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Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896540/variations-in-the-anatomy-of-the-vertebral-artery-cervical-loop-segment-a-potential-predisposing-factor-for-traumatic-basal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#1
Jonathan E Medcalf, C Paul Johnson, Azzam Taktak, Silke Grabherr
Fatal traumatic basal subarachnoid hemorrhage (TBSAH) is a characteristic forensic pathological entity, the investigation of which requires special techniques. In Liverpool, post-mortem room angiography is undertaken, followed by complete removal of the vertebral arteries and histological examination. It has been observed that the arterial anatomy can be highly variable, particularly the length and course of the loop segments located between the C2 vertebra and the dura. In a number of cases of TBSAH the loop segments of torn vessels have appeared relatively short...
November 29, 2016: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891566/sudden-death-associated-with-syndromic-craniosynostosis
#2
Alžbeta Ginelliová, Daniel Farkaš, Silvia Farkašová Iannaccone, Vlasta Vyhnálková, Peter Vasovčák
In this paper we report the autopsy findings of a 7 year old girl who presented with headache, nausea and repeated vomiting and died unexpectedly at home. She had no previous history of major illnesses and no history of epileptic seizures. External examination revealed ocular abnormalities. Internal examination demonstrated severe cerebral edema with tonsillar herniation, premature fusion of the cranial bone sutures, and prominent convolutional markings of the inner table of the skull. Death was due to severe cerebral edema complicating syndromic craniosynostosis...
November 28, 2016: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796649/response-to-demirjian-s-method-is-unsuitable-for-dental-age-estimation
#3
LETTER
Inês Morais Caldas, Hugo F V Cardoso
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 29, 2016: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785715/unusual-appearance-of-facial-petechiae-and-conjunctival-hemorrhages-the-trout-phenomenon-in-a-case-of-fatal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-due-to-ruptured-berry-aneurysm
#4
Danica Cvetković, Vladimir Živković, Slobodan Nikolić
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 26, 2016: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778146/fluid-content-in-the-pleural-cavity-protects-internal-structures-against-heat
#5
Petr Handlos, Marek Dokoupil, Marie Staňková, Marek Joukal, Igor Dvořáček, Matěj Uvíra, Margita Smatanová
PURPOSE: In this paper we present a case report of two people who were found dead in a holiday cottage after a fire. The cause of death in these cases was clarified by the presence of blood in the left pleural cavity in both bodies. METHODS: An inspection of the bodies at the scene of the fire and subsequent examination by a medical examiner suggested the deaths were accidental. RESULTS: An autopsy showed that the bodies were those of a man and a woman with severe carbonization of the skin, soft tissues, brain, and some organs of the thoracic and abdominal cavities...
October 25, 2016: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778145/splenic-rupture-and-mediastinal-mass-associated-with-rare-tdt-negative-t-lbl-t-all-lead-to-sudden-death-of-a-juvenile
#6
Dominic Gascho, Bettina Huber, Stephan A Bolliger, Michael J Thali, Sarah Schaerli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 24, 2016: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677633/forensic-postmortem-computed-tomography-volumetric-measurement-of-the-heart-and-liver
#7
Lykke Schrøder Jakobsen, Sissel Lundemose, Jytte Banner, Niels Lynnerup, Christina Jacobsen
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) images in estimating organ sizes and to examine the use of the cardiothoracic ratio (CTR). METHODS: We included 45 individuals (19 females), who underwent a medico-legal autopsy. Using the computer software program Mimics(®), we determined in situ heart and liver volumes derived from linear measurements (width, height and depth) on a whole body PMCT-scan, and compared the volumes with ex vivo volumes derived by CT-scan of the eviscerated heart and liver...
September 28, 2016: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677632/sudden-infant-death-syndrome-exposure-to-cigarette-smoke-leads-to-hypomethylation-upstream-of-the-growth-factor-independent-1-gfi1-gene-promoter
#8
Kristina Schwender, Hannah Holtkötter, Kristina Schulze Johann, Alina Glaub, Marianne Schürenkamp, Ulla Sibbing, Sabrina Banken, Mechtild Vennemann, Heidi Pfeiffer, Marielle Vennemann
PURPOSE: Smoking during pregnancy has long been known as an important risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). However, the precise relationship between the smoking behavior of the mother and SIDS still remains unclear. In this study, the influence of prenatal smoking exposure on the childrens' DNA methylation state of a CpG island located upstream of the promoter of the growth factor independent 1 (GFI1) gene was analyzed. METHODS: Blood samples of well-defined SIDS cases with non-smoking mothers (n = 11), SIDS cases with smoking mothers during pregnancy (n = 11), and non-SIDS cases (n = 6) were obtained from a previous study and methylation states were determined by bisulfite sequencing...
September 27, 2016: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669715/validation-of-ultraviolet-infrared-and-narrow-band-light-alternate-light-sources-for-detection-of-bruises-in-a-pigskin-model
#9
Kelly Olds, Roger W Byard, Calle Winskog, Neil E I Langlois
Alternate light sources such as ultraviolet, narrow band, and infrared have been used in an attempt to reveal the presence of bruising that is not otherwise apparent (inapparent). The following study evaluates the ability of alternate light sources to enhance visibility of bruises by employing an objective assessment of digital photography images in conjunction with histology. A pigskin model was employed with bruises created by injection of blood to be not visible or barely visible (inapparent) under white light...
September 27, 2016: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669714/demirjian-s-method-is-unsuitable-for-dental-age-estimation
#10
Jayakumar Jayaraman, Graham Roberts
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 27, 2016: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651274/death-and-sorcery
#11
Roger W Byard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 20, 2016: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620907/identifying-a-hunter-responsible-for-killing-a-hunting-dog-by-individual-specific-genetic-profiling-of-wild-boar-dna-transferred-to-the-canine-during-the-accidental-shooting
#12
Anna Schleimer, Alain C Frantz, Johannes Lang, Phillipe Reinert, Mike Heddergott
While genetic profiling can be a powerful tool to solve wildlife crime, comparably few examples of individual identification in wildlife forensics are available in the literature. Here, we report a case of an accidental shooting of a hunting dog during a wild boar drive hunt. The market value of trained hunting dogs can reach several thousand euro. No one admitted to killing the dog. Wild boar hairs were found in the dog's wound, suggesting that the bullet first hit a wild boar and then the dog. Since it was known who harvested each boar, we aimed to use individual-specific genetic profiles to link these hairs to a bagged animal and to identify the culprit...
September 12, 2016: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620906/domestic-dogs-canis-lupus-familiaris-and-forensic-practice
#13
Beverly J McEwen, Sean P McDonough
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 12, 2016: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27427196/postmortem-computed-tomography-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging-facilitates-forensic-autopsy-in-a-fatal-case-of-poisoning-with-formic-acid-diphenhydramine-and-ethanol
#14
Florian Berger, Andrea E Steuer, Katharina Rentsch, Dominic Gascho, Stamatios Stamou, Sarah Schärli, Michael J Thali, Thomas Krämer, Patricia M Flach
A case of fatal poisoning by ingesting formic acid, diphenhydramine, and ethanol by a 25-year-old woman who committed suicide is presented. Prior to autopsy, postmortem computed tomography and postmortem magnetic resonance tomography were performed and revealed severe damage to the stomach, the left thoracic wall, and parts of the liver. Imaging detected acid-induced fluid-fluid level within the thoracic cavity (fat-equivalent fluid and necrotic pleural effusion). This case report illustrates that postmortem cross-sectional imaging may facilitate dissection of severely damaged or complex regions, and may provide additional information compared to autopsy and toxicological examinations alone...
September 2016: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27427195/charon-s-coins
#15
Dominic Gascho, Simon Gentile, Stephan A Bolliger, Michael J Thali
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27421265/dna-profiles-from-clothing-fibers-using-direct-pcr
#16
Renée Blackie, Duncan Taylor, Adrian Linacre
We report on the successful use of direct PCR amplification of single fibers from items of worn clothing. Items of clothing were worn throughout the course of a day, with the individual commencing regular activities. Single fibers were taken from the cuff of the clothing at regular intervals and amplified directly. The same areas were subjected to tape-lifting, and also amplified directly for comparison. The NGM™ kit that amplifies 15 STR loci plus amelogenin was used. A total of 35 single fiber samples were processed and analyzed from five items of clothing, with 81 % of samples returning a profile of 14 alleles or more...
September 2016: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27421264/comparing-fatal-cases-involving-u-47700
#17
Xiulu Ruan, Srinivas Chiravuri, Alan D Kaye
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27421263/automatic-entry-point-planning-for-robotic-post-mortem-ct-based-needle-placement
#18
Lars C Ebert, Martin Fürst, Wolfgang Ptacek, Thomas D Ruder, Dominic Gascho, Wolf Schweitzer, Michael J Thali, Patricia M Flach
INTRODUCTION: Post-mortem computed tomography guided placement of co-axial introducer needles allows for the extraction of tissue and liquid samples for histological and toxicological analyses. Automation of this process can increase the accuracy and speed of the needle placement, thereby making it more feasible for routine examinations. To speed up the planning process and increase safety, we developed an algorithm that calculates an optimal entry point and end-effector orientation for a given target point, while taking constraints such as accessibility or bone collisions into account...
September 2016: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27412160/the-experimental-design-of-postmortem-studies-the-effect-size-and-statistical-power
#19
Joris Meurs
PURPOSE: The aim is of this study was to show the poor statistical power of postmortem studies. Further, this study aimed to find an estimate of the effect size for postmortem studies in order to show the importance of this parameter. This can be an aid in performing power analysis to determine a minimal sample size. METHODS: GPower was used to perform calculations on sample size, effect size, and statistical power. The minimal significance (α) and statistical power (1 - β) were set at 0...
September 2016: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27406628/integrating-engineering-principles-into-the-medico-legal-investigation-of-a-rare-fatal-rollover-car-accident-involving-complex-dynamics
#20
Vincenzo M Grassi, Flaminia Castagnola, Massimo Miscusi, Fabio De-Giorgio
Rollover car accidents can be the result of forceful steering or hitting an obstacle that acts like a ramp. Mortality from this type of car accident is particularly high, especially when occupants are thrown out of the vehicle. We report a case of a 67-year-old man who died after a rollover accident that occurred when he was driving a car equipped with a glass moonroof. He was found inside his car with his safety belt correctly fastened and the roof shattered. At autopsy, a wide avulsion injury of the head was observed, which was associated with an atlanto-axial dislocation and full-thickness fracture of the cervical body and posterior facet joints of the seventh cervical vertebra...
September 2016: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
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