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Pharmaceuticals

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916867/methods-of-synthesis-properties-and-biomedical-applications-of-cuo-nanoparticles
#1
REVIEW
Madalina Elena Grigore, Elena Ramona Biscu, Alina Maria Holban, Monica Cartelle Gestal, Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu
This study aims to provide an updated survey of the main synthesis methods of copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles in order to obtain tailored nanosystems for various biomedical applications. The synthesis approach significantly impacts the properties of such nanoparticles and these properties in turn have a significant impact on their biomedical applications. Although not widely investigated as an efficient drug delivery system, CuO nanoparticles have great biological properties including effective antimicrobial action against a wide range of pathogens and also drug resistant bacteria...
November 30, 2016: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898030/assessment-of-the-activity-of-tigecycline-against-gram-positive-and-gram-negative-organisms-collected-from-italy-between-2012-and-2014-as-part-of-the-tigecycline-evaluation-and-surveillance-trial-t-e-s-t
#2
Stefania Stefani, Michael J Dowzicky
As part of the Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial (T.E.S.T) we report the in vitro activity of tigecycline and its comparators against Gram-negative and Gram-positive organisms collected from Italian centers between 2012 and 2014. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined according to the broth microdilution methodology of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, and antimicrobial resistance was determined using the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing interpretive criteria...
November 26, 2016: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869720/30i%C3%A3-mes-journ%C3%A3-es-franco-belges-de-pharmacochimie
#3
Samia Aci-Sèche, Frédéric Buron, Karen Plé, Laurent Robin, Franck Suzenet, Sylvain Routier
The "Journées Franco-Belges de Pharmacochimie" is a recognized annual meeting in organic and medicinal chemistry known for the quality of scientific exchange and conviviality. Young researchers were encouraged to present their work and share ideas with senior scientists. Abstracts of plenary lectures, oral communications, and posters presented during the meeting are collected in this report.
November 18, 2016: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854251/nociceptive-trp-channels-sensory-detectors-and-transducers-in-multiple-pain-pathologies
#4
REVIEW
Aaron D Mickle, Andrew J Shepherd, Durga P Mohapatra
Specialized receptors belonging to the transient receptor potential (TRP) family of ligand-gated ion channels constitute the critical detectors and transducers of pain-causing stimuli. Nociceptive TRP channels are predominantly expressed by distinct subsets of sensory neurons of the peripheral nervous system. Several of these TRP channels are also expressed in neurons of the central nervous system, and in non-neuronal cells that communicate with sensory nerves. Nociceptive TRPs are activated by specific physico-chemical stimuli to provide the excitatory trigger in neurons...
November 14, 2016: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834897/curcumin-as-a-modulator-of-p-glycoprotein-in-cancer-challenges-and-perspectives
#5
REVIEW
Vanessa Lopes-Rodrigues, Emília Sousa, M Helena Vasconcelos
Multidrug resistance (MDR) presents a serious challenge to the efficiency of cancer treatment, and may be associated with the overexpression of drug efflux pumps. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a drug efflux pump often found overexpressed in cases of acquired MDR. Nevertheless, there are no P-gp inhibitors being used in the current clinical practice, due to toxicity problems, drug interactions, or pharmacokinetic issues. Therefore, it is important to identify novel inhibitors of P-gp activity or expression. Curcumin is a secondary metabolite isolated from the turmeric of Curcuma longa L...
November 10, 2016: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827953/blocking-trpa1-in-respiratory-disorders-does-it-hold-a-promise
#6
REVIEW
Indranil Mukhopadhyay, Abhay Kulkarni, Neelima Khairatkar-Joshi
Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) ion channel is expressed abundantly on the C fibers that innervate almost entire respiratory tract starting from oral cavity and oropharynx, conducting airways in the trachea, bronchi, terminal bronchioles, respiratory bronchioles and upto alveolar ducts and alveoli. Functional presence of TRPA1 on non-neuronal cells got recognized recently. TRPA1 plays a well-recognized role of "chemosensor", detecting presence of exogenous irritants and endogenous pro-inflammatory mediators that are implicated in airway inflammation and sensory symptoms like chronic cough, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), allergic rhinitis and cystic fibrosis...
November 5, 2016: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827876/aptamer-mediated-targeted-delivery-of-therapeutics-an-update
#7
REVIEW
Silvia Catuogno, Carla L Esposito, Vittorio de Franciscis
The selective delivery of drugs in a cell- or tissue-specific manner represents the main challenge for medical research; in order to reduce the occurrence of unwanted off-target effects. In this regard, nucleic acid aptamers have emerged as an attractive class of carrier molecules due to their ability to bind with high affinity to specific ligands; their high chemical flexibility; as well as tissue penetration capability. To date, different aptamer-drug systems and aptamer-nanoparticles systems, in which nanoparticles function together with aptamers for the targeted delivery, have been successfully developed for a wide range of therapeutics, including toxins; peptides; chemotherapeutics and oligonucleotides...
November 3, 2016: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809286/the-development-of-a-parenteral-pharmaceutical-formulation-of-a-new-class-of-compounds-of-nitrosourea
#8
Ludmila Nikolaeva, Natalia Oborotova, Natalia Bunyatyan, Xi Zhang, Ekaterina Sanarova, Anna Lantsova, Olga Orlova, Alevtina Polozkova
Despite the rapid development of medical technologies, chemotherapy treatment still occupies an important place in clinical oncology. In this regard, the current research in this area focuses on the synthesis of new highly effective antitumor substances that have minimal side effects and the development of stable pharmaceutical formulations (PF) on their basis. In order to solve this problem, the I. Ya. Postovsky Institute of Organic Synthesis of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences actively sought for original substances, namely, nitrosourea (NU) derivatives, one of the most promising classes of anticancer drugs...
November 1, 2016: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809281/ph-dependent-antimicrobial-peptides-and-proteins-their-mechanisms-of-action-and-potential-as-therapeutic-agents
#9
REVIEW
Erum Malik, Sarah R Dennison, Frederick Harris, David A Phoenix
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are potent antibiotics of the innate immune system that have been extensively investigated as a potential solution to the global problem of infectious diseases caused by pathogenic microbes. A group of AMPs that are increasingly being reported are those that utilise pH dependent antimicrobial mechanisms, and here we review research into this area. This review shows that these antimicrobial molecules are produced by a diverse spectrum of creatures, including vertebrates and invertebrates, and are primarily cationic, although a number of anionic examples are known...
November 1, 2016: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809268/use-of-capsaicin-to-treat-pain-mechanistic-and-therapeutic-considerations
#10
REVIEW
Man-Kyo Chung, James N Campbell
Capsaicin is the pungent ingredient of chili peppers and is approved as a topical treatment of neuropathic pain. The analgesia lasts for several months after a single treatment. Capsaicin selectively activates TRPV1, a Ca(2+)-permeable cationic ion channel that is enriched in the terminals of certain nociceptors. Activation is followed by a prolonged decreased response to noxious stimuli. Interest also exists in the use of injectable capsaicin as a treatment for focal pain conditions, such as arthritis and other musculoskeletal conditions...
November 1, 2016: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801865/herbal-products-in-italy-the-thin-line-between-phytotherapy-nutrition-and-parapharmaceuticals-a-normative-overview-of-the-fastest-growing-market-in-europe
#11
REVIEW
Marco Biagi, Rita Pecorari, Giovanni Appendino, Elisabetta Miraldi, Anna Rosa Magnano, Paolo Governa, Giulia Cettolin, Daniela Giachetti
The Italian herbal products market is the most prosperous in Europe. The proof is represented by the use of these products in several marketing categories, ranging from medicine to nutrition and cosmetics. Market and legislation in Italy are at the same time cause and consequence of this peculiar situation. In fact, the legislation on botanical food supplements in Italy is very permissive and at the same time the market shows an overall satisfaction of users and strong feedback in terms of consumption, which brings a widening use of medicinal plants, formerly the prerogative of pharmaceuticals, to other fields such as nutrition...
October 29, 2016: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783034/aptamers-a-new-technological-platform-in-cancer-immunotherapy
#12
REVIEW
Fernando Pastor
The renaissance of cancer immunotherapy is, nowadays, a reality. In the near future, it will be very likely among the first-line treatments for cancer patients. There are several different approaches to modulate the immune system to fight against tumor maladies but, so far, monoclonal antibodies may currently be the most successful immuno-tools used to that end. The number of ongoing clinical trials with monoclonal antibodies has been increasing exponentially over the last few years upon the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of the first immune-checkpoint blockade antibodies...
October 24, 2016: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763542/green-extraction-from-pomegranate-marcs-for-the-production-of-functional-foods-and-cosmetics
#13
Raffaella Boggia, Federica Turrini, Carla Villa, Chiara Lacapra, Paola Zunin, Brunella Parodi
The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of retrieving polyphenolic antioxidants directly from wet pomegranate marcs: the fresh by-products obtained after pomegranate juice processing. These by-products mainly consist of internal membranes (endocarp) and aril residues. Even if they are still edible, they are usually discharged during juice production and, thus, they represent a great challenge in an eco-sustainable industrial context. Green technologies, such as ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) and microwave assisted extraction (MAE), have been employed to convert these organic residues into recycled products with high added value...
October 18, 2016: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782051/pmpes-a-modular-peptide-expression-system-for-the-delivery-of-antimicrobial-peptides-to-the-site-of-gastrointestinal-infections-using-probiotics
#14
Kathryn Geldart, Brittany Forkus, Evelyn McChesney, Madeline McCue, Yiannis N Kaznessis
Antimicrobial peptides are a promising alternative to traditional antibiotics, but their utility is limited by high production costs and poor bioavailability profiles. Bacterial production and delivery of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) directly at the site of infection may offer a path for effective therapeutic application. In this study, we have developed a vector that can be used for the production and secretion of seven antimicrobial peptides from both Escherichia coli MC1061 F' and probiotic E.coli Nissle 1917...
October 5, 2016: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27657092/antimicrobial-peptides-targeting-gram-positive-bacteria
#15
REVIEW
Nermina Malanovic, Karl Lohner
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have remarkably different structures as well as biological activity profiles, whereupon most of these peptides are supposed to kill bacteria via membrane damage. In order to understand their molecular mechanism and target cell specificity for Gram-positive bacteria, it is essential to consider the architecture of their cell envelopes. Before AMPs can interact with the cytoplasmic membrane of Gram-positive bacteria, they have to traverse the cell wall composed of wall- and lipoteichoic acids and peptidoglycan...
September 20, 2016: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618069/trpv3-in-drug-development
#16
REVIEW
Lisa M Broad, Adrian J Mogg, Elizabeth Eberle, Marcia Tolley, Dominic L Li, Kelly L Knopp
Transient receptor potential vanilloid 3 (TRPV3) is a member of the TRP (Transient Receptor Potential) super-family. It is a relatively underexplored member of the thermo-TRP sub-family (Figure 1), however, genetic mutations and use of gene knock-outs and selective pharmacological tools are helping to provide insights into its role and therapeutic potential. TRPV3 is highly expressed in skin, where it is implicated in skin physiology and pathophysiology, thermo-sensing and nociception. Gain of function TRPV3 mutations in rodent and man have enabled the role of TRPV3 in skin health and disease to be particularly well defined...
September 9, 2016: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618068/preparation-of-temozolomide-loaded-nanoparticles-for-glioblastoma-multiforme-targeting-ideal-versus-reality
#17
Chooi Yeng Lee, Ing Hong Ooi
Temozolomide (TMZ) is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents for glioblastoma multiforme, but the required high administration dose is accompanied by side effects. To overcome this problem and to further improve TMZ's efficacy, targeted delivery of TMZ by using polymeric nanoparticles has been explored. We synthesised the PLGA-PEG-FOL copolymer and attempted encapsulation of TMZ into PLGA-PEG-FOL nanoparticles using the emulsion solvent evaporation method and the nanoprecipitation method. Conjugation of PEG and FOL to PLGA has been reported to be able to increase the delivery of TMZ to the brain as well as targeting the glioma cells...
September 8, 2016: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618067/targeting-trpm2-in-ros-coupled-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Shinichiro Yamamoto, Shunichi Shimizu
Under pathological conditions such as inflammation and ischemia-reperfusion injury large amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated which, in return, contribute to the development and exacerbation of disease. The second member of the transient receptor potential (TRP) melastatin subfamily, TRPM2, is a Ca(2+)-permeable non-selective cation channel, activated by ROS in an ADP-ribose mediated fashion. In other words, TRPM2 functions as a transducer that converts oxidative stress into Ca(2+) signaling...
September 7, 2016: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618066/%C3%A2-h-and-15-n-nmr-analyses-on-heparin-heparan-sulfates-and-related-monosaccharides-concerning-the-chemical-exchange-regime-of-the-n-sulfo-glucosamine-sulfamate-proton
#19
Vitor H Pomin
Heparin and heparan sulfate are structurally related glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Both GAGs present, although in different concentrations, N-sulfo-glucosamine (GlcNS) as one of their various composing units. The conditional fast exchange property of the GlcNS sulfamate proton in these GAGs has been pointed as the main barrier to its signal detection via NMR experiments, especially ¹H-(15)N HSQC. Here, a series of NMR spectra is collected on heparin, heparan sulfate and related monosaccharides. The N-acetyl glucosamine-linked uronic acid types of these GAGs were properly assigned in the ¹H-(15)N HSQC spectra...
September 7, 2016: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618065/therapeutic-potential-of-gramicidin-s-in-the-treatment-of-root-canal-infections
#20
Marina Berditsch, Hannah Lux, Oleg Babii, Sergii Afonin, Anne S Ulrich
An intrinsic clindamycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis, the most common single species present in teeth after failed root canal therapy, often possesses acquired tetracycline resistance. In these cases, root canal infections are commonly treated with Ledermix(®) paste, which contains demeclocycline, or the new alternative endodontic paste Odontopaste, which contains clindamycin; however, these treatments are often ineffective. We studied the killing activity of the cyclic antimicrobial peptide gramicidin S (GS) against planktonic and biofilm cells of tetracycline-resistant clinical isolates of E...
September 7, 2016: Pharmaceuticals
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