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Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology

Peter T Lin, Melissa M Blessing
Using forensic autopsy-based data from a regional medical examiner office in the midwestern U.S. with a mixed small urban-rural population, we describe the characteristics of all-terrain vehicle (ATV)-related deaths occurring between 2000 and 2018. During this period, there were 25 ATV-related deaths. There was a strong male predominance with 22 male and 3 female decedents. The average age at death was 35 years, with a range from 10 to 82 years, and a bimodal age distribution with one peak at 10-19 years old, and a second peak at 60-69 years old...
October 11, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Roger W Byard, Hamish Maxwell-Stewart
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 11, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Sameera A Gunawardena, Ravindra Samaranayake, Vianney Dias, Selliah Pranavan, Asela Mendis, Jean Perera
The management of mass fatalities following disasters is a complex process which requires the involvement of multiple stakeholders and resources. A garbage dump at Meethotamulla in Sri Lanka suddenly collapsed, resulting in the death of 32 individuals. Efforts to implement best practice guidelines in Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) during this disaster revealed several important aspects that need to be considered by the forensic community. Delays in initiating the legal processes to investigate and manage the incident resulted in public dissatisfaction towards the post-disaster management process...
October 10, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Milenko Bogdanović, Tijana Durmić, Bojana Radnić, Slobodan Savić, Dragan Ječmenica
This case represents a planned complex suicide in which the victim shot himself in the head after dousing his living quarters with gasoline. The spark induced ignition of gasoline vapors and led to an explosion. Liquid gasoline is not flammable, but the vapor/mixture of gases above the surface of the liquid is. In this case the victim might have counted on the resulting fire and/or explosion, but we are not able to tell that with certainty. We have assumed that the plan was for the gunshot to the head to lead to instantaneous death, and for the flame and/or explosion to lead to the destruction of the body...
October 8, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Danica Cvetković, Vladimir Živković, Vera Lukić, Slobodan Nikolić
Sodium nitrite is used as a coloring agent or preservative in food, as well as an antimicrobial agent in meat and fish and some cheeses. In high amounts it can be toxic for humans, causing methemoglobinemia. This is an unusual and potentially fatal condition in which hemoglobin is oxidized to methemoglobin (MHb), reducing the amount of oxygen that is released from hemoglobin, similar to carbon monoxide poisoning. MHb levels of 70% are generally lethal, but the existence of underlying anemia, acidosis, respiratory compromise, and cardiac disease may exacerbate the toxicity of MHb...
October 6, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Ran Zhi Tan, Faridah Mohd Nor, Swarhib Shafie, Lii Jye Tan
Melioidosis is an infectious disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, a gram-negative intracellular bacillus. Tuberculosis, also an infectious disease, is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, an acid fast bacillus. In both diseases, patients commonly present with fever and respiratory symptoms due to sepsis which might lead to respiratory failure or sudden death if left untreated. Not only are these two entities similar in clinical presentation, but the autopsy findings may mimic each other, giving rise to difficulties in determining the cause of death...
October 6, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Niels Lynøe, Anders Eriksson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Putri Dianita Ika Meilia, Michael D Freeman, Herkutanto, Maurice P Zeegers
The scope, roles, and tasks of forensic medicine and forensic medical experts currently vary widely between countries and legal systems, which has resulted in barriers to organization, standard setting, and quality assurance for practice in forensic medicine, including for reporting. The legal fact finder is thus confronted with variability in the quality, structure, and content of forensic medical reports. We sought to define and categorize the scope, methods, and practices that fall under the description of forensic medicine, the various issues encountered in current forensic medical practice, and the potential role of evidence-based practice in forensic medicine...
October 2, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Rachael Farrington, Ian Musgrave, Christine Nash, Meghan L Coghlan, Roger W Byard
Mahomet Allum was a flamboyant philanthropist and herbalist who worked in South Australia in the early part of last century, whose herbal therapies generated some controversy at the time. Two of his preparations have survived to the present day, a general tonic and a treatment for liver and kidney dysfunction. Given the frequent use of pharmaceutical drugs in "tonics" at the time, toxicological analysis was undertaken at Forensic Science SA, Adelaide with liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass-spectrometer (LC-QTOF MS), liquid-chromatography/ diode array detector (LC/UV) and gas chromatography/ nitrogen phosphorous- detector/mass-spectrometer (GC-NPD/MS), to look for common drugs...
September 27, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Ayse Kurtulus Dereli, Volkan Zeybek, Ergin Sagtas, Hande Senol, Hakan Abdullah Ozgul, Kemalettin Acar
Sex determination is a major area of investigation in forensic anthropology. As technology has advanced, imaging methods such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are being investigated as alternatives to conventional forensic anthropological research techniques. This study aimed to investigate the suitability of three-dimensional (3D) modeling of volumetric cranial computed tomography (CCT) images for sex estimation from skull morphology. In this study, CCT angiography images from the Department of Radiology 2017 archives were used retrospectively, and 3D images were obtained after the reconstruction of 85 cases of CCT images...
September 19, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Wael Majdoub, Amal Mosbahi, Frederic Bonbled
Fournier gangrene is a rare fulminant necrotizing infection of the skin and soft tissue of the perineum that may result in rapid death. We describe the autopsy case of a 70-year-old female with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus who was found unexpectedly dead in her house where she lived with her dog. Examination of the body revelaed a deep necrotic ulceration of the perineum with exposure of the underlying deep muscles that was initially misinterpreted by police officers as post mortem animal predation. Medicolegal examination and histological and microbiological analyses eliminated this hypothesis and the diagnosis of septic multiorgan failure due to necrotizing fasciitis was retained as a cause of death...
September 19, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Megan L Pate, María-Paz Aguilar-Caballos, Cristina M Beltrán-Aroca, Carlos Pérez-Vicente, Manuel Lozano-Molina, Eloy Girela-López
In fire scenarios, the application and accuracy of traditional odontological methods are often limited. Crystalline studies and elemental profiling have been evaluated for their applicability in determining biological profiles (age and sex) from human dentition, particularly fire- and heat-affected dental remains. Thirty-seven teeth were paired according to tooth type and donor age/sex for the analysis of crown and root surfaces pre- and post-incineration using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDX)...
September 18, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Nadine Strehmel, Denise Dümpelmann, Elke Vejmelka, Veronika Strehmel, Sonja Roscher, Stefan Scholtis, Michael Tsokos
The abuse of synthetic opioids has become a major threat in recent years. Several clinical reports and fatal case reports exist discussing life-threatening hypoventilation and fatal respiratory depression following the abuse of trans-3,4-dichloro-N-(2-(dimethylamino)cyclohexyl)-N-methylbenzamide (U-47700). The reported concentration of U-47700 in peripheral blood varies between 0.01 μg/mL and 1.46 μg/mL. These values depend on the mode of administration and whether the drug was used in combination with other drugs and/or pharmaceuticals...
September 18, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Benjamin Ondruschka, Christina Baier, Ronny Bayer, Niels Hammer, Jan Dreßler, Michael Bernhard
The aim of this autopsy study was to investigate chest-compression associated injuries to the trunk in out-of-hospital and in-hospital non-traumatic cardiac arrest patients treated with automated external chest compression devices (ACCD; all with LUCAS II devices) versus exclusive manual chest compressions (mCC). In this retrospective single-center study, all forensic autopsies between 2011 and 2017 were included. Injuries following cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in patients treated with mCC or ACCD were investigated and statistically compared using a bivariate logistic regression...
September 10, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Vladimir Živković, Danica Cvetković, Irina Damjanjuk, Slobodan Nikolić
A 63-year-old mechanic, diagnosed with schizophrenia, was found next to a hydraulic press used for removing car wheel bearings. He was in a sitting position, bent towards the machine, with his head placed between the piston and the pressing plate. His flexed left arm was resting on the lever beneath the machine pedestal, and on the right side there was a power switch that was still in the "on" position. His right arm was beside his body, but away from the machine. On the pressing plate, beneath the decedents head, was a piece of bloody cloth...
September 6, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Armin Alibegović
Hypogonadism in men results from the failure of the testes to produce physiological levels of testosterone and a normal number of spermatozoa due to a disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis. An example of secondary hypogonadism as a result of anabolic steroid abuse is presented with the case report of a man who committed suicide after a history of aggressive behavior and physical abuse of his wife. The autopsy revealed shrunken testicles, with more than 30% of parenchymatous sclerosis, absent spermatogenesis, and very few Leydig cells detected only by immunohistochemistry...
September 3, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Filip Pankowski, Grzegorz Bogiel, Sławomir Paśko, Filip Rzepiński, Joanna Misiewicz, Alfred Staszak, Joanna Bonecka, Małgorzata Dzierzęcka, Bartłomiej J Bartyzel
The conservation of the common buzzard is assured by the European Union law. In Poland, this wild bird is under strict species protection and it is used as a bioindicator for heavy metals in the environment. A case of the fatal shooting of a buzzard with a firearm by an unidentified shooter is described here. Macroscopic evaluation, X-ray imaging, post-mortem computed tomography, ballistic examination of the isolated bullets and finally a simulation of the assumed position of the bird at the time of the shot were performed...
August 31, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Roger W Byard
A 67-year-old obese woman (BMI 38.3) was found at autopsy to have deep venous thrombosis of the left calf with bilateral peripheral and saddle pulmonary thromboemboli and a 165 mm long segment of paradoxical thromboembolus wedged between the right and left atria through a patent foramen ovale. Death was due to acute right-sided decompensation caused by obstruction of the pulmonary outflow tract from bilateral pulmonary thromboemboli. Paradoxical thromboemboli pass from the venous system into the systemic circulation through intracardiac or intrapulmonary shunts causing ischemic injury to the brain, heart, intestines, kidneys and limbs...
August 28, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Miroljub Todorovic, Batric Vukcevic, Milenko Cabarkapa, Nemanja Vukcevic, Tanja Boljevic, Nemanja Radojevic
This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of airbags and seatbelts in the prevention of facial fractures and slight facial injuries in relation to the speed and kinetic energy experienced in frontal collisions. All cases of vehicle occupants who had been in frontal collisions and had subsequently been examined in the Institute for Emergency Medical Assistance and the Clinical Center of Montenegro in 2017 were analyzed. There were 29 cases of facial fractures (Group 1), 35 cases of slight facial injuries (including nondisplaced nasal fractures) (Group 2), and 26 cases of occupants who had suffered no facial injuries (control Group 3)...
August 28, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Robert D Loynes, Philippe Charlier, Antonio Perciaccante, Mercedes Gonzalez, Anna Begerock, Rafaella Bianucci
During the 2011 restoration works in the central nave of the church of the Assumption of Our Lady, known as "The Piquete", in the village of Quinto (about 50 kms southwest of Zaragoza, Spain), the remains of 70 individuals were uncovered. Of these there were 32 mummified bodies, four of which have been investigated with CT scans. Here we report on the findings in one such individual, namely a child of between 7 and 8 years of age, whose sex is debatable but may well be female. The main pathological finding is the presence of pressure erosion and distortion of the upper thoracic spine, the cause of which is discussed with the conclusion that this may well represent a neurenteric duplication cyst...
August 25, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
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