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Particle and Fibre Toxicology

Masakazu Umezawa, Atsuto Onoda, Irina Korshunova, Alexander C Ø Jensen, Ismo K Koponen, Keld A Jensen, Konstantin Khodosevich, Ulla Vogel, Karin S Hougaard
BACKGROUND: Engineered nanoparticles are smaller than 100 nm and designed to improve or creating even new physico-chemical properties. Consequently, toxicological properties of materials may change as size reaches the nm size-range. We examined outcomes related to the central nervous system in the offspring following maternal inhalation exposure to nanosized carbon black particles (Printex 90). METHODS: Time-mated mice (NMRI) were exposed by inhalation, for 45 min/day to 0, 4...
September 10, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Chelsea A O'Driscoll, Leah A Owens, Madeline E Gallo, Erica J Hoffmann, Amin Afrazi, Mei Han, John H Fechner, James J Schauer, Christopher A Bradfield, Joshua D Mezrich
BACKGROUND: Exposure to particulate matter (PM) has been associated with increased incidence and severity of autoimmune disease. Diesel PM is primarily composed of an elemental carbon core and adsorbed organic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and contributes up to 40% of atmospheric PM. The organic fraction (OF) of PM excludes all metals and inorganics and retains most organic compounds, such as PAHs. Both PM and OF increase inflammation in vitro and aggravate autoimmune disease in humans...
August 24, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Premkumari Kumarathasan, Renaud Vincent, Erica Blais, Agnieszka Bielecki, Josée Guénette, Alain Filiatreault, Orly Brion, Sabit Cakmak, Errol M Thomson, Robin Shutt, Lisa Marie Kauri, Mamun Mahmud, Ling Liu, Robert Dales
BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of mechanistic information that is central to the understanding of the adverse health effects of source emission exposures. To identify source emission-related effects, blood and saliva samples from healthy volunteers who spent five days near a steel plant (Bayview site, with and without a mask that filtered many criteria pollutants) and at a well-removed College site were tested for oxidative stress, inflammation and endothelial dysfunction markers. METHODS: Biomarker analyses were done using multiplexed protein-array, HPLC-Fluorescence, EIA and ELISA methods...
August 10, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Alba García-Rodríguez, Laura Vila, Constanza Cortés, Alba Hernández, Ricard Marcos
BACKGROUND: The biological effects of nanoparticles depend on several characteristics such as size and shape that must be taken into account in any type of assessment. The increased use of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) for industrial applications, and specifically as a food additive, demands a deep assessment of their potential risk for humans, including their abilities to cross biological barriers. METHODS: We have investigated the interaction of three differently shaped TiO2 NPs (nanospheres, nanorods and nanowires) in an in vitro model of the intestinal barrier, where the coculture of Caco-2/HT29 cells confers inherent intestinal epithelium characteristics to the model (i...
August 7, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Sebastiano Di Bucchianico, Anda R Gliga, Emma Åkerlund, Sara Skoglund, Inger Odnevall Wallinder, Bengt Fadeel, Hanna L Karlsson
BACKGROUND: Genotoxicity is an important toxicological endpoint due to the link to diseases such as cancer. Therefore, an increased understanding regarding genotoxicity and underlying mechanisms is needed for assessing the risk with exposure to nanoparticles (NPs). The aim of this study was to perform an in-depth investigation regarding the genotoxicity of well-characterized Ni and NiO NPs in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells and to discern possible mechanisms. Comparisons were made with NiCl2 in order to elucidate effects of ionic Ni...
July 17, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Mandy Großgarten, Matthias Holzlechner, Antje Vennemann, Anna Balbekova, Karin Wieland, Michael Sperling, Bernhard Lendl, Martina Marchetti-Deschmann, Uwe Karst, Martin Wiemann
BACKGROUND: The well-known inflammatory and fibrogenic changes of the lung upon crystalline silica are accompanied by early changes of the phospholipid composition (PLC) as detected in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Amorphous silica nanoparticles (NPs) evoke transient lung inflammation, but their effect on PLC is unknown. Here, we compared effects of unmodified and phosphonated amorphous silica NP and describe, for the first time, local changes of the PLC with innovative bioimaging tools...
July 16, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Tianjia Guan, Songhe Hu, Yiqun Han, Ruoyu Wang, Qindan Zhu, Yaoqian Hu, Hanqing Fan, Tong Zhu
BACKGROUND: Facemasks are increasingly worn during air pollution episodes in China, but their protective effects are poorly understood. We aimed to evaluate the filtration efficiencies of N95 facemasks and the cardiopulmonary benefits associated with wearing facemasks during episodes of pollution. RESULTS: We measured the filtration efficiencies of particles in ambient air of six types of N95 facemasks with a manikin headform. The most effective one was used in a double-blind, randomized, controlled crossover study, involving 15 healthy young adults, conducted during 2 days of severe pollution in Beijing, China...
July 4, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Ran You, Yuen-Shan Ho, Clara Hiu-Ling Hung, Yan Liu, Chun-Xia Huang, Hei-Nga Chan, See-Lok Ho, Sheung-Yeung Lui, Hung-Wing Li, Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang
BACKGROUND: Silica nanoparticles (SiO2 -NPs) are naturally enriched and broadly utilized in the manufacturing industry. While previous studies have demonstrated toxicity in neuronal cell lines after SiO2 -NPs exposure, the role of SiO2 -NPs in neurodegeneration is largely unknown. Here, we evaluated the effects of SiO2 -NPs-exposure on behavior, neuropathology, and synapse in young adult mice and primary cortical neuron cultures. RESULTS: Male C57BL/6 N mice (3 months old) were exposed to either vehicle (sterile PBS) or fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-tagged SiO2 -NPs (NP) using intranasal instillation...
July 3, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Ikjot Singh Sohal, Kevin S O'Fallon, Peter Gaines, Philip Demokritou, Dhimiter Bello
BACKGROUND: Engineered nanomaterials (ENM) are used extensively in food products to fulfill a number of roles, including enhancement of color and texture, for nutritional fortification, enhanced bioavailability, improved barrier properties of packaging, and enhanced food preservation. Safety assessment of ingested engineered nanomaterials (iENM) has gained interest in the nanotoxicology community in recent years. A variety of test systems and approaches have been used for such evaluations, with in vitro monoculture cell models being the most common test systems, owing to their low cost and ease-of-use...
July 3, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Guohua Qin, Jin Xia, Yingying Zhang, Lianghong Guo, Rui Chen, Nan Sang
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in the advanced world, and age is an important determinant of cardiac function. The purpose of the study is to determine whether the PM2.5 -induced cardiac dysfunction is age-dependent and whether the adverse effects can be restored after PM2.5 exposure withdrawal. METHODS: Female C57BL/6 mice at different ages (4-week-old, 4-month-old, and 10-month-old) received oropharyngeal aspiration of 3 mg/kg b...
June 25, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Mingxia Ren, Li Zhao, Xuecheng Ding, Natalia Krasteva, Qi Rui, Dayong Wang
BACKGROUND: Intestinal barrier is crucial for animals against translocation of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) into secondary targeted organs. However, the molecular mechanisms for the role of intestinal barrier against ENMs toxicity are still largely unclear. The intestine of Caenorhabditis elegans is a powerful in vivo experimental system for the study on intestinal function. In this study, we investigated the molecular basis for intestinal barrier against toxicity and translocation of graphene oxide (GO) using C...
June 22, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Thomas Loret, Françoise Rogerieux, Bénédicte Trouiller, Anne Braun, Christophe Egles, Ghislaine Lacroix
BACKGROUND: Animal models remain at that time a reference tool to predict potential pulmonary adverse effects of nanomaterials in humans. However, in a context of reduction of the number of animals used in experimentation, there is a need for reliable alternatives. In vitro models using lung cells represent relevant alternatives to assess potential nanomaterial acute toxicity by inhalation, particularly since advanced in vitro methods and models have been developed. Nevertheless, the ability of in vitro experiments to replace animal experimentation for predicting potential acute pulmonary toxicity in human still needs to be carefully assessed...
June 4, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Kirsty Meldrum, Sarah B Robertson, Isabella Römer, Tim Marczylo, Lareb S N Dean, Andrew Rogers, Timothy W Gant, Rachel Smith, Terry D Tetley, Martin O Leonard
BACKGROUND: Nanomaterial inhalation represents a potential hazard for respiratory conditions such as asthma. Cerium dioxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) have the ability to modify disease outcome but have not been investigated for their effect on models of asthma and inflammatory lung disease. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of CeO2 NPs in a house dust mite (HDM) induced murine model of asthma. RESULTS: Repeated intranasal instillation of CeO2 NPs in the presence of HDM caused the induction of a type II inflammatory response, characterised by increased bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophils, mast cells, total plasma IgE and goblet cell metaplasia...
May 23, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Paul J A Borm, Paul Fowler, David Kirkland
Human exposure to (certain forms of) crystalline silica (CS) potentially results in adverse effects on human health. Since 1997 IARC has classified CS as a Group 1 carcinogen [1], which was confirmed in a later review in 2012 [2]. The genotoxic potential and mode of genotoxic action of CS was not conclusive in either of the IARC reviews, although a proposal for mode of actions was made in an extensive review of the genotoxicity of CS by Borm, Tran and Donaldson in 2011 [3]. The present study identified 141 new papers from search strings related to genotoxicity of respirable CS (RCS) since 2011 and, of these, 17 relevant publications with genotoxicity data were included in this detailed review...
May 21, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Mary K Schubauer-Berigan, Matthew M Dahm, Aaron Erdely, John D Beard, M Eileen Birch, Douglas E Evans, Joseph E Fernback, Robert R Mercer, Stephen J Bertke, Tracy Eye, Marie A de Perio
BACKGROUND: Commercial use of carbon nanotubes and nanofibers (CNT/F) in composites and electronics is increasing; however, little is known about health effects among workers. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 108 workers at 12 U.S. CNT/F facilities. We evaluated chest symptoms or respiratory allergies since starting work with CNT/F, lung function, resting blood pressure (BP), resting heart rate (RHR), and complete blood count (CBC) components. METHODS: We conducted multi-day, full-shift sampling to measure background-corrected elemental carbon (EC) and CNT/F structure count concentrations, and collected induced sputum to measure CNT/F in the respiratory tract...
May 16, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Bendik C Brinchmann, Tonje Skuland, Mia H Rambøl, Krisztina Szoke, Jan E Brinchmann, Arno C Gutleb, Elisa Moschini, Alena Kubátová, Klara Kukowski, Eric Le Ferrec, Dominique Lagadic-Gossmann, Per E Schwarze, Marit Låg, Magne Refsnes, Johan Øvrevik, Jørn A Holme
BACKGROUND: Exposure to traffic-derived particulate matter (PM), such as diesel exhaust particles (DEP), is a leading environmental cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and may contribute to endothelial dysfunction and development of atherosclerosis. It is still debated how DEP and other inhaled PM can contribute to CVD. However, organic chemicals (OC) adhered to the particle surface, are considered central to many of the biological effects. In the present study, we have explored the ability of OC from DEP to reach the endothelium and trigger pro-inflammatory reactions, a central step on the path to atherosclerosis...
May 11, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Sridhar Jaligama, Vivek S Patel, Pingli Wang, Asmaa Sallam, Jeffrey Harding, Matthew Kelley, Skylar R Mancuso, Tammy R Dugas, Stephania A Cormier
BACKGROUND: Pollutant particles containing environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) are formed during many combustion processes (e.g. thermal remediation of hazardous wastes, diesel/gasoline combustion, wood smoke, cigarette smoke, etc.). Our previous studies demonstrated that acute exposure to EPFRs results in dendritic cell maturation and Th17-biased pulmonary immune responses. Further, in a mouse model of asthma, these responses were enhanced suggesting exposure to EPFRs as a risk factor for the development and/or exacerbation of asthma...
May 3, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Jie Ji, Swapna Upadhyay, Xiaomiao Xiong, Maria Malmlöf, Thomas Sandström, Per Gerde, Lena Palmberg
BACKGROUND: Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are a major component of outdoor air pollution. DEP mediated pulmonary effects are plausibly linked to inflammatory and oxidative stress response in which macrophages (MQ), epithelial cells and their cell-cell interaction plays a crucial role. Therefore, in this study we aimed at studying the cellular crosstalk between airway epithelial cells with MQ and MQ polarization following exposure to aerosolized DEP by assessing inflammation, oxidative stress, and MQ polarization response markers...
May 2, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Yu-Chi Chang, Toby B Cole, Lucio G Costa
BACKGROUND: Escalating prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in recent decades has triggered increasing efforts in understanding roles played by environmental risk factors as a way to address this widespread public health concern. Several epidemiological studies show associations between developmental exposure to traffic-related air pollution and increased ASD risk. In rodent models, a limited number of studies have shown that developmental exposure to ambient ultrafine particulates or diesel exhaust (DE) can result in behavioral phenotypes consistent with mild ASD...
April 20, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Wanjun Wang, Ji Zhou, Minjie Chen, Xingke Huang, Xiaoyun Xie, Weihua Li, Qi Cao, Haidong Kan, Yanyi Xu, Zhekang Ying
BACKGROUND: Exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) correlates with abnormal glucose homeostasis, but the underlying biological mechanism has not been fully understood. The gut microbiota is an emerging crucial player in the homeostatic regulation of glucose metabolism. Few studies have investigated its role in the PM2.5 exposure-induced abnormalities in glucose homeostasis. METHODS: C57Bl/6J mice were exposed to filtered air (FA) or concentrated ambient PM2...
April 17, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
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