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AIDS Research and Therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431556/factors-associated-with-loss-to-follow-up-after-occupational-hiv-exposure-in-cape-town-south-africa-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#1
Nectarios Sophocles Papavarnavas, Kathryn Manning, Fahd Conrad, Milah Govender, Gary Maartens
BACKGROUND: There is limited data on factors associated with loss to follow-up (LTFU) of health care workers (HCWs) following occupational exposure to HIV, and most studies were conducted in an era when poorly tolerated antiretrovirals like zidovudine were used. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted of HCWs attending a referral hospital's Occupational Health Clinic in Cape Town, South Africa for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) during a period when tenofovir was available...
April 21, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399938/validity-assessment-of-the-promis-fatigue-domain-among-people-living-with-hiv
#2
L E Gibbons, R Fredericksen, D S Batey, L Dant, T C Edwards, K H Mayer, W C Mathews, L S Morales, M J Mugavero, F M Yang, E Paez, M M Kitahata, D L Patrick, H M Crane, P K Crane
PURPOSE: To evaluate psychometric characteristics and cross-sectional and longitudinal validity of the 7-item PROMIS(®) Fatigue Short Form and additional fatigue items among people living with HIV (PLWH) in a nationally distributed network of clinics collecting patient reported data at the time of routine clinical care. METHODS: Cross-sectional and longitudinal fatigue data were collected from September 2012 through April 2013 across clinics participating in the Centers for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinical Systems (CNICS)...
April 11, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399891/what-influences-quality-of-life-in-older-people-living-with-hiv
#3
Jose Catalan, Veronica Tuffrey, Damien Ridge, Dana Rosenfeld
BACKGROUND: People with HIV with access to treatment are growing older and living healthier lives than in the past, and while health improvements and increased survival rates are welcome, the psychological and social consequences and quality of life of ageing are complex for this group. Understanding how ageing, HIV and quality of life intersect is key to developing effective interventions to improve QoL. METHODS: One hundred people with HIV over the age of 50 (range 50-87, mean 58), were recruited through HIV community organizations, and clinics, and included men who have sex with men (MSM), and Black African and White heterosexual men and women...
April 11, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376825/antiretroviral-therapy-supply-chain-quality-control-and-assurance-in-improving-people-living-with-hiv-therapeutic-outcomes-in-cameroon
#4
M P Ngogang Djobet, David Singhe, Julienne Lohoue, Christopher Kuaban, Jeanne Ngogang, Ernest Tambo
BACKGROUND: Evaluation of medication efficacy and safety is an essential guarantee to successful therapeutic outcome in public health practices. However, larger distribution chain supply in developing countries such as Cameroon is often challenged by counterfeit drugs, poor manufacturing, storage and degradation leading to health and patient adverse consequences. Yet, access to supply chain management in strengthening ARVs quality assurance and outcomes remains poorly documented. More than 53,000 patients have been enrolled on free ARVs medications, but little is documented on quality assurance and validity of safety for affected populations along the supply chain management since 2008...
April 4, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376815/comparison-of-six-methods-to-estimate-adherence-in-an-art-na%C3%A3-ve-cohort-in-a-resource-poor-setting-which-best-predicts-virological-and-resistance-outcomes
#5
Catherine Orrell, Karen Cohen, Rory Leisegang, David R Bangsberg, Robin Wood, Gary Maartens
BACKGROUND: Incomplete adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) results in virologic failure and resistance. It remains unclear which adherence measure best predicts these outcomes. We compared six patient-reported and objective adherence measures in one ART-naïve cohort in South Africa. METHODS: We recruited 230 participants from a community ART clinic and prospectively collected demographic data, CD4 count and HIV-RNA at weeks 0, 16 and 48. We quantified adherence using 3-day self-report (SR), clinic-based pill count (CPC), average adherence by pharmacy refill (PR-average), calculation of medication-free days (PR-gaps), efavirenz therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) and an electronic adherence monitoring device (EAMD)...
April 4, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351430/clinical-outcomes-and-loss-to-follow-up-among-people-living-with-hiv-participating-in-the-namweza-intervention-in-dar-es-salaam-tanzania-a-prospective-cohort-study
#6
Hellen N Siril, Sylvia F Kaaya, Mary Kay Smith Fawzi, Expeditho Mtisi, Magreat Somba, Japheth Kilewo, Ferdinand Mugusi, Anna Minja, Anna Kaale, Jim Todd
BACKGROUND: Psychosocial factors have been linked with loss to follow-up (LTFU) and clinical outcomes among people living with HIV (PLH), however little is known about the effect of psychosocial support on LTFU among PLH in treatment and care. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of NAMWEZA ("Yes, together we can") friends' psychosocial support intervention on clinical outcomes and LTFU among PLH. NAMWEZA is based on a novel program using "appreciative inquiry", positive psychology approaches to empower, promote positive attitudes and foster hope...
March 28, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320431/barriers-to-uptake-of-early-infant-hiv-testing-in-zambia-the-role-of-intimate-partner-violence-and-hiv-status-disclosure-within-couples
#7
Karen M Hampanda, Abigail M Nimz, Lisa L Abuogi
BACKGROUND: Early detection of pediatric HIV through uptake of infant HIV testing is critical for access to treatment and child survival. While structural barriers have been well described, a greater understanding of social and behavioral factors that may relate to maternal uptake of early infant HIV testing services is urgently needed. The aim of this study was to explore how gender power dynamics within couples affect HIV-positive women's uptake of early infant HIV testing at a large health center in Lusaka, Zambia...
March 21, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320426/determinants-to-antiretroviral-treatment-non-adherence-among-adult-hiv-aids-patients-in-northern-ethiopia
#8
Berhe Beyene Gebrezgabher, Yigzaw Kebede, Melaku Kindie, Desalegn Tetemke, Mebrahtu Abay, Yalemzewod Assefa Gelaw
BACKGROUND: Adhering 95% and above of antiretroviral therapy reduces the rate of disease progression and death among people's living human immunodeficiency virus. Though manifold factors have reported as determinant factors of antiretroviral therapy adherence status, perhaps determinants of non-adherence differ up on the activities of patients in the study setting. METHODS: An institution based unmatched case-control study was conducted in Aksum town. Individuals who had a 6-month follow-up with complete individual information were included in the study...
March 21, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320417/impaired-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-replicative-fitness-in-atypical-viremic-non-progressor-individuals
#9
Jan Weber, Richard M Gibson, Lenka Sácká, Dmytro Strunin, Jan Hodek, Jitka Weberová, Marcela Pávová, David J Alouani, Robert Asaad, Benigno Rodriguez, Michael M Lederman, Miguel E Quiñones-Mateu
BACKGROUND: Progression rates from initial HIV-1 infection to advanced AIDS vary significantly among infected individuals. A distinct subgroup of HIV-1-infected individuals-termed viremic non-progressors (VNP) or controllers-do not seem to progress to AIDS, maintaining high CD4(+) T cell counts despite high levels of viremia for many years. Several studies have evaluated multiple host factors, including immune activation, trying to elucidate the atypical HIV-1 disease progression in these patients; however, limited work has been done to characterize viral factors in viremic controllers...
March 20, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302125/joint-longitudinal-data-analysis-in-detecting-determinants-of-cd4-cell-count-change-and-adherence-to-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-at-felege-hiwot-teaching-and-specialized-hospital-north-west-ethiopia-amhara-region
#10
Awoke Seyoum, Principal Ndlovu, Zewotir Temesgen
BACKGROUND: Adherence and CD4 cell count change measure the progression of the disease in HIV patients after the commencement of HAART. Lack of information about associated factors on adherence to HAART and CD4 cell count reduction is a challenge for the improvement of cells in HIV positive adults. The main objective of adopting joint modeling was to compare separate and joint models of longitudinal repeated measures in identifying long-term predictors of the two longitudinal outcomes: CD4 cell count and adherence to HAART...
March 16, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292305/possible-misdiagnosis-of-hiv-associated-lymphoma-as-tuberculosis-among-patients-attending-uganda-cancer-institute
#11
Paul Buyego, Lydia Nakiyingi, Henry Ddungu, Stephen Walimbwa, Damalie Nalwanga, Steven J Reynolds, Rosalind Parkes-Ratanshi
BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis of HIV associated lymphoma is challenging because the definitive diagnostic procedure of biopsy, requires skills and equipment that are not readily available. As a consequence, diagnosis may be delayed increasing the risk of mortality. We set out to determine the frequency and risk factors associated with the misdiagnosis of HIV associated lymphoma as tuberculosis (TB) among patients attending the Uganda Cancer Institute (UCI). METHODS: A retrospective cohort study design was used among HIV patients with associated lymphoma patients attending the UCI, Kampala, Uganda between February and March 2015...
March 14, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288665/effect-of-moringa-oleifera-lam-leaf-powder-on-the-pharmacokinetics-of-nevirapine-in-hiv-infected-adults-a-one-sequence-cross-over-study
#12
Tsitsi G Monera-Penduka, Charles C Maponga, Alan R Wolfe, Lubbe Wiesner, Gene D Morse, Charles F B Nhachi
BACKGROUND: Moringa oleifera Lam., an herb commonly consumed by HIV-infected people on antiretroviral therapy, inhibits cytochrome P450 3A4, 1A2 and 2D6 activity in vitro; and may alter the pharmacokinetics (PK) of antiretroviral drugs metabolized via the same pathways. However, in vitro drug interaction activity may not translate to a clinically significant effect. Therefore, the effect of moringa leaf powder on the PK of nevirapine in HIV-infected people was investigated. METHODS: Adult patients at steady-state dosing with nevirapine were admitted for 12-h intensive PK sampling following a 21-day herbal medicine washout...
March 14, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270215/characterization-of-occult-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-among-hiv-positive-patients-in-cameroon
#13
George Gachara, Tshifhiwa Magoro, Lufuno Mavhandu, Emmaculate Lum, Helen K Kimbi, Roland N Ndip, Pascal O Bessong
PURPOSE: Occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) among HIV positive patients varies widely in different geographic regions. We undertook a study to determine the prevalence of occult hepatitis B infection among HIV infected individuals visiting a health facility in South West Cameroon and characterized occult HBV strains based on sequence analyses. METHODS: Plasma samples (n = 337), which previously tested negative for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), were screened for antibodies against hepatitis B core (anti-HBc) and surface (anti-HBs) antigens followed by DNA extraction...
March 8, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257647/hiv-care-in-yangon-myanmar-successes-challenges-and-implications-for-policy
#14
Ne Myo Aung, Josh Hanson, Tint Tint Kyi, Zaw Win Htet, David A Cooper, Mark A Boyd, Mar Mar Kyi, Htin Aung Saw
BACKGROUND: Approximately 0.8% of adults aged 18-49 in Myanmar are seropositive for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Identifying the demographic, epidemiological and clinical characteristics of people living with HIV (PLHIV) is essential to inform optimal management strategies in this resource-limited country. METHODS: To create a "snapshot" of the PLHIV seeking anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in Myanmar, data were collected from the registration cards of all patients who had been prescribed ART at two large referral hospitals in Yangon, prior to March 18, 2016...
March 4, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209198/distribution-and-fate-of-hiv-1-unintegrated-dna-species-a-comprehensive-update
#15
REVIEW
Faysal Bin Hamid, Jinsun Kim, Cha-Gyun Shin
Reverse transcription of viral RNA and the subsequent integration of reverse transcripts are the classical early events of the HIV-1 life-cycle. Simultaneously, abundant unintegrated DNAs (uDNAs), are formed in cells ubiquitously. The uDNAs either undergo recombination or degradation or persist inactively for long periods in the nucleus as future resources. Among them, 2-LTR circles are considered a dead-end for viral spread. Their contribution to the HIV-1 infection is still poorly understood. Nevertheless, the preintegration transcription of the aberrant DNAs and the consequent alterations of cellular factors have already been reported...
February 16, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209189/late-presentation-increases-risk-and-costs-of-non-infectious-comorbidities-in-people-with-hiv-an-italian-cost-impact-study
#16
Giovanni Guaraldi, Stefano Zona, Marianna Menozzi, Thomas D Brothers, Federica Carli, Chiara Stentarelli, Giovanni Dolci, Antonella Santoro, Ana Rita Domingues Da Silva, Elisa Rossi, Julian Falutz, Cristina Mussini
BACKGROUND: Late presentation (LP) at the time of HIV diagnosis is defined as presentation with AIDS whatever the CD4 cell count or with CD4 <350 cells/mm. The objective of our study was to assess the prevalence of non-infectious comorbidities (NICM) and multimorbidity among HIV-positive individuals with and without a history of LP (HIV + LP and HIV + EP, respectively), and compare them to matched HIV-negative control participants from a community-based cohort. The secondary objective was to provide estimates and determinants of direct cost of medical care in HIV patients...
February 16, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193244/h1n1-influenza-vaccination-in-hiv-infected-women-on-effective-antiretroviral-treatment-did-not-induce-measurable-antigen-driven-proliferation-of-the-hiv-1-proviral-reservoir
#17
Thor A Wagner, Hannah C Huang, Christen E Salyer, Kelly M Richardson, Adriana Weinberg, Sharon Nachman, Lisa M Frenkel
OBJECTIVES: Antigen-induced activation and proliferation of HIV-1-infected cells is hypothesized to be a mechanism of HIV persistence during antiretroviral therapy. The objective of this study was to determine if proliferation of H1N1-specific HIV-infected cells could be detected following H1N1 vaccination. METHODS: This study utilized cryopreserved PBMC from a previously conducted trial of H1N1 vaccination in HIV-infected pregnant women. HIV-1 DNA concentrations and 437 HIV-1 C2V5 env DNA sequences were analyzed from ten pregnant women on effective antiretroviral therapy, before and 21 days after H1N1 influenza vaccination...
February 13, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160772/renal-safety-of-lithium-in-hiv-infected-patients-established-on-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-containing-antiretroviral-therapy-analysis-from-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#18
Eric H Decloedt, Maia Lesosky, Gary Maartens, John A Joska
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of bipolar disorder in HIV-infected patients is higher than the general population. Lithium is the most effective mood stabiliser, while tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is frequently used as part of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART). Both TDF and lithium are associated with renal tubular toxicity, which could be additive, or a pharmacokinetic interaction may occur at renal transporters with a decrease in TDF elimination. OBJECTIVE: We report on the change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the modification of diet in renal disease formula in participants who received ART including TDF and were enrolled in a 24 week randomised trial of lithium versus placebo in patients with HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment...
February 4, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143541/immunological-outcomes-of-tenofovir-versus-zidovudine-based-regimens-among-people-living-with-hiv-aids-a-two-years-retrospective-cohort-study
#19
Teshale Ayele, Habtemu Jarso, Girma Mamo
BACKGROUND: Tenofovir (TDF) based regimen was reported to have better immunological outcomes. Unfortunately, there is limited information regarding the immunologic outcome associated with this regimen in Ethiopia, as its routine utilization in this setting begun since 2013. METHODS: A 2 years retrospective cohort study was conducted at Jimma University Specialized Hospital, 346 km Southwest of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A total of 280 patients' data from September 2012 to July 2014 was extracted from records from February 10, 2015 to March 10, 2015...
February 1, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114955/hiv-1-drug-resistant-mutations-and-related-risk-factors-among-hiv-1-positive-individuals-experiencing-treatment-failure-in-hebei-province-china
#20
Xinli Lu, Hongru Zhao, Yuqi Zhang, Wei Wang, Cuiying Zhao, Yan Li, Lin Ma, Ze Cui, Suliang Chen
BACKGROUND: To understand HIV-1 drug resistance in 11 prefectures of Hebei Province, China, we implemented a cross-sectional HIV-1 molecular epidemiological survey. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 122 newly diagnosed drug-naïve HIV-1-positive individuals and 229 antiretroviral therapy (ART)-failure individuals from 11 prefectures in Hebei Province, China. Patient demographic data were obtained via face-to-face interviews using a standardized questionnaire when blood samples were collected...
January 23, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
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