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Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566949/the-potential-role-of-neuroinflammation-and-transcription-factors-in-parkinson-disease
#1
Prafulla Chandra Tiwari, Rishi Pal
Parkinson disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by dopaminergic neurons affected by inflammatory processes. Post-mortem analyses of brain and cerebrospinal fluid from PD patients show the accumulation of proinflammatory cytokines, confirming an ongoing neuroinflammation in the affected brain regions. These inflammatory mediators may activate transcription factors-notably nuclear factor κB, Ying-Yang 1 (YY1), fibroblast growth factor 20 (FGF20), and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-which then regulate downstream signaling pathways that in turn promote death of dopaminergic neurons through death domain-containing receptors...
March 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566948/clinical-and-autoimmune-features-of-a-patient-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-seropositive-for-anti-nmda-receptor-autoantibody
#2
Hélène Gréa, Isabelle Scheid, Alexandru Gaman, Véronique Rogemond, Sandy Gillet, Jérôme Honnorat, Federico Bolognani, Christian Czech, Céline Bouquet, Elie Toledano, Manuel Bouvard, Richard Delorme, Laurent Groc, Marion Leboyer
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by dysfunctions in social interactions resulting from a complex interplay between immunogenetic and environmental risk factors. Autoimmunity has been proposed as a major etiological component of ASD. Whether specific autoantibodies directed against brain targets are involved in ASD remains an open question. Here, we identified within a cohort an ASD patient with multiple circulating autoantibodies, including the well-characterized one against glutamate NMDA receptor (NMDAR-Ab)...
March 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566947/immunological-aspects-of-the-treatment-of-depression-and-schizophrenia
#3
Norbert Müller
Schizophrenia and major depression (MD) have been associated with immune system dysfunction. One example of this is the altered level of cytokines-important inflammatory mediators-in blood, and a proinflammatory immune state has been described in some subgroups of patients. A knock to the immune system in early life might trigger a life-long increased immune reactivity, and infections and autoimmune disorders are now known to be risk factors for development of schizophrenia and MD. Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines mediate indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity; this enzyme drives metabolism of tryptophan and kynurenin in the central nervous system and degrades serotonin...
March 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566946/a-multispecies-approach-for-understanding-neuroimmune-mechanisms-of-stress
#4
Terrence Deak, Anastacia Kudinova, Dennis F Lovelock, Brandon E Gibb, Michael B Hennessy
The relationship between stress challenges and adverse health outcomes, particularly for the development of affective disorders, is now well established. The highly conserved neuroimmune mechanisms through which responses to stressors are transcribed into effects on males and females have recently garnered much attention from researchers and clinicians alike. The use of animal models, from mice to guinea pigs to primates, has greatly increased our understanding of these mechanisms on the molecular, cellular, and behavioral levels, and research in humans has identified particular brain regions and connections of interest, as well as associations between stress-induced inflammation and psychiatric disorders...
March 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566945/inflammation-opportunities-for-treatment-stratification-among-individuals-diagnosed-with-mood-disorders
#5
Mehala Subramaniapillai, Nicole E Carmona, Carola Rong, Roger S McIntyre
Mood disorders continue to be a significant burden to those affected, resulting in significant illness-associated disability and premature mortality. In addition to mood disturbance, individuals also suffer from other transdiagnostic impairments (eg, anhedonia and cognitive impairment). Although there have been significant advancements in psychiatric treatment over the last few decades, treatment efficacy (eg, symptom remission, lack of functional recovery, and disease modification) continues to be an important limitation...
March 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566944/in-immune-defense-redefining-the-role-of-the-immune-system-in-chronic-disease
#6
Katya B Rubinow, David R Rubinow
The recognition of altered immune system function in many chronic disease states has proven to be a pivotal advance in biomedical research over the past decade. For many metabolic and mood disorders, this altered immune activity has been characterized as inflammation, with the attendant assumption that the immune response is aberrant. However, accumulating evidence challenges this assumption and suggests that the immune system may be mounting adaptive responses to chronic stressors. Further, the inordinate complexity of immune function renders a simplistic, binary model incapable of capturing critical mechanistic insights...
March 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566943/affective-immunology-where-emotions-and-the-immune-response-converge
#7
Fulvio D'Acquisto
Affect and emotion are defined as "an essential part of the process of an organism's interaction with stimuli." Similar to affect, the immune response is the "tool" the body uses to interact with the external environment. Thanks to the emotional and immunological response, we learn to distinguish between what we like and what we do not like, to counteract a broad range of challenges, and to adjust to the environment we are living in. Recent compelling evidence has shown that the emotional and immunological systems share more than a similarity of functions...
March 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566942/neuroinflammation-new-vistas-for-neuropsychiatric-research
#8
Florence Thibaut
In psychiatric diseases such as mood disorders or schizophrenia, the inflammatory response system is activated. Microglia has gradually emerged as a key interface between stress-related signals and neuroimnune consequences of stress, with stressors leading to elevated microglial activity.
March 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179817/the-placenta-and-neurodevelopment-sex-differences-in-prenatal-vulnerability
#9
Tracy L Bale
Prenatal insults, such as maternal stress, are associated with an increased neurodevelopmental disease risk and impact males significantly more than females, including increased rates of autism, mental retardation, stuttering, dyslexia, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Sex differences in the placenta, which begin with sex chromosomes, are likely to produce sex-specific transplacental signals to the developing brain. Our studies and others have identified X-linked genes that are expressed at higher levels in the female placenta...
December 2016: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179816/sex-differences-in-the-psychopharmacological-treatment-of-depression
#10
John J Sramek, Michael F Murphy, Neal R Cutler
Although a number of studies have observed that females respond better to serotonergic antidepressants than males and that postmenopausal females have a diminished response to antidepressants compared with younger females, there are also studies that conflict with both of these findings, making any generalizations regarding sex differences difficult to make. Sex variance in antidepressant efficacy and pharmacokinetics profiles have been attributed to sex-based physiological differences, behavioral differences, related disorders, and sex-specific conditions, including pregnancy and menopause...
December 2016: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179815/considering-sex-and-gender-in-alzheimer-disease-and-other-dementias
#11
Jessica L Podcasy, C Neill Epperson
Suffering related to dementia is multifaceted because cognitive and physical functioning slowly deteriorates. Advanced age and sex, two of the most prominent risk factors for dementia, are not modifiable. Lifestyle factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol use, and poor diet modulate susceptibility to dementia in both males and females. The degree to which the resulting health conditions (eg, obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease) impact dementia risk varies by sex. Depending on the subtype of dementia, the ratio of male to female prevalence differs...
December 2016: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179814/prenatal-stress-immune-programming-of-sex-differences-in-comorbidity-of-depression-and-obesity-metabolic-syndrome
#12
Jill M Goldstein, Laura Holsen, Grace Huang, Bradley D Hammond, Tamarra James-Todd, Sara Cherkerzian, Taben M Hale, Robert J Handa
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the number one cause of disability worldwide and is comorbid with many chronic diseases, including obesity/metabolic syndrome (MetS). Women have twice as much risk for MDD and comorbidity with obesity/MetS as men, although pathways for understanding this association remain unclear. On the basis of clinical and preclinical studies, we argue that prenatal maternal stress (ie, excess glucocorticoid expression and associated immune responses) that occurs during the sexual differentiation of the fetal brain has sex-dependent effects on brain development within highly sexually dimorphic regions that regulate mood, stress, metabolic function, the autonomic nervous system, and the vasculature...
December 2016: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179813/sex-differences-in-the-effects-of-androgens-acting-in-the-central-nervous-system-on-metabolism
#13
Jamie Morford, Franck Mauvais-Jarvis
One of the most sexually dimorphic aspects of metabolic regulation is the bidirectional modulation of glucose and energy homeostasis by testosterone in males and females. Testosterone deficiency predisposes men to metabolic dysfunction, with excess adiposity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes, whereas androgen excess predisposes women to insulin resistance, adiposity, and type 2 diabetes. This review discusses how testosterone acts in the central nervous system, and especially the hypothalamus, to promote metabolic homeostasis or dysfunction in a sexually dimorphic manner...
December 2016: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179812/stress-related-disorders-pituitary-adenylate-cyclase-activating-peptide-pacap-ergic-system-and-sex-differences
#14
Teniel S Ramikie, Kerry J Ressler
Trauma-related disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are remarkably common and debilitating, and are often characterized by dysregulated threat responses. Across numerous epidemiological studies, females have been found to have an approximately twofold increased risk for PTSD and other stress-related disorders. Understanding the biological mechanisms of this differential risk is of critical importance. Recent data suggest that the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) pathway is a critical regulator of the stress response across species...
December 2016: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179811/sex-differences-in-addiction
#15
Jill B Becker
Women exhibit more rapid escalation from casual drug taking to addiction, exhibit a greater withdrawal response with abstinence, and tend to exhibit greater vulnerability than men in terms of treatment outcome. In rodents, short-term estradiol intake in female rats enhances acquisition and escalation of drug taking, motivation for drugs of abuse, and relapse-like behaviors. There is also a sex difference in the dopamine response in the nucleus accumbens. Ovariectomized female rats exhibit a smaller initial dopamine increase after cocaine treatment than castrated males...
December 2016: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179810/sex-biased-cellular-signaling-molecular-basis-for-sex-differences-in-neuropsychiatric-diseases
#16
Rita J Valentino, Debra A Bangasser
The recognition that there are fundamental biological sex differences that extend beyond those that define sexual behavior and reproductive function has inspired the drive toward inclusion of both sexes in research design. This is supported by an underlying clinical rationale that studying both sexes is necessary to elucidate pathophysiology and develop treatments for the entire population. However, at a more basic level, sex differences, like genetic differences, can be exploited to better understand biology...
December 2016: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179809/sex-in-the-brain-hormones-and-sex-differences
#17
Jordan Marrocco, Bruce S McEwen
Contrary to popular belief, sex hormones act throughout the entire brain of both males and females via both genomic and nongenomic receptors. Many neural and behavioral functions are affected by estrogens, including mood, cognitive function, blood pressure regulation, motor coordination, pain, and opioid sensitivity. Subtle sex differences exist for many of these functions that are developmentally programmed by hormones and by not yet precisely defined genetic factors, including the mitochondrial genome. These sex differences, and responses to sex hormones in brain regions and upon functions not previously regarded as subject to such differences, indicate that we are entering a new era in our ability to understand and appreciate the diversity of gender-related behaviors and brain functions...
December 2016: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179808/sex-differences-in-the-developing-brain-as-a-source-of-inherent-risk
#18
Margaret M McCarthy
Brain development diverges in males and females in response to androgen production by the fetal testis. This sexual differentiation of the brain occurs during a sensitive window and induces enduring neuroanatomical and physiological changes that profoundly impact behavior. What we know about the contribution of sex chromosomes is still emerging, highlighting the need to integrate multiple factors into understanding sex differences, including the importance of context. The cellular mechanisms are best modeled in rodents and have provided both unifying principles and surprising specifics...
December 2016: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179807/sex-influences-in-neurological-disorders-case-studies-and-perspectives
#19
Janine Austin Clayton
Beginning in the late 1980s and early 1990s, scientists and the public alike recognized that, for too long, women had been underrepresented in clinical trials. While much progress was made in the following decades, preclinical research still often ignores sex as a fundamental biological variable. Many neurological disorders, including multiple sclerosis and migraine, show strong sex differences in incidence and disease manifestation. In this commentary, we highlight case studies of neurological disorders affecting men and women to demonstrate the need for more such studies...
December 2016: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179806/the-role-of-sex-and-gender-in-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#20
Florence Thibaut
The prevalence, age of onset, and clinical symptoms of many neuropsychiatric diseases substantially differ between males and females. Factors influencing the relationships between brain development and function and sex or gender may help us understand the differences between males and females in terms of risk or resilience factors in brain diseases.
December 2016: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
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