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AIDS Research and Therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661246/risk-factors-and-outcomes-for-the-q151m-and-t69-insertion-hiv-1-resistance-mutations-in-historic-uk-data
#1
Oliver T Stirrup, David T Dunn, Anna Tostevin, Caroline A Sabin, Anton Pozniak, David Asboe, Alison Cox, Chloe Orkin, Fabiola Martin, Patricia Cane
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of HIV-1 resistance to antiretroviral therapies (ART) has declined in high-income countries over recent years, but drug resistance remains a substantial concern in many low and middle-income countries. The Q151M and T69 insertion (T69i) resistance mutations in the viral reverse transcriptase gene can reduce susceptibility to all nucleoside/tide analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors, motivating the present study to investigate the risk factors and outcomes associated with these mutations...
April 16, 2018: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29636106/predictors-of-switch-to-and-early-outcomes-on-third-line-antiretroviral-therapy-at-a-large-public-sector-clinic-in-johannesburg-south-africa
#2
Denise Evans, Kamban Hirasen, Rebecca Berhanu, Given Malete, Prudence Ive, David Spencer, Sharlaa Badal-Faesen, Ian M Sanne, Matthew P Fox
BACKGROUND: While efficacy data exist, there are limited data on the outcomes of patients on third-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa in actual practice. Being able to identify predictors of switch to third-line ART will be essential for planning for future need. We identify predictors of switch to third-line ART among patients with significant viraemia on a protease inhibitor (PI)-based second-line ART regimen. Additionally, we describe characteristics of all patients on third-line at a large public sector HIV clinic and present their early outcomes...
April 10, 2018: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604955/multivariate-analysis-of-covariates-of-adherence-among-hiv-positive-mothers-with-low-viral-suppression
#3
Tamara Nsubuga-Nyombi, Simon Sensalire, Esther Karamagi, Judith Aloyo, John Byabagambi, Mirwais Rahimzai, Linda Kisaakye Nabitaka, Jacqueline Calnan
BACKGROUND: As part of efforts to improve the prevention of mother-to-child transmission in Northern Uganda, we explored reasons for poor viral suppression among 122 pregnant and lactating women who were in care, received viral load tests, but had not achieved viral suppression and had more than 1000 copies/mL. Understanding the patient factors associated with low viral suppression was of interest to the Ministry of Health to guide the development of tools and interventions to achieve viral suppression for pregnant and lactating women newly initiating on ART as well as those on ART with unsuppressed viral load...
March 31, 2018: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29592818/social-support-needs-among-adolescents-living-with-hiv-in-transition-from-pediatric-to-adult-care-in-cambodia-findings-from-a-cross-sectional-study
#4
Graham Toth, Gitau Mburu, Sovannary Tuot, Vohith Khol, Chanrith Ngin, Pheak Chhoun, Siyan Yi
BACKGROUND: Understanding the circumstances of adolescents living with HIV is critical in designing adolescent-friendly services that will facilitate successful transition from pediatric to adult care. This study describes access, utilization and ongoing social support needs among adolescents living with HIV aged 15-17 in transition from pediatric to adult HIV care in Cambodia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 328 adolescents, randomly selected from 11 antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinics across the country...
March 28, 2018: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544508/effects-of-hiv-infection-and-art-on-phenotype-and-function-of-circulating-monocytes-natural-killer-and-innate-lymphoid-cells
#5
REVIEW
Rose Nabatanzi, Stephen Cose, Moses Joloba, Sarah Rowland Jones, Damalie Nakanjako
HIV infection causes upregulation of markers of inflammation, immune activation and apoptosis of host adaptive, and innate immune cells particularly monocytes, natural killer (NK) and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) restores CD4 T-cell counts, the persistent aberrant activation of monocytes, NK and ILCs observed likely contributes to the incomplete recovery of T-cell effector functions. A better understanding of the effects of HIV infection and ART on the phenotype and function of circulating monocytes, NK, and ILCs is required to guide development of novel therapeutic interventions to optimize immune recovery...
March 15, 2018: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519243/non-aids-complexity-amongst-patients-living-with-hiv-in-sydney-risk-factors-and-health-outcomes
#6
Derek J Chan, Virginia Furner, Don E Smith, Mithilesh Dronavalli, Rohan I Bopage, Jeffrey J Post, Anjali K Bhardwaj
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of non-AIDS co-morbidities (NACs) and predictors of adverse health outcomes amongst people living with HIV in order to identify health needs and potential gaps in patient management. DESIGN: Retrospective, non-consecutive medical record audit of patients attending a publicly funded HIV clinic in metropolitan Sydney analysed for predictors of adverse health outcomes. We developed a scoring system based on the validated Charlson score method for NACs, mental health and social issues and confounders were selected using directed acyclic graph theory under the principles of causal inference...
March 8, 2018: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433509/prognostic-indicators-in-the-world-health-organization-s-algorithm-for-seriously-ill-hiv-infected-inpatients-with-suspected-tuberculosis
#7
Rulan Griesel, Annemie Stewart, Helen van der Plas, Welile Sikhondze, Marc Mendelson, Gary Maartens
BACKGROUND: Criteria for the 2007 WHO algorithm for diagnosing tuberculosis among HIV-infected seriously ill patients are the presence of one or more danger signs (respiratory rate > 30/min, heart rate > 120/min, temperature > 39 °C, and being unable to walk unaided) and cough ≥ 14 days. Determining predictors of poor outcomes among HIV-infected inpatients presenting with WHO danger signs could result in improved treatment and diagnostic algorithms. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of inpatients presenting with any duration of cough and WHO danger signs to two regional hospitals in Cape Town, South Africa...
February 12, 2018: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370820/quality-improvement-as-a-framework-for-behavior-change-interventions-in-hiv-predisposed-communities-a-case-of-adolescent-girls-and-young-women-in-northern-uganda
#8
Esther Karamagi, Simon Sensalire, Juliana Nabwire, John Byabagambi, Alfred O Awio, George Aluma, Mirwais Rahimzai, Jacqueline Calnan, Sheila Kyobutungi
BACKGROUND: Despite the conventional approaches to HIV prevention being the bedrock for early reductions in HIV infections in Uganda, innovations that demonstrate reduction in risk to infection in vulnerable populations need to be embraced urgently. In the past 2 years, a USAID-funded project tested a quality improvement for behavior change model (QBC) to address barriers to behavioral change among adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) at high risk of HIV infection. The model comprised skills building to improve ability of AGYW to stop risky behavior; setting up and empowering community quality improvement (QI) teams to mobilize community resources to support AGYW to stop risky behavior; and service delivery camps to provide HIV prevention services and commodities to AGYW and other community members...
January 25, 2018: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370816/prevalence-of-lower-limb-deep-venous-thrombosis-among-adult-hiv-positive-patients-attending-an-outpatient-clinic-at-mulago-hospital
#9
Sosthene Tsongo Vululi, Samuel Bugeza, Muyinda Zeridah, Henry Ddungu, Akello Betty Openy, Mubiru Frank, Rosalind Parkes-Ratanshi
BACKGROUND: Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and its major complication pulmonary embolism (PE) are collectively known as venous thromboembolism. In Uganda, the prevalence of DVT among HIV patients has not been previously published. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and sonographic features of lower limb deep venous thrombosis among HIV positive patients on anti-retroviral treatment (ART). METHODS: This was a cross sectional study in which HIV positive patients on ART were recruited from an out-patient HIV clinic at Mulago National Referral Hospital...
January 25, 2018: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368619/geographic-patterns-of-poor-hiv-aids-care-continuum-in-district-of-columbia
#10
Suparna Das, Jenevieve Opoku, Michael Kharfen, Adam Allston
BACKGROUND: Concurrent with the UNAIDS 90-90-90 and NHAS plans, the District of Columbia (DC) launched its 90/90/90/50 plan (Plan) in 2015. The Plan proposes that by 2020, 90% of all DC residents will know their HIV status; 90% of residents living with HIV will be in sustained treatment; 90% of those in treatment will reach "Viral Suppression" and DC will achieve 50% reduction of new HIV cases. To achieve these goals targeted prevention strategies are imperative for areas where the relative risk (RR) of not being linked to care (NL), not retained in any care (NRC) and low viral suppression (NVSP) are highest in the District...
January 24, 2018: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338735/mental-health-service-utilization-is-associated-with-retention-in-care-among-persons-living-with-hiv-at-a-university-affiliated-hiv-clinic
#11
Lauren A Saag, Ashutosh R Tamhane, D Scott Batey, Michael J Mugavero, Ellen F Eaton
BACKGROUND: Mental health (MH) comorbidities reduce retention in care for persons living with HIV (PLWH) and are associated with poor health outcomes. Optimizing retention in primary care is vital, as poor retention is associated with delayed receipt of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy, ARV non-adherence, and poor health outcomes, including failure to suppress viral load, decreased CD4 counts, and clinically significant ARV drug resistance. We hypothesized that MH service utilization would be associated with improved retention in care for patients with HIV and MH comorbidities...
January 16, 2018: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248014/a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial-of-lay-health-worker-support-for-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-pmtct-in-south-africa
#12
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Karl Peltzer, Stephen M Weiss, Manasi Soni, Tae Kyoung Lee, Violeta J Rodriguez, Ryan Cook, Maria Luisa Alcaide, Geoffrey Setswe, Deborah L Jones
BACKGROUND: We evaluate the impact of clinic-based PMTCT community support by trained lay health workers in addition to standard clinical care on PMTCT infant outcomes. METHODS: In a cluster randomized controlled trial, twelve community health centers (CHCs) in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa, were randomized to have pregnant women living with HIV receive either: a standard care (SC) condition plus time-equivalent attention-control on disease prevention (SC; 6 CHCs; n  = 357), or an enhanced intervention (EI) condition of SC PMTCT plus the "Protect Your Family" intervention (EI; 6 CHCs; n  = 342)...
December 16, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132400/hospitalization-causes-and-outcomes-in-hiv-patients-in-the-late-antiretroviral-era-in-colombia
#13
María Fernanda Álvarez Barreneche, Carlos Andrés Restrepo Castro, Alicia Hidrón Botero, Juan Pablo Villa Franco, Ivan Mauricio Trompa Romero, Laura Restrepo Carvajal, Alejandro Eusse García, Adriana Ocampo Mesa, Lina María Echeverri Toro, Glenys Patricia Porras Fernández de Castro, Jaime Mauricio Ramírez Rivera, Carlos Andrés Agudelo Restrepo
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has modified the natural history of HIV-infection: the incidence of opportunistic infections (OIs) has decreased and mortality associated to HIV has improved dramatically. The reasons for hospitalization have changed; OIs are no longer the most common reason for admission. This study describes the patient population, admission diagnosis and hospital course of HIV patients in Colombia in the ART era. METHODS: Patients admitted with HIV/AIDS at six hospitals in Medellin, Colombia between August 1, 2014 and July 31, 2015 were included...
November 13, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096670/hiv-treatment-simplification-to-elvitegravir-cobicistat-emtricitabine-tenofovir-disproxil-fumarate-e-c-f-tdf-plus-darunavir-a-pharmacokinetic-study
#14
Marianne Harris, Bruce Ganase, Birgit Watson, P Richard Harrigan, Julio S G Montaner, Mark W Hull
BACKGROUND: As a simplification strategy for treatment-experienced HIV-infected patients who have achieved virologic suppression on a multi-drug, multi-class antiretroviral regimen, the aim of this study was to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of once-daily elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir disproxil fumarate (E/C/F/TDF) with darunavir. METHODS: A single arm, open-label 48-week study was conducted of regimen simplification to E/C/F/TDF plus darunavir 800 mg daily from stable therapy including two nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors, a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor, and an integrase inhibitor...
November 2, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029637/drug-resistance-patterns-following-pharmacy-stock-shortage-in-nigerian-antiretroviral-treatment-program
#15
Seema T Meloni, Beth Chaplin, John Idoko, Oche Agbaji, Sulaimon Akanmu, Godwin Imade, Prosper Okonkwo, Robert L Murphy, Phyllis J Kanki
BACKGROUND: For patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART), treatment interruptions can impact patient outcomes and result in the accumulation of drug resistance mutations leading to virologic failure. There are minimal published data on the impact of an ART stock shortage on development of drug resistance mutations (DRMs). In this report, we evaluate data from patients enrolled in the Government of Nigeria National ART Program that were receiving treatment at the time of a national drug shortage in late 2003...
October 13, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025433/the-role-of-the-glycosyl-moiety-of-myricetin-derivatives-in-anti-hiv-1-activity-in-vitro
#16
Joseph T Ortega, Alirica I Suárez, Maria L Serrano, Jani Baptista, Flor H Pujol, Hector R Rangel
BACKGROUND: Plant extracts are sources of valuable compounds with biological activity, especially for the anti-proliferative activity against pathogens or tumor cells. Myricetin is a flavonoid found in several plants that has been described as an inhibitor of Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) through its action against the HIV reverse transcriptase, but myricetin derivatives have not been fully studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-HIV-1 activity of glycosylated metabolites obtained from Marcetia taxifolia and derived from myricetin: myricetin rhamnoside and myricetin 3-(6-rhamnosylgalactoside)...
October 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931406/validation-of-a-questionnaire-to-monitor-symptoms-in-hiv-infected-patients-during-hepatitis-c-treatment
#17
Edward R Cachay, Craig Ballard, Bradford Colwell, Francesca Torriani, Charles Hicks, Wm Christopher Mathews
BACKGROUND: Clinicians are incorporating patient-reported outcomes in the management of HIV-infected persons co-infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), but there are no validated inventories to monitor symptoms of patients during HCV therapy. DESIGN: Five-year retrospective cohort analysis of persons living with HIV (PLWH) treated for HCV. METHODS: The HCV symptom-inventory (HCV-SI) was administered before, during, and after HCV treatment. Discriminant validity was assessed, separately, in mixed model linear regression of HCV-SI T-scores on treatment regimens (pegylated-interferon and ribavirin; pegylated-interferon, ribavirin, and telaprevir; and interferon-free antivirals); and side effect-related premature treatment discontinuation (SE-DC)...
September 20, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893304/preventing-hiv-infection-without-targeting-the-virus-how-reducing-hiv-target-cells-at-the-genital-tract-is-a-new-approach-to-hiv-prevention
#18
REVIEW
Julie Lajoie, Lucy Mwangi, Keith R Fowke
For over three decades, HIV infection has had a tremendous impact on the lives of individuals and public health. Microbicides and vaccines studies have shown that immune activation at the genital tract is a risk factor for HIV infection. Furthermore, lower level of immune activation, or what we call immune quiescence, has been associated with a lower risk of HIV acquisition. This unique phenotype is observed in highly-exposed seronegative individuals from different populations including female sex workers from the Pumwani cohort in Nairobi, Kenya...
September 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893294/hiv-i-nef-inhibitors-a-novel-class-of-hiv-specific-immune-adjuvants-in-support-of-a-cure
#19
REVIEW
Gregory A Dekaban, Jimmy D Dikeakos
The success of many current vaccines relies on a formulation that incorporates an immune activating adjuvant. This will hold true for the design of a successful therapeutic HIV vaccine targeted at controlling reactivated virus following cessation of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). The HIV accessory protein Nef functions by interfering with HIV antigen presentation through the major histocompatibility complex I (MHC-I) pathway thereby suppressing CD8+ cytotoxic T cell (CTL)-mediated killing of HIV infected cells...
September 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893293/hiv-vaccine-research-in-canada
#20
EDITORIAL
Robin Shattock
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
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