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Medical Molecular Morphology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766278/adenomatous-ductal-proliferation-hyperplasia-in-the-parotid-gland-associated-without-any-other-pathological-lesions-a-report-and-survey-of-the-literatures
#1
Bhoj Raj Adhikari, Michiko Nishimura, Kosuke Takimoto, Fumiya Harada, Aya Onishi, Daichi Hiraki, Durga Paudel, Puja Neopane, Masafumi Utsunomiya, Tetsuro Morikawa, Koki Yoshida, Jun Sato, Mamata Shakya, Eiji Nakayama, Hiroki Nagayasu, Yoshihiro Abiko
Adenomatous ductal proliferation/hyperplasia (ADP/H) is a rare hyperplastic condition of the salivary gland. It is mostly associated with other salivary gland pathologies such as tumors and inflammations, and is incidentally found in tissue sections during histopathological examinations of those diseases. Herein, we report a case of ADP/H in the parotid gland not associated with any other pathological lesions, and present a review of the literature on this condition. A 60-year-old Japanese female complained of swelling on the left side of parotid region...
May 15, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687167/bri2-as-an-anti-alzheimer-gene
#2
REVIEW
Shuji Matsuda, Takao Senda
There are several theories regarding the etiologies of Alzheimer disease (AD). Considering that all genes responsible for familial AD are amyloid protein precursor (APP) or APP metabolizing enzymes, surely aberrant APP metabolism is crucial to pathogenesis of AD. BRI2, a type II transmembrane protein, binds APP and inhibits all α, β, and γ pathways of APP proteolysis. Crossing AD model mice with BRI2 transgenic or BRI2 knockout mice confirmed that BRI2 is an anti-Alzheimer gene. Mutations of BRI2 are known to cause rare familial dementias in human...
April 23, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29633022/association-between-mutant-idhs-and-tumorigenesis-in-gliomas
#3
REVIEW
Shigeo Ohba, Yuichi Hirose
To become immortalized, cells need to maintain the telomere length via the activation of telomerase or alternative lengthening of telomere. Mutations in IDH1/2 are strongly associated with the early stage of gliomagenesis. Previous work has shown that the accumulation of 2-HG, which is induced by mutant IDH1/2, inhibits α-KG-dependent deoxygenase and leads to genome-wide histone and DNA methylation alterations. These alterations are believed to contribute to tumorigenesis. H-Ras can transform human astrocytes with the inactivation of p53/pRb and expression of hTERT; however, mutant IDH1 can also transform cells...
April 9, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619546/clinical-application-of-photodynamic-medicine-technology-using-light-emitting-fluorescence-imaging-based-on-a-specialized-luminous-source
#4
REVIEW
Tsutomu Namikawa, Kazune Fujisawa, Eri Munekage, Jun Iwabu, Sunao Uemura, Shigehiro Tsujii, Hiromichi Maeda, Hiroyuki Kitagawa, Hideo Fukuhara, Keiji Inoue, Takayuki Sato, Michiya Kobayashi, Kazuhiro Hanazaki
The natural amino acid 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is a protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) precursor and a new-generation photosensitive substance that accumulates specifically in cancer cells. When indocyanine green (ICG) is irradiated with near-infrared (NIR) light, it shifts to a higher energy state and emits infrared light with a longer wavelength than the irradiated NIR light. Photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) using ALA and ICG-based NIR fluorescence imaging has emerged as a new diagnostic technique. Specifically, in laparoscopic examinations for serosa-invading advanced gastric cancer, peritoneal metastases could be detected by ALA-PDD, but not by conventional visible-light imaging...
April 4, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619545/morphological-and-molecular-characterization-of-the-senile-osteoporosis-in-senescence-accelerated-mouse-prone-6-samp6
#5
REVIEW
Kagaku Azuma, Qian Zhou, Kin-Ya Kubo
Although the understanding of the complex pathogenesis for osteoporosis is appreciable, the underlying mechanism is not yet fully elucidated. There is a great need to further characterize the available animal models in osteoporosis research. The senescence-accelerated mouse prone 6 (SAMP6) mice have been developed as the spontaneous experimental model for senile osteoporosis. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of current research regarding the bone morphological and molecular alterations and the possible mechanisms involved in these changes...
April 4, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564561/development-and-endoscopic-appearance-of-colorectal-tumors-are-characterized-by-the-expression-profiles-of-mirnas
#6
REVIEW
Yoshihito Nakagawa, Yukihiro Akao, Tomomitsu Tahara, Hiromi Yamashita, Mitsuo Nagasaka, Tomoyuki Shibata, Naoki Ohmiya
Accumulating data indicates that certain microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) are differently expressed in samples of tumors and paired non-tumorous samples taken from the same patients with colorectal tumors. We previously reported to clarify the relationship between the expression of the miRNAs and the endoscopic morphological appearance of the colorectal tumors. In this report, we focused on colorectal adenoma (tubular or tubulovillous adenoma), or tubular early carcinoma or type 2 adenocarcinoma, familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), ulcerative colitis-associated tumor (UCAT), and sessile serrated adenoma/polyp (SSA/P)...
March 21, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536271/novel-rest-functions-revealed-by-conditional-gene-ablation
#7
REVIEW
Hitomi Aoki
Rest is a regulator of neuronal development and has been suggested to function in maintaining the pluripotent state of embryonic stem cells (ESCs); however, this remains controversial. Since Rest null mice show embryonic lethality, we herein generated conditional Rest knockout (CKO) models to investigate Rest functions in more detail. Our results revealed that Rest was not necessary for maintaining the pluripotency of ESCs and instead promoted primitive endoderm differentiation. In contrast to the repressive role of Rest in vitro, including ESCs, neural stem cells, and fibroblasts, on the expression of target neural genes, Rest CKO did not affect the in vivo development of brain tissue...
March 13, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536272/spatiotemporal-coordination-of-cellular-differentiation-and-tissue-morphogenesis-in-organ-of-corti-development
#8
REVIEW
Akiko Iizuka-Kogo
The organ of Corti, an acoustic sensory organ, is a specifically differentiated epithelium of the cochlear duct, which is a part of the membranous labyrinth in the inner ear. Cells in the organ of Corti are generally classified into two kinds; hair cells, which transduce the mechanical stimuli of sound to the cell membrane electrical potential differences, and supporting cells. These cells emerge from homogeneous prosensory epithelium through cell fate determination and differentiation. In the organ of Corti organogenesis, cell differentiation and the rearrangement of their position proceed in parallel, resulting in a characteristic alignment of mature hair cells and supporting cells...
June 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218457/phenotypical-change-of-tumor-associated-macrophages-in-metastatic-lesions-of-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma
#9
Takanobu Motoshima, Yuji Miura, Nanako Wakigami, Natsuki Kusada, Toshimi Takano, Naoko Inoshita, Toshikazu Okaneya, Yutaka Sugiyama, Tomomi Kamba, Motohiro Takeya, Yoshihiro Komohara
Macrophages are the main immune cells of the tumor microenvironment in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). A high density of CD163+ or CD204+ tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), rather than the density of total TAMs, is known to be linked to poor clinical outcome. In the present study, we investigated the phenotypical differences between the paired primary and metastatic lesions in ccRCC cases. Using immunostaining, the densities of CD163+ and CD204+ TAMs in metastatic lesions were found to be significantly lower compared to primary lesions, although the total number of TAMs was increased in metastatic lesions...
March 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170827/the-role-of-nanomaterials-in-cell-delivery-systems
#10
REVIEW
Ali Golchin, Simzar Hosseinzadeh, Leila Roshangar
In more than one decade, cell transplantation has created an important strategy to treat a wide variety of diseases characterized by tissue and cell dysfunctions. In this course of action, cell delivery to target site has been always one of the most important constraints and complications, as only a small proportion of the cells are housed in the target sites. Nanotechnology and nanoscale biomaterials have been helpful for cell transplantation in various fields of regenerative medicine including diagnosis, delivery systems for the cell, drug or gene, and cells protection system...
March 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079935/periodontal-regeneration-induced-by-porous-alpha-tricalcium-phosphate-with-immobilized-basic-fibroblast-growth-factor-in-a-canine-model-of-2-wall-periodontal-defects
#11
Kazuya Matsuse, Yoshiya Hashimoto, Sachiro Kakinoki, Tetsuji Yamaoka, Shosuke Morita
We evaluated the effect of porous alpha-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) with immobilized basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on periodontal regeneration in a canine model of 2-wall periodontal defects. Identical bone defects were made in the canine mandible; six defects in each animal were filled with porous α-TCP with bFGF bound via heparin (bFGF group), and the remaining defects were filled with unmodified porous α-TCP (control group). Micro-computed tomography and histological evaluation were performed at 2, 4, and 8 weeks post-implantation...
March 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948378/a-comparative-study-between-platelet-rich-plasma-and-platelet-poor-plasma-effects-on-angiogenesis
#12
Minoo Shahidi, Mousa Vatanmakanian, Masoumeh Kourosh Arami, Fatemeh Sadeghi Shirazi, Najibeh Esmaeili, Samaneh Hydarporian, Soudeh Jafari
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been established as an autologous source for therapeutic angiogenesis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate PRP angiogenic effects compared to platelet-poor plasma (PPP) in vitro and in vivo. The effects of PRP on vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2) and CD34 expression were evaluated using real-time PCR, flow cytometry, western blot, immunocytochemistry and pathological study, as were carried out in both human umbilical endothelial cell culture and rat skin...
March 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887602/correlation-between-immunohistochemical-staining-of-ceacam1-and-clinicopathological-findings-in-oral-pre-neoplastic-lesions-and-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#13
Oriana Simonetti, Guendalina Lucarini, Corrado Rubini, Antonio Zizzi, Simone Domenico Aspriello, Roberto Di Primio, Anna Maria Offidani
Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity represents the sixth most common cancer worldwide and it is often preceded by pre-neoplastic lesions. Sometimes it is still difficult for pathologists to make objective differential diagnoses only on histological characteristics. Tumorigenesis is accompanied by altered expression of cell adhesion molecules, like carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule (CEACAM)1. We wanted to investigative CEACAM1 in oral dysplastic lesions, carcinoma in situ (CIS) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC)...
March 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28849340/insulinoma-associated-protein-1-insm1-is-a-useful-marker-for-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumor
#14
Masahiko Tanigawa, Masamichi Nakayama, Tomoki Taira, Satoshi Hattori, Yutaro Mihara, Reiichiro Kondo, Hironori Kusano, Ken Nakamura, Yushi Abe, Yusuke Ishida, Yoshinobu Okabe, Toru Hisaka, Koji Okuda, Kosuke Fujino, Takaaki Ito, Akihiko Kawahara, Yoshiki Naito, Rin Yamaguchi, Jun Akiba, Yoshito Akagi, Hirohisa Yano
Insulinoma-associated protein 1 (INSM1) is an important biomarker of Achaete-scute homolog-like 1-driven pathways. For diagnosis of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNET), chromogranin A (CGA), synaptophysin (SYP), and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) were also considered as potential biomarkers. However, it is often difficult to diagnose it immunohistochemically. Hence, we examined the expression pattern of INSM1 in pancreatic solid tumors. We detected INSM1, CGA, SYP, and NCAM immunohistochemically, in 27 cases of NET [pure type: 25 cases, mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC): 2 cases]...
March 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687956/cd163-positive-cancer-cells-are-potentially-associated-with-high-malignant-potential-in-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma
#15
Chaoya Ma, Hasita Horlad, Koji Ohnishi, Takenobu Nakagawa, Sohsuke Yamada, Shohei Kitada, Takanobu Motoshima, Tomomi Kamba, Toshiyuki Nakayama, Naohiro Fujimoto, Motohiro Takeya, Yoshihiro Komohara
CD163 is preferentially expressed by monocyte/macrophages; however, recent studies using immunohistochemistry (IHC) have reported that some cancer cells also express CD163. In the present IHC study, we investigated CD163 staining of cancer cells and macrophages in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) tissues and determined the relationship between cancer cell CD163 expression and clinical prognosis in patients with ccRCC. IHC for CD163 was performed in ccRCC tissues from 103 patients. CD163-positive cancer cells were detected in 35% of the patients (36/103); however, the positive signals on cancer cells were significantly lower than those on macrophages...
March 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388058/effect-of-systemic-administration-of-lipopolysaccharides-derived-from-porphyromonas-gingivalis-on-gene-expression-in-mice-kidney
#16
Fumiya Harada, Osamu Uehara, Tetsuro Morikawa, Daichi Hiraki, Aya Onishi, Seiko Toraya, Bhoj Raj Adhikari, Rie Takai, Koki Yoshida, Jun Sato, Michiko Nishimura, Itsuo Chiba, Ching Zong Wu, Yoshihiro Abiko
Although an association between periodontitis and chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been suggested, the mechanism involved remains unclear. Herein, we examined the global gene expression profile in a mouse model that showed no acute inflammation in the kidney following stimulation with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) derived from Porphyromonas gingivalis (PG-LPS). The mice were injected with PG-LPS at a concentration of 5 mg/kg intraperitoneally, every 3 days, for 1 month. Microarray analysis was used to identify 10 genes with the highest expression levels in the kidney stimulated with PG-LPS...
January 31, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380061/hepatic-stellate-cells-derived-from-the-nestin-positive-cells-in-septum-transversum-during-rat-liver-development
#17
Makoto Toi, Yoshihiro Hayashi, Ichiro Murakami
Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play a principal role in Vitamin A metabolism and are considered the major matrix-producing cell type in the diseased liver. Rat HSCs are identified by immunohistochemistry with myogenic or mesenchymal (desmin, vimentin, and alpha-smooth muscle actin) or neural (e.g., GFAP or neuronal cell adhesion molecule) markers. Embryonic origin of rat HSCs was determined using these markers. Nestin, an intermediate filament protein originally identified in neuronal stem or progenitor cells, is widely used as a stem cell marker, including hepatic stem cells in adult rat livers...
January 29, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380060/serum-levels-of-a-cell-death-biomarker-predict-the-development-of-cirrhosis-related-conditions-in-primary-biliary-cholangitis
#18
Manabu Hayashi, Kazumichi Abe, Masashi Fujita, Ken Okai, Atsushi Takahashi, Yoshihiro Nozawa, Hiromasa Ohira
Non-invasive predictors for the development of cirrhosis-related conditions are needed for patients with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). We investigated the association between cytokeratin-18 fragments (M30 and M65) and liver histology, treatment response and the development of cirrhosis-related conditions in patients with PBC. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data of 111 individuals with biopsy-proven PBC. Serum M30 and M65 levels were measured using stored sera. M30 were significantly decreased after treatment, but there was no significant change in the M65 levels...
January 29, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362947/morphological-characterization-of-pulmonary-microvascular-disease-in-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-caused-by-hyperoxia-in-newborn-mice
#19
Hidehiko Nakanishi, Shunichi Morikawa, Shuji Kitahara, Asuka Yoshii, Atsushi Uchiyama, Satoshi Kusuda, Taichi Ezaki
PURPOSE: Pulmonary microvascular injury is associated with the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). To characterize the mechanisms of pulmonary vascular disease resulting from BPD, we studied the ultrastructural changes affecting pulmonary microvasculature. METHODS: Newborn ICR mice were exposed to 85% hyperoxia or normoxia for 14 days, and then normal air replacement conditions for the following 7 days. At postnatal day (P)14 and P21, lungs were harvested for ultrastructural examination and assessment of pulmonary hypertension...
January 23, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344720/characteristics-of-pericytes-in-diethylstilbestrol-des-induced-pituitary-prolactinoma-in-rats
#20
Depicha Jindatip, Ken Fujiwara, Tewarit Sarachana, Apiwat Mutirangura, Takashi Yashiro
Prolactinomas are the most common tumor of the human pituitary. They result in excessive prolactin secretion and important changes in the vasculature. Pericytes are perivascular cells associated with capillaries and have crucial roles in physiological and pathological neovascularization. We previously reported that pericytes produce type I and III collagens in the anterior pituitary of adult rats. In addition, pituitary pericytes contained well-developed cell organelles and actively synthesized collagens during early postnatal development...
January 17, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
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