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International Journal of Biological Sciences

Yiming Zhang, Ran Kang, Wenrong Liu, Yalan Yang, Ruofan Ding, Qingqing Huang, Junhua Meng, Lili Xiong, Zhiyun Guo
Recent studies have indicated that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and mRNA function as competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) that compete to bind to shared microRNA (miRNA) recognition elements (MREs) to perform specific biological functions during tumorigenesis. The tumor suppressor p53 is a master regulator of cancer-related biological processes by acting as a transcription factor to regulate target genes including miRNA and lncRNA. However, the mechanism in human hepatocellular carcinoma and whether p53-mediated RNA targets could form ceRNA network remain unclear...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Yang Long, Ji-Yi Xia, Shao-Wei Chen, Chen-Lin Gao, Guan-Nan Liang, Xue-Mei He, Jian Wu, Chun-Xia Jiang, Xin Liu, Wei Huang, Qin Wan, Yong Xu
Endothelial cell insulin resistance may be partially responsible for the higher risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease in populations with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A genome-wide association study revealed a significant association between the ATPase plasma membrane Ca(2+) transporting 1 (ATP2B1) gene and T2DM in two community-based cohorts from the Korea Association Resource Project. However, little is known about the implication of the ATP2B1 gene on T2DM. In the present study, we investigated the role of the ATP2B1 gene in endothelial cell insulin sensitivity...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Yicun Wang, Jun Wang, Zhantao Deng, Jiewen Jin, Hui Jiang, Jia Meng, Haidong Xu, Jianning Zhao, Guojing Sun, Hongbo Qian
Background: To compare the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) between patients with and without chronic osteomyelitis (COM), both in humans and in mice, and to explore risk factors in COM patients who developed T2DM. Methods: One hundred seven patients with COM and 114 patients without COM were consecutively enrolled and retrospectively analysed. Clinical data concerning the time to develop diabetes, glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, inflammatory factors, mental health and frequency of specialist visits were collected...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Zhu Kun-Peng, Zhang Chun-Lin, Ma Xiao-Long
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignant bone cancer in children and adolescents. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to play significant role in various cancers, including OS. In a previous study, we have reported that a novel antisense lncRNA FOXF1-AS1, also known as FENDRR, could sensitize doxorubicin-resistance of OS cells through down-regulating ABCB1 and ABCC1. Here in, the critical role of FOXF1-AS1 in regulating OS progression was further investigated. Firstly, we found that FOXF1-AS1 and its antisense transcript FOXF1 expression were positively up-regulated in OS tissues and cell lines and correlated with poor prognosis of OS patients...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
NiJiati AiErken, Hui-Juan Shi, Yu Zhou, Nan Shao, Jin Zhang, Yawei Shi, Zhong-Yu Yuan, Ying Lin
BACKGROUND: To investigate the role of Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in tumor recurrence and metastasis of Chinese patients suffering from triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). METHODS: PD-L1 immunohistochemistry was performed on 215 TNBCs. Also, the prevalence of TILs correlated the expression of PD-L1 and TILs with clinical outcomes. Kaplan-Meier and the model analyses of univariate Cox proportional hazards were utilized to compare the survival of patients with positive PD-L1 expression with those with negative PD-L1 expression...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Haipeng Lei, Chu-Xia Deng
Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) is a membrane-spanning tyrosine kinase that mediates signaling for FGFs. Recent studies detected various point mutations of FGFR2 in multiple types of cancers, including breast cancer, lung cancer, gastric cancer, uterine cancer and ovarian cancer, yet the casual relationship between these mutations and tumorigenesis is unclear. Here we will discuss possible interactions between FGFR2 signaling and several major pathways through which the aberrantly activated FGFR2 signaling may result in breast cancer development...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Lin Zhang, Ying Zhou, Wangjun Wu, Liming Hou, Hongxing Chen, Bo Zuo, Yuanzhu Xiong, Jinzeng Yang
Individual skeletal muscles in the animal body are heterogeneous, as each is comprised of different fiber types. Type I muscle fibers are rich with mitochondria, and have high oxidative metabolisms while type IIB fibers have few mitochondria and high glycolytic metabolic capacity. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), a transcriptional co-activator that regulates mitochondrial biogenesis and respiratory function, is implicated in muscle fiber-type switching. Over-expression of PGC-1α in transgenic mice increased the proportion of red/oxidative type I fiber...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Ali R Vahdati, Kathleen Sprouffske, Andreas Wagner
The dynamics of populations evolving on an adaptive landscape depends on multiple factors, including the structure of the landscape, the rate of mutations, and effective population size. Existing theoretical work often makes ad hoc and simplifying assumptions about landscape structure, whereas experimental work can vary important parameters only to a limited extent. We here overcome some of these limitations by simulating the adaptive evolution of RNA molecules, whose fitness is determined by the thermodynamics of RNA secondary structure folding...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Cheng He, Ling Kong, Lijuan Zhou, Jing Xia, Haixia Wei, Min Liu, Hongjuan Peng
The obligate intracellular parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, manipulates the cytoskeleton of its host cells to facilitate infection. A significant rearrangement of host cell vimentin around Toxoplasma parasitophorous vacuoles is observed during the course of infection. ROP18 (TgROP18) is a serine-threonine kinase secreted by T. gondii rhoptry and a major virulence factor; however, the mechanisms by which this kinase modulates host factors remain poorly understood. Different and dynamic patterns of vimentin solubility, phosphorylation, and expression levels were observed in host cells infected with T...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Chen Chen Lu, Kun Ling Ma, Xiong Zhong Ruan, Bi Cheng Liu
Microparticles (MPs) are a type of extracellular vesicles (EVs) shed from the outward budding of plasma membranes during cell apoptosis and/or activation. These microsized particles then release specific contents (e.g., lipids, proteins, microRNAs) which are active participants in a wide range of both physiological and pathological processes at the molecular level, e.g., coagulation and angiogenesis, inflammation, immune responses. Research limitations, such as confusing nomenclature and overlapping classification, have impeded our comprehension of these tiny molecules...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Marina Gazdic, Aleksandar Arsenijevic, Bojana Simovic Markovic, Ana Volarevic, Ivanka Dimova, Valentin Djonov, Nebojsa Arsenijevic, Miodrag Stojkovic, Vladislav Volarevic
Acute liver failure and cirrhosis display sequential and overlapping severe pathogenic processes that include inflammation, hepatocyte necrosis, and fibrosis, carrying a high mortality rate. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a heterogeneous subset of stromal stem cells with immunonodulatory characteristics. MSCs are considered to act through multiple mechanisms to coordinate a dynamic, integrated response to liver inflammation and fibrosis, which prevents the progressive distortion of hepatic architecture. Accordingly, MSCs as well as their products have been investigated as a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of inflammatory and fibrotic liver diseases...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Chanchal Mandal, Debasish Halder, Kyoung Hwa Jung, Young Gyu Chai
Ethanol is well known for its teratogenic effects during fetal development. Maternal alcohol consumption allows the developing fetus to experience the detrimental effects of alcohol exposure. Alcohol-mediated teratogenic effects can vary based on the dosage and the length of exposure. The specific mechanism of action behind this teratogenic effect is still unknown. Previous reports demonstrated that alcohol participates in epigenetic alterations, especially histone modifications during fetal development. Additional research is necessary to understand the correlation between major epigenetic events and alcohol-mediated teratogenesis such as that observed in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD)...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Min Chen, Chuncheng Liu, Meng Wang, Hong Wang, Kuo Zhang, Yu Zheng, Zhengquan Yu, Xiangdong Li, Wei Guo, Ning Li, Qingyong Meng
β2-Adrenoceptor (β2-AR) agonists promote muscle growth. The aim of this study was to elucidate some effects of the selective β2-adrenoceptor agonist clenbuterol (CLB) on myoblast proliferation. We found that CLB induces cell cycle arrest in C2C12 myoblasts. This effect is partly due to the enhanced stability of p27, rather than the increased gene transcription via cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). Specifically, CLB treatment enhanced the accumulation of p27 in the nucleus while depleting it from the cytosol via a mechanism that requires β2-AR...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Yu Pan, Xiu Hong Yang, Li Li Guo, Yan Hong Gu, Qing Yan Qiao, Hui Min Jin
Erythropoietin (EPO) can reduce insulin resistance (IR) in adipocytes; however, it is unknown whether EPO can decrease IR in skeletal muscle. Here we investigated whether EPO could reduce IR in type 2 diabetic mouse skeletal muscle and its possible signaling mechanisms of action. Twelve-week-old db/db diabetic mice were employed in this study. Systemic use of EPO improved glucose profiles in type 2 diabetic mice after 4 and 8 weeks treatment. EPO up-regulated EPOR protein expression in skeletal muscle, and subsequently activated downstream signaling molecules such as JAK2, IRS-1, PI3K, AKT, and eNOS...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Chang Chen, Yu Jin, Iek Long Lo, Hansen Zhao, Baoqing Sun, Qi Zhao, Jun Zheng, Xiaohua Douglas Zhang
With the fast development of wearable medical device in recent years, it becomes critical to conduct research on continuously measured physiological signals. Entropy is a key metric for quantifying the irregularity and/or complexity contained in human physiological signals. In this review, we focus on exploring how entropy changes in various physiological signals in cardiovascular diseases. Our review concludes that the direction of entropy change relies on the physiological signals under investigation. For heart rate variability and pulse index, the entropy of a healthy person is higher than that of a patient with cardiovascular diseases...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Xiao-Wen Wang, Cheng Zhang, Kai-Chuen Lee, Xiang-Jun He, Zhi-Qian Lu, Chun Huang, Qing-Chen Wu
Background: Vein graft failure due to neointimal hyperplasia remains an important and unresolved complication of cardiovascular surgery. microRNA-21 (miR-21) plays a major role in regulating vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and phenotype transformation. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine whether adenovirus-mediated miR-21 sponge gene therapy was able to inhibit neointimal hyperplasia in rat vein grafts. Methods: Adenovirus-mediated miR-21 sponge was used to inhibit VSMC proliferation in vitro and neointimal formation in vivo...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Yanqing Wu, Yiyang Li, Xinghui Liao, Zhengchao Wang, Rui Li, Shuang Zou, Ting Jiang, Bingbing Zheng, Ping Duan, Jian Xiao
Diabetes triggers abnormal ovarian follicular development and consequently leads to infertility. Here, we established a type 2 diabetes mouse model by feeding with high fat diet (HFD) for 15/20 weeks and assessed the effect of diabetes on follicular development and ovarian angiogenesis. After fed with HFD for 15 weeks, mice had the characteristics of type 2 diabetes, which was much more serious after 20 weeks on HFD. After 20 weeks on HFD, the mice had shown abnormal ovarian morphology with hyaline appearance, much less blood vessel, follicular development arrest and less of granulosa cells (GCs) in mature follicles, but not in ovaries from 15 weeks on HFD...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Shang Cai, Geng-Sheng Shi, Hui-Ying Cheng, Ya-Nan Zeng, Gen Li, Meng Zhang, Man Song, Ping-Kun Zhou, Ye Tian, Feng-Mei Cui, Qiu Chen
This study investigated whether exosomal microRNA-7 (miR-7) mediates lung bystander autophagy after focal brain irradiation in mice. After 10 Gy or sham irradiation of mice brains, lung tissues were extracted for the detection of autophagy markers by immunohistochemistry, western blotting, and quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR), meanwhile the brains were dissociated, the neuron/astrocyte/microglia/oligodendrocyte were isolated, and the miR-7 expression in each population were detected, respectively...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Sin-Yeang Teow, Kitson Liew, Alan Soo-Beng Khoo, Suat-Cheng Peh
Exosomes are 40- to 100-nm membrane-bound small vesicles that carry a great variety of cellular cargoes including proteins, DNA, messenger RNAs (mRNAs), and microRNAs (miRNAs). These nanovesicles are detected in various biological fluids such as serum, urine, saliva, and seminal fluids. Exosomes serve as key mediators in intercellular communication by facilitating the transfer and exchange of cellular components from cells to cells. They contain various pathogenic factors whereby their adverse effects have been implicated in multiple viral infections and cancers...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Fei Han, Mei Xue, Yunpeng Chang, Xiaoyu Li, Yang Yang, Bei Sun, Liming Chen
Mesangial cell proliferation has been identified as a mainly contributing factor to glomerulosclerosis, which is typical of diabetic nephropathy. However, the specific mechanisms and therapies remain unclear. PDK1 is a critical regulator of cell proliferation, but the specific role of PDK1 in diabetic nephropathy has not been fully illuminated. In the current study, we demonstrated that triptolide (TP) ameliorated albuminuria in the high fat diet/STZ-induced diabetic rats. TP also suppressed the increased proliferating cell markers Ki-67 and PCNA in the kidney tissues...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
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