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Medical Molecular Morphology

Ayano Nakamura, Ken Yamaguchi, Sachiko Minamiguchi, Ryusuke Murakami, Kaoru Abiko, Junzo Hamanishi, Eiji Kondoh, Tsukasa Baba, Masaki Mandai, Noriomi Matsumura
Mucinous adenocarcinoma, gastric type (GAS) is difficult to diagnose and shows poor prognosis. Trastuzumab, an anti-human epidermal growth factor type 2 (HER2) monoclonal antibody, is effective in HER2-positive stomach cancer. The objectives of this study were to identify the clinicopathological characteristics of GAS and to evaluate HER2 expression in GAS. We retrospectively reviewed 322 cervical cancer cases diagnosed at the Kyoto University Hospital from 2010 to 2016. The incidence, clinical factors including age, stage, and lymph node status, tumor markers, immunoreactive expression of MUC6, HIK1083, and HER2, and HER2 amplification were evaluated...
July 10, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Yoshihiro Komohara, Hiroto Takeya, Nanako Wakigami, Natsuki Kusada, Hirofumi Bekki, Shin Ishihara, Motohiro Takeya, Yasuharu Nakashima, Yoshinao Oda
Undifferentiated sarcoma (US) is a frequent soft tissue sarcoma. Although the 10-year survival rate is around 60%, advanced US is highly resistant to chemo/radiotherapy. The tumor microenvironment (TME) is closely associated with tumor progression. However, few studies of infiltrated immune cells in US have been published. In this study, we evaluated tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and CD8-positive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in 28 cases of US. Iba1, CD163, and CD204 were used as markers for TAMs. The density of CTLs was positively correlated with the density of TAMs...
July 6, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Umakant Ashok Bahirat, Rashmi Talwar, Rekha Raghuveer Shenoy, Kumar V S Nemmani, Rajan Naresh Goel
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by the presence of hepatic steatosis, oxidative stress, inflammation, and hepatocyte injury with or without fibrosis. In this study, we explored the effect of APD668, a GPR119 agonist alone or in combination with linagliptin, a DPPIV inhibitor, on the progression of steatohepatitis in a murine model of NASH with diabetes. A novel NASH model with diabetes was generated by administration of streptozotocin injection to neonatal C57BL/6 mice (2-3 days old) combined with a high-fat diet feeding from the age of 4 weeks...
June 29, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Tomoyuki Aoyama, Akira Takasawa, Masaki Murata, Makoto Osanai, Kenichi Takano, Tadashi Hasagawa, Norimasa Sawada
The expression pattern of tight junction proteins (TJPs) varies among organs and tumor types. In this study, we examined the immunoreactivity of claudin (CLDN)-1, -4, and -7, and JAM-A in salivary gland tumors (SGTs) by histological types and cell types to estimate their usefulness as differential diagnostic markers. Immunoreactivity of CLDN1 was higher in ductal epithelium cells of SGTs than in non-tumor tissues. Conversely, immunoreactivity of CLDN1 was significantly decreased in basal/myoepithelium cells of SGTs compared with that in non-tumor tissues...
June 28, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Franciele Mercúrio Rodrigues, Jenifer Inácio Adélio, Vanessa Oliveira Santana, Elisabeth De Marco Ornelas, Romeu Rodrigues de Souza, Clever Gomes Cardoso, Glaucia Luciano da Veiga, Fernando Luiz Affonso Fonseca, Laura Beatriz Mesiano Maifrino
To explore the effects of physical exercise on the liver of animals in menopause, we analyzed the histomorphometric parameters of the hepatic tissue in ovariectomized and dyslipidemic female mice. The animals were distributed in six groups (n = 5): sedentary control (SC), sedentary ovariectomized control (SOC), trained ovariectomized control (TOC), sedentary LDL knockout (LDL-S), sedentary ovariectomized LDL knockout (LDL-SO), and trained ovariectomized LDL knockout (LDL-TO). At the end of the experiment, the liver and the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of animals were removed for morphometric and stereological studies...
June 22, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Shizuma Omote, Katsuyoshi Takata, Takehiro Tanaka, Tomoko Miyata-Takata, Yoshiyuki Ayada, Mai Noujima-Harada, Rika Omote, Tetsuya Tabata, Yasuharu Sato, Tatsuya Toyokawa, Hironari Kato, Takahito Yagi, Hiroyuki Okada, Tadashi Yoshino
Pancreatic cancer has a poor prognosis; hence, novel prognostic markers and effective therapeutic targets should be identified. We aimed to evaluate folate receptor alpha (FR-α) expression in pancreatic cancer and examine its association with clinicopathological features. We utilized tissue samples from 100 primary pancreatic cancer patients who underwent surgery. FR-α was expressed in 37 of 100 cases (37%). The FR-α-positive group (median, 18.8 months) had a significantly poorer prognosis than the FR-α-negative group [median 21...
June 20, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Nami O Yamada, Wenduerma, Shuji Matsuda, Takao Senda
Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is a large protein with multiple binding partners, suggesting diverse functions besides its well-known role in the destruction of β-catenin. To elucidate these complex functions, it is crucial to evaluate the precise subcellular distribution of APC within a cell and tissue. However, most of the commercially available anti-APC antibodies can only be used for limited applications, resulting in the use of independently generated antibodies. This has led to various discrepancies between studies as a common antibody has not been established...
June 19, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Yoko Nekooki-Machida, Takashi Nakakura, Yoshimi Nishijima, Hideyuki Tanaka, Kenjiro Arisawa, Yoshiko Kiuchi, Toshio Miyashita, Haruo Hagiwara
Acetylation of α-tubulin is a well-studied posttranscriptional modification, which is mostly catalyzed by α-tubulin N-acetyltransferase (ATAT1). ATAT1 possibly affects various cellular functions related with microtubules, such as intracellular transport, cell motility, cilia formation, and neuronal signaling. Here, we analyzed the subcellular localization of immunolabeled ATAT1 in human fibroblast KD cells through the cell cycle using confocal laser scanning microscopy. ATAT1 dramatically changed its localization through the cell cycle, depending on the mitotic phase...
June 5, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Taro Koike, Hisao Yamada
The three-dimensional ultra-structure is the comprehensive structure that cannot be observed from a two-dimensional electron micrograph. Array tomography is one method for three-dimensional electron microscopy. In this method, to obtain consecutive cross sections of tissue, connected consecutive sections of a resin block are mounted on a flat substrate, and these are observed with scanning electron microscopy. Although array tomography requires some bothersome manual procedures to prepare specimens, a recent study has introduced some techniques to ease specimen preparation...
May 31, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Huy Bang Nguyen, Yang Sui, Truc Quynh Thai, Kazuhiro Ikenaka, Toshiyuki Oda, Nobuhiko Ohno
Impaired nerve conduction, axonal degeneration, and synaptic alterations contribute to neurological disabilities in inflammatory demyelinating diseases. Cerebellar dysfunction is associated with demyelinating disorders, but the alterations of axon terminals in cerebellar gray matter during chronic demyelination are still unclear. We analyzed the morphological and ultrastructural changes of climbing fiber terminals in a mouse model of hereditary chronic demyelination. Three-dimensional ultrastructural analyses using serial block-face scanning electron microscopy and immunostaining for synaptic markers were performed in a demyelination mouse model caused by extra copies of myelin gene (PLP4e)...
May 23, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Bhoj Raj Adhikari, Michiko Nishimura, Kosuke Takimoto, Fumiya Harada, Aya Onishi, Daichi Hiraki, Durga Paudel, Puja Neopane, Masafumi Utsunomiya, Tetsuro Morikawa, Koki Yoshida, Jun Sato, Mamata Shakya, Eiji Nakayama, Hiroki Nagayasu, Yoshihiro Abiko
Adenomatous ductal proliferation/hyperplasia (ADP/H) is a rare hyperplastic condition of the salivary gland. It is mostly associated with other salivary gland pathologies such as tumors and inflammations, and is incidentally found in tissue sections during histopathological examinations of those diseases. Herein, we report a case of ADP/H in the parotid gland not associated with any other pathological lesions, and present a review of the literature on this condition. A 60-year-old Japanese female complained of swelling on the left side of parotid region...
May 15, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Shuji Matsuda, Takao Senda
There are several theories regarding the etiologies of Alzheimer disease (AD). Considering that all genes responsible for familial AD are amyloid protein precursor (APP) or APP metabolizing enzymes, surely aberrant APP metabolism is crucial to pathogenesis of AD. BRI2, a type II transmembrane protein, binds APP and inhibits all α, β, and γ pathways of APP proteolysis. Crossing AD model mice with BRI2 transgenic or BRI2 knockout mice confirmed that BRI2 is an anti-Alzheimer gene. Mutations of BRI2 are known to cause rare familial dementias in human...
April 23, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Yoshihito Nakagawa, Yukihiro Akao, Tomomitsu Tahara, Hiromi Yamashita, Mitsuo Nagasaka, Tomoyuki Shibata, Naoki Ohmiya
Accumulating data indicates that certain microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) are differently expressed in samples of tumors and paired non-tumorous samples taken from the same patients with colorectal tumors. We previously reported to clarify the relationship between the expression of the miRNAs and the endoscopic morphological appearance of the colorectal tumors. In this report, we focused on colorectal adenoma (tubular or tubulovillous adenoma), or tubular early carcinoma or type 2 adenocarcinoma, familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), ulcerative colitis-associated tumor (UCAT), and sessile serrated adenoma/polyp (SSA/P)...
June 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Akiko Iizuka-Kogo
The organ of Corti, an acoustic sensory organ, is a specifically differentiated epithelium of the cochlear duct, which is a part of the membranous labyrinth in the inner ear. Cells in the organ of Corti are generally classified into two kinds; hair cells, which transduce the mechanical stimuli of sound to the cell membrane electrical potential differences, and supporting cells. These cells emerge from homogeneous prosensory epithelium through cell fate determination and differentiation. In the organ of Corti organogenesis, cell differentiation and the rearrangement of their position proceed in parallel, resulting in a characteristic alignment of mature hair cells and supporting cells...
June 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Aparecida Gabriela Bexiga Veloso, Nathalia Edviges Alves Lima, Elisabete de Marco Ornelas, Clever Gomes Cardoso, Mara Rubia Marques, Beatriz da Costa Aguiar Alves Reis, Fernando Luiz Affonso Fonseca, Laura Beatriz Mesiano Maifrino
Menopausal women are at high risk of developing heart disease. However, physical exercise practice can reverse this scenario. We evaluated the biochemical, morphological, and physiological effects of moderate aerobic physical exercise on the pancreas of knockout mice for LDL receptor with estrogen deprivation by ovariectomy. Animals were divided into six groups (n = 5): sedentary non-ovariectomized control; sedentary ovariectomized control; trained ovariectomized control; sedentary non-ovariectomized LDL-R knockout; sedentary ovariectomized LDL-R knockout; and trained ovariectomized LDL-R knockout...
June 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Akihiro Tojo, Saaya Hatakeyama, Masaomi Nangaku, Toshihiko Ishimitsu
Vacuolar H+ -adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) plays important roles in urinary acid excretion, vesicular acidification to activate enzymes, and the membrane recycling of transporters in the kidney. As acidosis stimulates renal gluconeogenesis, we investigated the effect of blockade of H+ -ATPase on renal gluconeogenesis in diabetic rats. Diabetes mellitus was induced by a single injection of streptozotocin, and a group of DM rats was treated with bafilomycin B1 intraperitoneally for 8 days. In diabetic rats, the renal expression and activity of H+ -ATPase were increased with elevated urinary ammonium excretion...
June 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Yu Wang, Ying Sun, Xin Guo, Yao Fu, Jie Long, Cheng-Xi Wei, Ming Zhao
Inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS)-induced apoptosis may be a new therapeutic target in cardiovascular diseases. Creatine phosphate disodium salt (CP) has been reported to have cardiovascular protective effect, but its effects on ERS are unknown. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism by which CP exerts its cardioprotection in doxorubicin (Dox)-induced cardiomyocytes injury. In our study, neonatal rats cardiomyocytes (NRC) was randomly divided into control group, model group, and treatment group...
June 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Nanako Hamada, Makoto Mizuno, Hiroyuki Tomita, Ikuko Iwamoto, Akira Hara, Koh-Ichi Nagata
Dusp22 (dual-specificity phosphatase 22) is considered to regulate various cellular processes through the regulation of protein dephosphorylation. In this study, we prepared a specific antibody against Dusp22, anti-Dusp22, and carried out expression analyses with mouse tissues and cultured cell lines. Western blotting analyses demonstrated a tissue-dependent expression profile of Dusp22 in the adult mouse, and strongly suggested the presence of isoforms with larger molecular masses. In fibroblast NIH3T3 cells, while both endogenous and Myc-tagged Dusp22 was diffusely distributed in the cytoplasm, Myc-Dusp22 was partially colocalized with actin cytoskeleton...
June 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Ken Nakamura, Jun Akiba, Sachiko Ogasawara, Yoshiki Naito, Masamichi Nakayama, Yushi Abe, Jingo Kusukawa, Hirohisa Yano
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common malignant tumor in the head and neck region. The aim of this study was to identify the key molecules and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of OSCC carcinogenesis through a microarray analysis of RNA extracted from normal epithelium, dysplasia, and squamous cell carcinoma components. Out of molecules that showed changes in gene expression in the microarray analysis, we focused on Sulfite oxidase (SUOX), which correlated significantly with carcinogenic process and exhibited a stepwise decrease in expression...
June 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Shigeo Ohba, Yuichi Hirose
To become immortalized, cells need to maintain the telomere length via the activation of telomerase or alternative lengthening of telomere. Mutations in IDH1/2 are strongly associated with the early stage of gliomagenesis. Previous work has shown that the accumulation of 2-HG, which is induced by mutant IDH1/2, inhibits α-KG-dependent deoxygenase and leads to genome-wide histone and DNA methylation alterations. These alterations are believed to contribute to tumorigenesis. H-Ras can transform human astrocytes with the inactivation of p53/pRb and expression of hTERT; however, mutant IDH1 can also transform cells...
April 9, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
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