin, we called it inducible SALTs (iSALTs), using a murine contact hypersensitivity model...
September 2016: Medical Molecular Morphology
Shinichi Abe, Yoko Obata, Satoru Oka, Takehiko Koji, Tomoya Nishino, Koichi Izumikawa
Long-term peritoneal dialysis causes peritoneal fibrosis, and previous reports suggest that inflammation plays a critical role in peritoneal fibrosis. Chondroitin sulfate (CS) suppresses the inflammatory response by preventing activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB. We examined the effect of CS on the peritoneal fibrosis induced by chlorhexidine gluconate (CG) in mice. CS or water was administered daily. We divided mice into four groups: administered vehicle and water (control); administered vehicle and CS (CS); administered CG and water (CG); and administered CG and CS (CG+CS)...
September 2016: Medical Molecular Morphology
Gen Yamada, Masaki Murata, Akira Takasawa, Masanori Nojima, Yuki Mori, Norimasa Sawada, Hiroki Takahashi
Abnormal expression of claudin (Cldn), the main constituent of tight junctions, may play a crucial role in carcinogenesis. To elucidate these abnormalities of tight junctions in lung adenocarcinoma during carcinogenesis, we examined immunohistochemical expressions of Cldn4 and Cldn7 in human lung resection materials. Lung resection specimens from 86 patients were studied, including 16 atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH), 19 adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), 32 invasive adenocarcinoma (ADC), 5 AIS with AAH, 2 ADC with AAH, 10 ADC with AIS, and 2 ADC with AIS and AAH...
September 2016: Medical Molecular Morphology
Truc Quynh Thai, Huy Bang Nguyen, Sei Saitoh, Bao Wu, Yurika Saitoh, Satoshi Shimo, Yaser Hosny Ali Elewa, Osamu Ichii, Yasuhiro Kon, Takashi Takaki, Kensuke Joh, Nobuhiko Ohno
Serial block-face imaging using scanning electron microscopy enables rapid observations of three-dimensional ultrastructures in a large volume of biological specimens. However, such imaging usually requires days for sample preparation to reduce charging and increase image contrast. In this study, we report a rapid procedure to acquire serial electron microscopic images within 1 day for three-dimensional analyses of subcellular ultrastructures. This procedure is based on serial block-face with two major modifications, including a new sample treatment device and direct polymerization on the rivets, to reduce the time and workload needed...
September 2016: Medical Molecular Morphology
Takashi Nakakura, Takeshi Suzuki, Takahiro Nemoto, Hideyuki Tanaka, Anshin Asano-Hoshino, Kenjiro Arisawa, Yoshimi Nishijima, Yoshiko Kiuchi, Haruo Hagiwara
Cilia are microtubule-based hair-like organelles on basal bodies located beneath the cell membrane in various tissues of multicellular animals, and are usually classified into motile cilia and primary cilia. Microtubules are assembled from the heterodimers of α- and β-tubulin. The lysine residue at position 40 (K40) of α-tubulin is an important site for acetylation, and this site is acetylated in the cilium. α-Tubulin N-acetyltransferase 1 (ATAT1) is an acetyltransferase specific to the K40 residue of α-tubulin; however, its intracellular distribution in mammalian tissues remains unclear...
September 2016: Medical Molecular Morphology
Shogo Tajima, Tomoyuki Suzuki, Yukio Yamada, Teppei Morikawa, Daisuke Minagawa, Yukio Homma, Masashi Fukayama
Invasive urothelial carcinoma with chordoid features has not been reported since being first documented in 2009. Here we report a further case of it, involving an 85-year-old man with a papillary tumor of the urinary bladder, measuring 3 cm in diameter. This case is unique in that an epithelial-mesenchymal transition was suspected to have occurred in the transformation of a conventional urothelial carcinoma to a sarcomatoid variant, with invasive urothelial carcinoma with chordoid features acting as an intermediate stage...
September 2016: Medical Molecular Morphology
Shogo Tajima, Michihiko Waki, Masaki Azuma, Kenji Koda, Akihiko Ohata
E-cadherin expression patterns in acinar cell carcinomas (ACCs) of the pancreas have not been well documented. Herein, we present a hitherto undescribed case of E-cadherin-negative ACC with a solid pseudopapillary growth pattern in a 65-year-old man. We used an antibody against the extracellular domain of E-cadherin. As a further unusual status in ACC, faint β-catenin expression was observed in the cytoplasm of carcinoma cells. Morphological distinction from a solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN) of the pancreas might be problematic in such a case, because of their similarities concerned with the growth pattern and E-cadherin negativity...
September 2016: Medical Molecular Morphology
Shogo Tajima, Michihiko Waki, Hatsuko Nasu, Yoshimi Ide
A 71-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a lump in her right breast. Mammography revealed an internal high-density mass in the lower right breast, which was larger than it was 2 years ago. Considering the findings from ultrasonography, computed tomography, and cytology, an intracystic carcinoma could not be ruled out. The patient underwent excisional biopsy, which revealed an apocrine ductal carcinoma in situ (ADCIS) with focal invasive apocrine carcinoma (IAC). The diagnosis was based on morphology and immunohistochemistry (IHC), which was negative for the estrogen and progesterone receptors, and positive for the androgen receptor...
September 2016: Medical Molecular Morphology
Tetsuhiro Tanaka
Renal fibrosis is characterized by tubular cell atrophy and accumulation of extracellular matrix. Fibroblast activation becomes evident in areas surrounding atrophic tubules, with rarefaction of peritubular capillaries. Tubulointerstitial hypoxia is the final common pathway in progressive kidney disease. Hypoxia suppresses tubular epithelial growth and leads to failure of remodeling by facilitating dedifferentiation and apoptosis. Profibrotic factors such as transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) mediate fibroblast activation, and recruited leukocytes, which appear in hypoxic areas, contribute to fibrosis...
July 20, 2016: Medical Molecular Morphology
Akihiro Manabe, Takuro Igawa, Mai Takeuchi, Yuka Gion, Tadashi Yoshino, Yasuharu Sato
Plasma cell-type Castleman disease (PCD) is often encountered when differentiating IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD). Given that serum IgA is often elevated in Castleman disease, we investigated whether IgA expression levels in histological specimens can be used to differentiate between the two diseases. Lymph node lesions obtained from 12 IgG4-RD and 11 PCD patients were analysed by immunohistochemistry with anti-IgG, -IgG4, and -IgA antibodies. In addition to all 12 cases of IgG4-RD, 8/11 cases (72.7 %) of PCD also met the diagnostic criteria of IgG4-RD (serum IgG4 ≥135 mg/dl and IgG4/IgG-positive cells ≥40 %)...
July 20, 2016: Medical Molecular Morphology
Hiep Nguyen Canh, Kenichi Harada
Biliary epithelial cells preferentially respond to various insults under chronic pathological conditions leading to reactively atypical changes, hyperplasia, or the development of biliary neoplasms (such as biliary intraepithelial neoplasia, intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct, and cholangiocarcinoma). Moreover, benign biliary strictures can be caused by a variety of disorders (such as IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis, eosinophilic cholangitis, and follicular cholangitis) and often mimic malignancies, despite their benign nature...
June 27, 2016: Medical Molecular Morphology
Masakazu Hori, Masanori Someya, Yoshihisa Matsumoto, Kensei Nakata, Mio Kitagawa, Tomokazu Hasegawa, Takaaki Tsuchiya, Yuki Fukushima, Toshio Gocho, Yasushi Sato, Hiroyuki Ohnuma, Junji Kato, Shintaro Sugita, Tadashi Hasegawa, Koh-Ichi Sakata
DNA double-strand break (DSB) is one of the most serious forms of damage induced by ionizing irradiation and is mainly repaired by the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) repair. Immunohistochemical analysis of proteins involved in NHEJ, such as XRCC4 (X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 4), Ku86 and DNA-PKcs (DNA-dependent protein kinase, catalytic subunits), may be useful for predicting tumor radiosensitivity. We examined 92 patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ECSS) who were treated by radiotherapy between 1999 and 2008...
June 23, 2016: Medical Molecular Morphology
Ichiro Tsujino, Yoko Nakanishi, Hisato Hiranuma, Tetsuo Shimizu, Yukari Hirotani, Sumie Ohni, Yasushi Ouchi, Noriaki Takahashi, Norimichi Nemoto, Shu Hashimoto
Constitutive activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 pathway, that is activated by various stimuli including growth factors and oncogenic driver mutations, is observed in various cancers. However, the difference of the activated levels of the pathway is still unclear in clinical significances. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different ERK1/2 pathway activation, assessed by the expression levels of phosphorylated (p) ERK1/2, on the prognosis of advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients...
June 2016: Medical Molecular Morphology
Atsushi Shimomura, Akiko Iizuka-Kogo, Naoki Yamamoto, Ryuji Nomura
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a promising cell source for stem cell therapy to replace neurons damaged by neurodegenerative diseases. A system designed for in vitro neuronal differentiation of MSCs is an indispensable technique, which provides MSC-derived functional neurons for cell-replacement therapies and valuable information in pre-clinical research. This study investigated the effects of reducing the volume of neural induction medium on cell viability and neural differentiation of MSCs. When MSCs were differentiated in low volumes of neural induction medium, rather than using the conventional method, the cell density on culture dishes significantly increased...
June 2016: Medical Molecular Morphology
Kari Trumpi, Ernst J A Steller, Wendy W de Leng, Daniëlle A Raats, Isaäc J Nijman, Folkert H M Morsink, Inne H M Borel Rinkes, Onno Kranenburg
Homeostasis of the continuously self-renewing intestinal tract involves cell proliferation, migration, differentiation along the crypt-villus-axis and shedding of cells into the gut lumen. CD95-ligand (FAS-ligand, CD95L) is a cytokine that is known for its capacity to induce apoptosis by binding its cognate receptor, CD95 (Fas). More recently, it was discovered that CD95L can also induce other cellular responses, such as proliferation, differentiation and cell migration. CD95L is highly expressed in Paneth cells of the small intestine which are in close contact with intestinal stem cells...
June 2016: Medical Molecular Morphology
Akiko Imanishi, Hisayoshi Imanishi, Sho Hiroyasu, Toshiyuki Ozawa, Hiroshi Koga, Norito Ishii, Yasuo Kitajima, Takashi Hashimoto, Daisuke Tsuruta
Anti-BP180-type mucous membrane pemphigoid (BP180-MMP) is a rare autoimmune subepidermal blistering disease that targets the C terminus of BP180/collagen XVII. Currently, the pathomechanism of BP180-MMP is not well understood. We reported previously that immunoglobulin G (IgG) from patients with bullous pemphigoid (BP) can induce internalization of BP180 via a macropinocytic pathway, which depletes BP180 and weakens epidermal cell-matrix integrity. The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the pathomechanism of BP180-MMP...
June 2016: Medical Molecular Morphology
Hidenori Tabata, Koh-Ichi Nagata
During the development of the cerebral cortex, excitatory neurons are produced in the ventricular zone lining the lateral ventricle or in the adjacent subventricular zone and migrate toward the brain surface in a process known as radial migration. During radial migration, neurons undergo multiple steps including a multipolar cell phase, a multipolar-bipolar transition, and a locomotion phase. Many genes tightly regulate the cell behavior in each phase. We have established an in utero electroporation method as a rapid in vivo gene transfer system, and this system has greatly contributed to recent advances in our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying each migration phase...
June 2016: Medical Molecular Morphology
Akiko Imanishi, Hisayoshi Imanishi, Yasuhiko Yoshida, Aya Okabayashi, Chiharu Tateishi, Hirofumi Ikushima, Ren Nagasako, Koichi Nakagawa, Daisuke Tsuruta
Elastofibroma is a rare tumour that occurs in the subscapular space, and it typically presents in middle-aged and older individuals. The aetiology of elastofibroma remains unknown. Recent, sporadic reports have shown, immunohistologically, that fibroblasts in elastofibroma may produce abnormal elastic and collagen fibres through the action of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), a factor that promotes fibroblast proliferation. However, that finding lacked quantitative measurements and controls. Therefore, in this study, we performed quantitative, immunohistochemical analyses of TGF-β1 and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in three elastofibromas, and we compared them to ten dermatofibromas and keloids, and five normal skin...
June 2016: Medical Molecular Morphology
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