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Current HIV/AIDS Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116550/resistance-to-daas-when-to-look-and-when-it-matters
#1
REVIEW
David L Wyles
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review provides an overview of HCV resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) with a focus on NS3 protease and NS5A inhibitor resistance. Treatment approaches for managing resistance are also covered including the use of newly approved therapies with improved resistance profiles. RECENT FINDINGS: HCV RASs are frequently selected if the patient is not cured during treatment; NS5A RASs persist for prolonged periods of time (years) after treatment failure and may adversely impact retreatment responses...
November 7, 2017: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080122/sex-differences-in-select-non-communicable-hiv-associated-comorbidities-exploring-the-role-of-systemic-immune-activation-inflammation
#2
REVIEW
Avanthi Raghavan, Dodie E Rimmelin, Kathleen V Fitch, Markella V Zanni
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: The goals of this review are to (1) explore HIV-associated cardiovascular disease (CVD), neurocognitive impairment, and non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADC) as heterogeneous model disease states fuelled in part by systemic immune activation/inflammation; (2) consider sex differences in the epidemiology of these diseases in both high-resource and lower-resource settings; and (3) examine biological and environmental factors which may contribute to heightened systemic immune activation/inflammation specifically among women living with HIV (WLHIV)...
October 27, 2017: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071519/preexposure-prophylaxis-of-hiv-infection-the-role-of-clinical-practices-in-ending-the-hiv-epidemic
#3
REVIEW
Iryna B Zablotska, Catherine C O'Connor
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this study is to summarise the recent evidence from high-income settings about providers' ability to deliver on the UNAIDS goal of at least three million people at substantial risk of HIV infection with PrEP by 2020, including awareness and knowledge about PrEP, willingness to prescribe PrEP, current levels of prescribing and service delivery models and issues. RECENT FINDINGS: Awareness about PrEP among health providers is growing, but at different pace depending on provider type...
October 25, 2017: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043609/the-fat-of-the-matter-obesity-and-visceral-adiposity-in-treated-hiv-infection
#4
REVIEW
Jordan E Lake
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to summarize knowledge of the prevalence, relevant physiology, and consequences of obesity and visceral adiposity in HIV-infected adults, including highlighting gaps in current knowledge and future research directions. RECENT FINDINGS: Similar to the general population, obesity prevalence is increasing among HIV-infected persons, and obesity and visceral adiposity are associated with numerous metabolic and inflammatory sequelae...
October 18, 2017: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933001/redefining-aging-in-hiv-infection-using-phenotypes
#5
REVIEW
David M Stoff, Karl Goodkin, Dilip Jeste, Maria Marquine
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article critically reviews the utility of "phenotypes" as behavioral descriptors in aging/HIV research that inform biological underpinnings and treatment development. We adopt a phenotypic redefinition of aging conceptualized within a broader context of HIV infection and of aging. Phenotypes are defined as dimensions of behavior, closely related to fundamental mechanisms, and, thus, may be more informative than chronological age. Primary emphasis in this review is given to comorbid aging and cognitive aging, though other phenotypes (i...
October 2017: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905274/erratum-to-hiv-prevention-among-transgender-populations-knowledge-gaps-and-evidence-for-action
#6
Tonia Poteat, Mannat Malik, Ayden Scheim, Ayana Elliott
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875422/public-health-and-public-order-outcomes-associated-with-supervised-drug-consumption-facilities-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Mary Clare Kennedy, Mohammad Karamouzian, Thomas Kerr
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Supervised drug consumption facilities (SCFs) have increasingly been implemented in response to public health and public order concerns associated with illicit drug use. We systematically reviewed the literature investigating the health and community impacts of SCFs. RECENT FINDINGS: Consistent evidence demonstrates that SCFs mitigate overdose-related harms and unsafe drug use behaviours, as well as facilitate uptake of addiction treatment and other health services among people who use drugs (PWUD)...
October 2017: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812207/the-vaginal-microbiome-and-its-potential-to-impact-efficacy-of-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-women
#8
REVIEW
Jennifer Velloza, Renee Heffron
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review describes existing evidence addressing the potential modulation of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) products, specifically 1% tenofovir (TFV) gel and oral tenofovir-based PrEP, by vaginal dysbiosis and discusses future considerations for delivering novel, long-acting PrEP products to women at high risk for vaginal dysbiosis and HIV. RECENT FINDINGS: We describe results from analyses investigating the modification of PrEP efficacy by vaginal dysbiosis and studies of biological mechanisms that could render PrEP ineffective in the presence of specific microbiota...
October 2017: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779301/differentiating-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-from-alzheimer-s-disease-an-emerging-issue-in-geriatric-neurohiv
#9
REVIEW
Benedetta Milanini, Victor Valcour
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review was to examine characteristics that may distinguish HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) from early Alzheimer's disease (AD). RECENT FINDINGS: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) AD biomarkers are perturbed in HIV, yet these alterations may be limited to settings of advanced dementia or unsuppressed plasma HIV RNA. Neuropsychological testing will require extensive batteries to maximize utility. Structural imaging is limited for early AD detection in the setting of HIV, but proper studies are absent...
August 5, 2017: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752285/hiv-prevention-among-transgender-populations-knowledge-gaps-and-evidence-for-action
#10
REVIEW
Tonia Poteat, Mannat Malik, Ayden Scheim, Ayana Elliott
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize the available evidence-based HIV prevention interventions tailored for transgender people. RECENT FINDINGS: A limited number of evidence-based HIV prevention interventions have been tested with transgender populations. Most existing interventions target behavior change among transgender women, with only one HIV prevention program evaluated for transgender men. Studies addressing biomedical interventions for transgender women are ongoing...
July 27, 2017: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685417/the-lymph-node-in-hiv-pathogenesis
#11
REVIEW
Yiannis Dimopoulos, Eirini Moysi, Constantinos Petrovas
Lymph nodes play a central role in the development of adaptive immunity against pathogens and particularly the generation of antigen-specific B cell responses in specialized areas called germinal centers (GCs). Lymph node (LN) pathology was recognized as an important consequence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection since the beginning of the HIV epidemic. Investigation into the structural and functional alterations induced by HIV and Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) has further cemented the central role that lymphoid tissue plays in HIV/SIV pathogenesis...
July 7, 2017: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466391/mechanisms-of-hiv-1-control
#12
REVIEW
Mary Soliman, Geetha Srikrishna, Ashwin Balagopal
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: HIV-1 infection is of global importance, and still incurs substantial morbidity and mortality. Although major pharmacologic advances over the past two decades have resulted in remarkable HIV-1 control, a cure is still forthcoming. One approach to a cure is to exploit natural mechanisms by which the host restricts HIV-1. Herein, we review past and recent discoveries of HIV-1 restriction factors, a diverse set of host proteins that limit HIV-1 replication at multiple levels, including entry, reverse transcription, integration, translation of viral proteins, and packaging and release of virions...
June 2017: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434169/inflammation-immune-activation-and-antiretroviral-therapy-in-hiv
#13
REVIEW
Corrilynn O Hileman, Nicholas T Funderburg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review focuses on the differential effects of contemporary antiretrovirals on systemic inflammation as heightened immune activation is linked to important co-morbidities and mortality with HIV infection. RECENT FINDINGS: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces dramatically systemic inflammation and immune activation, but not to levels synchronous with HIV-uninfected populations. In one ART initiation trial, integrase inhibitors appear to reduce inflammation to a greater degree than non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs); however, it is not clear that there are beneficial effects on inflammation resulting from treatment with integrase inhibitors compared to PIs, between PIs and NNRTIs, between specific nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, or with maraviroc in ART-naïve patients...
June 2017: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432579/hcv-cure-and-reinfection-among-people-with-hiv-hcv-coinfection-and-people-who-inject-drugs
#14
REVIEW
Marianne Martinello, Behzad Hajarizadeh, Jason Grebely, Gregory J Dore, Gail V Matthews
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Highly effective, well-tolerated interferon-free direct-acting antivirals (DAA) have revolutionised hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapeutics, with the opportunity for broad treatment scale-up among marginalised or "high-risk" populations, including people who inject drugs (PWID) and people with HIV/HCV coinfection. RECENT FINDINGS: Concern that HCV reinfection may compromise HCV treatment outcomes is sometimes cited as a reason for not offering treatment to current and former PWID...
June 2017: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284004/monitoring-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorder-using-screenings-a-critical-review-including-guidelines-for-clinical-and-research-use
#15
REVIEW
Jody Kamminga, Luxshimi Lal, Edwina J Wright, Mark Bloch, Bruce J Brew, Lucette A Cysique
Screening tools to identify HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) are primarily devised to detect cognitive impairment on a single occasion. With the chronicity of HIV infection and the risk of HAND developing or progressing despite viral control, it may be pertinent to repeat HAND screening at more than one time point. Despite this, there are limited data on longitudinal use of such screening tools, particularly with regard to the role of practice effects. Additionally, no guidelines currently exist on the timeframe between testing intervals, or recommendation of the magnitude of baseline impairment that warrants follow-up testing...
June 2017: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401492/the-alphabet-soup-of-hiv-reservoir-markers
#16
REVIEW
Radwa R Sharaf, Jonathan Z Li
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite the success of antiretroviral therapy in suppressing HIV, life-long therapy is required to avoid HIV reactivation from long-lived viral reservoirs. Currently, there is intense interest in searching for therapeutic interventions that can purge the viral reservoir to achieve complete remission in HIV patients off antiretroviral therapy. The evaluation of such interventions relies on our ability to accurately and precisely measure the true size of the viral reservoir...
April 2017: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374281/prevention-of-sexually-transmitted-diseases-in-hiv-infected-individuals
#17
REVIEW
Laura Quilter, Shireesha Dhanireddy, Jeanne Marrazzo
Prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is an important part of the care of the HIV-infected individual. STIs have been associated with increased risk of transmission and acquisition of HIV. Among HIV-infected persons, treatment failures and high recurrence rates of some STIs are more common. Despite the recognized importance of prevention and discussion of sexual health, rates of screening for STIs are suboptimal. Moreover, rates of STIs such as syphilis continue to increase particularly in men who have sex with men (MSM)...
April 2017: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349376/broadly-neutralizing-antibodies-as-treatment-effects-on-virus-and-immune-system
#18
REVIEW
Jinal N Bhiman, Rebecca M Lynch
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this study is to summarize recent advances in the use of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) as therapeutics in human clinical trials and in non-human primate (NHP) models. We seek to highlight lessons from these studies with an emphasis on consequences to the virus and immune system. RECENT FINDINGS: In the past 10 years, advances in HIV-1 trimer structure and B cell isolation methods have precipitated the identification of "new-generation" anti-HIV antibodies with broad and potent neutralization...
April 2017: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303548/long-acting-antiretrovirals-where-are-we-now
#19
REVIEW
Amesika N Nyaku, Sean G Kelly, Babafemi O Taiwo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Current HIV treatment options require daily use of combination antiretroviral drugs. Many persons living with HIV experience treatment fatigue and suboptimal adherence as a result. Long-acting antiretroviral drugs are being developed to expand options for HIV treatment. Here, we review the agents in development, and evaluate data from recent clinical trials. In addition, we anticipate challenges to successful widespread use of long-acting antiretrovirals. RECENT FINDINGS: Parenteral nanosuspensions of cabotegravir and rilpivirine, and dapivirine vaginal ring are the farthest in clinical development...
April 2017: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284005/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld-and-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-nash-in-hiv
#20
REVIEW
Jürgen Kurt Rockstroh
Abnormal liver enzymes (LE) are common in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) even in the absence of viral hepatitis or alcohol abuse. With availability of antiretroviral combination therapy, life expectancy has improved dramatically and as a consequence the spectrum of liver disease is changing. Increased reports on the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) or non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in HIV coinfected patients raise questions around prevalence, clinical manifestations, and clinical outcome of these liver diseases in HIV coinfection...
April 2017: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
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