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Current HIV/AIDS Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303548/long-acting-antiretrovirals-where-are-we-now
#1
REVIEW
Amesika N Nyaku, Sean G Kelly, Babafemi O Taiwo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Current HIV treatment options require daily use of combination antiretroviral drugs. Many persons living with HIV experience treatment fatigue and suboptimal adherence as a result. Long-acting antiretroviral drugs are being developed to expand options for HIV treatment. Here, we review the agents in development, and evaluate data from recent clinical trials. In addition, we anticipate challenges to successful widespread use of long-acting antiretrovirals. RECENT FINDINGS: Parenteral nanosuspensions of cabotegravir and rilpivirine, and dapivirine vaginal ring are the farthest in clinical development...
March 16, 2017: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284005/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld-and-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-nash-in-hiv
#2
REVIEW
Jürgen Kurt Rockstroh
Abnormal liver enzymes (LE) are common in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) even in the absence of viral hepatitis or alcohol abuse. With availability of antiretroviral combination therapy, life expectancy has improved dramatically and as a consequence the spectrum of liver disease is changing. Increased reports on the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) or non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in HIV coinfected patients raise questions around prevalence, clinical manifestations, and clinical outcome of these liver diseases in HIV coinfection...
March 10, 2017: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284004/monitoring-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorder-using-screenings-a-critical-review-including-guidelines-for-clinical-and-research-use
#3
REVIEW
Jody Kamminga, Luxshimi Lal, Edwina J Wright, Mark Bloch, Bruce J Brew, Lucette A Cysique
Screening tools to identify HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) are primarily devised to detect cognitive impairment on a single occasion. With the chronicity of HIV infection and the risk of HAND developing or progressing despite viral control, it may be pertinent to repeat HAND screening at more than one time point. Despite this, there are limited data on longitudinal use of such screening tools, particularly with regard to the role of practice effects. Additionally, no guidelines currently exist on the timeframe between testing intervals, or recommendation of the magnitude of baseline impairment that warrants follow-up testing...
March 10, 2017: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194650/healthy-aging-in-older-women-living-with-hiv-infection-a-systematic-review-of-psychosocial-factors
#4
REVIEW
Anna A Rubtsova, Mirjam-Colette Kempf, Tonya N Taylor, Deborah Konkle-Parker, Gina M Wingood, Marcia McDonnell Holstad
Due to life-enhancing effects of antiretroviral therapy, HIV-positive persons have the potential for long life comparable to their uninfected peers. Older women (age 50+) living with HIV (OWLH) are often an under-recognized aging group. We conducted a systematic review to examine psychosocial factors that impact how OWLH live, cope, and age with HIV. Initial key word search yielded 1527 records, and 21 studies met our inclusion criteria of original quantitative or qualitative research published between 2013 and 2016 with results specific to OWLH...
February 13, 2017: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110421/dendritic-cell-immune-responses-in-hiv-1-controllers
#5
REVIEW
Enrique Martin-Gayo, Xu G Yu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Robust HIV-1-specific CD8 T cell responses are currently regarded as the main correlate of immune defense in rare individuals who achieve natural, drug-free control of HIV-1; however, the mechanisms that support evolution of such powerful immune responses are not well understood. Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized innate immune cells critical for immune recognition, immune regulation, and immune induction, but their possible contribution to HIV-1 immune defense in controllers remains ill-defined...
January 21, 2017: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28083788/erratum-to-hiv-and-aging-research-in-women-an-overview
#6
David M Stoff, Deborah Colosi, Anna Rubtsova, Gina Wingood
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 12, 2017: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210943/faces-of-frailty-in-aging-with-hiv-infection
#7
REVIEW
Marion Thurn, Deborah R Gustafson
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: The number of adults who are aging successfully and have HIV infection is increasing. More effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens are preventing individuals infected with HIV from reaching end stages of the HIV infection and developing AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). However, even at lower viral loads, chronic HIV infection appears to have consequences on aging processes, including the development of frailty. RECENT FINDINGS: Frailty is a term used to describe vulnerability in aging...
February 2017: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110422/interventions-for-neurocognitive-dysfunction
#8
REVIEW
Jacqueline Ellero, Michal Lubomski, Bruce Brew
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This study aimed to evaluate current barriers to HIV cure strategies and interventions for neurocognitive dysfunction with a particular focus on recent advancements over the last 3 years. RECENT FINDINGS: Optimal anti-retroviral therapy (ART) poses challenges to minimise neurotoxicity, whilst ensuring blood-brain barrier penetration and minimising the risk of cerebrovascular disease. CSF biomarkers, BCL11B and neurofilament light chain may be implicated with a neuroinflammatory cascade leading to cognitive impairment...
February 2017: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905010/erratum-to-aging-and-neurocognitive-functioning-in-hiv-infected-women-a-review-of-the-literature-involving-the-women-s-interagency-hiv-study
#9
David E Vance, Leah H Rubin, Victor Valcour, Drenna Waldrop-Valverde, Pauline M Maki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783207/cns-impact-of-perinatal-hiv-infection-and-early-treatment-the-need-for-behavioral-rehabilitative-interventions-along-with-medical-treatment-and-care
#10
REVIEW
Michael J Boivin, Horacio Ruiseñor-Escudero, Itziar Familiar-Lopez
There is growing concern that although the more severe forms of HIV-associated neurologic deficits are reduced following highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), mild to moderate cognitive disorders may persist for years after HAART initiation and this may occur despite complete plasma viral suppression. According to the UNAIDS 2014 report, there were 3.2 million children living with HIV around the world at the end of 2013 and 91 % of these resided in sub-Saharan Africa. In the same year, only 24 % of children who needed antiretroviral treatment (ART) received it and 190,000 children died of AIDS-related illnesses...
December 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771876/hiv-and-aging-research-in-women-an-overview
#11
REVIEW
David M Stoff, Deborah Colosi, Anna Rubtsova, Gina Wingood
This paper reviews some background issues as a foundation to place the ensuing supplement papers of this special issue section in context. The articles in this special supplement issue deepen and expand our understanding of biomedical, neurocognitive, and psychosocial aspects involved in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) of older women, primarily through the use of the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) prospective cohort study. As it relates to research on the intersection between HIV and aging in women, we discuss (i) epidemiology as introduction, (ii) the cohort study design featuring the WIHS, (iii) definitions, (iv) models, and (v) section articles...
December 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739018/community-based-art-programs-sustaining-adherence-and-follow-up
#12
REVIEW
Joia S Mukherjee, Danika Barry, Robert D Weatherford, Ishaan K Desai, Paul E Farmer
The advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in 1996 brought with it an urgent need to develop models of health care delivery that could enable its effective and equitable delivery, especially to patients living in poverty. Community-based care, which stretches from patient homes and communities-where chronic infectious diseases are often best managed-to modern health centers and hospitals, offers such a model, providing access to proximate HIV care and minimizing structural barriers to retention. We first review the recent literature on community-based ART programs in low- and low-to-middle-income country settings and document two key principles that guide effective programs: decentralization of ART services and long-term retention of patients in care...
December 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730446/aging-and-neurocognitive-functioning-in-hiv-infected-women-a-review-of-the-literature-involving-the-women-s-interagency-hiv-study
#13
REVIEW
David E Vance, Leah H Rubin, Victor Valcour, Drenna Waldrop-Valverde, Pauline M Maki
HIV-infected women may be particularly vulnerable to certain types of neurocognitive impairments which may be exacerbated by aging and other predictors. Within the context of cognitive reserve, this article examines issues surrounding women as they age with HIV. For this, a review of 12 recent studies (2013-2016) using data from the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), the largest cohort study comparing HIV-infected and demographically matched uninfected women, is presented that specifically examines neurocognition...
December 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730445/hiv-and-bone-complications-understudied-populations-and-new-management-strategies
#14
REVIEW
Michael T Yin, Todd T Brown
The higher risk of osteoporosis and fracture associated with HIV infection and certain antiretrovirals has been well established and the need for risk stratification among older adults increasingly recognized. This review focuses upon emerging data on bone complications with HIV/HCV coinfection, in children and adolescents, and with pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), as well as new management strategies to minimize the negative effects of ART on bone.
December 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709330/microvascular-function-in-aging-among-women-living-with-hiv
#15
REVIEW
Jean-Jacques Monsuez, Catherine Belin, Olivier Bouchaud
Combined antiretroviral therapy (CART) has turned HIV-infection to a treatable chronic disease during which many patients survive to middle and older age. However, they prematurely develop non-AIDS comorbidities such as cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Microcirculatory changes and endothelial dysfunction occur early both in HIV-infected and in aging patients, in whom they usually precede cardiovascular and neurocognitive impairments. Also, mild cognitive involvement has been reported in women during the menopausal transition...
December 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704251/trauma-informed-hiv-prevention-and-treatment
#16
REVIEW
Jessica M Sales, Andrea Swartzendruber, Ashley L Phillips
The high prevalence of trauma and its negative impact on health and health-promoting behaviors underscore the need for multi-level interventions to address trauma and its associated sequelae to improve physical and mental well-being in both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected populations. Growing global awareness of the intersection of trauma and HIV has resulted in development and testing of interventions to address trauma in the context of HIV treatment and HIV prevention in the USA and globally. Despite increasing recognition of the widespread nature of trauma and the importance of trauma to HIV transmission around the globe, several gaps remain...
December 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678124/bone-loss-among-women-living-with-hiv
#17
REVIEW
M Neale Weitzmann, Ighovwerha Ofotokun, Kehmia Titanji, Anjali Sharma, Michael T Yin
Clinical data accumulated over the past two decades attests to a significant decline in bone mineral density (BMD) in patients infected by HIV, which does not remit but may actually intensify with anti-retroviral therapy (ART). Long generally perceived as an aberration without clinical consequences in relatively young HIV-infected cohorts, recent studies have documented marked increases in fracture incidence in HIV-infected men and women over a wide age continuum. Fractures are associated with chronic pain, crippling morbidity, and increased mortality, undermining the gains in quality of life achieved though ART...
December 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27557619/aging-of-the-liver-what-this-means-for-patients-with-hiv
#18
REVIEW
Austin W Chan, Yuval A Patel, Steve Choi
As the HIV population continues to live longer as a result of antiretroviral therapy, liver-related mortality has become one of the leading causes of non-AIDS related death in this patient population. The liver possesses a remarkable regenerative capacity but undergoes complex biological changes in response to aging and inflammation that result in decreased cellular regeneration and a tipping of the scales towards fibrogenesis. Patients with HIV infection have serological evidence of ongoing inflammation, with elevations in some biomarkers persisting despite adequate virologic control...
December 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27549318/frailty-in-hiv-epidemiology-biology-measurement-interventions-and-research-needs
#19
REVIEW
Damani A Piggott, Kristine M Erlandson, Kevin E Yarasheski
Frailty is a critical aging-related syndrome marked by diminished physiologic reserve and heightened vulnerability to stressors, predisposing to major adverse clinical outcomes, including hospitalization, institutionalization, disability, and death in the general population of older adults. As the proportion of older adults living with HIV increases in the era of antiretroviral therapy, frailty is increasingly recognized to be of significant clinical and public health relevance to the HIV-infected population...
December 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614654/hiv-aging-and-viral-coinfections-taking-the-long-view
#20
REVIEW
Tamar H Taddei, Vincent Lo Re, Amy C Justice
Viral suppression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) with combination antiviral therapy (cART) has led to increasing longevity but has not enabled a complete return to health among aging HIV-infected individuals (HIV+). Viral coinfections are prevalent in the HIV+ host and are implicated in cancer, liver disease, and accelerated aging. We must move beyond a simplistic notion of HIV becoming a "chronic controllable illness" and develop an understanding of how viral suppression alters the natural history of HIV infection, especially at the intersection of HIV with other common viral coinfections in the context of an altered, aging immune system...
October 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
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