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Particle and Fibre Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30012173/phosphonate-coating-of-sio-2-nanoparticles-abrogates-inflammatory-effects-and-local-changes-of-the-lipid-composition-in-the-rat-lung-a-complementary-bioimaging-study
#1
Mandy Großgarten, Matthias Holzlechner, Antje Vennemann, Anna Balbekova, Karin Wieland, Michael Sperling, Bernhard Lendl, Martina Marchetti-Deschmann, Uwe Karst, Martin Wiemann
BACKGROUND: The well-known inflammatory and fibrogenic changes of the lung upon crystalline silica are accompanied by early changes of the phospholipid composition (PLC) as detected in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Amorphous silica nanoparticles (NPs) evoke transient lung inflammation, but their effect on PLC is unknown. Here, we compared effects of unmodified and phosphonated amorphous silica NP and describe, for the first time, local changes of the PLC with innovative bioimaging tools...
July 16, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29973251/the-effects-of-facemasks-on-airway-inflammation-and-endothelial-dysfunction-in-healthy-young-adults-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-crossover-study
#2
Tianjia Guan, Songhe Hu, Yiqun Han, Ruoyu Wang, Qindan Zhu, Yaoqian Hu, Hanqing Fan, Tong Zhu
BACKGROUND: Facemasks are increasingly worn during air pollution episodes in China, but their protective effects are poorly understood. We aimed to evaluate the filtration efficiencies of N95 facemasks and the cardiopulmonary benefits associated with wearing facemasks during episodes of pollution. RESULTS: We measured the filtration efficiencies of particles in ambient air of six types of N95 facemasks with a manikin headform. The most effective one was used in a double-blind, randomized, controlled crossover study, involving 15 healthy young adults, conducted during 2 days of severe pollution in Beijing, China...
July 4, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29970116/silica-nanoparticles-induce-neurodegeneration-like-changes-in-behavior-neuropathology-and-affect-synapse-through-mapk-activation
#3
Ran You, Yuen-Shan Ho, Clara Hiu-Ling Hung, Yan Liu, Chun-Xia Huang, Hei-Nga Chan, See-Lok Ho, Sheung-Yeung Lui, Hung-Wing Li, Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang
BACKGROUND: Silica nanoparticles (SiO2 -NPs) are naturally enriched and broadly utilized in the manufacturing industry. While previous studies have demonstrated toxicity in neuronal cell lines after SiO2 -NPs exposure, the role of SiO2 -NPs in neurodegeneration is largely unknown. Here, we evaluated the effects of SiO2 -NPs-exposure on behavior, neuropathology, and synapse in young adult mice and primary cortical neuron cultures. RESULTS: Male C57BL/6 N mice (3 months old) were exposed to either vehicle (sterile PBS) or fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-tagged SiO2 -NPs (NP) using intranasal instillation...
July 3, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29970114/ingested-engineered-nanomaterials-state-of-science-in-nanotoxicity-testing-and-future-research-needs
#4
REVIEW
Ikjot Singh Sohal, Kevin S O'Fallon, Peter Gaines, Philip Demokritou, Dhimiter Bello
BACKGROUND: Engineered nanomaterials (ENM) are used extensively in food products to fulfill a number of roles, including enhancement of color and texture, for nutritional fortification, enhanced bioavailability, improved barrier properties of packaging, and enhanced food preservation. Safety assessment of ingested engineered nanomaterials (iENM) has gained interest in the nanotoxicology community in recent years. A variety of test systems and approaches have been used for such evaluations, with in vitro monoculture cell models being the most common test systems, owing to their low cost and ease-of-use...
July 3, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29941001/ambient-fine-particulate-matter-exposure-induces-reversible-cardiac-dysfunction-and-fibrosis-in-juvenile-and-older-female-mice
#5
Guohua Qin, Jin Xia, Yingying Zhang, Lianghong Guo, Rui Chen, Nan Sang
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in the advanced world, and age is an important determinant of cardiac function. The purpose of the study is to determine whether the PM2.5 -induced cardiac dysfunction is age-dependent and whether the adverse effects can be restored after PM2.5 exposure withdrawal. METHODS: Female C57BL/6 mice at different ages (4-week-old, 4-month-old, and 10-month-old) received oropharyngeal aspiration of 3 mg/kg b...
June 25, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929559/developmental-basis-for-intestinal-barrier-against-the-toxicity-of-graphene-oxide
#6
Mingxia Ren, Li Zhao, Xuecheng Ding, Natalia Krasteva, Qi Rui, Dayong Wang
BACKGROUND: Intestinal barrier is crucial for animals against translocation of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) into secondary targeted organs. However, the molecular mechanisms for the role of intestinal barrier against ENMs toxicity are still largely unclear. The intestine of Caenorhabditis elegans is a powerful in vivo experimental system for the study on intestinal function. In this study, we investigated the molecular basis for intestinal barrier against toxicity and translocation of graphene oxide (GO) using C...
June 22, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29866184/predicting-the-in-vivo-pulmonary-toxicity-induced-by-acute-exposure-to-poorly-soluble-nanomaterials-by-using-advanced-in-vitro-methods
#7
Thomas Loret, Françoise Rogerieux, Bénédicte Trouiller, Anne Braun, Christophe Egles, Ghislaine Lacroix
BACKGROUND: Animal models remain at that time a reference tool to predict potential pulmonary adverse effects of nanomaterials in humans. However, in a context of reduction of the number of animals used in experimentation, there is a need for reliable alternatives. In vitro models using lung cells represent relevant alternatives to assess potential nanomaterial acute toxicity by inhalation, particularly since advanced in vitro methods and models have been developed. Nevertheless, the ability of in vitro experiments to replace animal experimentation for predicting potential acute pulmonary toxicity in human still needs to be carefully assessed...
June 4, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792201/cerium-dioxide-nanoparticles-exacerbate-house-dust-mite-induced-type-ii-airway-inflammation
#8
Kirsty Meldrum, Sarah B Robertson, Isabella Römer, Tim Marczylo, Lareb S N Dean, Andrew Rogers, Timothy W Gant, Rachel Smith, Terry D Tetley, Martin O Leonard
BACKGROUND: Nanomaterial inhalation represents a potential hazard for respiratory conditions such as asthma. Cerium dioxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) have the ability to modify disease outcome but have not been investigated for their effect on models of asthma and inflammatory lung disease. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of CeO2 NPs in a house dust mite (HDM) induced murine model of asthma. RESULTS: Repeated intranasal instillation of CeO2 NPs in the presence of HDM caused the induction of a type II inflammatory response, characterised by increased bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophils, mast cells, total plasma IgE and goblet cell metaplasia...
May 23, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783987/an-updated-review-of-the-genotoxicity-of-respirable-crystalline-silica
#9
REVIEW
Paul J A Borm, Paul Fowler, David Kirkland
Human exposure to (certain forms of) crystalline silica (CS) potentially results in adverse effects on human health. Since 1997 IARC has classified CS as a Group 1 carcinogen [1], which was confirmed in a later review in 2012 [2]. The genotoxic potential and mode of genotoxic action of CS was not conclusive in either of the IARC reviews, although a proposal for mode of actions was made in an extensive review of the genotoxicity of CS by Borm, Tran and Donaldson in 2011 [3]. The present study identified 141 new papers from search strings related to genotoxicity of respirable CS (RCS) since 2011 and, of these, 17 relevant publications with genotoxicity data were included in this detailed review...
May 21, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769147/association-of-pulmonary-cardiovascular-and-hematologic-metrics-with-carbon-nanotube-and-nanofiber-exposure-among-u-s-workers-a-cross-sectional-study
#10
Mary K Schubauer-Berigan, Matthew M Dahm, Aaron Erdely, John D Beard, M Eileen Birch, Douglas E Evans, Joseph E Fernback, Robert R Mercer, Stephen J Bertke, Tracy Eye, Marie A de Perio
BACKGROUND: Commercial use of carbon nanotubes and nanofibers (CNT/F) in composites and electronics is increasing; however, little is known about health effects among workers. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 108 workers at 12 U.S. CNT/F facilities. We evaluated chest symptoms or respiratory allergies since starting work with CNT/F, lung function, resting blood pressure (BP), resting heart rate (RHR), and complete blood count (CBC) components. METHODS: We conducted multi-day, full-shift sampling to measure background-corrected elemental carbon (EC) and CNT/F structure count concentrations, and collected induced sputum to measure CNT/F in the respiratory tract...
May 16, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751765/lipophilic-components-of-diesel-exhaust-particles-induce-pro-inflammatory-responses-in-human-endothelial-cells-through-ahr-dependent-pathway-s
#11
Bendik C Brinchmann, Tonje Skuland, Mia H Rambøl, Krisztina Szoke, Jan E Brinchmann, Arno C Gutleb, Elisa Moschini, Alena Kubátová, Klara Kukowski, Eric Le Ferrec, Dominique Lagadic-Gossmann, Per E Schwarze, Marit Låg, Magne Refsnes, Johan Øvrevik, Jørn A Holme
BACKGROUND: Exposure to traffic-derived particulate matter (PM), such as diesel exhaust particles (DEP), is a leading environmental cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and may contribute to endothelial dysfunction and development of atherosclerosis. It is still debated how DEP and other inhaled PM can contribute to CVD. However, organic chemicals (OC) adhered to the particle surface, are considered central to many of the biological effects. In the present study, we have explored the ability of OC from DEP to reach the endothelium and trigger pro-inflammatory reactions, a central step on the path to atherosclerosis...
May 11, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724254/radical-containing-combustion-derived-particulate-matter-enhance-pulmonary-th17-inflammation-via-the-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor
#12
Sridhar Jaligama, Vivek S Patel, Pingli Wang, Asmaa Sallam, Jeffrey Harding, Matthew Kelley, Skylar R Mancuso, Tammy R Dugas, Stephania A Cormier
BACKGROUND: Pollutant particles containing environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) are formed during many combustion processes (e.g. thermal remediation of hazardous wastes, diesel/gasoline combustion, wood smoke, cigarette smoke, etc.). Our previous studies demonstrated that acute exposure to EPFRs results in dendritic cell maturation and Th17-biased pulmonary immune responses. Further, in a mouse model of asthma, these responses were enhanced suggesting exposure to EPFRs as a risk factor for the development and/or exacerbation of asthma...
May 3, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716632/multi-cellular-human-bronchial-models-exposed-to-diesel-exhaust-particles-assessment-of-inflammation-oxidative-stress-and-macrophage-polarization
#13
Jie Ji, Swapna Upadhyay, Xiaomiao Xiong, Maria Malmlöf, Thomas Sandström, Per Gerde, Lena Palmberg
BACKGROUND: Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are a major component of outdoor air pollution. DEP mediated pulmonary effects are plausibly linked to inflammatory and oxidative stress response in which macrophages (MQ), epithelial cells and their cell-cell interaction plays a crucial role. Therefore, in this study we aimed at studying the cellular crosstalk between airway epithelial cells with MQ and MQ polarization following exposure to aerosolized DEP by assessing inflammation, oxidative stress, and MQ polarization response markers...
May 2, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678176/prenatal-and-early-life-diesel-exhaust-exposure-causes-autism-like-behavioral-changes-in-mice
#14
Yu-Chi Chang, Toby B Cole, Lucio G Costa
BACKGROUND: Escalating prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in recent decades has triggered increasing efforts in understanding roles played by environmental risk factors as a way to address this widespread public health concern. Several epidemiological studies show associations between developmental exposure to traffic-related air pollution and increased ASD risk. In rodent models, a limited number of studies have shown that developmental exposure to ambient ultrafine particulates or diesel exhaust (DE) can result in behavioral phenotypes consistent with mild ASD...
April 20, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665823/exposure-to-concentrated-ambient-pm-2-5-alters-the-composition-of-gut-microbiota-in-a-murine-model
#15
Wanjun Wang, Ji Zhou, Minjie Chen, Xingke Huang, Xiaoyun Xie, Weihua Li, Qi Cao, Haidong Kan, Yanyi Xu, Zhekang Ying
BACKGROUND: Exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) correlates with abnormal glucose homeostasis, but the underlying biological mechanism has not been fully understood. The gut microbiota is an emerging crucial player in the homeostatic regulation of glucose metabolism. Few studies have investigated its role in the PM2.5 exposure-induced abnormalities in glucose homeostasis. METHODS: C57Bl/6J mice were exposed to filtered air (FA) or concentrated ambient PM2...
April 17, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650039/carbon-black-suppresses-the-osteogenesis-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-the-role-of-mitochondria
#16
Yulai Shen, Lu Wu, Dongdong Qin, Yankai Xia, Zhu Zhou, Xuemei Zhang, Xin Wu
BACKGROUND: The rapid increase in carbon black poses threats to human health. We evaluated the effect of CB (Printex 90) on the osteogenesis of bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Mitochondria play an important role in the osteogenesis of MSCs and are potential targets of nanomaterials, so we studied the role of mitochondria in the CB Printex 90-induced effects on osteogenesis. RESULTS: Low doses of Printex 90 (3 ng/mL and 30 ng/mL) that did not cause deleterious effects on MSCs' viability significantly inhibited osteogenesis of MSCs...
April 12, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642936/detection-of-titanium-particles-in-human-liver-and-spleen-and-possible-health-implications
#17
M B Heringa, R J B Peters, R L A W Bleys, M K van der Lee, P C Tromp, P C E van Kesteren, J C H van Eijkeren, A K Undas, A G Oomen, H Bouwmeester
BACKGROUND: Titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) is produced at high volumes and applied in many consumer and food products. Recent toxicokinetic modelling indicated the potential of TiO2 to accumulate in human liver and spleen upon daily oral exposure, which is not routinely investigated in chronic animal studies. A health risk from nanosized TiO2 particle consumption could not be excluded then. RESULTS: Here we show the first quantification of both total titanium (Ti) and TiO2 particles in 15 post-mortem human livers and spleens...
April 11, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540230/carbon-load-in-airway-macrophages-as-a-biomarker-of-exposure-to-particulate-air-pollution-a-longitudinal-study-of-an-international-panel
#18
Yang Bai, Hannelore Bové, Tim S Nawrot, Benoit Nemery
BACKGROUND: Carbon load in airway macrophages (AM) has been proposed as an internal marker to assess long-term exposure to combustion-derived pollutant particles. However, it is not known how this biomarker is affected by changes in exposure. We studied the clearance kinetics of black carbon (BC) in AM, obtained by sputum induction, in a one-year panel study. METHODS: AM BC was measured 8 times with 6 weeks intervals in healthy young subjects: 15 long-term residents in Leuven, Belgium (BE, mean annual PM10 20-30 μg/m3 ) and 30 newcomers having arrived recently (< 3 weeks) in Leuven from highly polluted cities (mean annual PM10  > 50 μg/m3 ) in low and middle-income countries (LMIC, n = 15), or from low to moderately polluted cities in high-income countries (HIC, n = 15)...
March 14, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540228/early-life-exposure-to-three-size-fractionated-ultrafine-and-fine-atmospheric-particulates-in-beijing-exacerbates-asthma-development-in-mature-mice
#19
Mei Mei, Haojun Song, Lina Chen, Bin Hu, Ru Bai, Diandou Xu, Ying Liu, Yuliang Zhao, Chunying Chen
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have suggested that elevated levels of air pollution contribute to an increased incidence or severity of asthma. Although late-onset adult asthma seems to be more attributable to environmental risk factors, limited data is available on the impact of early-life exposure to size-fractionated ambient particulate matter (PM) on asthma in adults. We aimed to determine the effect on the development and exacerbation of asthma in the adult after the mice were exposed as juveniles to three size-fractionated ambient particulates collected from Beijing...
March 14, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482579/vasomotor-function-in-rat-arteries-after-ex-vivo-and-intragastric-exposure-to-food-grade-titanium-dioxide-and-vegetable-carbon-particles
#20
Ditte Marie Jensen, Daniel Vest Christophersen, Majid Sheykhzade, Gry Freja Skovsted, Jens Lykkesfeldt, Rasmus Münter, Martin Roursgaard, Steffen Loft, Peter Møller
BACKGROUND: Humans are continuously exposed to particles in the gastrointestinal tract. Exposure may occur directly through ingestion of particles via food or indirectly by removal of inhaled material from the airways by the mucociliary clearance system. We examined the effects of food-grade particle exposure on vasomotor function and systemic oxidative stress in an ex vivo study and intragastrically exposed rats. METHODS: In an ex vivo study, aorta rings from naïve Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed for 30 min to food-grade TiO2 (E171), benchmark TiO2 (Aeroxide P25), food-grade vegetable carbon (E153) or benchmark carbon black (Printex 90)...
February 26, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
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