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Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634881/drowning-and-near-drowning-definitions-and-terminology
#1
LETTER
Roger W Byard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 20, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631111/suffocation-caused-by-plastic-wrap-covering-the-face-combined-with-nitrous-oxide-inhalation
#2
Peter Mygind Leth, Birgitte Schmidt Astrup
Suicide using a combination of a plastic bag over the head and inhalation of a non-irritating gas, such as helium, argon or nitrogen, has been reported in the literature. Here an unusual suicide method in a 17-year old man by suffocation from covering the face with household plastic wrap, combined with nitrous oxide inhalation, is presented. The case was reviewed based on police, autopsy and hospital reports. A PubMed search for scientific literature related to nitrous oxide abuse and suicide by suffocation was performed and our findings discussed in relation to the scientific literature found...
June 19, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631110/expression-of-hsp27-and-hsp70-and-vacuolization-in-the-pituitary-glands-in-cases-of-fatal-hypothermia
#3
Elke Doberentz, Philipp Markwerth, Rebecca Wagner, Burkhard Madea
Hypothermia causes systemic cellular stress. The pituitary gland is an endocrine gland and plays an important role in thermoregulation. When the core body temperature drops, the pituitary gland is activated by stimulation of hypothalamic hormones. In this study, we investigated morphological alterations of the pituitary gland in cases of fatal hypothermia. Several morphological alterations of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, such as hemorrhage, vacuolization, and hyperemia, have been previously described in fatal hypothermia...
June 19, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631109/increasing-the-reach-of-forensic-genetics-with-massively-parallel-sequencing
#4
REVIEW
Bruce Budowle, Sarah E Schmedes, Frank R Wendt
The field of forensic genetics has made great strides in the analysis of biological evidence related to criminal and civil matters. More so, the discipline has set a standard of performance and quality in the forensic sciences. The advent of massively parallel sequencing will allow the field to expand its capabilities substantially. This review describes the salient features of massively parallel sequencing and how it can impact forensic genetics. The features of this technology offer increased number and types of genetic markers that can be analyzed, higher throughput of samples, and the capability of targeting different organisms, all by one unifying methodology...
June 19, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616812/biventricular-noncompaction-cardiomyopathy-with-malignant-arrhythmia-as-a-cause-of-sudden-death
#5
Petr Handlos, Tomáš Gruszka, Marie Staňková, Klára Marecová, Marek Joukal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 15, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616811/black-cracks-staining-of-fracture-lines
#6
Sarah Scheirs, Assumpció Malgosa, Ignasi Galtés
During the investigation of fresh bone fractures, it might be difficult to visualize all the fracture lines that could contribute to the interpretation of the biomechanics behind a fracture. To optimize the examination of the fracture, the bones should first be defleshed to expose the osseous surface. To reveal small fracture lines more clearly, we developed two easy, fast, cheap and non-destructive methods to enhance fracture lines and bone defects by coloring the fracture lines with ink. One method consists of cooking the bone in ink, and the second method uses capillary action for ink penetration...
June 15, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616810/accuracy-of-non-contrast-pmct-for-determining-cause-of-death
#7
Garyfalia Ampanozi, Yannick A Thali, Wolf Schweitzer, Gary M Hatch, Lars C Ebert, Michael J Thali, Thomas D Ruder
The aim of this study was (1) to compare levels of accuracy regarding the categorization of causes of death between non-contrast post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT) and the final forensic report as well as between autopsy and the final forensic report, and (2) to assess levels of confidence regarding the categorization of causes of death after non-contrast PMCT and after autopsy. This prospective study was conducted over a 5 month period during which 221 cases were admitted to our institute for forensic investigations...
June 15, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589523/unexpected-brain-finding-in-pre-autopsy-postmortem-ct
#8
Vasiliki Chatzaraki, Stephan A Bolliger, Michael J Thali, Sebastian Eggert, Thomas D Ruder
A case is presented in which pre-autopsy postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) revealed an unexpected brain abscess with a related frontal sinusitis and an erosion of the posterior wall of the frontal sinus. PMCT findings enabled the forensic pathologists to adapt protective measures during autopsy and protect their health from infection. Pre-autopsy PMCT has been also useful in the early differential diagnosis procedure. The complementary use of postmortem imaging and autopsy can improve the quality of forensic death investigations...
June 7, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589522/virtopsy-shows-a-high-status-funerary-treatment-in-an-early-18th-dynasty-non-royal-individual
#9
Robert D Loynes, Philippe Charlier, Philippe Froesch, Tobias M R Houlton, Rudy Lallo, Giancarlo Di Vella, Raffaella Bianucci
This work presents the multidisciplinary investigation of the head of Nebiri (Museo Egizio, Turin S_5109), Chief of Stables, a high status elite person from the 18th Dynasty involving MDCT, 3D brain surface and facial reconstructions accompanied by a consideration of previously presented chemical analysis of the embalming materials found in fragments of bandages used on the head and viscera (lung) found in one of the four canopic jars. Comparison of the techniques used for the cosmetic treatment of Nebiri with those used in other elite and high status non-royal persons confirms the validity of the use of the term "high status elite" in the case of Nebiri...
June 7, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580497/fatal-and-non-fatal-drowning-in-rivers
#10
LETTER
Jonathon Webber, Andrew C Schmidt, Justin R Sempsrott, David Szpilman, Ana Catarina Queiroga, Tessa Clemens, Natalie Hood
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 5, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577061/chronology-of-mineralization-of-the-permanent-mandibular-second-molar-teeth-and-forensic-age-estimation
#11
Pedro Fins, Maria Lurdes Pereira, Américo Afonso, Daniel Pérez-Mongiovi, Inês Morais Caldas
Forensic age estimation frequently relies upon the chronology of mineralization of the third molar teeth. However, even when present, third molar teeth cannot always be used for estimating age in people who are classified as minors. Seconds molars develop earlier and in a more predictable way, and therefore are often more reliable for age estimation in this age group. This study aims to contribute to forensic age estimation using an age threshold of 14-years, studying the stages of development of permanent mandibular second molar teeth mineralization...
June 3, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526950/the-effect-of-post-mortem-computed-tomography-angiography-pmcta-using-water-soluble-iodine-based-radiographic-contrast-on-histological-analysis-of-the-liver-kidneys-and-left-ventricle-of-the-heart
#12
Samantha Higgins, Sarah Parsons, Noel Woodford, Matthew Lynch, Christopher Briggs, Chris O'Donnell
The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of post-mortem computed-tomography angiography (PMCTA) on the histology of the liver, kidneys and heart. Multiple tissue cores were collected from the liver, left and right kidneys and left ventricle utilizing CT-guided biopsy. Subsequent whole body PMCTA was performed using a solution of polyethylene glycol and iodinated radiographic contrast, and an embalming pump. Corresponding biopsy cores were collected at autopsy, and blinded histology analysis assessing for PMCTA-induced histology artefact was performed...
May 20, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526949/antemortem-identification-by-fusion-of-mr-and-ct-of-the-paranasal-sinuses
#13
Jakob Heimer, Dominic Gascho, Simon Gentile, Gary M Hatch, Michael J Thali, Thomas D Ruder
Radiologic forensic identification is usually performed by comparing antemortem and postmortem radiographs. While computed tomography (CT) has become a valuable addition to radiologic identification, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has only rarely been used for this purpose. In our case, identification was accomplished using fused MR- and CT images in a survivor of a gunshot injury to the head. This case supports and highlights the possibility to perform intermodality radiologic identification comparing preexisting MR imaging to subsequently aquired CT data in living (or deceased) humans as long as manual modifications of windowing, color and contrast enable differentiation of the two modalities in the fused image...
May 20, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523436/hrm-and-snapshot-as-alternative-forensic-snp-genotyping-methods
#14
Bhavik Mehta, Runa Daniel, Dennis McNevin
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been widely used in forensics for prediction of identity, biogeographical ancestry (BGA) and externally visible characteristics (EVCs). Single base extension (SBE) assays, most notably SNaPshot® (Thermo Fisher Scientific), are commonly used for forensic SNP genotyping as they can be employed on standard instrumentation in forensic laboratories (e.g. capillary electrophoresis). High resolution melt (HRM) analysis is an alternative method and is a simple, fast, single tube assay for low throughput SNP typing...
May 18, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523435/cutaneous-manifestations-of-lightning-strike-variability-in-lichtenberg-figures
#15
Roger W Byard, Min Thu, John D Gilbert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 18, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493014/commentary-on-a-case-of-body-pushing-and-radiation-exposure-in-screening-of-body-packing
#16
LETTER
Simone Cappelletti, Costantino Ciallella
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 10, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444619/the-reference-cube-a-new-ballistic-model-to-generate-staining-in-firearm-barrels
#17
Christian Schyma, Kristina Bauer, Julia Brünig
After contact shots to the head biological traces can be found inside firearm barrels. So far silicone coated, gelatin filled box models were used to generate such staining according to the triple contrast method (mixture of acrylic paint, barium sulfate and blood sealed in a thin foil bag). This study was conducted to develop a transparent ballistic model allowing contact shots. Gelatin filled polyethylene bottles with and without a silicone coat were tested in comparison to non-covered gelatin blocks. Finally, thin foil bags of 5 cm × 5 cm dimension were glued on a synthetic absorbent kitchen wipe on top of which 1 L 10% gelatin solution was molded to create blocks of 8...
April 25, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444618/rna-dna-co-analysis-on-aged-bloodstains-from-adhesive-tapes-used-for-gunshot-residue-collection-from-hands
#18
Melanie Grabmüller, Christian Schyma, Burkhard Madea, Tim Eichhorst, Cornelius Courts
In cases of firearm related fatalities a systematic investigation at the scene of death is indispensable to differentiate between self-inflicted and homicidal gunshot injuries. A common method to preserve gunshot residues (GSR) is their collection using adhesive tapes. However, the biological material gathered at the same time by the tapes would be of special interest if backspatter, ejected from the entrance wound against the direction of fire, could be detected. In the present study we examined the success rate of co-analysis of RNA and DNA recovered from biological traces sampled with adhesive tapes...
April 25, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439786/a-panel-of-130-autosomal-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-for-ancestry-assignment-in-five-asian-populations-and-in-caucasians
#19
Hsiao-Lin Hwa, Chih-Peng Lin, Tsun-Ying Huang, Po-Hsiu Kuo, Wei-Hsin Hsieh, Chun-Yen Lin, Hsiang-I Yin, Li-Hui Tseng, James Chun-I Lee
Ancestry informative single-nucleotide polymorphism (AISNP) panels for differentiating between East and Southeast Asian populations are scarce. This study aimed to identify AISNPs for ancestry assignment of five East and Southeast Asian populations, and Caucasians. We analyzed 145 autosomal SNPs of the 627 DNA samples from individuals of six populations (234 Taiwanese Han, 91 Filipinos, 79 Indonesians, 60 Thais, 71 Vietnamese, and 92 Caucasians) using arrays. The multiple logistic regression model and a multi-tier approach were used for ancestry classification...
April 24, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409387/fatal-abdominal-injuries-in-a-bicycle-pedestrian-collision-reconstruction-using-multibody-simulation
#20
Holger Muggenthaler, Stefanie Drobnik, Michael Hubig, Wolfgang Fiebig, Gita Mall
Fatal bicycle-pedestrian collisions do not occur frequently and thus are rarely reported in literature. Pedestrians in bicycle-pedestrian accidents often sustain severe craniocerebral injuries caused by a collision induced fall with head impact on the road surface. We describe a case where a pedestrian crossing a road was hit by a bicycle. Hematomas of the left lower leg and of the left flank/abdomen were found to be caused by the primary impact. However, the fatal injuries were found to be contralateral with a rupture of the right renal pedicle, a rupture of the right lobe of the liver and a tear of the vena cava...
April 13, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
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