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American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190298/mir-149-and-mir-29c-as-candidates-for-bipolar-disorder-biomarkers
#1
Jason L Choi, Patricia F Kao, Elena Itriago, Yougen Zhan, James A Kozubek, Andrew G Hoss, Meredith G Banigan, Charles R Vanderburg, Amir H Rezvani, Jeanne C Latourelle, Howard Cabral, Ivana Delalle
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a common, recurring psychiatric illness with unknown pathogenesis. Recent studies suggest that microRNA (miRNA) levels in brains of BD patients are significantly altered, and these changes may offer insight into BD pathology or etiology. Previously, we observed significant alterations of miR-29c levels in extracellular vesicles (EVs) extracted from prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 9, BA9) of BD patients. In this study, we show that EVs extracted from the anterior cingulate cortex (BA24), a crucial area for modulating emotional expression and affect, have increased levels of miR-149 in BD patients compared to controls...
February 12, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139055/associations-between-neurodevelopmental-genes-neuroanatomy-and-ultra-high-risk-symptoms-of-psychosis-in-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome
#2
Carlie A Thompson, Jason Karelis, Frank A Middleton, Karen Gentile, Ioana L Coman, Petya D Radoeva, Rashi Mehta, Wanda P Fremont, Kevin M Antshel, Stephen V Faraone, Wendy R Kates
22q11.2 deletion syndrome is a neurogenetic disorder resulting in the deletion of over 40 genes. Up to 40% of individuals with 22q11.2DS develop schizophrenia, though little is known about the underlying mechanisms. We hypothesized that allelic variation in functional polymorphisms in seven genes unique to the deleted region would affect lobar brain volumes, which would predict risk for psychosis in youth with 22q11.2DS. Participants included 56 individuals (30 males) with 22q11.2DS. Anatomic MR images were collected and processed using Freesurfer...
January 31, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943569/apoe-gene-and-neuropsychiatric-disorders-and-endophenotypes-a-comprehensive-review
#3
REVIEW
Diego A Forero, Sandra López-León, Yeimy González-Giraldo, Daniel R Dries, Angela J Pereira-Morales, Karen M Jiménez, Juan E Franco-Restrepo
The Apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene is one of the main candidates in neuropsychiatric genetics, with hundreds of studies carried out in order to explore the possible role of polymorphisms in the APOE gene in a large number of neurological diseases, psychiatric disorders, and related endophenotypes. In the current article, we provide a comprehensive review of the structural and functional aspects of the APOE gene and its relationship with brain disorders. Evidence from genome-wide association studies and meta-analyses shows that the APOE gene has been significantly associated with several neurodegenerative disorders...
December 12, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224735/genetic-risk-variants-for-social-anxiety
#4
Murray B Stein, Chia-Yen Chen, Sonia Jain, Kevin P Jensen, Feng He, Steven G Heeringa, Ronald C Kessler, Adam Maihofer, Matthew K Nock, Stephan Ripke, Xiaoying Sun, Michael L Thomas, Robert J Ursano, Jordan W Smoller, Joel Gelernter
Social anxiety is a neurobehavioral trait characterized by fear and reticence in social situations. Twin studies have shown that social anxiety has a heritable basis, shared with neuroticism and extraversion, but genetic studies have yet to demonstrate robust risk variants. We conducted genomewide association analysis (GWAS) of subjects within the Army Study To Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS) to (i) determine SNP-based heritability of social anxiety; (ii) discern genetic risk loci for social anxiety; and (iii) determine shared genetic risk with neuroticism and extraversion...
March 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224734/anxiety-genetics-dispatches-from-the-frontier
#5
Jordan W Smoller
Anxiety disorders are the most common class of psychiatric disorders and incur an enormous burden in terms of economic costs, disability and personal suffering. Despite their public health importance and documented heritability, genetic research aimed at identifying the genetic contributions to these disorders has had limited success, particularly in comparison to recent advances in the genetics of other major psychiatric disorders. The major factor contributing to this lagging progress has been a dearth of well-powered genomic studies...
March 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943641/genomic-variants-genes-and-pathways-of-alzheimer-s-disease-an-overview
#6
REVIEW
Adam C Naj, Gerard D Schellenberg
Alzheimer's disease (AD) (MIM: 104300) is a highly heritable disease with great complexity in its genetic contributors, and represents the most common form of dementia. With the gradual aging of the world's population, leading to increased prevalence of AD, and the substantial cost of care for those afflicted, identifying the genetic causes of disease represents a critical effort in identifying therapeutic targets. Here we provide a comprehensive review of genomic studies of AD, from the earliest linkage studies identifying monogenic contributors to early-onset forms of AD to the genome-wide and rare variant association studies of recent years that are being used to characterize the mosaic of genetic contributors to late-onset AD (LOAD), and which have identified approximately ∼20 genes with common variants contributing to LOAD risk...
January 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943640/the-discovery-of-lrrk2-p-r1441s-a-novel-mutation-for-parkinson-s-disease-adds-to-the-complexity-of-a-mutational-hotspot
#7
Ignacio F Mata, Marie Y Davis, Alexis N Lopez, Michael O Dorschner, Erica Martinez, Dora Yearout, Brenna A Cholerton, Shu-Ching Hu, Karen L Edwards, Thomas D Bird, Cyrus P Zabetian
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943639/genetic-prion-disease-experience-of-a-rapidly-progressive-dementia-center-in-the-united-states-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#8
REVIEW
Leonel T Takada, Mee-Ohk Kim, Ross W Cleveland, Katherine Wong, Sven A Forner, Ignacio Illán Gala, Jamie C Fong, Michael D Geschwind
Although prion diseases are generally thought to present as rapidly progressive dementias with survival of only a few months, the phenotypic spectrum for genetic prion diseases (gPrDs) is much broader. The majority have a rapid decline with short survival, but many patients with gPrDs present as slowly progressive ataxic or parkinsonian disorders with progression over a few to several years. A few very rare mutations even present as neuropsychiatric disorders, sometimes with systemic symptoms such as gastrointestinal disorders and neuropathy, progressing over years to decades...
January 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770499/genetic-factors-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#9
EDITORIAL
Debby W Tsuang, Thomas D Bird
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27174011/genetic-counseling-and-testing-for-huntington-s-disease-a-historical-review
#10
Martha A Nance
This manuscript describes the ways in which genetic counseling has evolved since John Pearson and Sheldon Reed first promoted "a genetic education" in the 1950s as a voluntary, non-directive clinical tool for permitting individual decision making. It reviews how the emergence of Huntington's disease (HD) registries and patient support organizations, genetic testing, and the discovery of a disease-causing CAG repeat expansion changed the contours of genetic counseling for families with HD. It also reviews the guidelines, outcomes, ethical and laboratory challenges, and uptake of predictive, prenatal, and preimplantation testing, and it casts a vision for how clinicians can better make use of genetic counseling to reach a broader pool of families that may be affected by HD and to ensure that genetic counseling is associated with the best levels of care...
January 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26990251/unusually-long-duration-and-delayed-penetrance-in-a-family-with-ftd-and-mutation-in-mapt-v337m
#11
Kimiko Domoto-Reilly, Marie Y Davis, C Dirk Keene, Thomas D Bird
Mutations in the MAPT gene coding for the tau protein are one of the most common causes of familial frontotemporal dementia (FTD). In a previously described family with the V337M mutation in MAPT, we now report an affected woman who died at age 92 with a >40 year duration of symptoms, more than three times the mean disease duration in her family (13.8 years). Neuropathology showed the typical findings of a diffuse tauopathy. Conversely, her 67-year-old son with the same mutation remains asymptomatic more than 15 years beyond the mean age of onset in the family (51...
January 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26879907/adult-neurogenesis-and-neurodegenerative-diseases-a-systems-biology-perspective
#12
Emrin Horgusluoglu, Kelly Nudelman, Kwangsik Nho, Andrew J Saykin
New neurons are generated throughout adulthood in two regions of the brain, the olfactory bulb and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, and are incorporated into the hippocampal network circuitry; disruption of this process has been postulated to contribute to neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Known modulators of adult neurogenesis include signal transduction pathways, the vascular and immune systems, metabolic factors, and epigenetic regulation. Multiple intrinsic and extrinsic factors such as neurotrophic factors, transcription factors, and cell cycle regulators control neural stem cell proliferation, maintenance in the adult neurogenic niche, and differentiation into mature neurons; these factors act in networks of signaling molecules that influence each other during construction and maintenance of neural circuits, and in turn contribute to learning and memory...
January 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26756273/genetics-of-psychosis-of-alzheimer-disease
#13
REVIEW
Chintan Shah, Mary Ann A DeMichele-Sweet, Robert A Sweet
Psychotic symptoms, comprised of delusions and hallucinations, occur in about half of individuals with Alzheimer disease (AD with psychosis, AD+P). These individuals have greater agitation, aggression, depression, functional impairment, and mortality than individuals without psychosis (AD-P). Although the exact etiopathogenesis of AD+P is unclear, the rapidly developing field of genomics continues to expand our understanding of this disease. Several independent studies have demonstrated familial aggregation and heritability of AD+P...
January 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870314/genetic-and-environmental-contributions-to-the-inverse-association-between-specific-autistic-traits-and-experience-seeking-in-adults
#14
Ángel Romero-Martínez, Luís Moya-Albiol, Anna A E Vinkhuyzen, Tinca J C Polderman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762073/cognitive-analysis-of-schizophrenia-risk-genes-that-function-as-epigenetic-regulators-of-gene-expression
#15
Laura Whitton, Donna Cosgrove, Christopher Clarkson, Denise Harold, Kimberley Kendall, Alex Richards, Kiran Mantripragada, Michael J Owen, Michael C O'Donovan, James Walters, Annette Hartmann, Betina Konte, Dan Rujescu, Michael Gill, Aiden Corvin, Stephen Rea, Gary Donohoe, Derek W Morris
Epigenetic mechanisms are an important heritable and dynamic means of regulating various genomic functions, including gene expression, to orchestrate brain development, adult neurogenesis, and synaptic plasticity. These processes when perturbed are thought to contribute to schizophrenia pathophysiology. A core feature of schizophrenia is cognitive dysfunction. For genetic disorders where cognitive impairment is more severe such as intellectual disability, there are a disproportionally high number of genes involved in the epigenetic regulation of gene transcription...
December 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753212/methamphetamine-induced-psychosis-is-associated-with-dna-hypomethylation-and-increased-expression-of-akt1-and-key-dopaminergic-genes
#16
Shabnam Nohesara, Mohammad Ghadirivasfi, Mahmood Barati, Mohammad-Reza Ghasemzadeh, Samira Narimani, Zohreh Mousavi-Behbahani, Mohammadtaghi Joghataei, Mansoureh Soleimani, Mozhgan Taban, Soraya Mehrabi, Sam Thiagalingam, Hamid Mostafavi Abdolmaleky
Methamphetamine, one of the most frequently used illicit drugs worldwide, can induce psychosis in a large fraction of abusers and it is becoming a major problem for the health care institutions. There is some evidence that genetic and epigenetic factors may play roles in methamphetamine psychosis. In this study, we examined methamphetamine-induced epigenetic and expression changes of several key genes involved in psychosis. RNA and DNA extracted from the saliva samples of patients with methamphetamine dependency with and without psychosis as well as control subjects (each group 25) were analyzed for expression and promoter DNA methylation status of DRD1, DRD2, DRD3, DRD4, MB-COMT, GAD1, and AKT1 using qRT-PCR and q-MSP, respectively...
December 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727512/replication-analyses-of-four-chromosomal-deletions-with-schizophrenia-via-independent-large-scale-meta-analyses
#17
Hong Chang, Lingyi Li, Tao Peng, Ming Li, Lei Gao, Xiao Xiao
Recent studies suggest that copy number variations (CNVs) are also involved in the genetic risk of schizophrenia. Using a Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel (CMH) adjusted meta-analysis in 18,497 schizophrenia patients and 25,522 healthy controls from 14 independent samples, we conducted replication analyses of four chromosomal deletions at 1q21.1, 15q11.2, 15q13.3, and 22q11.2 Loci for their associations with schizophrenia. Only CNVs larger than 100 kb that had >50% reciprocal overlap with the canonical deletion chromosomal regions were considered...
December 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714917/personality-traits-in-huntington-s-disease-an-exploratory-study-of-gene-expansion-carriers-and-non-carriers
#18
Ida Unmack Larsen, Erik Lykke Mortensen, Tua Vinther-Jensen, Jørgen Erik Nielsen, Gitte Moos Knudsen, Asmus Vogel
Huntington's disease (HD) is associated with risk for developing psychiatric symptoms. Vulnerability or resilience to psychiatric symptoms may be associated with personality traits. This exploratory study, aimed to investigate personality traits in a large cohort of HD carriers and at risk gene-expansion negative individuals (HD non-carriers), exploring whether carrying the HD gene or growing up in an HD family influences personality traits. Forty-seven HD carriers, Thirty-nine HD non-carriers, and 121 healthy controls answered the Danish version of the revised NEO personality inventory...
December 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27626775/genetic-analysis-of-chchd2-gene-in-chinese-parkinson-s-disease
#19
Nan-Nan Li, Ling Wang, Eng-King Tan, Lan Cheng, Xiao-Yi Sun, Zhong-Jiao Lu, Jun-Ying Li, Jin-Hong Zhang, Rong Peng
Recently, mutations in the coiled-coil-helix-coiled-coil-helix domain containing 2 (CHCHD2) gene have been identified in Japanese families with autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease (PD) and two single nucleotide variants (rs10043 and Pro2Leu) increased risk of sporadic PD. The role of CHCHD2 in PD susceptibility in other Asian populations still remains to be clarified. In a large Chinese cohort from mainland China (31 familial PD patients, 1,027 sporadic PD patients, and 1,095 health controls), we examined the association of rs10043 and Pro2Leu variants in CHCHD2 with PD...
December 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619075/iq-and-hemizygosity-for-the-val-158-met-functional-polymorphism-of-comt-in-22q11ds
#20
Colleen P Franconi, Donna McDonald-McGinn, Elaine H Zackai, Meghan A McNamara, Harold Salmons, Edward Moss, Raquel E Gur, Marcella Devoto, Beverly S Emanuel
22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS) is a multisystem disorder caused by a hemizygous deletion within 22q11.2. Patients with the deletion display a wide range of cognitive deficits. The gene catechol-O-methyl-transferase (COMT) resides in the typically deleted region of 22q11.2 and is rendered hemizygous in individuals affected by the 22q11DS. COMT is a critical enzyme in the degradation of catecholamine neurotransmitters in the brain. A functional polymorphism, Val(158) Met, has been associated with a variety of neurocognitive outcomes...
December 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
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