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International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898023/older-adults-outdoor-walking-inequalities-in-neighbourhood-safety-pedestrian-infrastructure-and-aesthetics
#1
Razieh Zandieh, Javier Martinez, Johannes Flacke, Phil Jones, Martin van Maarseveen
Older adults living in high-deprivation areas walk less than those living in low-deprivation areas. Previous research has shown that older adults' outdoor walking levels are related to the neighbourhood built environment. This study examines inequalities in perceived built environment attributes (i.e., safety, pedestrian infrastructure and aesthetics) and their possible influences on disparities in older adults' outdoor walking levels in low- and high-deprivation areas of Birmingham, United Kingdom. It applied a mixed-method approach, included 173 participants (65 years and over), used GPS technology to measure outdoor walking levels, used questionnaires (for all participants) and conducted walking interviews (with a sub-sample) to collect data on perceived neighbourhood built environment attributes...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898019/association-between-family-and-friend-smoking-status-and-adolescent-smoking-behavior-and-e-cigarette-use-in-korea
#2
Myoung Jin Joung, Mi Ah Han, Jong Park, So Yeon Ryu
Smoking is harmful to the health of adolescents because their bodies are still growing. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between the smoking status of Korean adolescents' parents and friends and their own smoking behavior. The study assessed a nationwide sample of 72,060 middle and high students from the 10th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (2014). Descriptive analysis, chi-square tests, and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to probe the association between family and friend smoking status and adolescent smoking behavior...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898017/assessment-of-macro-level-socioeconomic-factors-that-impact-waterborne-diseases-the-case-of-jordan
#3
John M Polimeni, Ahmad Almalki, Raluca I Iorgulescu, Lucian-Liviu Albu, Wendy M Parker, Ray Chandrasekara
The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is an example of a country that suffers from high water scarcity. Additionally, due to the economic drivers in the country, such as phosphate and potash extraction and pharmaceutical production, the little fresh water that remains is generally polluted. The infrastructure, often antiquated in urban areas and non-existent in rural areas, also contributes to poor water conditions and to the spread of waterborne diseases. This paper examines the socioeconomic factors that contribute to diarrhea and hepatitis A on a macro level in Jordan and discusses the public-policies that government officials could use to abate those problems...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898016/recent-advances-on-inorganic-nanoparticle-based-cancer-therapeutic-agents
#4
REVIEW
Fenglin Wang, Chengyao Li, Jing Cheng, Zhiqin Yuan
Inorganic nanoparticles have been widely investigated as therapeutic agents for cancer treatments in biomedical fields due to their unique physical/chemical properties, versatile synthetic strategies, easy surface functionalization and excellent biocompatibility. This review focuses on the discussion of several types of inorganic nanoparticle-based cancer therapeutic agents, including gold nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles, upconversion nanoparticles and mesoporous silica nanoparticles. Several cancer therapy techniques are briefly introduced at the beginning...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898013/health-effects-due-to-radionuclides-content-of-solid-minerals-within-port-of-richards-bay-south-africa
#5
Felix B Masok, Paulus L Masiteng, Risimati D Mavunda, Peane P Maleka
This study assessed the radiological health hazards to various body organs of workers working within Transnet Precinct in Richards Bay in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa due to radionuclide content of mineral ores often stored within the facility. Thirty samples were collected from five mineral ores (rock phosphate, rutile, zircon, coal and hematite) and analyzed for (238)U, (234)U, (226)Ra, (210)Pb, (235)U, (232)Th, (228)Ra, (228)Th and (40)K using delayed neutron activation analysis and low energy gamma spectroscopy...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886146/a-robot-based-tool-for-physical-and-cognitive-rehabilitation-of-elderly-people-using-biofeedback
#6
Leire Lopez-Samaniego, Begonya Garcia-Zapirain
This publication presents a complete description of a technological solution system for the physical and cognitive rehabilitation of elderly people through a biofeedback system, which is combined with a Lego robot. The technology used was the iOS's (iPhone Operating System) Objective-C programming language and its XCode programming environment; and SQLite in order to create the database. The biofeedback system is implemented by the use of two biosensors which are, in fact, a Microsoft band 2 in order to register the user's heart rate and a MYO sensor to detect the user's arm movement...
November 24, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886143/neonatal-diesel-exhaust-particulate-exposure-does-not-predispose-mice-to-adult-cardiac-hypertrophy-or-heart-failure
#7
Yonggang Liu, Chad S Weldy, Michael T Chin
Background: We have previously reported that in utero and early life exposure to diesel exhaust particulates predisposes mice to adult heart failure, and that in utero exposure alone is sufficient to confer this predisposition. This follow up study addresses whether neonatal exposure alone can also confer this predisposition. Methods: Newborn male C57BL/6 mice were exposed to diesel exhaust (DE) particulates immediately after birth until weaning at 21 days of age, whereupon they were transferred to filtered air (FA) conditions...
November 24, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886140/english-stop-smoking-services-one-year-outcomes
#8
Linda Bauld, Rosemary Hiscock, Fiona Dobbie, Paul Aveyard, Tim Coleman, Jo Leonardi-Bee, Hayden McRobbie, Andy McEwen
The UK is a global leader in stop-smoking support-providing free behavioral support and cessation medication via stop smoking services (SSS) without charge to smokers. This study aimed to explore the client and service characteristics associated with abstinence 52 weeks after quitting. A prospective cohort study of 3057 SSS clients in nine different areas of England who began their quit attempt between March 2012 and March 2013 was conducted. Important determinants of long-term quitting were assessed through quit rates and multivariable logistic regression...
November 24, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886139/research-on-the-relationship-between-reaction-ability-and-mental-state-for-online-assessment-of-driving-fatigue
#9
Mengzhu Guo, Shiwu Li, Linhong Wang, Meng Chai, Facheng Chen, Yunong Wei
Background: Driving fatigue affects the reaction ability of a driver. The aim of this research is to analyze the relationship between driving fatigue, physiological signals and driver's reaction time. Methods: Twenty subjects were tested during driving. Data pertaining to reaction time and physiological signals including electroencephalograph (EEG) were collected from twenty simulation experiments. Grey correlation analysis was used to select the input variable of the classification model. A support vector machine was used to divide the mental state into three levels...
November 24, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886138/time-trend-in-psychotropic-medication-use-in-spain-a-nationwide-population-based-study
#10
Pilar Carrasco-Garrido, Valentín Hernández-Barrera, Isabel Jiménez-Trujillo, Jesús Esteban-Hernández, Alejandro Álvaro-Meca, Ana López-de Andrés, José Luis DelBarrio-Fernández, Rodrigo Jiménez-García
Background: We performed an epidemiologic study to analyze nationwide time trends in adult psychotropic drug use over a period from 2006 to 2012, and to identify those factors associated with the likelihood of consumption of these drugs during the study period; Methods: Cross-sectional study on psychotropic medication in the Spanish adult population. We used secondary individualized data drawn from the 2006 and 2012 Spanish National Health Surveys (SNHS). The dependent variable was the use of psychotropic drugs in the previous two weeks...
November 24, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886137/ecosystem-services-insights-into-water-resources-management-in-china-a-case-of-xi-an-city
#11
Jingya Liu, Jing Li, Ziyi Gao, Min Yang, Keyu Qin, Xiaonan Yang
Global climate and environmental changes are endangering global water resources; and several approaches have been tested to manage and reduce the pressure on these decreasing resources. This study uses the case study of Xi'an City in China to test reasonable and effective methods to address water resource shortages. The study generated a framework combining ecosystem services and water resource management. Seven ecosystem indicators were classified as supply services, regulating services, or cultural services...
November 24, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886113/predictors-of-urinary-3-phenoxybenzoic-acid-levels-in-50-north-carolina-adults
#12
Marsha Morgan, Paul Jones, Jon Sobus, Dana Boyd Barr
Limited data are available on the non-chemical stressors that impact adult exposures to pyrethroid insecticides based on urinary biomonitoring. The urinary metabolite, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), is commonly used to assess human exposure to a number of pyrethroids. In a further analysis of published study data, we quantified urinary 3-PBA levels of 50 adults over a single, 24-h sampling period and examined the associations between the biomarker measurements and selected non-chemical stressors (demographic, lifestyle, and dietary factors)...
November 23, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886111/effects-of-fetal-exposure-to-asian-sand-dust-on-development-and-reproduction-in-male-offspring
#13
Seiichi Yoshida, Takamichi Ichinose, Keiichi Arashidani, Miao He, Hirohisa Takano, Takayuki Shibamoto
In recent experimental studies, we reported the aggravating effects of Asian sand dust (ASD) on male reproduction in mice. However, the effects of fetal ASD exposure on male reproduction have not been investigated. The present study investigated the effects of fetal ASD exposure on reproduction in male offspring. Using pregnant CD-1 mice, ASD was administered intratracheally on days 7 and 14 of gestation, and the reproduction of male offspring was determined at 5, 10, and 15 weeks after birth. The secondary sex ratio was significantly lower in the fetal ASD-exposed mice than in the controls...
November 23, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886110/effects-of-scale-question-location-order-of-response-alternatives-and-season-on-self-reported-noise-annoyance-using-icben-scales-a-field-experiment
#14
Mark Brink, Dirk Schreckenberg, Danielle Vienneau, Christian Cajochen, Jean-Marc Wunderli, Nicole Probst-Hensch, Martin Röösli
The type of noise annoyance scale and aspects of its presentation such as response format or location within a questionnaire and other contextual factors may affect self-reported noise annoyance. By means of a balanced experimental design, the effect of type of annoyance question and corresponding scale (5-point verbal vs. 11-point numerical ICBEN (International Commission on Biological Effects of Noise) scale), presentation order of scale points (ascending vs. descending), question location (early vs. late within the questionnaire), and survey season (autumn vs...
November 23, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886107/evaluation-research-of-the-effects-of-longitudinal-speed-reduction-markings-on-driving-behavior-a-driving-simulator-study
#15
Han Ding, Xiaohua Zhao, Jianming Ma, Jian Rong
The objective of this paper is to explore the effects of longitudinal speed reduction markings (LSRMs) on vehicle maneuvering and drivers' operation performance on interchange connectors with different radii. Empirical data were collected in a driving simulator. Indicators-relative speed change, standard deviation of acceleration, and gas/brake pedal power-were proposed to characterize driving behavior. Statistical results revealed that LSRMs could reduce vehicles' travel speed and limit drivers' willingness to increase speed in the entire connector...
November 23, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886104/prevalence-and-parental-risk-factors-for-speech-disability-associated-with-cleft-palate-in-chinese-children-a-national-survey
#16
Chunfeng Yun, Zhenjie Wang, Ping He, Chao Guo, Gong Chen, Xiaoying Zheng
Although the prevalence of oral clefts in China is among the highest worldwide, little is known about the prevalence of speech disability associated with cleft palate in Chinese children. The data for this study were collected from the Second China National Sample Survey on Disability, and identification of speech disability associated with cleft palate was based on consensus manuals. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A weighted number of 112,070 disabled children affected by cleft palate were identified, yielding a prevalence of 3...
November 23, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886103/groundwater-vulnerability-assessment-of-the-pingtung-plain-in-southern-taiwan
#17
Ching-Ping Liang, Cheng-Shin Jang, Cheng-Wei Liang, Jui-Sheng Chen
In the Pingtung Plain of southern Taiwan, elevated levels of NO₃(-)-N in groundwater have been reported. Therefore, efforts for assessing groundwater vulnerability are required as part of the critical steps to prevent and control groundwater pollution. This study makes a groundwater vulnerability assessment for the Pingtung Plain using an improved overlay and index-based DRASTIC model. The improvement of the DRASTIC model is achieved by reassigning the weighting coefficients of the factors in this model with the help of a discriminant analysis statistical method...
November 23, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886102/an-investigation-on-the-effect-of-extremely-low-frequency-pulsed-electromagnetic-fields-on-human-electrocardiograms-ecgs
#18
Qiang Fang, Seedahmed S Mahmoud, Jiayong Yan, Hui Li
For this investigation, we studied the effects of extremely low frequency pulse electromagnetic fields (ELF-PEMF) on the human cardiac signal. Electrocardiograms (ECGs) of 22 healthy volunteers before and after a short duration of ELF-PEMF exposure were recorded. The experiment was conducted under single-blind conditions. The root mean square (RMS) value of the recorded data was considered as comparison criteria. We also measured and analysed four important ECG time intervals before and after ELF-PEMF exposure...
November 23, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886098/is-green-exercise-for-all-a-descriptive-study-of-green-exercise-habits-and-promoting-factors-in-adult-norwegians
#19
Giovanna Calogiuri, Grete G Patil, Geir Aamodt
Background: Physical activity (PA) in natural environments, known as green exercise (GE), can provide health benefits above and beyond PA in other environments, but little is known about the extent to which GE is an accessible form of weekly PA across different social groups. This study aims to examine the "GE phenomenon" in Norway, and evaluate possible differences in GE habits and perceived factors that promote GE across sub-groups of this population. Methods: 2168 adults from all over Norway reported weekly GE and other forms of PA, specific forms of GE, and perceived factors that promote GE...
November 23, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886095/sociocultural-determinants-of-risky-sexual-behaviors-among-adult-latinas-a-longitudinal-study-of-a-community-based-sample
#20
Patria Rojas, Hui Huang, Tan Li, Gira J Ravelo, Mariana Sanchez, Christyl Dawson, Judith Brook, Mariano Kanamori, Mario De La Rosa
Few studies have examined the sociocultural determinants of risky sexual behavior trajectories among adult Latinas. To longitudinally examine the link between sociocultural determinants of risky sexual behaviors, we followed a sample of adult Latina mother-daughter dyads (n = 267) across a 10-year span through four waves of data collection. The present study investigates how risky sexual behavior (operationalized as sex under the influence of alcohol or other drugs, sex without a condom, or multiple sex partners) is affected by: (a) socioeconomic conditions; (b) mental health; (c) medical health; (d) acculturation to U...
November 23, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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