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Particle and Fibre Toxicology

Alaeddin Bashir Abukabda, Carroll Rolland McBride, Thomas Paul Batchelor, William Travis Goldsmith, Elizabeth Compton Bowdridge, Krista Lee Garner, Sherri Friend, Timothy Robert Nurkiewicz
BACKGROUND: The cardiovascular effects of pulmonary exposure to engineered nanomaterials (ENM) are poorly understood, and the reproductive consequences are even less understood. Inflammation remains the most frequently explored mechanism of ENM toxicity. However, the key mediators and steps between lung exposure and uterine health remain to be fully defined. The purpose of this study was to determine the uterine inflammatory and vascular effects of pulmonary exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2 )...
November 9, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Chi-Hsiang Shih, Jen-Kun Chen, Li-Wei Kuo, Kuan-Hung Cho, Ta-Chih Hsiao, Zhe-Wei Lin, Yi-Syuan Lin, Jiunn-Horng Kang, Yu-Chun Lo, Kai-Jen Chuang, Tsun-Jen Cheng, Hsiao-Chi Chuang
BACKGROUND: Effects of air pollution on neurotoxicity and behavioral alterations have been reported. The objective of this study was to investigate the pathophysiology caused by particulate matter (PM) in the brain. We examined the effects of traffic-related particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of < 1 μm (PM1 ), high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA)-filtered air, and clean air on the brain structure, behavioral changes, brainwaves, and bioreactivity of the brain (cortex, cerebellum, and hippocampus), olfactory bulb, and serum after 3 and 6 months of whole-body exposure in 6-month-old Sprague Dawley rats...
November 9, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Linda Böhmert, Laura König, Holger Sieg, Dajana Lichtenstein, Niklas Paul, Albert Braeuning, Andreas Voigt, Alfonso Lampen
BACKGROUND: Even though a continuously high number of in vitro studies on nanoparticles are being published, the issue of correct dose matter is often not sufficiently taken into account. Due to their size, the diffusion of nanoparticles is slower, as compared to soluble chemicals, and they sediment slowly. Therefore, the administered dose of particles in in vitro experiments is not necessarily the same (effective) dose that comes into contact with the cellular system. This can lead to misinterpretations of experimental toxic effects and disturbs the meaningfulness of in vitro studies...
October 30, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Taisuke Tomonaga, Hiroto Izumi, Yukiko Yoshiura, Toshihiko Myojo, Takako Oyabu, Byeong-Woo Lee, Takami Okada, Takashi Marui, Ke-Yong Wang, Masaru Kubo, Manabu Shimada, Shingo Noguchi, Chinatsu Nishida, Kazuhiro Yatera, Yasuo Morimoto
BACKGROUND: In order to examine whether myeloperoxidase (MPO) can be a useful marker for evaluating the pulmonary toxicity of nanomaterials, we analyzed MPO protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples obtained from previous examinations of a rat model. In those examinations we performed intratracheal instillation exposures (dose: 0.2-1.0 mg) and inhalation exposures (exposure concentration: 0.32-10.4 mg/m3 ) using 9 and 4 nanomaterials with different toxicities, respectively...
October 23, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Antonio Anax Falcão de Oliveira, Tiago Franco de Oliveira, Michelle Francini Dias, Marisa Helena Gennari Medeiros, Paolo Di Mascio, Mariana Veras, Miriam Lemos, Tania Marcourakis, Paulo Hilário Nascimento Saldiva, Ana Paula Melo Loureiro
BACKGROUND: The Metropolitan Area of São Paulo has a unique composition of atmospheric pollutants, and positive correlations between exposure and the risk of diseases and mortality have been observed. Here we assessed the effects of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) on genotoxic and global DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation changes, as well as the activities of antioxidant enzymes, in tissues of AJ mice exposed whole body to ambient air enriched in PM2.5 , which was concentrated in a chamber near an avenue of intense traffic in São Paulo City, Brazil...
October 19, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Huimin Liang, Aijie Chen, Xuan Lai, Jia Liu, Junrong Wu, Yiyuan Kang, Xinying Wang, Longquan Shao
BACKGROUND: The extensive biological applications of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) in stomatology have created serious concerns about their biotoxicity. In our previous study, ZnO NPs were confirmed to transfer to the central nervous system (CNS) via the taste nerve pathway and cause neurodegeneration after 30 days of tongue instillation. However, the potential adverse effects on the brain caused by tongue-instilled ZnO NPs are not fully known. METHODS: In this study, the biodistribution of Zn, cerebral histopathology and inflammatory responses were analysed after 30 days of ZnO NPs tongue instillation...
October 19, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Siqi Zhang, Susanne Breitner, Wayne E Cascio, Robert B Devlin, Lucas M Neas, David Diaz-Sanchez, William E Kraus, Joel Schwartz, Elizabeth R Hauser, Annette Peters, Alexandra Schneider
BACKGROUND: Air pollution-induced changes in cardiac electrophysiological properties could be a pathway linking air pollution and cardiovascular events. The evidence of air pollution effects on the cardiac conduction system is incomplete yet. We investigated short-term effects of particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5 ) and ozone (O3 ) on cardiac electrical impulse propagation and repolarization as recorded in surface electrocardiograms (ECG). METHODS: We analyzed repeated 12-lead ECG measurements performed on 5,332 patients between 2001 and 2012...
October 11, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
L Lamon, D Asturiol, A Richarz, E Joossens, R Graepel, K Aschberger, A Worth
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of manufactured nanomaterials (NMs) are being used in industrial products and need to be registered under the REACH legislation. The hazard characterisation of all these forms is not only technically challenging but resource and time demanding. The use of non-testing strategies like read-across is deemed essential to assure the assessment of all NMs in due time and at lower cost. The fact that read-across is based on the structural similarity of substances represents an additional difficulty for NMs as in general their structure is not unequivocally defined...
September 24, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Masakazu Umezawa, Atsuto Onoda, Irina Korshunova, Alexander C Ø Jensen, Ismo K Koponen, Keld A Jensen, Konstantin Khodosevich, Ulla Vogel, Karin S Hougaard
BACKGROUND: Engineered nanoparticles are smaller than 100 nm and designed to improve or creating even new physico-chemical properties. Consequently, toxicological properties of materials may change as size reaches the nm size-range. We examined outcomes related to the central nervous system in the offspring following maternal inhalation exposure to nanosized carbon black particles (Printex 90). METHODS: Time-mated mice (NMRI) were exposed by inhalation, for 45 min/day to 0, 4...
September 10, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Chelsea A O'Driscoll, Leah A Owens, Madeline E Gallo, Erica J Hoffmann, Amin Afrazi, Mei Han, John H Fechner, James J Schauer, Christopher A Bradfield, Joshua D Mezrich
BACKGROUND: Exposure to particulate matter (PM) has been associated with increased incidence and severity of autoimmune disease. Diesel PM is primarily composed of an elemental carbon core and adsorbed organic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and contributes up to 40% of atmospheric PM. The organic fraction (OF) of PM excludes all metals and inorganics and retains most organic compounds, such as PAHs. Both PM and OF increase inflammation in vitro and aggravate autoimmune disease in humans...
August 24, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Premkumari Kumarathasan, Renaud Vincent, Erica Blais, Agnieszka Bielecki, Josée Guénette, Alain Filiatreault, Orly Brion, Sabit Cakmak, Errol M Thomson, Robin Shutt, Lisa Marie Kauri, Mamun Mahmud, Ling Liu, Robert Dales
BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of mechanistic information that is central to the understanding of the adverse health effects of source emission exposures. To identify source emission-related effects, blood and saliva samples from healthy volunteers who spent five days near a steel plant (Bayview site, with and without a mask that filtered many criteria pollutants) and at a well-removed College site were tested for oxidative stress, inflammation and endothelial dysfunction markers. METHODS: Biomarker analyses were done using multiplexed protein-array, HPLC-Fluorescence, EIA and ELISA methods...
August 10, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Alba García-Rodríguez, Laura Vila, Constanza Cortés, Alba Hernández, Ricard Marcos
BACKGROUND: The biological effects of nanoparticles depend on several characteristics such as size and shape that must be taken into account in any type of assessment. The increased use of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) for industrial applications, and specifically as a food additive, demands a deep assessment of their potential risk for humans, including their abilities to cross biological barriers. METHODS: We have investigated the interaction of three differently shaped TiO2 NPs (nanospheres, nanorods and nanowires) in an in vitro model of the intestinal barrier, where the coculture of Caco-2/HT29 cells confers inherent intestinal epithelium characteristics to the model (i...
August 7, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Sebastiano Di Bucchianico, Anda R Gliga, Emma Åkerlund, Sara Skoglund, Inger Odnevall Wallinder, Bengt Fadeel, Hanna L Karlsson
BACKGROUND: Genotoxicity is an important toxicological endpoint due to the link to diseases such as cancer. Therefore, an increased understanding regarding genotoxicity and underlying mechanisms is needed for assessing the risk with exposure to nanoparticles (NPs). The aim of this study was to perform an in-depth investigation regarding the genotoxicity of well-characterized Ni and NiO NPs in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells and to discern possible mechanisms. Comparisons were made with NiCl2 in order to elucidate effects of ionic Ni...
July 17, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Mandy Großgarten, Matthias Holzlechner, Antje Vennemann, Anna Balbekova, Karin Wieland, Michael Sperling, Bernhard Lendl, Martina Marchetti-Deschmann, Uwe Karst, Martin Wiemann
BACKGROUND: The well-known inflammatory and fibrogenic changes of the lung upon crystalline silica are accompanied by early changes of the phospholipid composition (PLC) as detected in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Amorphous silica nanoparticles (NPs) evoke transient lung inflammation, but their effect on PLC is unknown. Here, we compared effects of unmodified and phosphonated amorphous silica NP and describe, for the first time, local changes of the PLC with innovative bioimaging tools...
July 16, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Tianjia Guan, Songhe Hu, Yiqun Han, Ruoyu Wang, Qindan Zhu, Yaoqian Hu, Hanqing Fan, Tong Zhu
BACKGROUND: Facemasks are increasingly worn during air pollution episodes in China, but their protective effects are poorly understood. We aimed to evaluate the filtration efficiencies of N95 facemasks and the cardiopulmonary benefits associated with wearing facemasks during episodes of pollution. RESULTS: We measured the filtration efficiencies of particles in ambient air of six types of N95 facemasks with a manikin headform. The most effective one was used in a double-blind, randomized, controlled crossover study, involving 15 healthy young adults, conducted during 2 days of severe pollution in Beijing, China...
July 4, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Ran You, Yuen-Shan Ho, Clara Hiu-Ling Hung, Yan Liu, Chun-Xia Huang, Hei-Nga Chan, See-Lok Ho, Sheung-Yeung Lui, Hung-Wing Li, Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang
BACKGROUND: Silica nanoparticles (SiO2 -NPs) are naturally enriched and broadly utilized in the manufacturing industry. While previous studies have demonstrated toxicity in neuronal cell lines after SiO2 -NPs exposure, the role of SiO2 -NPs in neurodegeneration is largely unknown. Here, we evaluated the effects of SiO2 -NPs-exposure on behavior, neuropathology, and synapse in young adult mice and primary cortical neuron cultures. RESULTS: Male C57BL/6 N mice (3 months old) were exposed to either vehicle (sterile PBS) or fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-tagged SiO2 -NPs (NP) using intranasal instillation...
July 3, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Ikjot Singh Sohal, Kevin S O'Fallon, Peter Gaines, Philip Demokritou, Dhimiter Bello
BACKGROUND: Engineered nanomaterials (ENM) are used extensively in food products to fulfill a number of roles, including enhancement of color and texture, for nutritional fortification, enhanced bioavailability, improved barrier properties of packaging, and enhanced food preservation. Safety assessment of ingested engineered nanomaterials (iENM) has gained interest in the nanotoxicology community in recent years. A variety of test systems and approaches have been used for such evaluations, with in vitro monoculture cell models being the most common test systems, owing to their low cost and ease-of-use...
July 3, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Guohua Qin, Jin Xia, Yingying Zhang, Lianghong Guo, Rui Chen, Nan Sang
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in the advanced world, and age is an important determinant of cardiac function. The purpose of the study is to determine whether the PM2.5 -induced cardiac dysfunction is age-dependent and whether the adverse effects can be restored after PM2.5 exposure withdrawal. METHODS: Female C57BL/6 mice at different ages (4-week-old, 4-month-old, and 10-month-old) received oropharyngeal aspiration of 3 mg/kg b...
June 25, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Mingxia Ren, Li Zhao, Xuecheng Ding, Natalia Krasteva, Qi Rui, Dayong Wang
BACKGROUND: Intestinal barrier is crucial for animals against translocation of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) into secondary targeted organs. However, the molecular mechanisms for the role of intestinal barrier against ENMs toxicity are still largely unclear. The intestine of Caenorhabditis elegans is a powerful in vivo experimental system for the study on intestinal function. In this study, we investigated the molecular basis for intestinal barrier against toxicity and translocation of graphene oxide (GO) using C...
June 22, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Thomas Loret, Françoise Rogerieux, Bénédicte Trouiller, Anne Braun, Christophe Egles, Ghislaine Lacroix
BACKGROUND: Animal models remain at that time a reference tool to predict potential pulmonary adverse effects of nanomaterials in humans. However, in a context of reduction of the number of animals used in experimentation, there is a need for reliable alternatives. In vitro models using lung cells represent relevant alternatives to assess potential nanomaterial acute toxicity by inhalation, particularly since advanced in vitro methods and models have been developed. Nevertheless, the ability of in vitro experiments to replace animal experimentation for predicting potential acute pulmonary toxicity in human still needs to be carefully assessed...
June 4, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
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