journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398935/vaccination-as-a-cause-of-autism-myths-and-controversies
#1
Michael Davidson
Despite significant progress in the study of the epidemiology and genetics of autism, the etiology and patho-physiology of this condition is far from being elucidated and no curative treatment currently exists. Although solid scientific research continues, in an attempt to find explanations and solutions, a number of nonscientific and pure myths about autism have emerged. Myths that vaccines or mercury are associated with autism have been amplified by misguided scientists; frustrated, but effective parent groups; and politicians...
December 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398934/pharmacotherapy-of-emotional-and-behavioral-symptoms-associated-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-children-and-adolescents
#2
Ekaterina Stepanova, Susannah Dowling, Molly Phelps, Robert L Findling
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by impairment in social communication and restricted patterns of behavior. Although there is no pharmacological treatment approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the core symptoms of ASD, there is mounting support in the literature for the management of behavioral symptoms associated with this developmental disorder, in particular, irritability and hyperactivity. Aripiprazole and risperidone are currently approved by the FDA for the treatment of irritability in youth with ASD...
December 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398933/sexuality-in-autism-hypersexual-and-paraphilic-behavior-in-women-and-men-with-high-functioning-autism-spectrum-disorder
#3
Daniel Schöttle, Peer Briken, Oliver Tüscher, Daniel Turner
Like nonaffected adults, individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) show the entire range of sexual behaviors. However, due to the core symptoms of the disorder spectrum, including deficits in social skills, sensory hypo- and hypersensitivities, and repetitive behaviors, some ASD individuals might develop quantitatively above-average or nonnormative sexual behaviors and interests. After reviewing the relevant literature on sexuality in high-functioning ASD individuals, we present novel findings on the frequency of normal sexual behaviors and those about the assessment of hypersexual and paraphilic fantasies and behaviors in ASD individuals from our own study...
December 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398932/neuropsychological-assessment-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-related-conditions
#4
Georg Peter Zwick
Neuropsychological assessment provides a profound analysis of cognitive functioning in people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Individuals on the autistic spectrum often show a high level of anxiety and are frequently affected by comorbidities that influence their quality of life. Yet, they also have cognitive strengths that should be identified in order to develop effective support strategies. This article presents an overview of five cognitive areas that are essential for neuropsychological evaluation (ie, intelligence, attention, executive function, social cognition, and praxis) and explores the underlying causes of behavioral problems in persons with ASD...
December 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398931/syndromic-autism-spectrum-disorders-moving-from-a-clinically-defined-to-a-molecularly-defined-approach
#5
Bridget A Fernandez, Stephen W Scherer
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) encompasses a group of neurodevelopmental conditions diagnosed solely on the basis of behavioral assessments that reveal social deficits. Progress has been made in understanding its genetic underpinnings, but most ASD-associated genetic variants, which include copy number variants (CNVs) and mutations in ASD-risk genes, account for no more than 1 % of ASD cases. This high level of genetic heterogeneity leads to challenges obtaining and interpreting genetic testing in clinical settings...
December 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398930/autism-and-talent-the-cognitive-and-neural-basis-of-systemizing
#6
Simon Baron-Cohen, Michael V Lombardo
In 2003, we proposed the hypersystemizing theory of autism. The theory proposes that the human mind possesses a systemizing mechanism (SM) that helps identify lawful regularities (often causal) that govern the input-operation-output workings of a system. The SM can be tuned to different levels, from low to high, with a normal distribution of individual differences in how strongly people search for such input-operation-out-put regularities in any data that is systemizable. Evidence suggests that people with autism are on average hypersystemizers, scoring higher than average on the systemizing quotient and on performance tests of systemizing...
December 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398929/translating-genetic-and-preclinical-findings-into-autism-therapies
#7
Maria Chahrour, Robin J Kleiman, M Chiara Manzini
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by social deficits and repetitive/restrictive interests. ASD is associated with multiple comorbidities, including intellectual disability, anxiety, and epilepsy. Evidence that ASD is highly heritable has spurred major efforts to unravel its genetics, revealing possible contributions from hundreds of genes through rare and common variation and through copy-number changes. In this perspective, we provide an overview of the current state of ASD genetics and of how genetic research has spurred the development of in vivo and in vitro models using animals and patient cells to evaluate the impact of genetic mutations on cellular function leading to disease...
December 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398928/brain-and-behavior-development-in-autism-from-birth-through-infancy
#8
Mark D Shen, Joseph Piven
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous condition that affects 1 in 68 children. Diagnosis is based on the presence of characteristic behavioral impairments that emerge in the second year of life and thus is not typically made until 3 to 4 years of age. Recent studies of early brain and behavior development have provided important new insights into the nature of this condition. Autism-specific brain imaging features have been identified as early as 6 months of age, and age-specific brain and behavior changes have been demonstrated across the first 2 years of life, highlighting the developmental nature of ASD...
December 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398927/new-perspectives-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#9
Florence Thibaut
Autism spectrum disorder, a complex developmental disorder, has been found to be one of the most heritable neuropsychiatric disorders. The next step will be to translate these findings into successful treatments for this disorder.
December 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302228/cannabis-cannabinoids-and-health
#10
Genevieve Lafaye, Laurent Karila, Lisa Blecha, Amine Benyamina
Cannabis (also known as marijuana) is the most frequently used illicit psychoactive substance in the world. Though it was long considered to be a "soft" drug, studies have proven the harmful psychiatric and addictive effects associated with its use. A number of elements are responsible for the increased complications of cannabis use, including the increase in the potency of cannabis and an evolution in the ratio between the two primary components, Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9 -THC) and cannabidiol (toward a higher proportion of Δ9 -THC), Synthetic cannabinoid (SC) use has rapidly progressed over the last few years, primarily among frequent cannabis users, because SCs provide similar psychoactive effects to cannabis...
September 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302227/treatment-of-opioid-dependence-with-buprenorphine-current-update
#11
Michael Soyka
Opioid maintenance treatment is the first-line approach in opioid dependence. Both the full opioid agonist methadone (MET) and the partial agonist buprenorphine (BUP) are licensed for the treatment of opioid dependence. BUP differs significantly from MET in its pharmacology, side effects, and safety issues. For example, the risk of respiratory depression is lower than with MET. The risk of diversion and injection of BUP have been reduced by also making it available as a tablet containing the opioid antagonist naloxone...
September 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302226/minding-the-brain-the-role-of-pharmacotherapy-in-substance-use-disorder-treatment
#12
Dakwar Elias, Herbert D Kleber
With its medicalization as a brain-based disease, addiction has come to be regarded as amenable to biomedical treatment approaches, most commonly pharmacotherapy. Various vulnerabilities are recognized to contribute to maladaptive substance use, and have been linked to diverse neurobiological alterations that may be targeted with pharmacotherapy: withdrawal, craving and cue reactivity, and aberrant reward processing are the most significant. Here, we summarize current thinking regarding pharmacotherapy for substance-use disorders, grouping medications by the type of vulnerability they propose to address and providing insight into their neurobiological mechanisms...
September 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302225/clinical-neuropsychiatric-considerations-regarding-nonsubstance-or-behavioral-addictions
#13
Marc N Potenza
Over the past several decades, non-substance-use behaviors like gambling, gaming, and sex have received greater consideration as possible foci of addictions. In this article, I will review the recent history and current status of non-substance or behavioral addictions. A main focus will involve gambling and gambling disorder, given that the latter is currently the sole non-substance addictive disorder described in the main text of the current (fifth) edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) ...
September 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302224/tobacco-use-disorder-and-treatment-new-challenges-and-opportunities
#14
Douglas Ziedonis, Smita Das, Celine Larkin
Tobacco use remains a global problem, and options for consumers have increased with the development and marketing of e-cigarettes and other new nicotine and tobacco products, such as "heat-not-burn" tobacco and dissolvable tobacco. The increased access to these new products is juxtaposed with expanding public health and clinical intervention options, including mobile technologies and social media. The persistent high rate of tobacco-use disorders among those with psychiatric disorders has gathered increased global attention, including successful approaches to individual treatment and organizational-level interventions...
September 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302223/the-prescription-opioid-epidemic-a-review-of-qualitative-studies-on-the-progression-from-initial-use-to-abuse
#15
Theodore J Cicero, Matthew S Ellis
Most research designed to answer the "why" of the prescription opioid epidemic has relied on structured interviews, which rigidly attempt to capture the complex reasons people use opioids. In contrast this systematic literature review focuses on peer-reviewed studies that have used a qualitative approach to examine the development of an opioid-use disorder from the point of initial exposure. Rather than simply providing a "high," opioids reportedly relieve psychological/emotional problems or provide an escape from life stressors...
September 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302222/animal-models-of-addiction
#16
Rainer Spanagel
In recent years, animal models in psychiatric research have been criticized for their limited translational value to the clinical situation. Failures in clinical trials have thus often been attributed to the lack of predictive power of preclinical animal models. Here, I argue that animal models of voluntary drug intake-under nonoperant and operant conditions-and addiction models based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders are crucial and informative tools for the identification of pathological mechanisms, target identification, and drug development...
September 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302221/genetics-of-addictive-behavior-the-example-of-nicotine-dependence
#17
Philip Gorwood, Yann Le Strat, Nicolas Ramoz
The majority of addictive disorders have a significant heritability-roughly around 50%. Surprisingly, the most convincing association (a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor CHRNA5-A3-B4 gene cluster in nicotine dependence), with a unique attributable risk of 14%, was detected through a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on lung cancer, although lung cancer has a low heritability. We propose some explanations of this finding, potentially helping to understand how a GWAS strategy can be successful. Many endophenotypes were also assessed as potentially modulating the effect of nicotine, indirectly facilitating the development of nicotine dependence...
September 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302220/a-brief-review-of-the-genetics-and-pharmacogenetics-of-opioid-use-disorders
#18
Wade Berrettini
Increased physician prescribing of opioids to treat chronic nonprogressive pain has been accompanied by an increase in opioid addiction. Twin studies of opioid addiction are consistent with an inherited component of risk, approximately 50%. Several genome-wide association study (GWAS) reports indicate that genetic risk for opioid addiction is conveyed by many alleles of small effect (odds ratios <1.5). These reports have detected alleles in potassium-ion-channel genes ( KCNC1 and KCNG2 ) and in a glutamate receptor auxiliary protein (CNIH3)...
September 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302219/individual-differences-in-the-neuropsychopathology-of-addiction
#19
Olivier George, George F Koob
Drug addiction or substance-use disorder is a chronically relapsing disorder that progresses through binge/intoxication, withdrawal/negative affect and preoccupation/anticipation stages. These stages represent diverse neurobiological mechanisms that are differentially involved in the transition from recreational to compulsive drug use and from positive to negative reinforcement. The progression from recreational to compulsive substance use is associated with downregulation of the brain reward systems and upregulation of the brain stress systems...
September 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302218/addictive-behaviors-where-do-we-stand-and-where-are-we-going
#20
Florence Thibaut, Margret Hoehe
Tobacco and alcohol use remain the most prevalent addictive behaviors reported and the leading risk factors for global burden of disease, injury, and death. Considering addiction as a chronically relapsing brain disorder has opened up the way for biomedical treatment approaches.
September 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
journal
journal
40954
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"