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Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology

Kyung-Moo Yang, Bong-Woo Lee, Jaeseong Oh, Seong Ho Yoo
Although the benefits of sauna bathing have been demonstrated in epidemiological studies, sauna deaths have been reported. The aim of this study was to determine the demographic and forensic characteristics associated with different blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) in sauna deaths in Korea. In this retrospective analysis, data were collected from a nationwide pool in Korea between January 2008 and December 2015 to determine the role of alcohol intoxication in sauna deaths based on the subjects' BAC and to evaluate the demographic and forensic characteristics associated with different BACs...
June 21, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Ann Sophie Schröder, Carolin Edler, Jan Peter Sperhake
The bacterium Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) can cause severe and life-threatening infections such as epiglottitis and meningitis. The course of the disease can be very rapid, resulting in sudden death. The incidence of Hib-induced epiglottitis in children has declined since the introduction of vaccinations in countries where such vaccinations are routinely administered. We herein present a case involving a 2.5-year-old boy who died suddenly at home. He had developed acute-onset throat and abdominal pain and a high fever...
June 20, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Stefano D'Errico, Massimo Martelloni, Francesco Pio Cafarelli, Giuseppe Guglielmi
Type 1 neurofibromatosis (NF 1), a rare genetic disease with autosomal dominant transmission, has typical dermatologic manifestations with pathognomonic Lisch nodules, and is rarely known for vascular alterations. Among these, aneurysmal dilatation is the most common form. We report a fatal case of massive hemothorax due to a spontaneous rupture of the left pulmonary artery branch micro-aneurysm in a NF 1 patient. Indeed, spontaneous rupture of these pathologic vessels is very rare in clinical practice and the literature, but, for its potentially life-threatening complications, there is the need for it to be taken into account in differential diagnosis...
June 20, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Daniel S Smyk, Jayantha C Herath
Vertebral artery laceration/dissection (VALD) resulting in fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a rare, but well-known phenomenon encountered in the forensic setting. Delayed ruptures are exceptionally rare, and pose several challenges to the forensic pathologist. In this paper we present a case of a 47-year-old male who collapsed suddenly following recent complaints of a headache and a reported seizure. He had a reported history of potential head trauma that occurred several days prior. Attempts at resuscitation were unsuccessful, and an autopsy examination was ordered...
June 20, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Barbara Ströh van Deventer, Lorraine du Toit-Prinsloo, Chantal van Niekerk
To determine variations in the SCN5A gene linked to inherited cardiac arrhythmogenic disorders in sudden, unexplained infant death (SUID) cases examined at the Pretoria Medico-Legal Laboratory, South Africa. A retrospective study was conducted on SUID cases and controls, analyzing DNA extracted from archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) myocardial tissue samples as well as blood samples. A total of 48 FFPE tissue samples (cases), 10 control FFPE tissue samples and nine control blood samples were included...
June 16, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Jon M Tuveng, Britt-Marie Berling, Gabor Bunford, Carlos G Vanoye, Richard C Welch, Trond P Leren, Alfred L George, Torleiv Ole Rognum
We report a case of a woman who experienced intrauterine fetal death at full term pregnancy, and then died suddenly soon after learning about the death of her fetus. At autopsy, previously undiagnosed neurofibromatosis and an adrenal gland pheochromocytoma were discovered in the mother. Genetic screening also revealed a novel KCNH2mutation in both fetus and mother indicating type 2 congenital long-QT syndrome (LQTS). A catecholamine surge was suspected as the precipitating event of fetal cardiac arrhythmia and sudden fetal death, while the addition of emotional stress provoked a lethal cardiac event in the mother...
June 8, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Guido Reijnen, H Tamara Gelderman, Bernice F L Oude Grotebevelsborg, Udo J L Reijnders, Wilma L J M Duijst
The Aquatic Decomposition Score (ADS) made by van Daalen et al., was developed to approximate the Post-Mortem Submersion Interval (PMSI) in bodies recovered in salt water. Since the decomposition process in salt water differs from the process in fresh water due to salinity, the temperature, and the depth of the water, we wanted to investigate whether there is a correlation between the ADS and the PMSI and if the ADS can be used to make an estimation of the PMSI in bodies recovered from fresh water. For the latter, the PMSI was measured using Accumulated Degree Days (ADD)...
May 24, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Karen Heath, Roger W Byard
A 47-year-old previously-well woman was found dead on the floor of a shower cubicle on a property in rural South Australia. The impression of the attending doctor and police was of collapse due to natural disease. Although there was significant stenosing coronary artery atherosclerosis found at autopsy, cherry pink discoloration of tissues prompted measurement of the blood carboxyhemoglobin level which was found to be 55%. The source of the gas was a poorly-maintained hot water heater that was mounted on the inside wall of the shower...
May 23, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Julia Ebert, Jan Peter Sperhake, Olaf Degen, Ann Sophie Schröder
In Hamburg, Germany, the initiation of HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (HIV PEP) in cases of sexual violence is often carried out by forensic medical specialists (FMS) using the city's unique Hamburg Model. FMS-provided three-day HIV PEP starter packs include a combination of raltegravir and emtricitabine/tenofovir. This study aimed to investigate the practice of offering HIV PEP, reasons for discontinuing treatment, patient compliance, and whether or not potential perpetrators were tested for HIV. We conducted a retrospective study of forensic clinical examinations carried out by the Hamburg Department of Legal Medicine following incidents of sexual violence from 2009 to 2016...
May 18, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Jiao Mu, Chunting Jin, Zhenglian Chen, Jianfeng Li, Bin Lv, Hongmei Dong
Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of immune dysregulation associated with uncontrolled activation of cytotoxic T cells and macrophages. Herein, we report a case of a 14-month-old Chinese boy who presented with fever, abdominal distension and thrombopenia, and died within 3 days of admission to the hospital. Postmortem examination revealed pleuroperitoneal fluid, enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes and hepatosplenomegaly. Histopathological examination showed interstitial pneumonia, hepatonecrosis and hemophagocytosis...
May 12, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Althea C G Neblett, Tracey N Gibson, Carlos T Escoffery
There has been significant improvement in medical diagnostic technology, but discrepancy rates between clinical and postmortem diagnoses remain relatively high. This study aimed to identify misdiagnoses and missed (unexpected) findings documented during complete coroner's autopsies performed for trauma at the University of the West Indies (UWI) and evaluate their influence on patient outcome. We retrospectively reviewed the reports of all coroner's autopsies performed for trauma, between 2003 and 2012, at the UWI...
May 9, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Trine Bottos Olsen, Peter Mygind Leth
Freezing as a method for hiding a body is rare. We report here a homicide case in which three bodies were concealed in a freezer. This presented the pathologist with the problem of how to thaw the bodies and simultaneously avoid decomposition of the uppermost body. The problem was solved by slow thawing in a refrigerated morgue and by removing the bodies one after the other from top to bottom. The victims were a 27-year old mother and her two daughters, 7 and 9 years of age. The perpetrator was the 34-year old now-divorced husband and father...
May 9, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Jakob Heimer, Dominic Gascho, Michael J Thali, Wolf Schweitzer
Pneumopericardium (PPC) describes the collection of gas in the pericardial sac. In tension Pneumopericardium (tPPC), this collection of gas may lead to cardiac tamponade. PPC following blunt trauma is considered a rare finding, as reflected by the low number of case reports on the topic. We analyzed the prevalence and pathophysiology of PPC and the associated trauma in 44 cases of falls from height. We retrospectively analyzed postmortem CT data and autopsy reports of fatal falls in the period March 2014-2017...
May 3, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Katarzyna Wochna, Radosław Bonikowski, Janusz Śmigielski, Jarosław Berent
Precise age determination of unidentified bodies and human remains is one of the essential tasks of forensic science. The aim of this study was to assess the applicability of using the enantiomeric composition of aspartic acid racemization in root and crown dentin for dental age estimation using a Polish population sample. Coronal and root dentin from four teeth groups from the mandible were studied using gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. The results demonstrated a very high correlation between the chronological age and enantiomeric composition in both of the dentin samples...
May 2, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Michael P Burke, Yeliena Baber, Zoe Cheung, Mark Fitzgerald
Determining the manner of death in cases involving multiple stab injuries from a knife is generally straightforward. The medico-legal investigation of a stabbing death caused by a single stab injury from a knife comprises a smaller but potentially more problematic subset of forensic cases. We reviewed our institute's experience with single stab injuries and endeavored to identify features identified at the post-mortem examination which may aid in the differentiation between cases of homicide, suicide and accidental death...
May 1, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Joo-Young Na
Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is a good marker for monitoring glycemic control, and an elevated postmortem blood HbA1c level might indicate poor glycemic control during the antemortem period. The HbA1c level can be measured as a point-of-care (POC) test. In forensic medicine, POC testing is useful for performing autopsies and postmortem inspections since POC testing is both rapid and efficient. This study evaluated HbA1c levels in the capillary and cardiac venous blood of postmortem specimens as well as the usefulness of evaluating HbA1c levels as POC testing in postmortem examinations...
April 25, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Vladimir Živković, Danica Cvetković, Slobodan Nikolić
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 17, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Amal Nishantha Vadysinghe, Murugaphillai Sivasubramanium
We present a unique case of suicidal hanging. The deceased was a 31-year-old male who was found hanging from a tree in a dense thicket, with his lower limbs in contact with the ground (partial suspension). There was an apparatus similar to a facial mask placed around his nose and mouth. A strong chemical smell was emanating from the apparatus, which was identified as chloroform (Formyl trichloride/CHCl3 ). A ligature with a soft cloth beneath it was around his neck. A ligature mark was present around the neck...
April 16, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Goran Djuricic, Zorica Milosevic, Tijana Radovic, Ivana Dasic, Djordje Alempijevic, Jelena Sopta
Pseudoaneurysms arise from a disruption of arterial wall continuity and are most commonly related to a penetrating trauma, an arterial wall inflammation or iatrogenic causes. They differ from real aneurysms due to a lack of one or more layers of the arterial wall. The frequency of peripheral artery pseudoaneurysms in the upper extremities is less than in the lower extremities and its most common cause is a gunshot or a stab wound. The risk of a rupture is higher than in true aneurysms due to a lack of wall layers, therefore requiring surgical treatment in most cases...
April 11, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Roger W Byard, Mike Munro
On 30th March 1902 Police Constable George Doyle and Carnarvon Station manager Albert Dahlke were allegedly gunned down at Lethbridge's Pocket in Central Queensland. Approximately 90 kg of ash and burnt human remains with articles belonging to the two men were later found in saddle bags left at the scene on a police horse. Subsequently two local cattle and horse thieves, Patrick and James Kenniff, were convicted in the Queensland Supreme Court of the wilful murder of Constable Doyle. Patrick was executed by hanging on 12th January 1903 and James had his sentence reduced to life imprisonment with hard labor...
March 29, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
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