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AIDS Research and Therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029637/drug-resistance-patterns-following-pharmacy-stock-shortage-in-nigerian-antiretroviral-treatment-program
#1
Seema T Meloni, Beth Chaplin, John Idoko, Oche Agbaji, Sulaimon Akanmu, Godwin Imade, Prosper Okonkwo, Robert L Murphy, Phyllis J Kanki
BACKGROUND: For patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART), treatment interruptions can impact patient outcomes and result in the accumulation of drug resistance mutations leading to virologic failure. There are minimal published data on the impact of an ART stock shortage on development of drug resistance mutations (DRMs). In this report, we evaluate data from patients enrolled in the Government of Nigeria National ART Program that were receiving treatment at the time of a national drug shortage in late 2003...
October 13, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025433/the-role-of-the-glycosyl-moiety-of-myricetin-derivatives-in-anti-hiv-1-activity-in-vitro
#2
Joseph T Ortega, Alirica I Suárez, Maria L Serrano, Jani Baptista, Flor H Pujol, Hector R Rangel
BACKGROUND: Plant extracts are sources of valuable compounds with biological activity, especially for the anti-proliferative activity against pathogens or tumor cells. Myricetin is a flavonoid found in several plants that has been described as an inhibitor of Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) through its action against the HIV reverse transcriptase, but myricetin derivatives have not been fully studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-HIV-1 activity of glycosylated metabolites obtained from Marcetia taxifolia and derived from myricetin: myricetin rhamnoside and myricetin 3-(6-rhamnosylgalactoside)...
October 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931406/validation-of-a-questionnaire-to-monitor-symptoms-in-hiv-infected-patients-during-hepatitis-c-treatment
#3
Edward R Cachay, Craig Ballard, Bradford Colwell, Francesca Torriani, Charles Hicks, Wm Christopher Mathews
BACKGROUND: Clinicians are incorporating patient-reported outcomes in the management of HIV-infected persons co-infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), but there are no validated inventories to monitor symptoms of patients during HCV therapy. DESIGN: Five-year retrospective cohort analysis of persons living with HIV (PLWH) treated for HCV. METHODS: The HCV symptom-inventory (HCV-SI) was administered before, during, and after HCV treatment. Discriminant validity was assessed, separately, in mixed model linear regression of HCV-SI T-scores on treatment regimens (pegylated-interferon and ribavirin; pegylated-interferon, ribavirin, and telaprevir; and interferon-free antivirals); and side effect-related premature treatment discontinuation (SE-DC)...
September 20, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893304/preventing-hiv-infection-without-targeting-the-virus-how-reducing-hiv-target-cells-at-the-genital-tract-is-a-new-approach-to-hiv-prevention
#4
REVIEW
Julie Lajoie, Lucy Mwangi, Keith R Fowke
For over three decades, HIV infection has had a tremendous impact on the lives of individuals and public health. Microbicides and vaccines studies have shown that immune activation at the genital tract is a risk factor for HIV infection. Furthermore, lower level of immune activation, or what we call immune quiescence, has been associated with a lower risk of HIV acquisition. This unique phenotype is observed in highly-exposed seronegative individuals from different populations including female sex workers from the Pumwani cohort in Nairobi, Kenya...
September 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893294/hiv-i-nef-inhibitors-a-novel-class-of-hiv-specific-immune-adjuvants-in-support-of-a-cure
#5
REVIEW
Gregory A Dekaban, Jimmy D Dikeakos
The success of many current vaccines relies on a formulation that incorporates an immune activating adjuvant. This will hold true for the design of a successful therapeutic HIV vaccine targeted at controlling reactivated virus following cessation of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). The HIV accessory protein Nef functions by interfering with HIV antigen presentation through the major histocompatibility complex I (MHC-I) pathway thereby suppressing CD8(+) cytotoxic T cell (CTL)-mediated killing of HIV infected cells...
September 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893293/hiv-vaccine-research-in-canada
#6
EDITORIAL
Robin Shattock
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893290/evasion-of-adaptive-immunity-by-hiv-through-the-action-of-host-apobec3g-f-enzymes
#7
REVIEW
Michael Grant, Mani Larijani
APOBEC3G (A3G) and APOBEC3F (A3F) are DNA-mutating enzymes expressed in T cells, dendritic cells and macrophages. A3G/F have been considered innate immune host factors, based on reports that they lethally mutate the HIV genome in vitro. In vivo, A3G/F effectiveness is limited by viral proteins, entrapment in inactive complexes and filtration of mutations during viral life cycle. We hypothesized that the impact of sub-lethal A3G/F action could extend beyond the realm of innate immunity confined to the cytoplasm of infected cells...
September 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893288/potential-contribution-of-gut-microbiota-and-systemic-inflammation-on-hiv-vaccine-effectiveness-and-vaccine-design
#8
REVIEW
Jean-Pierre Routy, Vikram Mehraj
The quest for an effective HIV-1 vaccine began as soon as the virus causing AIDS was identified. After several disappointing attempts, results of the Phase-III RV144 trial in Thailand were a beacon of hope for the field demonstrating correlation between protection and immunological markers. In order to optimize vaccine response, we underline results from yellow fever and hepatitis B vaccines, where protective responses were predicted by the pre-vaccination level of immune activation in healthy individuals. Such findings support the assessment and reduction of pre-vaccine immune activation in order to optimize vaccine response...
September 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893287/natural-killer-nk-cell-receptor-hla-ligand-genotype-combinations-associated-with-protection-from-hiv-infection-investigation-of-how-protective-genotypes-influence-anti-hiv-nk-cell-functions
#9
REVIEW
Nicole F Bernard
The anti-HIV activity of natural killer (NK) cells could be induced fast enough to potentially prevent the establishment of HIV infection. Epidemiological studies identified two genotypes encoding NK receptors that contribute to NK cell function, that were more frequent in people who remained uninfected despite multiple HIV exposures than in HIV-susceptible subjects. NK cells from carriers of the *h/*y+B*57 genotype have higher NK cell functional potential and inhibit HIV replication in autologous HIV-infected CD4+ T cells (iCD4) more potently than those from carriers of non-protective genotypes...
September 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893286/the-biology-of-how-circumcision-reduces-hiv-susceptibility-broader-implications-for-the-prevention-field
#10
REVIEW
Jessica L Prodger, Rupert Kaul
Circumcision reduces heterosexual HIV-1 acquisition in men by at least 60%. However, the biological mechanisms by which circumcision is protective remain incompletely understood. We test the hypothesis that the sub-preputial microenvironment created by the foreskin drives immune activation in adjacent foreskin tissues, facilitating HIV-1 infection through a combination of epithelial barrier disruption, enhanced dendritic cell maturation, and the recruitment/activation of neutrophils and susceptible CD4 T cell subsets such as Th17 cells...
September 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893284/role-of-sex-hormones-and-the-vaginal-microbiome-in-susceptibility-and-mucosal-immunity-to-hiv-1-in-the-female-genital-tract
#11
REVIEW
Danielle Vitali, Jocelyn M Wessels, Charu Kaushic
While the prevalence of Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection has stabilized globally, it continues to be the leading cause of death among women of reproductive age. The majority of new infections are transmitted heterosexually, and women have consistently been found to be more susceptible to HIV-1 infection during heterosexual intercourse compared to men. This emphasizes the need for a deeper understanding of how the microenvironment in the female genital tract (FGT) could influence HIV-1 acquisition...
September 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893282/development-of-targeted-adjuvants-for-hiv-1-vaccines
#12
REVIEW
Jun Liu, Mario Ostrowski
Finding new adjuvants is an integrated component of the efforts in developing an effective HIV-1 vaccine. Compared with traditional adjuvants, a modern adjuvant in the context of HIV-1 prevention would elicit a durable and potent memory response from B cells, CD8(+) T cells, and NK cells but avoid overstimulation of HIV-1 susceptible CD4(+) T cells, especially at genital and rectal mucosa, the main portals for HIV-1 transmission. We briefly review recent advances in the studies of such potential targeted adjuvants, focusing on three classes of molecules that we study: TNFSF molecules, TLRs agonists, and NODs agonists...
September 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893281/rna-flow-cytometric-fish-for-investigations-into-hiv-immunology-vaccination-and-cure-strategies
#13
REVIEW
Amy E Baxter, Julia Niessl, Antigoni Morou, Daniel E Kaufmann
Despite the tremendous success of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) no current treatment can eradicate latent HIV reservoirs from HIV-infected individuals or generate, effective HIV-specific immunity. Technological limitations have hampered the identification and characterization of both HIV-infected cells and HIV-specific responses in clinical samples directly ex vivo. RNA-flow cytometric fluorescence in situ hybridisation (RNA Flow-FISH) is a powerful technique, which enables detection of mRNAs in conjunction with proteins at a single-cell level...
September 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893280/eradication-of-hiv-1-latent-reservoirs-through-therapeutic-vaccination
#14
REVIEW
Joshua Pankrac, Katja Klein, Jamie F S Mann
Despite the significant success of combination anti-retroviral therapy to reduce HIV viremia and save lives, HIV-1 infection remains a lifelong infection that must be appropriately managed. Advances in the understanding of the HIV infection process and insights from vaccine development in other biomedical fields such as cancer, imaging, and genetic engineering have fueled rapid advancements in HIV cure research. In the last few years, several studies have focused on the development of "Kick and Kill" therapies to reverse HIV latency and kick start viral translational activity...
September 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893278/development-of-an-anti-hiv-vaccine-eliciting-broadly-neutralizing-antibodies
#15
REVIEW
Yousuf Ahmed, Meijuan Tian, Yong Gao
The extreme HIV diversity posts a great challenge on development of an effective anti-HIV vaccine. To solve this problem, it is crucial to discover an appropriate immunogens and strategies that are able to prevent the transmission of the diverse viruses that are circulating in the world. Even though there have been a number of broadly neutralizing anti-HIV antibodies (bNAbs) been discovered in recent years, induction of such antibodies to date has only been observed in HIV-1 infection. Here, in this mini review, we review the progress in development of HIV vaccine in eliciting broad immune response, especially production of bNAbs, discuss possible strategies, such as polyvalent sequential vaccination, that facilitates B cell maturation leading to bNAb response...
September 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893277/development-of-an-hiv-vaccine-using-a-vesicular-stomatitis-virus-vector-expressing-designer-hiv-1-envelope-glycoproteins-to-enhance-humoral-responses
#16
REVIEW
Trina Racine, Gary P Kobinger, Eric J Arts
Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), like many other Rhabdoviruses, have become the focus of intense research over the past couple of decades based on their suitability as vaccine vectors, transient gene delivery systems, and as oncolytic viruses for cancer therapy. VSV as a vaccine vector platform has multiple advantages over more traditional viral vectors including low level, non-pathogenic replication in diverse cell types, ability to induce both humoral and cell-mediate immune responses, and the remarkable expression of foreign proteins cloned into multiple intergenic sites in the VSV genome...
September 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893275/unlocking-hiv-1-env-implications-for-antibody-attack
#17
REVIEW
Jonathan Richard, Shilei Ding, Andrés Finzi
Collective evidence supporting a role of Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity (ADCC) in controlling HIV-1 transmission and disease progression emerged in the last few years. Non-neutralizing antibodies (nnAbs) recognizing conserved CD4-induced epitopes on Env and able to mediate potent ADCC against HIV-1-infected cells exposing Env in its CD4-bound conformation have been shown to be present in some RV144 vaccinees and most HIV-1-infected individuals. HIV-1 evolved sophisticated strategies to decrease exposure of this Env conformation by downregulating CD4 and by limiting the overall amount of cell-surface Env...
September 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893274/modulation-of-the-strength-and-character-of-hiv-specific-cd8-t-cell-responses-with-heteroclitic-peptides
#18
REVIEW
Kayla A Holder, Michael D Grant
Chronic infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes HIV-specific CD8(+) T cell dysfunction and exhaustion. The strong association between non-progression and maintenance of HIV-specific CD8(+) T cell cytokine production and proliferative capacities suggests that invigorating CD8(+) T cell immune responses would reduce viremia and slow disease progression. A series of studies have demonstrated that sequence variants of native immunogenic peptides can generate more robust CD8(+) T cell responses and that stimulation with these 'heteroclitic' peptides can steer responses away from the phenotypic and functional attributes of exhaustion acquired during chronic HIV infection...
September 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893272/killed-whole-hiv-vaccine-employing-a-well-established-strategy-for-antiviral-vaccines
#19
REVIEW
C Yong Kang, Yong Gao
The development of an efficient prophylactic HIV vaccine has been one of the major challenges in infectious disease research during the last three decades. Here, we present a mini review on strategies employed for the development of HIV vaccines with an emphasis on a well-established vaccine technology, the killed whole-virus vaccine approach. Recently, we reported an evaluation of the safety and the immunogenicity of a genetically modified and killed whole-HIV-1 vaccine designated as SAV001 [1]. HIV-1 Clade B NL4-3 was genetically modified by deleting the nef and vpu genes and substituting the coding sequence of the Env signal peptide with that of honeybee melittin to produce an avirulent and replication efficient HIV-1...
September 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893268/a-novel-hiv-vaccine-targeting-the-protease-cleavage-sites
#20
REVIEW
Hongzhao Li, Robert W Omange, Francis A Plummer, Ma Luo
HIV preferentially infects activated CD4+ T cells and mutates rapidly. The classical vaccine approach aimed to generate broad immune responses to full HIV proteins largely failed to address the potential adverse impact of increased number of activated CD4+ T cells as viral targets. Learning from natural immunity observed in a group of HIV resistant Kenyan female sex workers, we are testing a novel vaccine approach. It focuses immune response to the highly conserved sequences surrounding the HIV protease cleavage sites (PCS) to disrupt viral maturation, while limiting excessive immune activation...
September 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
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