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Current HIV/AIDS Reports

Joia S Mukherjee, Danika Barry, Robert D Weatherford, Ishaan K Desai, Paul E Farmer
The advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in 1996 brought with it an urgent need to develop models of health care delivery that could enable its effective and equitable delivery, especially to patients living in poverty. Community-based care, which stretches from patient homes and communities-where chronic infectious diseases are often best managed-to modern health centers and hospitals, offers such a model, providing access to proximate HIV care and minimizing structural barriers to retention. We first review the recent literature on community-based ART programs in low- and low-to-middle-income country settings and document two key principles that guide effective programs: decentralization of ART services and long-term retention of patients in care...
October 13, 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
David E Vance, Leah H Rubin, Victor Valcour, Drenna Waldrop-Valverde, Pauline M Maki
HIV-infected women may be particularly vulnerable to certain types of neurocognitive impairments which may be exacerbated by aging and other predictors. Within the context of cognitive reserve, this article examines issues surrounding women as they age with HIV. For this, a review of 12 recent studies (2013-2016) using data from the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), the largest cohort study comparing HIV-infected and demographically matched uninfected women, is presented that specifically examines neurocognition...
October 12, 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Michael T Yin, Todd T Brown
The higher risk of osteoporosis and fracture associated with HIV infection and certain antiretrovirals has been well established and the need for risk stratification among older adults increasingly recognized. This review focuses upon emerging data on bone complications with HIV/HCV coinfection, in children and adolescents, and with pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), as well as new management strategies to minimize the negative effects of ART on bone.
October 11, 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Jean-Jacques Monsuez, Catherine Belin, Olivier Bouchaud
Combined antiretroviral therapy (CART) has turned HIV-infection to a treatable chronic disease during which many patients survive to middle and older age. However, they prematurely develop non-AIDS comorbidities such as cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Microcirculatory changes and endothelial dysfunction occur early both in HIV-infected and in aging patients, in whom they usually precede cardiovascular and neurocognitive impairments. Also, mild cognitive involvement has been reported in women during the menopausal transition...
October 5, 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Jessica M Sales, Andrea Swartzendruber, Ashley L Phillips
The high prevalence of trauma and its negative impact on health and health-promoting behaviors underscore the need for multi-level interventions to address trauma and its associated sequelae to improve physical and mental well-being in both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected populations. Growing global awareness of the intersection of trauma and HIV has resulted in development and testing of interventions to address trauma in the context of HIV treatment and HIV prevention in the USA and globally. Despite increasing recognition of the widespread nature of trauma and the importance of trauma to HIV transmission around the globe, several gaps remain...
October 4, 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
M Neale Weitzmann, Ighovwerha Ofotokun, Kehmia Titanji, Anjali Sharma, Michael T Yin
Clinical data accumulated over the past two decades attests to a significant decline in bone mineral density (BMD) in patients infected by HIV, which does not remit but may actually intensify with anti-retroviral therapy (ART). Long generally perceived as an aberration without clinical consequences in relatively young HIV-infected cohorts, recent studies have documented marked increases in fracture incidence in HIV-infected men and women over a wide age continuum. Fractures are associated with chronic pain, crippling morbidity, and increased mortality, undermining the gains in quality of life achieved though ART...
September 28, 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Roger Bedimo, Oladapo Abodunde
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Fifteen to thirty percent of HIV-infected persons in North America and Europe are co-infected with chronic hepatitis C (HCV). The latter is associated with a significant number of extra-hepatic metabolic complications that could compound HIV-associated increased cardiovascular risk. This article reviews the basic science and epidemiologic and clinical evidence for increased cardio-metabolic risk among HIV/HCV-co-infected patients and discusses potential underlying mechanisms...
September 5, 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Austin W Chan, Yuval A Patel, Steve Choi
As the HIV population continues to live longer as a result of antiretroviral therapy, liver-related mortality has become one of the leading causes of non-AIDS related death in this patient population. The liver possesses a remarkable regenerative capacity but undergoes complex biological changes in response to aging and inflammation that result in decreased cellular regeneration and a tipping of the scales towards fibrogenesis. Patients with HIV infection have serological evidence of ongoing inflammation, with elevations in some biomarkers persisting despite adequate virologic control...
August 25, 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Damani A Piggott, Kristine M Erlandson, Kevin E Yarasheski
Frailty is a critical aging-related syndrome marked by diminished physiologic reserve and heightened vulnerability to stressors, predisposing to major adverse clinical outcomes, including hospitalization, institutionalization, disability, and death in the general population of older adults. As the proportion of older adults living with HIV increases in the era of antiretroviral therapy, frailty is increasingly recognized to be of significant clinical and public health relevance to the HIV-infected population...
August 22, 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Tamar H Taddei, Vincent Lo Re, Amy C Justice
Viral suppression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) with combination antiviral therapy (cART) has led to increasing longevity but has not enabled a complete return to health among aging HIV-infected individuals (HIV+). Viral coinfections are prevalent in the HIV+ host and are implicated in cancer, liver disease, and accelerated aging. We must move beyond a simplistic notion of HIV becoming a "chronic controllable illness" and develop an understanding of how viral suppression alters the natural history of HIV infection, especially at the intersection of HIV with other common viral coinfections in the context of an altered, aging immune system...
October 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Emma Kaplan-Lewis, Judith A Aberg, Mikyung Lee
In the current era of available therapy for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), life expectancy for persons living with HIV (PLWH) nears that of the general population. Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) has become a particular burden for PLWH and society at large. PLWH have historically been shown to have an excess of cardiovascular risk and subsequent events when compared to the general population. Potential explanations include the increased prevalence of traditional risk factors, direct inflammatory and immunological effects from the HIV virus itself, and metabolic adverse effects of anti-retroviral therapy (ART)...
October 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Amanda L Willig, Edgar Turner Overton
HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) use are associated with perturbations in glucose and lipid metabolism. Increasing incidence of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and obesity highlights the need for early identification and treatment of metabolic dysfunction. Newer ART regimens are less toxic for cellular function and metabolism but have failed to completely eliminate metabolic dysfunction with HIV infection. Additional factors, including viral-host interactions, diet, physical activity, non-ART medications, and aging may further contribute to metabolic disease risk in the HIV setting...
October 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Elizabeth Marum, Martha Conkling, Jabez Kanyanda, Sheila Birungi Gandi, Raymond Byaruhanga, Mary Grace Alwano
HIV testing services (HTS) are an essential component of a national response to the HIV epidemic, and in lower and middle income countries, at least 150 million persons are tested annually. HIV testing is necessary to identify persons in need of antiretroviral treatment, which has been documented to be highly effective not only for treatment but also for prevention of HIV transmission to both adults and children. An assessment of the recent literature on sustainability of health and HIV services suggests that organizational performance, flexibility, and integration with other health interventions contribute to sustainability of HIV services and programs...
October 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Bassem Matta, Tzu-Hao Lee, Keyur Patel
Patients with HIV have a proclivity to develop liver fibrosis, especially when associated with other conditions such as HCV, HBV, and NAFLD. Identifying HIV-infected patients with significant fibrosis or cirrhosis plays an important role in clinical and therapeutic decision-making. Liver biopsy is currently considered as the gold standard for fibrosis assessment but carries many shortcomings (cost, invasiveness, complications, false negative rate of 20 %). Multiple non-invasive methods of liver fibrosis assessment have been developed, but not all have been studied in HIV-infected individuals...
October 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Eran Bendavid
This review traces the course of the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) as a foreign aid program. It illustrates how the epidemiologic and geopolitical environments of the early 2000s influenced PEPFAR's early directions and contributed to its successes. In addition to scaling up infrastructure and care delivery platforms, PEPFAR led to large increases in the number of people receiving antiretroviral therapy and reductions in mortality. These successes, in turn, have brought its principal challenges-its outsized budget, narrow focus, and problem of entitlement-into sharp relief...
October 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Jean B Nachega, Olatunji Adetokunboh, Olalekan A Uthman, Amy W Knowlton, Frederick L Altice, Mauro Schechter, Omar Galárraga, Elvin Geng, Karl Peltzer, Larry W Chang, Gilles Van Cutsem, Shabbar S Jaffar, Nathan Ford, Claude A Mellins, Robert H Remien, Edward J Mills
Little is known about the effect of community versus health facility-based interventions to improve and sustain antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, virologic suppression, and retention in care among HIV-infected individuals in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We systematically searched four electronic databases for all available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and comparative cohort studies in LMICs comparing community versus health facility-based interventions. Relative risks (RRs) for pre-defined adherence, treatment engagement (linkage and retention in care), and relevant clinical outcomes were pooled using random effect models...
October 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Jonathan Underwood, Alan Winston
Antiretroviral therapy has revolutionised the treatment for people living with HIV (PLWH). Where antiretroviral coverage is high, the treatment paradigm for HIV-disease is now one of managing the long-term consequences of the virus and its treatment rather than the consequences of untreated HIV-disease such as immunosuppression and opportunistic infections. One such long-term consequence is HIV-associated cognitive impairment which is reported to occur in up to 50 % of treated PLWH and has been associated with poorer outcomes...
October 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Alash'le Abimiku, Ralph Timperi, William Blattner
Laboratory innovation significantly affects program sustainability of HIV programs in low and middle income countries (LMICs) far beyond its immediate sphere of impact. Innovation in rapid development of diagnostic technologies, improved quality management systems, strengthened laboratory management, affordable external quality assurance and accreditation schemes, and building local capacity have reduced costs, brought quality improvement to point-of-care testing, increased access to testing services, reduced treatment and prevention costs and opened the door to the real possibility of ending the AIDS epidemic...
August 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Musonda Simwinga, Virginia Bond, Nozizwe Makola, Graeme Hoddinott, Steve Belemu, Rhonda White, Kwame Shanaube, Janet Seeley, Ayana Moore
Key to the success of a HIV combination prevention strategy, including galvanizing the current push to roll out universal test and treat (UTT), is the involvement and buy-in of the populations that the strategy aims to reach. Drawing on the experiences of engaging with 21 communities in Zambia and South Africa in the design and implementation of a community-randomized study of combination HIV prevention including UTT, this paper reflects on the commitment to, approaches for and benefits of involving communities...
August 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Nicholas T Funderburg, Nehal N Mehta
Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and subsequent treatment with antiretroviral therapy (ART), is often associated with perturbations in lipid profiles. Furthermore, persistent inflammation, in spite of suppression of viral replication by ART, likely contributes to modifications in lipid composition and function, exacerbating risk for development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Increased levels of several pro-inflammatory lipid species, including oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL), have been measured in HIV-infected persons and are associated with markers of immune activation...
August 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
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