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Current HIV/AIDS Reports

Mara Farcasanu, Douglas S Kwon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Young women in sub-Saharan Africa bear a disproportionate burden of the global HIV epidemic. In this review, we examine how cervicovaginal microbiota modulate structural and immune defenses in the female genital tract and influence HIV susceptibility. RECENT FINDINGS: Highly diverse, anaerobic cervicovaginal microbiota prevalent in sub-Saharan African women increase HIV acquisition risk by over fourfold. These bacteria weaken the barrier properties of the vaginal mucosa and increase local inflammation and HIV target cell recruitment, creating an environment permissive to HIV...
March 8, 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Tiffany Hensley-McBain, Nichole R Klatt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We summarize what is known about neutrophils in HIV infection, focusing on their potential roles in HIV protection, acquisition, and pathogenesis. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have demonstrated that neutrophil-associated proteins and cytokines in genital tissue pre-infection associate with HIV acquisition. However, recent in vivo assessment of highly exposed seronegative individuals and in vitro studies of anti-HIV functions of neutrophils add to older literature evidence that neutrophils may be important in a protective response to HIV infection...
March 8, 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Lauren Brinkley-Rubinstein, Emily Dauria, Marina Tolou-Shams, Katerina Christopoulos, Philip A Chan, Curt G Beckwith, Sharon Parker, Jaimie Meyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Jens D Lundgren, Alvaro H Borges, James D Neaton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Optimal control of HIV can be achieved by early diagnosis followed by the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Two large randomised trials (TEMPRANO and START) have recently been published documenting the clinical benefits to HIV-positive adults of early ART initiation. Main findings are reviewed with a focus on serious non-AIDS (SNA) conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: Data from the two trials demonstrated that initiating ART early in the course of HIV infection resulted in marked reductions in the risk of opportunistic diseases and invasive bacterial infections...
March 5, 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Eileen P Scully
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review will outline the multilevel effects of biological sex on HIV acquisition, pathogenesis, treatment response, and prospects for cure. Potential mechanisms will be discussed along with future research directions. RECENT FINDINGS: HIV acquisition risk is modified by sex hormones and the vaginal microbiome, with the latter acting through both inflammation and local metabolism of pre-exposure prophylaxis drugs. Female sex associates with enhanced risk for non-AIDS morbidities including cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, suggesting different inflammatory profiles in men and women...
March 5, 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Thor A Wagner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A therapy that might cure HIV is a very important goal for the 30-40 million people living with HIV. Chimeric antigen receptor T cells have recently had remarkable success against certain leukemias, and there are reasons to believe they could be successful for HIV. This manuscript summarizes the published research on HIV CAR T cells and reviews the current anti-HIV chimeric antigen receptor strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: Research on anti-HIV chimeric antigen receptor T cells has been going on for at least the last 25 years...
March 3, 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
James Arthos, Claudia Cicala, Fatima Nawaz, Siddappa N Byrareddy, Francois Villinger, Philip J Santangelo, Aftab A Ansari, Anthony S Fauci
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute HIV infection is characterized by high-level viral replication throughout the body's lymphoid system, particularly in gut-associated lymphoid tissues resulting in damage to structural components of gut tissue. This damage is irreversible and believed to contribute to the development of immune deficiencies. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) does not restore gut structure and function. Studies in macaques point to an alternative treatment strategy that may ameliorate gut damage...
February 24, 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
A Sidney Barritt, Ravi Jhaveri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Increasing hepatitis C virus (HCV) cases over the past decade have raised concerns about subsequent increased cases in infants due to mother to child transmission (MTCT). Many are reminded of the early days of HIV and the rationale for using antiretroviral agents during pregnancy. RECENT FINDINGS: Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) that are highly potent, all-oral, short-duration regimens that cure HCV have led many to consider what it would entail to use DAAs for pregnant women...
February 22, 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Mary Kate Grabowski, Joshua T Herbeck, Art F Y Poon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the use of genetic similarity clusters to understand HIV transmission and inform prevention efforts. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent emphases include the development of real-time cluster identification in order to interrupt transmission chains, the use of clusters to estimate rates of transmission along the HIV care cascade, and the extension of cluster analyses to understand transmission in the generalized epidemics of sub-Saharan Africa...
February 19, 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
David C Perlman, Ashly E Jordan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the case for recognizing (1) the epidemics of opioid misuse, overdose, hepatitis C virus, and HIV as a syndemic and (2) the importance of examining and addressing structural factors in responses to this syndemic. We focus on the current syndemic in the US, but also consider data from other locations to highlight the issues existing and arising in various contexts. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in multi-level theory and statistical methods allow sound ecologic and multi-level analyses of the impact of structural factors on the syndemic...
February 19, 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Teresa H Evering
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The HIV-1 envelope gene (env) has been an intense focus of investigation in the search for genetic determinants of viral entry and persistence in the central nervous system (CNS). RECENT FINDINGS: Molecular signatures of CNS-derived HIV-1 env reflect the immune characteristics and cellular constraints of the CNS compartment. Although more readily found in those with advanced HIV-1 and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), molecular signatures distinguishing CNS-derived quasispecies can be identified early in HIV-1 infection, in the presence or absence of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), and are dynamic...
February 19, 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Sarit A Golub
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite its promise as an HIV prevention strategy, PrEP uptake remains slow, especially among highest priority populations. One factor that may be impeding implementation and driving disparities is PrEP-related stigma. This paper reviews the role of PrEP-related stigma in PrEP access, adherence, and persistence and examines its antecedents and consequences. RECENT FINDINGS: Although PrEP stigma is often experienced at the community level (i.e...
February 19, 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
April M Young, Abby E Rudolph, Jennifer R Havens
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this paper is to provide a thorough overview of methods used for recruitment, network data collection, and network data management in a network-based study of rural people who use drugs (PWUD) and to offer methodological recommendations for future research on rural drug use. RECENT FINDINGS: The Social Networks among Appalachian People (SNAP) study recruited a cohort of 503 rural PWUD via respondent-driven sampling (RDS) and has retained more than 80% of eligible participants over 7-9 years...
February 19, 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Mosepele Mosepele, Elizabeth Botsile
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As access to effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) expands globally, a decline in AIDS-related morbidity and mortality has been complicated by rising rates of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). This review provides a brief description of NCDs and existing gaps on knowledge about NCDs among HIV-infected adults mostly in Africa. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent reports show that one in every five persons living with HIV has a chronic illness, predominantly diabetes and/or hypertension, depression, and most of these conditions are either not diagnosed or not being managed...
February 12, 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Jacob Couturier, Dorothy E Lewis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to examine the evidence describing adipose tissue as a reservoir for HIV-1 and how this often expansive anatomic compartment contributes to HIV persistence. RECENT FINDINGS: Memory CD4 T cells and macrophages, the major host cells for HIV, accumulate in adipose tissue during HIV/SIV infection of humans and rhesus macaques. Whereas HIV and SIV proviral DNA is detectable in CD4 T cells of multiple fat depots in virtually all infected humans and monkeys examined, viral RNA is less frequently detected, and infected macrophages may be less prevalent in adipose tissue...
February 9, 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Stephanie M Fukui, Damani A Piggott, Kristine M Erlandson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As a consequence of antiretroviral therapy, the proportion of older HIV-infected adults is increasing, with a concomitant shift in burden of illness to age-related syndromes and disease. Frailty is an age-related syndrome of increased vulnerability to stress, predictive of major adverse clinical outcomes among HIV-infected and uninfected persons alike. Understanding frailty pathogenesis is critical to developing interventions to improve health outcomes in HIV. Here, we review the current evidence for the relationship between inflammation and frailty in HIV, and the potential for novel, inflammation-targeted interventions...
February 6, 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Jose R Castillo-Mancilla, Jessica E Haberer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we present new developments in antiretroviral adherence, focusing on pharmacological measures and real-time adherence monitoring. In addition, new strategies on how to incorporate these new measures into research and clinical care are proposed. RECENT FINDINGS: Antiretroviral drug concentrations in hair and dried blood spots are two novel pharmacological measures of cumulative drug adherence and exposure that have been recently evaluated in HIV treatment and pre-exposure prophylaxis...
January 29, 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Julia Niessl, Amy E Baxter, Daniel E Kaufmann
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The long-lived HIV reservoir remains a major obstacle for an HIV cure. Current techniques to analyze this reservoir are generally population-based. We highlight recent developments in methods visualizing HIV, which offer a different, complementary view, and provide indispensable information for cure strategy development. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent advances in fluorescence in situ hybridization techniques enabled key developments in reservoir visualization...
January 27, 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Andrea Calcagno, Ambra Barco, Mattia Trunfio, Stefano Bonora
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neurocognitive disorders are not uncommon in HIV-positive patients but their pathogenesis is multifactorial and incompletely understood. After excluding contributing comorbidities, several factors may impair neurocognition including severe immune suppression, incomplete antiviral efficacy, drugs' persistent immune activation, vascular abnormalities, and drugs' neurotoxicity. The effectiveness of targeted antiretroviral strategies on these risk factors is unknown. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies support the idea that residual cerebrospinal fluid HIV RNA in the setting of plasma viral suppression is associated with compartmental immune activation but the link to neuronal damage is debated...
January 23, 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Rosa de Miguel Buckley, Rocio Montejano, Natalia Stella-Ascariz, Jose R Arribas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Simplification of antiretroviral therapy is a strategy aiming to reduce pill burden, drug interactions, and toxicity. This review focuses on the most recent and important studies evaluating a reduction on the number of drugs for HIV treatment, both in naive and virologically suppressed patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Interesting studies have been performed in the past years testing dual therapy and monotherapy, with variable rates of virological control...
January 20, 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
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