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Personalized Medicine

Lucia A Hindorff, Vence L Bonham, Lucila Ohno-Machado
Advances in genomic medicine are arising from efforts to build a national learning healthcare system (LHS) and large-scale precision medicine studies. However, the underlying evidence base lacks sufficient data from populations historically underrepresented in biomedical research. Although the literature on health and healthcare disparities is extensive, disparities in the availability and quality of health information about diverse and underrepresented populations are less well characterized. This Perspective describes scientific and ethical benefits to incorporating health information from diverse and underrepresented populations in the LHS, resulting in a more robust and generalizable LHS...
September 13, 2018: Personalized Medicine
Travis J O'Brien, Arthur F Harralson
Teaching the clinical implementation of pharmacogenomics to students in clinical programs first requires careful consideration of their aptitude in basic clinical pharmacologic concepts. Prior to developing training exercises on drug-gene interactions, educators must first assess student competency in identifying and managing drug-drug interactions given the similarities in identifying and managing these sources of medication error.
July 26, 2018: Personalized Medicine
Jinmin Ma, Fang Zhao, Wei Su, Qiongfang Li, Jiandong Li, Jingkai Ji, Yong Deng, Yang Zhou, Xinfa Wang, Huanming Yang, Nitin K Saksena, Karsten Kristiansen, Hui Wang, Yingxia Liu
AIM: Co-infection in HIV-1 patients with Mycobacterium tuberculosis poses considerable risk of developing the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), especially upon the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methodology & results: For transcriptomic analysis, peripheral blood mononuclear cells' whole gene expression was used from three patient groups: HIV+ (H), HIV-TB+ (HT), HIV-TB+ with IRIS (HTI). Pathway enrichment and functional analysis was performed before and after highly active ART...
July 1, 2018: Personalized Medicine
Asma Nejati-Azar, Mohammad Reza Alivand
AIM: The purpose of our study was to analyze association of miRNAs 146aG/C(2910164) and 196a2C/T(11614913) polymorphism with breast cancer (BC) risk for women of Azeri ethnicity in Iran. MATERIALS & METHODS: In the current case (n = 200)-control (n = 200) study, miRNAs 146aG/C(2910164) and 196a2C/T(11614913) were investigated for allelic and genotypic levels via the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. RESULTS: The statistical analysis showed a significant relation between CC genotype of rs11614913(196a2) (codominant, odds ratio (OR) = 0...
July 1, 2018: Personalized Medicine
William Ollier, Kenneth R Muir, Artitaya Lophatananon, Arpana Verma, Martin Yuille
Precision medicine uses biomarkers to diagnose disease. However, they can also be used to measure risk of disease. Thus, biomarkers herald a new addition to public health - Precision Public Health. We examine the implications. Risk biomarkers are identified by analyzing population cohorts. They constitute risk factors in mathematical 'Disease Risk Models'. The risk may be fixed as in a genetic biomarker or variable as in some protein biomarkers. They help monitor current risk of disease in an individual, thereby aiding efforts to reduce risk...
July 1, 2018: Personalized Medicine
Susan Persky, Megan R Goldring, Rachel W Cohen
AIM: An exploratory survey assessed the influence of current and potential future genomic applications for weight management on individuals' desires to address weight management within primary care. Materials & methods: A convenience sample of 714 US adults aged 18-70 completed an online survey that presented three scenarios: no genomic information; current genomic capabilities; and potential future applications of genomics for weight management. RESULTS: Participants had increased interest in weight management assistance through primary care when considering genomic applications in weight management, p (1,1...
July 1, 2018: Personalized Medicine
Sanjeev P Bhavnani, Arash Harzand
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2018: Personalized Medicine
Michele Basso, Vincenzo Dadduzio, Sabrina Rossi, Ettore D'Argento, Antonia Strippoli, Mariantonietta Di Salvatore, Armando Orlandi, Valeria Zurlo, Vincenzo Di Noia, Carlo Barone
This paper has been written because we have a differing idea concerning the suspected negative interference between oxaliplatin and anti-EGFR therapies in cancer patients. Several multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trials investigated whether the efficacy of oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy is improved by the addition of anti-EGFR therapies in patients affected by KRAS wild-type advanced colorectal cancer. Results of these trials have produced puzzling findings, with some studies demonstrating improved survival and other studies showing no differences in overall survival between experimental and control arms...
July 1, 2018: Personalized Medicine
Jean-Luc Sanne
The European Commission released €130 million over 2014, 2015 and 2017 under the EU Framework Program for Research and Innovation, Horizon 2020, to support innovative small and medium-sized enterprises in the diagnostic area. The call topic focused on 'Clinical research for the validation of biomarkers and/or diagnostic medical devices'. It attracted 1194 applicants from all over Europe. The quality of the proposals was high and a large proportion of them were eligible for funding. In the majority, proposals were about in vitro diagnostics and tackled both clinical validation of new biomarkers and device optimization...
July 1, 2018: Personalized Medicine
Geoffrey S Ginsburg, Jeanette J McCarthy, George P Patrinos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2018: Personalized Medicine
Rahul Shrimanker, Ian D Pavord
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2018: Personalized Medicine
Malcolm Grant, John Paul Maytum
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2018: Personalized Medicine
Anna Middleton, Emilia Niemiec, Barbara Prainsack, Jason Bobe, Lauren Farley, Claire Steed, James Smith, Paul Bevan, Natasha Bonhomme, Erika Kleiderman, Adrian Thorogood, Christoph Schickhardt, Chiara Garattini, Danya Vears, Katherine Littler, Natalie Banner, Erick Scott, Nadezda V Kovalevskaya, Elissa Levin, Katherine I Morley, Heidi C Howard
Our international study, 'Your DNA, Your Say', uses film and an online cross-sectional survey to gather public attitudes toward the donation, access and sharing of DNA information. We describe the methodological approach used to create an engaging and bespoke survey, suitable for translation into many different languages. We address some of the particular challenges in designing a survey on the subject of genomics. In order to understand the significance of a genomic result, researchers and clinicians alike use external databases containing DNA and medical information from thousands of people...
July 1, 2018: Personalized Medicine
Gary M Oderda, Grant D Lawless, Grace C Wright, Samuel R Nussbaum, Renwyck Elder, Kibum Kim, Diana I Brixner
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) management requires monitoring of disease activity to determine course of treatment. Global assessments are used in clinical practice to determine RA disease activity. Monitoring disease activity via biomarkers may also help providers optimize biologic and nonbiologic drug use while decreasing overall drug spend by delaying use of expensive biologic therapies. By testing multiple biologic domains at the same time, a multibiomarker disease activity test may have utility in RA patient management, through improved intra- and inter-rater reliability...
July 1, 2018: Personalized Medicine
Rebecca L Wilcox, Patricia V Adem, Ebrahim Afshinnekoo, James B Atkinson, Leah W Burke, Hoiwan Cheung, Shoumita Dasgupta, Julia DeLaGarza, Loren Joseph, Robin LeGallo, Madelyn Lew, Christina M Lockwood, Alice Meiss, Jennifer Norman, Priscilla Markwood, Hasan Rizvi, Kate P Shane-Carson, Mark E Sobel, Eric Suarez, Laura J Tafe, Jason Wang, Richard L Haspel
Genomic medicine is transforming patient care. However, the speed of development has left a knowledge gap between discovery and effective implementation into clinical practice. Since 2010, the Training Residents in Genomics (TRIG) Working Group has found success in building a rigorous genomics curriculum with implementation tools aimed at pathology residents in postgraduate training years 1-4. Based on the TRIG model, the interprofessional Undergraduate Training in Genomics (UTRIG) Working Group was formed...
May 1, 2018: Personalized Medicine
Wangqing Chen, Lisha Wu, Wu Zhu, Xiang Chen
AIM: VEGF and EGF are assumed to be involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, while the impacts of their polymorphisms on psoriasis are inconsistent. Therefore, we hope to clarify these relationships in the Chinese Han population. METHODS: A total of 131 patients with psoriasis vulgaris and 176 controls were enrolled. The polymorphisms rs833061 (T > C), rs10434 (G > A) in VEGFA, and rs4444903 (G > A), rs2237051 (A > G) in EGF of each participant were detected...
May 1, 2018: Personalized Medicine
Nicole St Jean, Carla Pinto, Ines Tenente, Grace Murray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2018: Personalized Medicine
Franziska M Ippen, Megan D'Andrea, Priscilla K Brastianos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2018: Personalized Medicine
Roland Tegtmeyer, Oliver Borst, Meinrad Gawaz, Dominik Rath
Recent guidelines suggest dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) after 'drug-eluting' stent (DES) implantation for 6 months in stable patients and for 12 months in patients after acute coronary syndrome. Serious complications after stent implantation include stent thrombosis, recurrent myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, cardiovascular death and bleeding. These complications also occur beyond 1 year after coronary intervention. Thus, it is important to consider whether a prolonged DAPT (>12 months after percutaneous coronary intervention) is of benefit to lower thrombo-ischemic events in high-risk patients...
May 1, 2018: Personalized Medicine
Alan Hb Wu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2018: Personalized Medicine
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