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Medical Molecular Morphology

Juliana Campos Pinheiro, Caio César da Silva Barros, Larissa Santos Amaral Rolim, Leão Pereira Pinto, Lélia Batista de Souza, Pedro Paulo de Andrade Santos
We performed an epidemiological, clinical and histopathological analysis of oral lymphoid lesions (OLLs) during a 47-year period. Data regarding patient age, sex, duration, location, symptomatology, type of growth, implantation, staining, presence of ulceration and bleeding of all cases were compiled from the clinical data. For the histopathological analyses, all slides stained by H/E were reassessed. During the analyzed period, 14,565 patients with oral and maxillofacial lesions were diagnosed, with 45 cases diagnosed as OLLs...
October 31, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Naoki Kanomata, Junichi Kurebayashi, Takuya Moriya
The development of trastuzumab has significantly improved the prognosis of HER2-positive breast cancer. However, disease recurs in some patients with HER2-positive breast cancer. A new strategy for treating HER2-positive breast cancer is necessary. Although several studies have reported that HER3 is a prognostic factor for HER2-positive breast cancers, phosphorylated HER3 (pHER3) has not been well studied. There has been no survival analysis including immunohistochemistry with trastuzumab as the primary antibody...
October 13, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Y Hirakawa, S Futaki, H Tanizaki, F Furukawa, K Maemura, Y Kondo, S Moriwaki
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a malignant skin tumor originating from cells of the epidermal basal layer and adnexal epithelium, especially in sun-exposed areas. Unlike squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), BCC has a propensity to grow only locally possibly due to differences in the surrounding microenvironment including the basement membrane (BM) and stroma. To investigate the components constituting the BM and surrounding connective tissue in BCC and SCC, we analyzed the expression of BM proteins, nidogen 1 (NID1) and type IV collagen (COL4)...
October 1, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Sasagu Kurozumi, Yuri Yamaguchi, Hiroshi Matsumoto, Kenichi Inoue, Masafumi Kurosumi, Tetsunari Oyama, Jun Horiguchi, Takaaki Fujii, Ken Shirabe
The human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family plays a vital role in the development of resistance to treatments in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. This study investigated the correlation between protein and mRNA expressions of the HER family in ER-positive breast cancer. We dissected regions of invasive cancer from the frozen tissues of 34 patients with ER-positive breast cancer using laser-capture microdissection, followed by evaluation of the mRNA levels of the ER and HER family (EGFR, HER2, HER3, and HER4) using the quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay...
September 27, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Shaowei Li, Masayuki Fujino, Terumi Takahara, Xiao-Kang Li
Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is a kind of injury resulting from the restoration of the blood supply after blood vessel closure during liver transplantation and is the main cause of graft failure. The pathophysiological mechanisms of hepatic IR include a variety of oxidative stress responses. Hepatic IR is characterized by ischemia and hypoxia inducing oxidative stress, immune response and apoptosis. Fat-denatured livers are also used as donors due to the lack of liver donors. Fatty liver is less tolerant to IR than normal liver...
August 31, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Yoko Nekooki-Machida, Takashi Nakakura, Yoshimi Nishijima, Hideyuki Tanaka, Kenjiro Arisawa, Yoshiko Kiuchi, Toshio Miyashita, Haruo Hagiwara
Acetylation of α-tubulin is a well-studied posttranscriptional modification, which is mostly catalyzed by α-tubulin N-acetyltransferase (ATAT1). ATAT1 possibly affects various cellular functions related with microtubules, such as intracellular transport, cell motility, cilia formation, and neuronal signaling. Here, we analyzed the subcellular localization of immunolabeled ATAT1 in human fibroblast KD cells through the cell cycle using confocal laser scanning microscopy. ATAT1 dramatically changed its localization through the cell cycle, depending on the mitotic phase...
December 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Huy Bang Nguyen, Yang Sui, Truc Quynh Thai, Kazuhiro Ikenaka, Toshiyuki Oda, Nobuhiko Ohno
Impaired nerve conduction, axonal degeneration, and synaptic alterations contribute to neurological disabilities in inflammatory demyelinating diseases. Cerebellar dysfunction is associated with demyelinating disorders, but the alterations of axon terminals in cerebellar gray matter during chronic demyelination are still unclear. We analyzed the morphological and ultrastructural changes of climbing fiber terminals in a mouse model of hereditary chronic demyelination. Three-dimensional ultrastructural analyses using serial block-face scanning electron microscopy and immunostaining for synaptic markers were performed in a demyelination mouse model caused by extra copies of myelin gene (PLP4e)...
December 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Shigeo Ohba, Yuichi Hirose
To become immortalized, cells need to maintain the telomere length via the activation of telomerase or alternative lengthening of telomere. Mutations in IDH1/2 are strongly associated with the early stage of gliomagenesis. Previous work has shown that the accumulation of 2-HG, which is induced by mutant IDH1/2, inhibits α-KG-dependent deoxygenase and leads to genome-wide histone and DNA methylation alterations. These alterations are believed to contribute to tumorigenesis. H-Ras can transform human astrocytes with the inactivation of p53/pRb and expression of hTERT; however, mutant IDH1 can also transform cells...
December 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Tsutomu Namikawa, Kazune Fujisawa, Eri Munekage, Jun Iwabu, Sunao Uemura, Shigehiro Tsujii, Hiromichi Maeda, Hiroyuki Kitagawa, Hideo Fukuhara, Keiji Inoue, Takayuki Sato, Michiya Kobayashi, Kazuhiro Hanazaki
The natural amino acid 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is a protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) precursor and a new-generation photosensitive substance that accumulates specifically in cancer cells. When indocyanine green (ICG) is irradiated with near-infrared (NIR) light, it shifts to a higher energy state and emits infrared light with a longer wavelength than the irradiated NIR light. Photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) using ALA and ICG-based NIR fluorescence imaging has emerged as a new diagnostic technique. Specifically, in laparoscopic examinations for serosa-invading advanced gastric cancer, peritoneal metastases could be detected by ALA-PDD, but not by conventional visible-light imaging...
December 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Makoto Toi, Yoshihiro Hayashi, Ichiro Murakami
Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play a principal role in Vitamin A metabolism and are considered the major matrix-producing cell type in the diseased liver. Rat HSCs are identified by immunohistochemistry with myogenic or mesenchymal (desmin, vimentin, and alpha-smooth muscle actin) or neural (e.g., GFAP or neuronal cell adhesion molecule) markers. Embryonic origin of rat HSCs was determined using these markers. Nestin, an intermediate filament protein originally identified in neuronal stem or progenitor cells, is widely used as a stem cell marker, including hepatic stem cells in adult rat livers...
December 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Kagaku Azuma, Qian Zhou, Kin-Ya Kubo
Although the understanding of the complex pathogenesis for osteoporosis is appreciable, the underlying mechanism is not yet fully elucidated. There is a great need to further characterize the available animal models in osteoporosis research. The senescence-accelerated mouse prone 6 (SAMP6) mice have been developed as the spontaneous experimental model for senile osteoporosis. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of current research regarding the bone morphological and molecular alterations and the possible mechanisms involved in these changes...
September 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Hitomi Aoki
Rest is a regulator of neuronal development and has been suggested to function in maintaining the pluripotent state of embryonic stem cells (ESCs); however, this remains controversial. Since Rest null mice show embryonic lethality, we herein generated conditional Rest knockout (CKO) models to investigate Rest functions in more detail. Our results revealed that Rest was not necessary for maintaining the pluripotency of ESCs and instead promoted primitive endoderm differentiation. In contrast to the repressive role of Rest in vitro, including ESCs, neural stem cells, and fibroblasts, on the expression of target neural genes, Rest CKO did not affect the in vivo development of brain tissue...
September 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Fumiya Harada, Osamu Uehara, Tetsuro Morikawa, Daichi Hiraki, Aya Onishi, Seiko Toraya, Bhoj Raj Adhikari, Rie Takai, Koki Yoshida, Jun Sato, Michiko Nishimura, Itsuo Chiba, Ching Zong Wu, Yoshihiro Abiko
Although an association between periodontitis and chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been suggested, the mechanism involved remains unclear. Herein, we examined the global gene expression profile in a mouse model that showed no acute inflammation in the kidney following stimulation with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) derived from Porphyromonas gingivalis (PG-LPS). The mice were injected with PG-LPS at a concentration of 5 mg/kg intraperitoneally, every 3 days, for 1 month. Microarray analysis was used to identify 10 genes with the highest expression levels in the kidney stimulated with PG-LPS...
September 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Manabu Hayashi, Kazumichi Abe, Masashi Fujita, Ken Okai, Atsushi Takahashi, Yoshihiro Nozawa, Hiromasa Ohira
Non-invasive predictors for the development of cirrhosis-related conditions are needed for patients with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). We investigated the association between cytokeratin-18 fragments (M30 and M65) and liver histology, treatment response and the development of cirrhosis-related conditions in patients with PBC. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data of 111 individuals with biopsy-proven PBC. Serum M30 and M65 levels were measured using stored sera. M30 were significantly decreased after treatment, but there was no significant change in the M65 levels...
September 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Hidehiko Nakanishi, Shunichi Morikawa, Shuji Kitahara, Asuka Yoshii, Atsushi Uchiyama, Satoshi Kusuda, Taichi Ezaki
PURPOSE: Pulmonary microvascular injury is associated with the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). To characterize the mechanisms of pulmonary vascular disease resulting from BPD, we studied the ultrastructural changes affecting pulmonary microvasculature. METHODS: Newborn ICR mice were exposed to 85% hyperoxia or normoxia for 14 days, and then normal air replacement conditions for the following 7 days. At postnatal day (P)14 and P21, lungs were harvested for ultrastructural examination and assessment of pulmonary hypertension...
September 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Depicha Jindatip, Ken Fujiwara, Tewarit Sarachana, Apiwat Mutirangura, Takashi Yashiro
Prolactinomas are the most common tumor of the human pituitary. They result in excessive prolactin secretion and important changes in the vasculature. Pericytes are perivascular cells associated with capillaries and have crucial roles in physiological and pathological neovascularization. We previously reported that pericytes produce type I and III collagens in the anterior pituitary of adult rats. In addition, pituitary pericytes contained well-developed cell organelles and actively synthesized collagens during early postnatal development...
September 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Zahra Heidari, Hamidreza Mahmoudzadeh Sagheb, Asiyeh Hakimi, Bita Moudi
Colorectal cancer (CRC) placed among the most common neoplasm. Survivin is a member of the inhibitor apoptosis gene family. This gene could be associated with aggressive behavior in numerous types of cancers. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of survivin gene and its correlation with -31G/C polymorphism in CRC patients. This case-control study was performed on 90 cases: 30 adenocarcinoma, 30 adenomatous polyp, and 30 normal colon. Immunohistochemical expression of survivin evaluated on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue and -31G/C polymorphism was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis...
August 20, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Natsuko Kakudo, Naoki Morimoto, Takeshi Ogawa, Shigeru Taketani, Kenji Kusumoto
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 induces mitogenesis, angiogenesis and adipogenesis. In this study, the adipogenesis-inducing effects of FGF-2 combined with bilayer artificial dermis in mice were evaluated. FGF-2-impregnated bilayer artificial dermis composed of collagen matrix, PELNAC (Gunze Corp., Osaka, Japan) was implanted subcutaneously into the thoracic region of mice. At 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks, samples were collected for H&E staining, von Willebrand factor immunostaining, and perilipin immunostaining to examine adipose tissue localization and angiogenesis...
July 18, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Ayano Nakamura, Ken Yamaguchi, Sachiko Minamiguchi, Ryusuke Murakami, Kaoru Abiko, Junzo Hamanishi, Eiji Kondoh, Tsukasa Baba, Masaki Mandai, Noriomi Matsumura
Mucinous adenocarcinoma, gastric type (GAS) is difficult to diagnose and shows poor prognosis. Trastuzumab, an anti-human epidermal growth factor type 2 (HER2) monoclonal antibody, is effective in HER2-positive stomach cancer. The objectives of this study were to identify the clinicopathological characteristics of GAS and to evaluate HER2 expression in GAS. We retrospectively reviewed 322 cervical cancer cases diagnosed at the Kyoto University Hospital from 2010 to 2016. The incidence, clinical factors including age, stage, and lymph node status, tumor markers, immunoreactive expression of MUC6, HIK1083, and HER2, and HER2 amplification were evaluated...
July 10, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Yoshihiro Komohara, Hiroto Takeya, Nanako Wakigami, Natsuki Kusada, Hirofumi Bekki, Shin Ishihara, Motohiro Takeya, Yasuharu Nakashima, Yoshinao Oda
Undifferentiated sarcoma (US) is a frequent soft tissue sarcoma. Although the 10-year survival rate is around 60%, advanced US is highly resistant to chemo/radiotherapy. The tumor microenvironment (TME) is closely associated with tumor progression. However, few studies of infiltrated immune cells in US have been published. In this study, we evaluated tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and CD8-positive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in 28 cases of US. Iba1, CD163, and CD204 were used as markers for TAMs. The density of CTLs was positively correlated with the density of TAMs...
July 6, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
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