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International Journal of Biological Sciences

Fan Lin, Liang Dong, Weiming Wang, Yuchen Liu, Weiren Huang, Zhiming Cai
Optogenetic gene expression systems enable spatial-temporal modulation of gene transcription and cell behavior. Although applications in biomedicine are emerging, the utility of optogenetic gene switches remains elusive in cancer research due to the relative low gene activation efficiency. Here, we present an optimized CRISPR-Cas9-based light-inducible gene expression device that controls gene transcription in a dose-dependent manner. To prove the potential utility of this device, P53 was tested as a functional target in the bladder cancer cell models...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Shang-Chun Guo, Shi-Cong Tao, Wen-Jing Yin, Xin Qi, Jia-Gen Sheng, Chang-Qing Zhang
Osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) represents a debilitating complication following glucocorticoid (GC)-based therapy. Synovial-derived mesenchymal stem cells (SMSCs) can exert protective effect in the animal model of GC-induced ONFH by inducing cell proliferation and preventing cell apoptosis. Recent studies indicate the transplanted cells exert therapeutic effects primarily via a paracrine mechanism and exosomes are an important paracrine factor that can be directly used as therapeutic agents for tissue engineering...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Yong Zhang, Bing Yu, Jun He, Daiwen Chen
Skeletal muscle is a remarkably complicated organ comprising many different cell types, and it plays an important role in lifelong metabolic health. Nutrients, as an external regulator, potently regulate skeletal muscle development through various internal regulatory factors, such as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and microRNAs (miRNAs). As a nutrient sensor, mTOR, integrates nutrient availability to regulate myogenesis and directly or indirectly influences microRNA expression. MiRNAs, a class of small non-coding RNAs mediating gene silencing, are implicated in myogenesis and muscle-related diseases...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Jing Chen, Xiaoyan Zhang, Han Zhang, Tongqiang Liu, Hui Zhang, Jie Teng, Jun Ji, Xiaoqiang Ding
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a state of Klotho deficiency. The Klotho expression may be suppressed due to DNA hypermethylation in cancer cells so we have investigated the effects and possible mechanisms by which Klotho expression is regulated in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). The vascular Klotho hypermethylation in radial arteries of patients with end-stage renal disease was described. Cultured HASMCs and 5/6-nephrectomized Sprague Dawley (SD) rats treated with indoxyl sulfate (IS) were used as in vitro and in vivo models, respectively...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Yingxue Yu, Xuehua Sun, Jinyang Gu, Chang Yu, Yankai Wen, Yueqiu Gao, Qiang Xia, Xiaoni Kong
Liver fibrosis is a global health problem and previous studies have demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in fibrogenesis. Parkinson disease (autosomal recessive, early onset) 7 (Park7) also called DJ-1 has an essential role in modulating cellular ROS levels. DJ-1 therefore may play functions in liver fibrogenesis and modulation of DJ-1 may be a promising therapeutic approach. Here, wild-type (WT) and DJ-1 knockout (DJ-1 KO) mice were administrated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) to induce liver fibrosis or acute liver injury...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Yonghui Yu, Xiao Li, Lingying Liu, Jiake Chai, Zhang Haijun, Wanli Chu, Huinan Yin, Li Ma, Hongjie Duan, Mengjing Xiao
Skeletal muscle atrophy is a common clinical feature among patients with severe burns. Previous studies have shown that miRNAs play critical roles in the regulation of stress-induced skeletal muscle atrophy. Our previous study showed that burn-induced skeletal muscle atrophy is mediated by miR-628. In this study, compared with sham rats, rats subjected to burn injury exhibited skeletal muscle atrophy, as well as significantly decreased insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) protein expression and significantly increased skeletal muscle cell apoptosis...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Qi Zhang, Shuxian Lin, Ying Liu, Baozhi Yuan, Steph E Harris, Jian Q Feng
Patients with hypophosphatemia rickets (including DMP1 mutations) develop severe osteoarthritis (OA), although the mechanism is largely unknown. In this study, we first identified the expression of DMP1 in hypertrophic chondrocytes using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and X-gal analysis of Dmp1-knockout-lacZ-knockin heterozygous mice. Next, we characterized the OA-like phenotype in Dmp1 null mice from 7-week-old to one-year-old using multiple techniques, including X-ray, micro-CT, H&E staining, Goldner staining, scanning electronic microscopy, IHC assays, etc...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Qian-Qian Luo, Zhong-Ming Qian, Yu-Fu Zhou, Meng-Wan Zhang, Dang Wang, Li Zhu, Ya Ke
The inconsistent of responses of IRP1 and HIF-1 alpha to hypoxia and the similar tendencies in the changes of IRP1 and pCREB contents led us to hypothesize that pCREB might be involved in the regulation of IRP1 under hypoxia. Here, we investigated the role of pCREB in IRP1 expression in HepG2 cells under hypoxia using quantitative PCR, western blot, immunofluorescence, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). We demonstrated that 1) Hypoxia increased pCREB levels inside of the nucleus; 2) Putative CREs were found in the IRP1 gene; 3) Nuclear extracts of HepG2 cells treated with hypoxia could bind to CRE1 and CRE3, and 100-fold competitor of putative CREs could abolish the binding activity to varying degrees; 4) pCREB was found in the CRE1 and CRE3 DNA-protein complexes of EMSA; 5) CRE1 and CRE3 binding activity of IRP1 depended on CREB activation but not on HIF-1; 6) Increased IRP1 expression under hypoxia could be prevented by LY294002; 7) ChIP assays demonstrated that pCREB binds to IRP1 promoter; and 8) HIF-1 and/or HIF-2 siRNA had no effect on the expression of pCREB and IRP1 proteins in cells treated with hypoxia for 8 hours...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Jiao Li, Yi Lu, Huiting Liang, Chunyan Tang, Lei Zhu, Jie Zhang, Renshi Xu
In order to searching the possible pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), we examined the expression and distribution of FUS/TLS protein in the different anatomic regions, segments and neural cells of adult spinal cord at the different stages of the SOD1 wild-type and G93A transgenic mice using the fluorescent immunohistochemistry. Result revealed that, in the SOD1 wild-type mice, the FUS/TLS expression almost wasn't detected. However, in the SOD1 G93A mice, the FUS/TLS expression in the white matter was significantly more than that in the gray matter...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Kevin Vivot, Malika A Benahmed, Elodie Seyfritz, William Bietiger, Karim Elbayed, Elisa Ruhland, Allan Langlois, Elisa Maillard, Michel Pinget, Nathalie Jeandidier, Jean-Pierre Gies, Izzie-Jacques Namer, Séverine Sigrist, Nathalie Reix
Intrahepatic transplantation of islets requires a lot of islets because more than 50% of the graft is lost during the 24 hours following transplantation. We analyzed, in a rat model, early post-transplantation inflammation using systemic inflammatory markers, or directly in islet-transplanted livers by immunohistochemistry. (1)H HRMAS NMR was employed to investigate metabolic responses associated with the transplantation. Inflammatory markers (Interleukin-6, α2-macroglobulin) are not suitable to follow islet reactions as they are not islet specific...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Shuyu Guo, Yuanyuan Ni, Jingjing Ben, Yang Xia, Tingting Zhou, Dongyue Wang, Jieli Ni, Hui Bai, Lin Wang, Junqing Ma, Qi Chen
Osteoclasts originate from bone marrow monocyte/macrophage lineage cells, which are important for bone health. Class A scavenger receptor (SR-A) is a multifunctional molecule that functions during differentiation of monocyte into macrophages and osteoclasts. To further characterize the role of SR-A in osteoclasts, we used the murine tooth movement model (TM) and the murine anterior cruciate ligament transection model of osteoarthritis (ACLT OA). In these two models the bones involved are of different origin and have different properties...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Yang Liu, Bi-Jie Jiang, Run-Zhen Zhao, Hong-Long Ji
Regeneration of the epithelium of mammalian lungs is essential for restoring normal function following injury, and various cells and mechanisms contribute to this regeneration and repair. Club cells, bronchioalveolar stem cells (BASCs), and alveolar type II epithelial cells (ATII) are dominant stem/progenitor cells for maintaining epithelial turnover and repair. Epithelial Na(+) channels (ENaC), a critical pathway for transapical salt and fluid transport, are expressed in lung epithelial progenitors, including club and ATII cells...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Yi Lu, Chunyan Tang, Lei Zhu, Jiao Li, Huiting Liang, Jie Zhang, Renshi Xu
The recent investigation suggested that the TDP-43 protein was closely related to the motor neuron degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but the pathogenesis contributed to motor neuron degeneration largely remained unknown. Therefore, we detected the alteration of TDP-43 expression and distribution in the adult spinal cord of the SOD1 G93A transgenic mouse model for searching the possible pathogenesis of ALS. We examined the TDP-43 expression and distribution in the different anatomic regions, segments and neural cells in the adult spinal cord at the different stages of the SOD1 wild-type and G93A transgenic model by the fluorescent immunohistochemical technology...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Mariany Ashanty Morales, Bianca Marie Mendoza, Laura Corley Lavine, Mark Daniel Lavine, Douglas Bruce Walsh, Fang Zhu
Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is an extensively used, high-throughput method to analyze transcriptional expression of genes of interest. An appropriate normalization strategy with reliable reference genes is required for calculating gene expression across diverse experimental conditions. In this study, we aim to identify the most stable reference genes for expression studies of xenobiotic adaptation in Tetranychus urticae, an extremely polyphagous herbivore causing significant yield reduction of agriculture...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Yankai Wen, Seogsong Jeong, Qiang Xia, Xiaoni Kong
Osteopontin (OPN), a multifunctional protein, is involved in numerous pathological conditions including inflammation, immunity, angiogenesis, fibrogenesis and carcinogenesis in various tissues. Extensive studies have elucidated the critical role of OPN in cell signaling such as regulation of cell proliferation, migration, inflammation, fibrosis and tumor progression. In the liver, OPN interacts with integrins, CD44, vimentin and MyD88 signaling, thereby induces infiltration, migration, invasion and metastasis of cells...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Leilei Zhang, Jie He, Bing Han, Linna Lu, Jiayan Fan, He Zhang, Shengfang Ge, Yixiong Zhou, Renbing Jia, Xianqun Fan
Distichiasis presents as double rows of eyelashes arising from aberrant differentiation of the meibomian glands of the eyelids, and it may be sporadic or hereditary. FOXC2 gene mutations in hereditary distichiasis are rarely reported. Here, we examined two generations of a Chinese family with hereditary distichiasis but without lymphedema or other features of LD syndrome. The FOXC2 gene was amplified and sequenced in all family members. Subcellular localization and luciferase assays were performed to assess the activity of the mutant FOXC2 protein...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Hao Li, Chunyu Sheng, Hongbo Liu, Guangze Liu, Xinying Du, Juan Du, Linsheng Zhan, Peng Li, Chaojie Yang, Lihua Qi, Jian Wang, Xiaoxia Yang, Leili Jia, Jing Xie, Ligui Wang, Rongzhang Hao, Dongping Xu, Yigang Tong, Yusen Zhou, Jianjun Zhou, Yansong Sun, Qiao Li, Shaofu Qiu, Hongbin Song
Chronic hepatitis B infection remains incurable because HBV cccDNA can persist indefinitely in patients recovering from acute HBV infection. Given the incidence of HBV infection and the shortcomings of current therapeutic options, a novel antiviral strategy is urgently needed. To inactivate HBV replication and destroy the HBV genome, we employed genome editing tool CRISPR/Cas9. Specifically, we found a CRISPR/Cas9 system (gRNA-S4) that effectively targeted the HBsAg region and could suppress efficiently viral replication with minimal off-target effects and impact on cell viability...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Anna Goc, Alexandra Niedzwiecki, Matthias Rath
Phytochemicals and micronutrients represent a growing theme in antimicrobial defense; however, little is known about their anti-borreliae effects of reciprocal cooperation with antibiotics. A better understanding of this aspect could advance our knowledge and help improve the efficacy of current approaches towards Borrelia sp. In this study, phytochemicals and micronutrients such as baicalein, luteolin, 10-HAD, iodine, rosmarinic acid, and monolaurin, as well as, vitamins D3 and C were tested in a combinations with doxycycline for their in vitro effectiveness against vegetative (spirochetes) and latent (rounded bodies, biofilm) forms of Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia garinii...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Qingpin Xiao, Xiaohui Hu, Zhiyi Wei, Kin Yip Tam
Cells make use of molecular motors to transport small molecules, macromolecules and cellular organelles to target region to execute biological functions, which is utmost important for polarized cells, such as neurons. In particular, cytoskeleton motors play fundamental roles in neuron polarization, extension, shape and neurotransmission. Cytoskeleton motors comprise of myosin, kinesin and cytoplasmic dynein. F-actin filaments act as myosin track, while kinesin and cytoplasmic dynein move on microtubules. Cytoskeleton motors work together to build a highly polarized and regulated system in neuronal cells via different molecular mechanisms and functional regulations...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Dong Yang, Ruiqi Liao, Yun Zheng, Ling Sun, Tian Xu
Transposons and retroviruses are important pathogenic agents and tools for mutagenesis and transgenesis. Insertion target selection is a key feature for a given transposon or retrovirus. The piggyBac (PB) transposon is highly active in mice and human cells, which has a much better genome-wide distribution compared to the retrovirus and P-element. However, the underlying reason is not clear. Utilizing a tagged functional PB transposase (PBase), we were able to conduct genome-wide profiling for PBase binding sites in the mouse genome...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
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