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AIDS Research and Therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086981/does-antiretroviral-treatment-change-hiv-1-codon-usage-patterns-in-its-genes-a-preliminary-bioinformatics-study
#1
Navaneethan Palanisamy, Nathan Osman, Frédéric Ohnona, Hong-Tao Xu, Bluma Brenner, Thibault Mesplède, Mark A Wainberg
BACKGROUND: Codon usage bias has been described for various organisms and is thought to contribute to the regulation of numerous biological processes including viral infections. HIV-1 codon usage has been previously shown to be different from that of other viruses and man. It is evident that the antiretroviral drugs used to restrict HIV-1 replication also select for resistance variants. We wanted to test whether codon frequencies in HIV-1 sequences from treatment-experienced patients differ from those of treatment-naive individuals due to drug pressure affecting codon usage bias...
January 7, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086929/early-virological-failure-and-hiv-drug-resistance-in-ugandan-adults-co-infected-with-tuberculosis
#2
Amrei von Braun, Christine Sekaggya-Wiltshire, Alexandra U Scherrer, Brian Magambo, Andrew Kambugu, Jan Fehr, Barbara Castelnuovo
PURPOSE: This cross-sectional study took place in the integrated tuberculosis (TB) clinic of a large outpatient clinic for HIV-infected patients in Kampala, Uganda. The purpose of this study was to describe the proportion of TB/HIV co-infected adults with virological failure, type and frequency of HIV drug resistance-associated mutations, and the proportion of patients with suboptimal efavirenz levels. METHODS: HIV-1 plasma viral loads, CD4 cell count measurements, and efavirenz serum concentrations were done in TB/HIV co-infected adults...
January 5, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906037/integrated-therapy-for-hiv-and-cryptococcosis
#3
REVIEW
Sirawat Srichatrapimuk, Somnuek Sungkanuparph
Cryptococcosis has been one of the most common opportunistic infections and causes of mortality among HIV-infected patients, especially in resource-limited countries. Cryptococcal meningitis is the most common form of cryptococcosis. Laboratory diagnosis of cryptococcosis includes direct microscopic examination, isolation of Cryptococcus from a clinical specimen, and detection of cryptococcal antigen. Without appropriate treatment, cryptococcosis is fatal. Early diagnosis and treatment is the key to treatment success...
November 29, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906032/infection-of-rhesus-macaques-with-a-pool-of-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-with-the-envelope-genes-from-acute-hiv-1-infections
#4
Kendall C Krebs, Meijuan Tian, Mohammed Asmal, Binhua Ling, Kenneth Nelson, Kenneth Henry, Richard Gibson, Yuejin Li, Weining Han, Robin J Shattock, Ronald S Veazey, Norman Letvin, Eric J Arts, Yong Gao
BACKGROUND: New simian-human immunodeficiency chimeric viruses with an HIV-1 env (SHIVenv) are critical for studies on HIV pathogenesis, vaccine development, and microbicide testing. Macaques are typically exposed to single CCR5-using SHIVenv which in most instances does not reflect the conditions during acute/early HIV infection (AHI) in humans. Instead of individual and serial testing new SHIV constructs, a pool of SHIVenv_B derived from 16 acute HIV-1 infections were constructed using a novel yeast-based SHIV cloning approach and then used to infect macaques...
November 25, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906030/cases-of-antiretroviral-associated-gynaecomastia-reported-to-the-national-hiv-tuberculosis-health-care-worker-hotline-in-south-africa
#5
Christine Njuguna, Annoesjka Swart, Marc Blockman, Gary Maartens, Briony Chisholm, Annemie Stewart, Anri Uys, Karen Cohen
BACKGROUND: Gynaecomastia is associated with exposure to antiretroviral therapy (ART), in particular efavirenz. There is limited data on clinical characteristics of patients with ART-associated gynaecomastia in resource-limited settings and little guidance on the optimal management of this adverse drug reaction (ADR). We describe the clinical characteristics, management and outcomes of gynaecomastia cases reported to the National HIV & Tuberculosis Health Care Worker Hotline in South Africa...
November 16, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906028/re-focusing-hiv-prevention-messages-a-qualitative-study-in-rural-uganda
#6
Sanyukta Mathur, Dina Romo, Mariko Rasmussen, Neema Nakyanjo, Fred Nalugoda, John S Santelli
BACKGROUND: After 30 years, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains an epidemic of global concern. To support the increasing emphasis on biomedical interventions for prevention requires a renewed and reframed focus on HIV prevention messages to motivate engagement in risk-reduction activities. This paper examines youth and adult perceptions of HIV prevention messages and HIV risk assessment in a generalized HIV epidemic context in Uganda. METHODS: We conducted 24 focus group discussions and 24 in-depth interviews with 15-45 year olds (n = 218) from three communities in the Rakai district of Uganda in 2012...
November 11, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906084/quasi-poisson-versus-negative-binomial-regression-models-in-identifying-factors-affecting-initial-cd4-cell-count-change-due-to-antiretroviral-therapy-administered-to-hiv-positive-adults-in-north-west-ethiopia-amhara-region
#7
Awoke Seyoum, Principal Ndlovu, Temesgen Zewotir
BACKGROUND: CD4 cells are a type of white blood cells that plays a significant role in protecting humans from infectious diseases. Lack of information on associated factors on CD4 cell count reduction is an obstacle for improvement of cells in HIV positive adults. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate baseline factors that could affect initial CD4 cell count change after highly active antiretroviral therapy had been given to adult patients in North West Ethiopia...
November 9, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906009/current-trends-and-intricacies-in-the-management-of-hiv-associated-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#8
REVIEW
Narendran Gopalan, Padmapriyadarsini Chandrasekaran, Soumya Swaminathan, Srikanth Tripathy
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic has undoubtedly increased the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) globally, posing a formidable global health challenge affecting 1.2 million cases. Pulmonary TB assumes utmost significance in the programmatic perspective as it is readily transmissible as well as easily diagnosable. HIV complicates every aspect of pulmonary tuberculosis from diagnosis to treatment, demanding a different approach to effectively tackle both the diseases. In order to control these converging epidemics, it is important to diagnose early, initiate appropriate therapy for both infections, prevent transmission and administer preventive therapy...
September 26, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906020/targeting-vulnerable-populations-a-synthetic-review-on-alcohol-use-and-risky-sexual-behaviour-among-migrant-populations
#9
REVIEW
Emilia Maria Vaz Martins-Fonteyn, Nina Sommerland, Herman Meulemans, Olivier Degomme, Ines Raimundo, Edwin Wouters
BACKGROUND: Research has demonstrated a link between alcohol use and risky sexual behaviour among different types of migrant populations. Therefore, research investigating risk factors associated with alcohol consumption among them is a public health priority. This review aimed to explore the intersection between migration, alcohol consumption and risky sexual behaviour. METHODS: This article is a synthetic review of empirical studies on the association of alcohol and high-risk sexual behaviour among different types of the migrant populations, focusing on measurable outcomes generated from quantitative data...
September 22, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906001/evolution-of-changes-in-cognitive-function-after-the-initiation-of-antiretroviral-therapy
#10
Borja Mora-Peris, Elizabeth Stevens, Francesca Ferretti, Jonathan Underwood, Stephen Taylor, Alan Winston
BACKGROUND: Cognitive function is reported to improve after the initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Data on the evolution of such changes are limited. We assessed the dynamics of changes in cognitive parameters, in HIV-positive subjects initiating cART. METHODS: Cognitive function in seven domains was evaluated for HIV-infected patients without clinically significant cognitive impairment prior to the initiation of cART, and 24 and 48 weeks after...
April 14, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906015/validation-of-a-self-reported-hiv-symptoms-list-the-iss-hiv-symptoms-scale
#11
Raffaella Bucciardini, Katherina Pugliese, Daniela Francisci, Andrea Costantini, Elisabetta Schiaroli, Miriam Cognigni, Chiara Tontini, Stefano Lucattini, Luca Fucili, Massimiliano Di Gregorio, Marco Mirra, Vincenzo Fragola, Sara Pompili, Rita Murri, Stefano Vella
BACKGROUND: To describe the development and the psychometric properties of the Istituto Superiore di Sanità-HIV symptoms scale (lSS-HIV symptoms scale). METHODS: The ISS-HIV symptom scale was developed by an Italian working team including researchers, physicians and people living with HIV. The development process went through the following steps: (1) review of HIV/AIDS literature; (2) focus group; (3) pre-test analysis; (4) scale validation. RESULTS: The 22 symptoms of HIV-ISS symptoms scale were clustered in five factors: pain/general discomfort (7 items); depression/anxiety (4 items); emotional reaction/psychological distress (5 items); gastrointestinal discomfort (4 items); sexual discomfort (2 items)...
April 9, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905999/factors-associated-with-hiv-viral-load-blips-and-the-relationship-between-self-reported-adherence-and-efavirenz-blood-levels-on-blip-occurrence-a-case-control-study
#12
Aaron Farmer, Xun Wang, Anuradha Ganesan, Robert G Deiss, Brian K Agan, Thomas A O'Bryan, Kevin Akers, Jason F Okulicz
BACKGROUND: The uncertain etiology of HIV viral load (VL) blips may lead to increased use of clinical resources. We evaluated the association of self-reported adherence (SRA) and antiretroviral (ART) drug levels on blip occurrence in US Military HIV Natural History Study (NHS) participants who initiated the single-tablet regimen efavirenz/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (EFV/FTC/TDF). METHODS: ART-naïve NHS participants started on EFV/FTC/TDF between 2006 and 2013 who achieved VL suppression (<50 copies/mL) within 12 months and had available SRA and stored plasma samples were included...
March 22, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905986/predictors-of-perceived-male-partner-concurrency-among-women-at-risk-for-hiv-and-sti-acquisition-in-durban-south-africa
#13
Zakir Gaffoor, Handan Wand, Renée A Street, Nathlee Abbai, Gita Ramjee
BACKGROUND: Women in sub-Saharan Africa continue to be at greater risk for HIV acquisition than men. Concurrency, viz. multiple sexual partnerships that overlap over time, has been studied as a possible risk factor for HIV transmission. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of perceived male partner concurrency among sexually active, HIV negative women. METHODS: Socio-demographic and behavioural data from women enrolled in a biomedical HIV prevention clinical trial were assessed in relation to perceived male partner concurrency using the Chi squared test...
March 8, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906003/reviewer-acknowledgement
#14
Eric Arts, Mark Boyd
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 4, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906014/acceptability-and-use-of-ready-to-use-supplementary-food-compared-to-corn-soy-blend-as-a-targeted-ration-in-an-hiv-program-in-rural-haiti-a-qualitative-study
#15
Anne G Beckett, Debbie Humphries, J Gregory Jerome, Jessica E Teng, Patrick Ulysse, Louise C Ivers
BACKGROUND: Ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF) is increasingly used as a component of food rations for adults with HIV. METHODS: We undertook a qualitative study to evaluate the acceptability and use of peanut-based RUSF compared to corn-soy blend (CSB) among adults living with HIV in rural Haiti who had been enrolled in a prospective, randomized trial comparing the impact of those rations. A total of 13 focus groups were conducted with 84 participants-42 selected from the RUSF arm of the study, and 42 from the CSB arm-using a guide with pre-designated core topics and open-ended questions...
February 17, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905984/assessing-the-sensitivity-and-specificity-of-first-response-hiv-1-2-test-kit-with-whole-blood-and-serum-samples-a-cross-sectional-study
#16
Raymond Boadu, George Darko, Priscilla Nortey, Patricia Akweongo, Bismark Sarfo
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Rapid diagnostic Test (RDT) kits are the preferred assays for HIV testing in many countries. Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission, Know Your Status Campaigns, Blood-Safety, Voluntary Counseling and Testing are major strategies adapted to control transmission of the virus and the pivot of these interventions is either screening or diagnosing individuals through testing. There are reports of inconsistent sensitivity and specificity with whole blood and serum samples collected from the same individual...
February 16, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906013/combination-of-long-acting-hiv-fusion-inhibitor-albuvirtide-and-lpv-r-showed-potent-efficacy-in-hiv-1-patients
#17
Hongwei Zhang, Ronghua Jin, Cheng Yao, Tong Zhang, Meixia Wang, Wei Xia, Haiyan Peng, Xiaojuan Wang, Rongjian Lu, Changjin Wang, Dong Xie, Hao Wu
BACKGROUND: Long acting antiretroviral drugs represent a promising approach for chronic treatment of HIV infection. Here, we study the efficacy and safety of albuvirtide (ABT), an HIV-1 fusion inhibitor with a half life of 11-12 days in human. METHODS: ABT was evaluated in a 7-week, open-label and randomized trial, combining with LPV/r. Twenty HIV-1-infected adults were assigned to two dose groups, receiving ABT (160 or 320 mg) given weekly and LPV/r given twice daily...
February 10, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906000/the-antiviral-compound-bit225-inhibits-hiv-1-replication-in-myeloid-dendritic-cells
#18
Gabriela Khoury, Gary Ewart, Carolyn Luscombe, Michelle Miller, John Wilkinson
BACKGROUND: Previous studies with BIT225 (N-carbamimidoyl-5-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-2-naphthamide) have demonstrated a unique antiviral activity that blocks the release of HIV-1 from monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). Antagonising the ion channel formed by HIV-1 Vpu, BIT225 preferentially targets de novo intracellular virus produced in 'virus-containing compartments' of MDM. In primary infections, dendritic cells (DC) are one of the first cells infected by HIV-1 and can transfer virus to more permissive CD4(+) T cells, making these cells an important target for novel antiviral therapies...
February 8, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906008/sero-prevalence-of-hbv-and-associated-risk-factors-among-hiv-positive-individuals-attending-art-clinic-at-mekelle-hospital-tigray-northern-ethiopia
#19
Letebrhan Weldemhret, Tsehaye Asmelash, Rashmi Belodu, Dawit Gebreegziabiher
BACKGROUND: Because of the shared mean of transmission, hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of an important cause of co-morbidity and mortality in peoples living with HIV/AIDS. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the sero-prevalence of HBV infection and associated risk factors in HIV/AIDS positive individuals attending ART clinic at Mekelle hospital, Mekelle, Northern Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted from August to October 2014 in HIV/AIDS positive adult individuals...
February 4, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905998/sexually-transmitted-infections-and-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-challenges-and-opportunities-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-the-us
#20
REVIEW
Hyman M Scott, Jeffrey D Klausner
Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) has shown high efficacy in preventing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) in several large clinical trials, and more recently in "real world" reports of clinical implementation and a PrEP demonstration project. Those studies also demonstrated high bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) incidence and raised the discussion of how PrEP may impact STI control efforts, especially in the setting of increasing Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial resistance and the increase in syphilis cases among MSM...
January 19, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
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