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International Journal of Biological Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924389/structural-maintenance-of-chromosomes-protein-1-role-in-genome-stability-and-tumorigenesis
#1
REVIEW
Fei Yi, Zhuo Wang, Jingwei Liu, Ying Zhang, Zhijun Wang, Hongde Xu, Xiaoman Li, Ning Bai, Liu Cao, Xiaoyu Song
SMC1 (Structural Maintenance of Chromosomes protein 1), well known as one of the SMC superfamily members, has been explored to function in many activities including chromosome dynamics, cell cycle checkpoint, DNA damage repair and genome stability. Upon being properly assembled as part of cohesin, SMC1 can be phosphorylated by ATM and mediate downstream DNA damage repair after ionizing irradiation. Abnormal gene expression or mutation of SMC1 can cause defect in the DNA damage repair pathway, which has been strongly associated with tumorigenesis...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924388/spatiotemporal-expression-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-during-morphogenesis-and-odontogenesis-of-deciduous-molar-in-miniature-pig
#2
Xiaoshan Wu, Yan Li, Fu Wang, Lei Hu, Yang Li, Jinsong Wang, Chunmei Zhang, Songlin Wang
The canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway has been shown to play essential roles in tooth initiation and early tooth development. However, the role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in cusp patterning and crown calcification in large mammals are largely unknown. In our previous study, miniature pigs were used as the animal model due to the similarity of tooth anatomy and replacement pattern between miniature pig and human. Dynamic gene expression of third deciduous molar (DM3) in miniature pig at early stages was profiled using microarray method and expression of Wnt genes was significantly correlate with odontogenesis...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924387/activation-of-nrf2-attenuates-pulmonary-vascular-remodeling-via-inhibiting-endothelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-an-insight-from-a-plant-polyphenol
#3
Yucai Chen, Tianyi Yuan, Huifang Zhang, Yu Yan, Danshu Wang, Lianhua Fang, Yang Lu, Guanhua Du
The endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) has been demonstrated to be involved in pulmonary vascular remodeling. It is partly attributed to oxidative and inflammatory stresses in endothelial cells. In current study, we conducted a series of experiments to clarify the effect of salvianolic acid A (SAA), a kind of polyphenol compound, in the process of EndMT in human pulmonary arterial endothelial cells and in vivo therapeutic efficacy on vascular remodeling in monocrotaline (MCT)-induced EndMT. EndMT was induced by TGFβ1 in human pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (HPAECs)...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924386/alkbh4-and-atrn-act-maternally-to-regulate-zebrafish-epiboly
#4
Qingrui Sun, Xingfeng Liu, Bo Gong, Di Wu, Anming Meng, Shunji Jia
During embryonic gastrulation, coordinated cell movements occur to bring cells to their correct position. Among them, epiboly produces the first distinct morphological changes, which is essential for the early development of zebrafish. Despite its fundamental importance, little is known to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms. By generating maternal mutant lines with CRISPR/Cas9 technology and using morpholino knockdown strategy, we showed that maternal Alkbh4 depletion leads to severe epiboly defects in zebrafish...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924385/dna-methylation-mediated-downregulation-of-mir-449c-controls-osteosarcoma-cell-cycle-progression-by-directly-targeting-oncogene-c-myc
#5
Qing Li, Hua Li, Xueling Zhao, Bing Wang, Lin Zhang, Caiguo Zhang, Fan Zhang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are critical regulators of gene expression, and they have broad roles in the pathogenesis of different diseases including cancer. Limited studies and expression profiles of miRNAs are available in human osteosarcoma cells. By applying a miRNA microarray analysis, we observed a number of miRNAs with abnormal expression in cancerous tissues from osteosarcoma patients. Of particular interest in this study was miR-449c, which was significantly downregulated in osteosarcoma cells and patients, and its expression was negatively correlated with tumor size and tumor MSTS stages...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924384/fgfr3-deficient-mice-have-accelerated-fracture-repair
#6
Yangli Xie, Fengtao Luo, Wei Xu, Zuqiang Wang, Xianding Sun, Meng Xu, Junlan Huang, Dali Zhang, Qiaoyan Tan, Bo Chen, Wanling Jiang, Xiaolan Du, Lin Chen
Bone fracture healing is processed through multiple biological stages that partly recapitulates the skeletal development process. FGFR3 is a negative regulator of chondrogenesis during embryonic stage and plays an important role in both chondrogenesis and osteogenesis. We have investigated the role of FGFR3 in fracture healing using unstabilized fracture model and found that gain-of-function mutation of FGFR3 inhibits the initiation of chondrogenesis during cartilage callus formation. Here, we created closed, stabilized proximal tibia fractures with an intramedullary pin in Fgfr3(-/-)mice and their littermate wild-type mice...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924383/functional-analysis-of-a-novel-foxl2-indel-mutation-in-chinese-families-with-blepharophimosis-ptosis-epicanthus-inversus-syndrome-type-i
#7
Peiwei Chai, Fang Li, Jiayan Fan, Ruobin Jia, He Zhang, Xianqun Fan
Background: Blepharophimosis-ptosis-epicanthus inversus syndrome (BPES) is an autosomal dominant disease with a low incidence rate. Indel mutations in the forkhead box L2 (FOXL2) gene cause two types of BPES that are distinguished by the presence (type I) or absence (type II) of premature ovarian failure (POF). The purpose of this study was to identify a possible deletion in FOXL2 in Chinese families with BPES and to clarify its relationship with POF. Methods: An autosomal dominant Chinese BPES family with four generations was enrolled in this study...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924382/linker-histone-in-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Xin Ye, ChuanLin Feng, Tian Gao, Guanqun Mu, Weiguo Zhu, Yang Yang
The linker histone is a protein that binds with the nucleosome, which is generally considered to achieve chromatin condensation in the nucleus. Accumulating evidences suggest that the linker histone is essential in the pathogenesis of several diseases. In this review, we briefly introduce the current knowledge of the linker histone, including its structure, characteristics and functions. Also, we move forward to present the advances of the linker histone's association with certain diseases, such as cancer, Alzheimer's disease, infection, male infertility and aberrant immunity situations, focusing on the alteration of the linker histone under certain pathological conditions and its role in developing each disease...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924381/osthole-promotes-bone-fracture-healing-through-activation-of-bmp-signaling-in-chondrocytes
#9
Pinger Wang, Jun Ying, Cheng Luo, Xing Jin, Shanxing Zhang, Taotao Xu, Lei Zhang, Meng Mi, Di Chen, Peijian Tong, Hongting Jin
Osthole is a bioactive coumarin derivative and has been reported to be able to enhance bone formation and improve fracture healing. However, the molecular mechanism of Osthole in bone fracture healing has not been fully defined. In this study we determined if Osthole enhances bone fracture healing through activation of BMP2 signaling in mice. We performed unilateral open transverse tibial fracture procedure in 10-week-old C57BL/6 mice which were treated with or without Osthole. Our previous studies demonstrated that chondrocyte BMP signaling is required for bone fracture healing, in this study we also performed tibial fracture procedure in Cre-negative and Col2-Cre;Bmp2(flox/flox) conditional knockout (KO) mice (Bmp2(Col2Cre) ) to determine if Osthole enhances fracture healing in a BMP2-dependent manner...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924380/intracellular-insulin-and-impaired-autophagy-in-a-zebrafish-model-and-a-cell-model-of-type-2-diabetes
#10
Xiang-Hui Meng, Bo Chen, Jing-Pu Zhang
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by insulin resistance. However, the complete molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, zebrafish were fed a long-term high-fat diet to induce type 2 diabetes, which resulted in a higher body weight, body mass index, more lipid vacuoles in liver, increased insulin transcription level in liver, brain and muscle, and high fasting blood glucose in the high-fat diet zebrafish. Oppositely, the transcription levels of insulin substrate-2 and glucose transporter 2 were significantly decreased, indicating insulin signaling pathway and glucose transport impaired in the insulin-targeting tissues...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924379/the-overexpression-of-carm1-promotes-human-osteosarcoma-cell-proliferation-through-the-pgsk3%C3%AE-%C3%AE-catenin-cyclind1-signaling-pathway
#11
Shijie Li, Dongdong Cheng, Bin Zhu, Qingcheng Yang
Osteosarcoma (OS) is a kind of malignant bone tumor that occurs frequently in the region surrounding the knee joint and poses a threat to the health of teenagers. Since the application of chemotherapy to treat OS, 5-year survival rate in patients has improved from 10% to 70%, but patient survival has not changed over the past four decades. Coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1) is a member of the PRMT protein family; it acts as an oncogene in many cancers, but its function in OS is still unknown...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924378/vasopressin-mediates-the-renal-damage-induced-by-limited-fructose-rehydration-in-recurrently-dehydrated-rats
#12
Fernando E García-Arroyo, Edilia Tapia, Mónica G Blas-Marron, Guillermo Gonzaga, Octaviano Silverio, Magdalena Cristóbal, Horacio Osorio, Abraham S Arellano-Buendía, Cecilia Zazueta, Omar Emiliano Aparicio-Trejo, Juan G Reyes-García, José Pedraza-Chaverri, Virgilia Soto, Carlos Roncal-Jiménez, Richard J Johnson, Laura G Sánchez-Lozada
Recurrent dehydration and heat stress cause chronic kidney damage in experimental animals. The injury is exacerbated by rehydration with fructose-containing beverages. Fructose may amplify dehydration-induced injury by directly stimulating vasopressin release and also by acting as a substrate for the aldose reductase-fructokinase pathway, as both of these systems are active during dehydration. The role of vasopressin in heat stress associated injury has not to date been explored. Here we show that the amplification of renal damage mediated by fructose in thermal dehydration is mediated by vasopressin...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924377/current-progresses-of-single-cell-dna-sequencing-in-breast-cancer-research
#13
REVIEW
Jianlin Liu, Ragini Adhav, Xiaoling Xu
Breast cancers display striking genetic and phenotypic diversities. To date, several hypotheses are raised to explain and understand the heterogeneity, including theories for cancer stem cell (CSC) and clonal evolution. According to the CSC theory, the most tumorigenic cells, while maintaining themselves through symmetric division, divide asymmetrically to generate non-CSCs with less tumorigenic and metastatic potential, although they can also dedifferentiate back to CSCs. Clonal evolution theory recapitulates that a tumor initially arises from a single cell, which then undergoes clonal expansion to a population of cancer cells...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808425/structure-elucidation-and-antitumor-activity-of-a-new-polysaccharide-from-maerkang-tricholoma-matsutake
#14
Yiling Hou, Xiang Ding, Wanru Hou, Bo Song, Xianghui Yan
A new heteropolysaccharide was isolated from the fruiting bodies of Tricholoma matsutake which had a molecular weight of 12078 Da. The results of structural features analysis showed that T. matsutake polysaccharide, here named TMP-B, was mainly composed of α - D - glucose and α - D - galactose which ratios were 7:2 and had a backbone of 1, 4 - linked α - D - glucose which branches were mainly composed of two 6 - linked α - D - galactose residue, and the α - D - galactose was 1, 6 - linked. Antitumor activity results showed that heteropolysaccharide TMP-B could inhibit the growth of S180 tumor in vivo and promote the apoptosis of L929 cells in vitro...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808424/acetylation-of-hmof-modulates-h4k16ac-to-regulate-dna-repair-genes-in-response-to-oxidative-stress
#15
Jianing Zhong, Liying Ji, Huiqian Chen, Xianfeng Li, Jian'an Zhang, Xingxing Wang, Weilin Wu, Ying Xu, Fei Huang, Wanshi Cai, Zhong Sheng Sun
Oxidative stress is considered to be a key risk state for a variety of human diseases. In response to oxidative stress, the regulation of transcriptional expression of DNA repair genes would be important to DNA repair and genomic stability. However, the overall pattern of transcriptional expression of DNA repair genes and the underlying molecular response mechanism to oxidative stress remain unclear. Here, by employing colorectal cancer cell lines following exposure to hydrogen peroxide, we generated expression profiles of DNA repair genes via RNA-seq and identified gene subsets that are induced or repressed following oxidative stress exposure...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808423/in-search-for-pheromone-receptors-certain-members-of-the-odorant-receptor-family-in-the-desert-locust-schistocerca-gregaria-orthoptera-acrididae-are-co-expressed-with-snmp1
#16
Pablo Pregitzer, Xingcong Jiang, Ewald Grosse-Wilde, Heinz Breer, Jürgen Krieger, Joerg Fleischer
Under given environmental conditions, the desert locust (Schistocera gregaria) forms destructive migratory swarms of billions of animals, leading to enormous crop losses in invaded regions. Swarm formation requires massive reproduction as well as aggregation of the animals. Pheromones that are detected via the olfactory system have been reported to control both reproductive and aggregation behavior. However, the molecular basis of pheromone detection in the antennae of Schistocerca gregaria is unknown. As an initial step to disclose pheromone receptors, we sequenced the antennal transcriptome of the desert locust...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808422/lycium-barbarum-polysaccharides-decrease-hyperglycemia-aggravated-ischemic-brain-injury-through-maintaining-mitochondrial-fission-and-fusion-balance
#17
Wen-Jing Liu, Hai-Feng Jiang, Faisal Ul Rehman, Jing-Wen Zhang, Yue Chang, Li Jing, Jian-Zhong Zhang
Although it has been reported that polysaccharides found in Lycium barbarum possess neuroprotective effects, little is known of their ability to ameliorate hyperglycemia-aggravated ischemia/reperfusion brain injury. In this study, normoglycemic (NG) and hyperglycemic (HG) rats were compared after 30 minutes of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), followed by 24 or 27 hours of reperfusion, with HG rats pretreated with lyceum barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) or insulin. In each group, the neurological deficit, infarct volume, pathohistology, and expression of proteins, Opa1 and Drp1, were assessed to determine the efficacy of LBP in alleviating hyperglycemia-aggravated ischemia/reperfusion brain injury...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808421/crosstalk-between-mitochondrial-fission-and-oxidative-stress-in-paraquat-induced-apoptosis-in-mouse-alveolar-type-ii-cells
#18
Guangju Zhao, Kaiqiang Cao, Changqin Xu, Aifang Sun, Wang Lu, Yi Zheng, Haixiao Li, Guangliang Hong, Bing Wu, Qiaomeng Qiu, Zhongqiu Lu
Paraquat (PQ), as a highly effective and nonselective herbicide, induces cell apoptosis through generation of superoxide anions which forms reactive oxygen species (ROS). Mitochondria, as regulators for cellular redox signaling, have been proved to play an important role in PQ-induced cell apoptosis. This study aimed to evaluate whether and how mitochondrial fission interacts with oxidative stress in PQ-induced apoptosis in mouse alveolar type II (AT-II) cells. Firstly, we demonstrated that PQ promoted apoptosis and release of cytochrome-c (Cyt-c)...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808420/inhibition-of-mtor-signaling-confers-protection-against-cerebral-ischemic-injury-in-acute-hyperglycemic-rats
#19
Changchun Hei, Ping Liu, Xiao Yang, Jianguo Niu, P Andy Li
Hyperglycemia is known to exacerbate neuronal death resulted from cerebral ischemia. The mechanisms are not fully understood. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway regulates cell growth, division and apoptosis. Recent studies suggest that activation of mTOR may mediate ischemic brain damage. The objective of the present experiment is to explore whether mTOR mediates ischemic brain damage in acute hyperglycemic animals. Rats were subjected to 10 min of forebrain ischemia under euglycemic, hyperglycemic and rapamycin-treated hyperglycemic conditions...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808419/exposure-to-concentrated-ambient-fine-particulate-matter-induces-vascular-endothelial-dysfunction-via-mir-21
#20
Jianwei Dai, Wensheng Chen, Yuyin Lin, Shiwen Wang, Xiaolan Guo, Qian-Qian Zhang
Vascular endothelial permeability transition does not cause significant lesions, but enhanced permeability may contribute to the development of vascular and other diseases, including atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart failure and cancer. Therefore, elucidating the effect of Particulate Matter 2.5 (PM2.5) on vascular endothelial permeability could help prevent disease that might be caused by PM2.5. Our previous study and the present one revealed that PM2.5 significantly increased the permeability of vascular endothelial cells and disrupted the barrier function of the vascular endothelium in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
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