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Current HIV/AIDS Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774442/integrated-models-of-care-for-individuals-with-opioid-use-disorder-how-do-we-prevent-hiv-and-hcv
#1
REVIEW
Katherine M Rich, Joshua Bia, Frederick L Altice, Judith Feinberg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe models of integrated and co-located care for opioid use disorder (OUD), hepatitis C (HCV), and HIV. RECENT FINDINGS: The design and scale-up of multidisciplinary care models that engage, retain, and treat individuals with HIV, HCV, and OUD are critical to preventing continued spread of HIV and HCV. We identified 17 models within primary care (N = 3), HIV specialty care (N = 5), opioid treatment programs (N = 6), transitional clinics (N = 2), and community-based harm reduction programs (N = 1), as well as two emerging models...
May 17, 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752699/hiv-and-cardiovascular-disease-update-on-clinical-events-special-populations-and-novel-biomarkers
#2
REVIEW
Kaku So-Armah, Matthew S Freiberg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The objective of this review is to provide an update on the link between HIV infection and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We will focus our review mainly on literature describing clinical CVD events and understudied topics of importance. RECENT FINDINGS: Heart failure, peripheral artery disease, and stroke are CVD modalities deserving more attention in the context of HIV infection in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era. Incidence data on clinical CVD from HIV populations in low- and middle-income countries are limited...
May 11, 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752698/opioid-use-among-those-who-have-criminal-justice-experience-harm-reduction-strategies-to-lessen-hiv-risk
#3
REVIEW
Lauren Brinkley-Rubinstein, David Cloud, Ernest Drucker, Nickolas Zaller
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We reviewed the HIV and opioid literature relevant to harm reduction strategies for those with criminal justice experience. RECENT FINDINGS: Opioid use in the United States has risen at an alarming rate recently. This has led to increased numbers of people who inject drugs, placing new populations at risk for HIV, including those who have criminal justice experience. In recent years, there has been a gradual decrease in the number of individuals under the supervision of the criminal justice system...
May 11, 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740734/syringe-decriminalization-advocacy-in-red-states-lessons-from-the-north-carolina-harm-reduction-coalition
#4
REVIEW
David H Cloud, Tessie Castillo, Lauren Brinkley-Rubinstein, Manisha Dubey, Robert Childs
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Syringe access programs (SAPs) are cornerstone harm reduction interventions for combatting the national opioid epidemic. The goal of this paper is to describe effective advocacy strategies for enacting syringe decriminalization legislation to foster the expansion of SAPs in high-need areas amidst political opposition. RECENT FINDINGS: Decades or research shows that SAPs prevent the transmission of HIV among people who inject drugs (PWID) and are a cost-effective tool for linking PWID to medical care, health education, and social services...
May 8, 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713871/continued-interest-and-controversy-vitamin-d-in-hiv
#5
REVIEW
Evelyn Hsieh, Michael T Yin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Vitamin D (VitD) deficiency is highly prevalent among HIV-infected individuals. Given the overlapping risk for several chronic disease and immunomodulatory outcomes from both long-standing HIV and VitD deficiency, there is great interest in clarifying the clinical role of VitD for this population. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have expanded our knowledge regarding the epidemiology and mechanisms of VitD deficiency-associated outcomes in the setting of HIV...
April 30, 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700760/factors-associated-with-insulin-resistance-in-adults-with-hiv-receiving-contemporary-antiretroviral-therapy-a-brief-update
#6
REVIEW
Todd Hulgan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This narrative review summarizes recent data on factors associated with insulin resistance (IR) in adults with HIV, including contemporary antiretroviral therapy (ART). RECENT FINDINGS: IR remains common in persons with HIV, even those receiving contemporary ART. Generalized and abdominal obesity and ectopic fat are correlates of IR, and emerging data have identified associations with biomarkers of inflammation and immune activation. Small studies suggest associations between mitochondria and IR...
April 26, 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671204/nafld-and-hiv-do-sex-race-and-ethnicity-explain-hiv-related-risk
#7
REVIEW
Subada Soti, Kathleen E Corey, Jordan E Lake, Kristine M Erlandson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Here, we review the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in the general population, discuss HIV-specific differences in NAFLD pathogenesis, and summarize what is known regarding differences in NAFLD by race/ethnicity and sex. RECENT FINDINGS: The reported prevalence of NAFLD among people living with HIV varies by age, body mass index, comorbidity, and method of NAFLD diagnosis, but is generally thought to be greater among HIV-infected compared to HIV-uninfected populations...
April 18, 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671203/the-policy-driven-hiv-epidemic-among-opioid-users-in-the-russian-federation
#8
REVIEW
Robert Heimer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To explore the consequences of policies implemented in the Russian Federation in response to syndemic of HIV-1 and opioid use disorder and compare the responses to the concomitant syndemic in rural America. RECENT FINDINGS: The syndemic spread has not been reduced by policies implemented by the Russian government, which continues to underfund harm reduction efforts to reduce HIV transmission, refuses to approve evidence-based opioid agonist treatments for opioid use disorder, and relies on criminal justice and abstinence approaches to control illicit opioids...
April 18, 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572624/significance-and-management-of-isolated-hepatitis-b-core-antibody-anti-hbc-in-hiv-and-hcv-strategies-in-the-daa-era
#9
REVIEW
Jennifer J Chang, Neaka Mohtashemi, Debika Bhattacharya
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize the prevalence and clinical implications of the isolated anti-HBc serologic profile in HIV-infected individuals. We highlight the rare but important issue of HBV reactivation in the setting of HCV therapy and describe an approach to management. RECENT FINDINGS: The isolated anti-HBc pattern, a profile that most often indicates past exposure to HBV with waning anti-HBs immunity, is found commonly in HIV-infected individuals, particularly those with HCV...
March 23, 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516265/the-path-to-implementation-of-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-people-involved-in-criminal-justice-systems
#10
REVIEW
Lauren Brinkley-Rubinstein, Emily Dauria, Marina Tolou-Shams, Katerina Christopoulos, Philip A Chan, Curt G Beckwith, Sharon Parker, Jaimie Meyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504063/serious-non-aids-conditions-in-hiv-benefit-of-early-art
#11
REVIEW
Jens D Lundgren, Alvaro H Borges, James D Neaton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Optimal control of HIV can be achieved by early diagnosis followed by the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Two large randomised trials (TEMPRANO and START) have recently been published documenting the clinical benefits to HIV-positive adults of early ART initiation. Main findings are reviewed with a focus on serious non-AIDS (SNA) conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: Data from the two trials demonstrated that initiating ART early in the course of HIV infection resulted in marked reductions in the risk of opportunistic diseases and invasive bacterial infections...
April 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504062/sex-differences-in-hiv-infection
#12
REVIEW
Eileen P Scully
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review will outline the multilevel effects of biological sex on HIV acquisition, pathogenesis, treatment response, and prospects for cure. Potential mechanisms will be discussed along with future research directions. RECENT FINDINGS: HIV acquisition risk is modified by sex hormones and the vaginal microbiome, with the latter acting through both inflammation and local metabolism of pre-exposure prophylaxis drugs. Female sex associates with enhanced risk for non-AIDS morbidities including cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, suggesting different inflammatory profiles in men and women...
April 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500712/quarter-century-of-anti-hiv-car-t-cells
#13
REVIEW
Thor A Wagner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A therapy that might cure HIV is a very important goal for the 30-40 million people living with HIV. Chimeric antigen receptor T cells have recently had remarkable success against certain leukemias, and there are reasons to believe they could be successful for HIV. This manuscript summarizes the published research on HIV CAR T cells and reviews the current anti-HIV chimeric antigen receptor strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: Research on anti-HIV chimeric antigen receptor T cells has been going on for at least the last 25 years...
April 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478152/the-role-of-integrin-%C3%AE-4-%C3%AE-7-in-hiv-pathogenesis-and-treatment
#14
REVIEW
James Arthos, Claudia Cicala, Fatima Nawaz, Siddappa N Byrareddy, Francois Villinger, Philip J Santangelo, Aftab A Ansari, Anthony S Fauci
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute HIV infection is characterized by high-level viral replication throughout the body's lymphoid system, particularly in gut-associated lymphoid tissues resulting in damage to structural components of gut tissue. This damage is irreversible and believed to contribute to the development of immune deficiencies. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) does not restore gut structure and function. Studies in macaques point to an alternative treatment strategy that may ameliorate gut damage...
April 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470782/treatment-of-hepatitis-c-during-pregnancy-weighing-the-risks-and-benefits-in-contrast-to-hiv
#15
REVIEW
A Sidney Barritt, Ravi Jhaveri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Increasing hepatitis C virus (HCV) cases over the past decade have raised concerns about subsequent increased cases in infants due to mother to child transmission (MTCT). Many are reminded of the early days of HIV and the rationale for using antiretroviral agents during pregnancy. RECENT FINDINGS: Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) that are highly potent, all-oral, short-duration regimens that cure HCV have led many to consider what it would entail to use DAAs for pregnant women...
April 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460226/genetic-cluster-analysis-for-hiv-prevention
#16
REVIEW
Mary Kate Grabowski, Joshua T Herbeck, Art F Y Poon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the use of genetic similarity clusters to understand HIV transmission and inform prevention efforts. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent emphases include the development of real-time cluster identification in order to interrupt transmission chains, the use of clusters to estimate rates of transmission along the HIV care cascade, and the extension of cluster analyses to understand transmission in the generalized epidemics of sub-Saharan Africa...
April 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460225/the-syndemic-of-opioid-misuse-overdose-hcv-and-hiv-structural-level-causes-and-interventions
#17
REVIEW
David C Perlman, Ashly E Jordan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the case for recognizing (1) the epidemics of opioid misuse, overdose, hepatitis C virus, and HIV as a syndemic and (2) the importance of examining and addressing structural factors in responses to this syndemic. We focus on the current syndemic in the US, but also consider data from other locations to highlight the issues existing and arising in various contexts. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in multi-level theory and statistical methods allow sound ecologic and multi-level analyses of the impact of structural factors on the syndemic...
April 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460223/prep-stigma-implicit-and-explicit-drivers-of-disparity
#18
REVIEW
Sarit A Golub
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite its promise as an HIV prevention strategy, PrEP uptake remains slow, especially among highest priority populations. One factor that may be impeding implementation and driving disparities is PrEP-related stigma. This paper reviews the role of PrEP-related stigma in PrEP access, adherence, and persistence and examines its antecedents and consequences. RECENT FINDINGS: Although PrEP stigma is often experienced at the community level (i.e...
April 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457200/network-based-research-on-rural-opioid-use-an-overview-of-methods-and-lessons-learned
#19
REVIEW
April M Young, Abby E Rudolph, Jennifer R Havens
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this paper is to provide a thorough overview of methods used for recruitment, network data collection, and network data management in a network-based study of rural people who use drugs (PWUD) and to offer methodological recommendations for future research on rural drug use. RECENT FINDINGS: The Social Networks among Appalachian People (SNAP) study recruited a cohort of 503 rural PWUD via respondent-driven sampling (RDS) and has retained more than 80% of eligible participants over 7-9 years...
April 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435953/role-of-noncommunicable-diseases-ncds-in-resource-limited-settings-rls
#20
REVIEW
Mosepele Mosepele, Elizabeth Botsile
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As access to effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) expands globally, a decline in AIDS-related morbidity and mortality has been complicated by rising rates of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). This review provides a brief description of NCDs and existing gaps on knowledge about NCDs among HIV-infected adults mostly in Africa. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent reports show that one in every five persons living with HIV has a chronic illness, predominantly diabetes and/or hypertension, depression, and most of these conditions are either not diagnosed or not being managed...
April 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
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