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Medical Molecular Morphology

Shaowei Li, Masayuki Fujino, Terumi Takahara, Xiao-Kang Li
Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is a kind of injury resulting from the restoration of the blood supply after blood vessel closure during liver transplantation and is the main cause of graft failure. The pathophysiological mechanisms of hepatic IR include a variety of oxidative stress responses. Hepatic IR is characterized by ischemia and hypoxia inducing oxidative stress, immune response and apoptosis. Fat-denatured livers are also used as donors due to the lack of liver donors. Fatty liver is less tolerant to IR than normal liver...
August 31, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Zahra Heidari, Hamidreza Mahmoudzadeh Sagheb, Asiyeh Hakimi, Bita Moudi
Colorectal cancer (CRC) placed among the most common neoplasm. Survivin is a member of the inhibitor apoptosis gene family. This gene could be associated with aggressive behavior in numerous types of cancers. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of survivin gene and its correlation with -31G/C polymorphism in CRC patients. This case-control study was performed on 90 cases: 30 adenocarcinoma, 30 adenomatous polyp, and 30 normal colon. Immunohistochemical expression of survivin evaluated on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue and -31G/C polymorphism was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis...
August 20, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Natsuko Kakudo, Naoki Morimoto, Takeshi Ogawa, Shigeru Taketani, Kenji Kusumoto
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 induces mitogenesis, angiogenesis and adipogenesis. In this study, the adipogenesis-inducing effects of FGF-2 combined with bilayer artificial dermis in mice were evaluated. FGF-2-impregnated bilayer artificial dermis composed of collagen matrix, PELNAC (Gunze Corp., Osaka, Japan) was implanted subcutaneously into the thoracic region of mice. At 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks, samples were collected for H&E staining, von Willebrand factor immunostaining, and perilipin immunostaining to examine adipose tissue localization and angiogenesis...
July 18, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Ayano Nakamura, Ken Yamaguchi, Sachiko Minamiguchi, Ryusuke Murakami, Kaoru Abiko, Junzo Hamanishi, Eiji Kondoh, Tsukasa Baba, Masaki Mandai, Noriomi Matsumura
Mucinous adenocarcinoma, gastric type (GAS) is difficult to diagnose and shows poor prognosis. Trastuzumab, an anti-human epidermal growth factor type 2 (HER2) monoclonal antibody, is effective in HER2-positive stomach cancer. The objectives of this study were to identify the clinicopathological characteristics of GAS and to evaluate HER2 expression in GAS. We retrospectively reviewed 322 cervical cancer cases diagnosed at the Kyoto University Hospital from 2010 to 2016. The incidence, clinical factors including age, stage, and lymph node status, tumor markers, immunoreactive expression of MUC6, HIK1083, and HER2, and HER2 amplification were evaluated...
July 10, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Yoshihiro Komohara, Hiroto Takeya, Nanako Wakigami, Natsuki Kusada, Hirofumi Bekki, Shin Ishihara, Motohiro Takeya, Yasuharu Nakashima, Yoshinao Oda
Undifferentiated sarcoma (US) is a frequent soft tissue sarcoma. Although the 10-year survival rate is around 60%, advanced US is highly resistant to chemo/radiotherapy. The tumor microenvironment (TME) is closely associated with tumor progression. However, few studies of infiltrated immune cells in US have been published. In this study, we evaluated tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and CD8-positive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in 28 cases of US. Iba1, CD163, and CD204 were used as markers for TAMs. The density of CTLs was positively correlated with the density of TAMs...
July 6, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Umakant Ashok Bahirat, Rashmi Talwar, Rekha Raghuveer Shenoy, Kumar V S Nemmani, Rajan Naresh Goel
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by the presence of hepatic steatosis, oxidative stress, inflammation, and hepatocyte injury with or without fibrosis. In this study, we explored the effect of APD668, a GPR119 agonist alone or in combination with linagliptin, a DPPIV inhibitor, on the progression of steatohepatitis in a murine model of NASH with diabetes. A novel NASH model with diabetes was generated by administration of streptozotocin injection to neonatal C57BL/6 mice (2-3 days old) combined with a high-fat diet feeding from the age of 4 weeks...
June 29, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Tomoyuki Aoyama, Akira Takasawa, Masaki Murata, Makoto Osanai, Kenichi Takano, Tadashi Hasagawa, Norimasa Sawada
The expression pattern of tight junction proteins (TJPs) varies among organs and tumor types. In this study, we examined the immunoreactivity of claudin (CLDN)-1, -4, and -7, and JAM-A in salivary gland tumors (SGTs) by histological types and cell types to estimate their usefulness as differential diagnostic markers. Immunoreactivity of CLDN1 was higher in ductal epithelium cells of SGTs than in non-tumor tissues. Conversely, immunoreactivity of CLDN1 was significantly decreased in basal/myoepithelium cells of SGTs compared with that in non-tumor tissues...
June 28, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Kagaku Azuma, Qian Zhou, Kin-Ya Kubo
Although the understanding of the complex pathogenesis for osteoporosis is appreciable, the underlying mechanism is not yet fully elucidated. There is a great need to further characterize the available animal models in osteoporosis research. The senescence-accelerated mouse prone 6 (SAMP6) mice have been developed as the spontaneous experimental model for senile osteoporosis. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of current research regarding the bone morphological and molecular alterations and the possible mechanisms involved in these changes...
September 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Hitomi Aoki
Rest is a regulator of neuronal development and has been suggested to function in maintaining the pluripotent state of embryonic stem cells (ESCs); however, this remains controversial. Since Rest null mice show embryonic lethality, we herein generated conditional Rest knockout (CKO) models to investigate Rest functions in more detail. Our results revealed that Rest was not necessary for maintaining the pluripotency of ESCs and instead promoted primitive endoderm differentiation. In contrast to the repressive role of Rest in vitro, including ESCs, neural stem cells, and fibroblasts, on the expression of target neural genes, Rest CKO did not affect the in vivo development of brain tissue...
September 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Fumiya Harada, Osamu Uehara, Tetsuro Morikawa, Daichi Hiraki, Aya Onishi, Seiko Toraya, Bhoj Raj Adhikari, Rie Takai, Koki Yoshida, Jun Sato, Michiko Nishimura, Itsuo Chiba, Ching Zong Wu, Yoshihiro Abiko
Although an association between periodontitis and chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been suggested, the mechanism involved remains unclear. Herein, we examined the global gene expression profile in a mouse model that showed no acute inflammation in the kidney following stimulation with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) derived from Porphyromonas gingivalis (PG-LPS). The mice were injected with PG-LPS at a concentration of 5 mg/kg intraperitoneally, every 3 days, for 1 month. Microarray analysis was used to identify 10 genes with the highest expression levels in the kidney stimulated with PG-LPS...
September 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Manabu Hayashi, Kazumichi Abe, Masashi Fujita, Ken Okai, Atsushi Takahashi, Yoshihiro Nozawa, Hiromasa Ohira
Non-invasive predictors for the development of cirrhosis-related conditions are needed for patients with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). We investigated the association between cytokeratin-18 fragments (M30 and M65) and liver histology, treatment response and the development of cirrhosis-related conditions in patients with PBC. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data of 111 individuals with biopsy-proven PBC. Serum M30 and M65 levels were measured using stored sera. M30 were significantly decreased after treatment, but there was no significant change in the M65 levels...
September 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Hidehiko Nakanishi, Shunichi Morikawa, Shuji Kitahara, Asuka Yoshii, Atsushi Uchiyama, Satoshi Kusuda, Taichi Ezaki
PURPOSE: Pulmonary microvascular injury is associated with the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). To characterize the mechanisms of pulmonary vascular disease resulting from BPD, we studied the ultrastructural changes affecting pulmonary microvasculature. METHODS: Newborn ICR mice were exposed to 85% hyperoxia or normoxia for 14 days, and then normal air replacement conditions for the following 7 days. At postnatal day (P)14 and P21, lungs were harvested for ultrastructural examination and assessment of pulmonary hypertension...
September 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Depicha Jindatip, Ken Fujiwara, Tewarit Sarachana, Apiwat Mutirangura, Takashi Yashiro
Prolactinomas are the most common tumor of the human pituitary. They result in excessive prolactin secretion and important changes in the vasculature. Pericytes are perivascular cells associated with capillaries and have crucial roles in physiological and pathological neovascularization. We previously reported that pericytes produce type I and III collagens in the anterior pituitary of adult rats. In addition, pituitary pericytes contained well-developed cell organelles and actively synthesized collagens during early postnatal development...
September 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Franciele Mercúrio Rodrigues, Jenifer Inácio Adélio, Vanessa Oliveira Santana, Elisabeth De Marco Ornelas, Romeu Rodrigues de Souza, Clever Gomes Cardoso, Glaucia Luciano da Veiga, Fernando Luiz Affonso Fonseca, Laura Beatriz Mesiano Maifrino
To explore the effects of physical exercise on the liver of animals in menopause, we analyzed the histomorphometric parameters of the hepatic tissue in ovariectomized and dyslipidemic female mice. The animals were distributed in six groups (n = 5): sedentary control (SC), sedentary ovariectomized control (SOC), trained ovariectomized control (TOC), sedentary LDL knockout (LDL-S), sedentary ovariectomized LDL knockout (LDL-SO), and trained ovariectomized LDL knockout (LDL-TO). At the end of the experiment, the liver and the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of animals were removed for morphometric and stereological studies...
June 22, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Shizuma Omote, Katsuyoshi Takata, Takehiro Tanaka, Tomoko Miyata-Takata, Yoshiyuki Ayada, Mai Noujima-Harada, Rika Omote, Tetsuya Tabata, Yasuharu Sato, Tatsuya Toyokawa, Hironari Kato, Takahito Yagi, Hiroyuki Okada, Tadashi Yoshino
Pancreatic cancer has a poor prognosis; hence, novel prognostic markers and effective therapeutic targets should be identified. We aimed to evaluate folate receptor alpha (FR-α) expression in pancreatic cancer and examine its association with clinicopathological features. We utilized tissue samples from 100 primary pancreatic cancer patients who underwent surgery. FR-α was expressed in 37 of 100 cases (37%). The FR-α-positive group (median, 18.8 months) had a significantly poorer prognosis than the FR-α-negative group [median 21...
June 20, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Nami O Yamada, Wenduerma, Shuji Matsuda, Takao Senda
Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is a large protein with multiple binding partners, suggesting diverse functions besides its well-known role in the destruction of β-catenin. To elucidate these complex functions, it is crucial to evaluate the precise subcellular distribution of APC within a cell and tissue. However, most of the commercially available anti-APC antibodies can only be used for limited applications, resulting in the use of independently generated antibodies. This has led to various discrepancies between studies as a common antibody has not been established...
June 19, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Yoko Nekooki-Machida, Takashi Nakakura, Yoshimi Nishijima, Hideyuki Tanaka, Kenjiro Arisawa, Yoshiko Kiuchi, Toshio Miyashita, Haruo Hagiwara
Acetylation of α-tubulin is a well-studied posttranscriptional modification, which is mostly catalyzed by α-tubulin N-acetyltransferase (ATAT1). ATAT1 possibly affects various cellular functions related with microtubules, such as intracellular transport, cell motility, cilia formation, and neuronal signaling. Here, we analyzed the subcellular localization of immunolabeled ATAT1 in human fibroblast KD cells through the cell cycle using confocal laser scanning microscopy. ATAT1 dramatically changed its localization through the cell cycle, depending on the mitotic phase...
June 5, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Yoshihito Nakagawa, Yukihiro Akao, Tomomitsu Tahara, Hiromi Yamashita, Mitsuo Nagasaka, Tomoyuki Shibata, Naoki Ohmiya
Accumulating data indicates that certain microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) are differently expressed in samples of tumors and paired non-tumorous samples taken from the same patients with colorectal tumors. We previously reported to clarify the relationship between the expression of the miRNAs and the endoscopic morphological appearance of the colorectal tumors. In this report, we focused on colorectal adenoma (tubular or tubulovillous adenoma), or tubular early carcinoma or type 2 adenocarcinoma, familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), ulcerative colitis-associated tumor (UCAT), and sessile serrated adenoma/polyp (SSA/P)...
June 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Akiko Iizuka-Kogo
The organ of Corti, an acoustic sensory organ, is a specifically differentiated epithelium of the cochlear duct, which is a part of the membranous labyrinth in the inner ear. Cells in the organ of Corti are generally classified into two kinds; hair cells, which transduce the mechanical stimuli of sound to the cell membrane electrical potential differences, and supporting cells. These cells emerge from homogeneous prosensory epithelium through cell fate determination and differentiation. In the organ of Corti organogenesis, cell differentiation and the rearrangement of their position proceed in parallel, resulting in a characteristic alignment of mature hair cells and supporting cells...
June 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Aparecida Gabriela Bexiga Veloso, Nathalia Edviges Alves Lima, Elisabete de Marco Ornelas, Clever Gomes Cardoso, Mara Rubia Marques, Beatriz da Costa Aguiar Alves Reis, Fernando Luiz Affonso Fonseca, Laura Beatriz Mesiano Maifrino
Menopausal women are at high risk of developing heart disease. However, physical exercise practice can reverse this scenario. We evaluated the biochemical, morphological, and physiological effects of moderate aerobic physical exercise on the pancreas of knockout mice for LDL receptor with estrogen deprivation by ovariectomy. Animals were divided into six groups (n = 5): sedentary non-ovariectomized control; sedentary ovariectomized control; trained ovariectomized control; sedentary non-ovariectomized LDL-R knockout; sedentary ovariectomized LDL-R knockout; and trained ovariectomized LDL-R knockout...
June 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
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