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Nature Physics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781605/mottness-at-finite-doping-and-charge-instabilities-in-cuprates
#1
S Peli, S Dal Conte, R Comin, N Nembrini, A Ronchi, P Abrami, F Banfi, G Ferrini, D Brida, S Lupi, M Fabrizio, A Damascelli, M Capone, G Cerullo, C Giannetti
The influence of the Mott physics on the doping-temperature phase diagram of copper oxides represents a major issue that is subject of intense theoretical and experimental effort. Here, we investigate the ultrafast electron dynamics in prototypical single-layer Bi-based cuprates at the energy scale of the O-2p→Cu-3d charge-transfer (CT) process. We demonstrate a clear evolution of the CT excitations from incoherent and localized, as in a Mott insulator, to coherent and delocalized, as in a conventional metal...
August 2017: Nature Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781604/high-frequency-microrheology-reveals-cytoskeleton-dynamics-in-living-cells
#2
Annafrancesca Rigato, Atsushi Miyagi, Simon Scheuring, Felix Rico
Living cells are viscoelastic materials, with the elastic response dominating at long timescales (≳1 ms)1. At shorter timescales, the dynamics of individual cytoskeleton filaments are expected to emerge, but active microrheology measurements on cells accessing this regime are scarce2. Here, we develop high-frequency microrheology (HF-MR) to probe the viscoelastic response of living cells from 1Hz to 100 kHz. We report the viscoelasticity of different cell types and upon cytoskeletal drug treatments. At previously inaccessible short timescales, cells exhibit rich viscoelastic responses that depend on the state of the cytoskeleton...
August 2017: Nature Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781603/hot-spot-mediated-non-dissipative-and-ultrafast-plasmon-passage
#3
Eva-Maria Roller, Lucas V Besteiro, Claudia Pupp, Larousse Khosravi Khorashad, Alexander O Govorov, Tim Liedl
Plasmonic nanoparticles hold great promise as photon handling elements and as channels for coherent transfer of energy and information in future all-optical computing devices.1-5 Coherent energy oscillations between two spatially separated plasmonic entities via a virtual middle state exemplify electron-based population transfer, but their realization requires precise nanoscale positioning of heterogeneous particles.6-10 Here, we show the assembly and optical analysis of a triple particle system consisting of two gold nanoparticles with an inter-spaced silver island...
August 2017: Nature Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706560/experimental-realization-and-characterization-of-an-electronic-lieb-lattice
#4
Marlou R Slot, Thomas S Gardenier, Peter H Jacobse, Guido C P van Miert, Sander N Kempkes, Stephan J M Zevenhuizen, Cristiane Morais Smith, Daniel Vanmaekelbergh, Ingmar Swart
Geometry, whether on the atomic or nanoscale, is a key factor for the electronic band structure of materials. Some specific geometries give rise to novel and potentially useful electronic bands. For example, a honeycomb lattice leads to Dirac-type bands where the charge carriers behave as massless particles [1]. Theoretical predictions are triggering the exploration of novel 2D geometries [2-10], such as graphynes, Kagomé and the Lieb lattice. The latter is the 2D analogue of the 3D lattice exhibited by perovskites [2]; it is a square-depleted lattice, which is characterised by a band structure featuring Dirac cones intersected by a flat band...
July 2017: Nature Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917231/magnetotail-energy-dissipation-during-an-auroral-substorm
#5
E V Panov, W Baumjohann, R A Wolf, R Nakamura, V Angelopoulos, J M Weygand, M V Kubyshkina
Violent releases of space plasma energy from the Earth's magnetotail during substorms produce strong electric currents and bright aurora. But what modulates these currents and aurora and controls dissipation of the energy released in the ionosphere? Using data from the THEMIS fleet of satellites and ground-based imagers and magnetometers, we show that plasma energy dissipation is controlled by field-aligned currents (FACs) produced and modulated during magnetotail topology change and oscillatory braking of fast plasma jets at 10-14 Earth radii in the nightside magnetosphere...
December 2016: Nature Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917230/local-equilibrium-in-bird-flocks
#6
Thierry Mora, Aleksandra M Walczak, Lorenzo Del Castello, Francesco Ginelli, Stefania Melillo, Leonardo Parisi, Massimiliano Viale, Andrea Cavagna, Irene Giardina
The correlated motion of flocks is an instance of global order emerging from local interactions. An essential difference with analogous ferromagnetic systems is that flocks are active: animals move relative to each other, dynamically rearranging their interaction network. The effect of this off-equilibrium element is well studied theoretically, but its impact on actual biological groups deserves more experimental attention. Here, we introduce a novel dynamical inference technique, based on the principle of maximum entropy, which accodomates network rearrangements and overcomes the problem of slow experimental sampling rates...
December 2016: Nature Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833647/parametric-amplification-of-a-superconducting-plasma-wave
#7
S Rajasekaran, E Casandruc, Y Laplace, D Nicoletti, G D Gu, S R Clark, D Jaksch, A Cavalleri
Many applications in photonics require all-optical manipulation of plasma waves1, which can concentrate electromagnetic energy on sub-wavelength length scales. This is difficult in metallic plasmas because of their small optical nonlinearities. Some layered superconductors support Josephson plasma waves (JPWs)2,3, involving oscillatory tunneling of the superfluid between capacitively coupled planes. Josephson plasma waves are also highly nonlinear4, and exhibit striking phenomena like cooperative emission of coherent terahertz radiation5,6, superconductor-metal oscillations7 and soliton formation8...
November 2016: Nature Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553364/crystal-structure-of-the-superconducting-phase-of-sulfur-hydride
#8
Mari Einaga, Masafumi Sakata, Takahiro Ishikawa, Katsuya Shimizu, Mikhail I Eremets, Alexander P Drozdov, Ivan A Troyan, Naohisa Hirao, Yasuo Ohishi
A superconducting critical temperature above 200 K has recently been discovered in H2S (or D2S) under high hydrostatic pressure1, 2. These measurements were interpreted in terms of a decomposition of these materials into elemental sulfur and a hydrogen-rich hydride that is responsible for the superconductivity, although direct experimental evidence for this mechanism has so far been lacking. Here we report the crystal structure of the superconducting phase of hydrogen sulfide (and deuterium sulfide) in the normal and superconducting states obtained by means of synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements, combined with electrical resistance measurements at both room and low temperatures...
September 2016: Nature Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610190/engineered-swift-equilibration-of-a-brownian-particle
#9
Ignacio A Martínez, Artyom Petrosyan, David Guéry-Odelin, Emmanuel Trizac, Sergio Ciliberto
A fundamental and intrinsic property of any device or natural system is its relaxation time relax, which is the time it takes to return to equilibrium after the sudden change of a control parameter [1]. Reducing τrelax, is frequently necessary, and is often obtained by a complex feedback process. To overcome the limitations of such an approach, alternative methods based on driving have been recently demonstrated [2, 3], for isolated quantum and classical systems [4-9]. Their extension to open systems in contact with a thermostat is a stumbling block for applications...
September 2016: Nature Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610189/quantum-phase-transitions-with-parity-symmetry-breaking-and-hysteresis
#10
A Trenkwalder, G Spagnolli, G Semeghini, S Coop, M Landini, P Castilho, L Pezzè, G Modugno, M Inguscio, A Smerzi, M Fattori
Symmetry-breaking quantum phase transitions play a key role in several condensed matter, cosmology and nuclear physics theoretical models1-3. Its observation in real systems is often hampered by finite temperatures and limited control of the system parameters. In this work we report for the first time the experimental observation of the full quantum phase diagram across a transition where the spatial parity symmetry is broken. Our system is made of an ultra-cold gas with tunable attractive interactions trapped in a spatially symmetric double-well potential...
September 2016: Nature Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642362/self-driven-jamming-in-growing-microbial-populations
#11
Morgan Delarue, Jörn Hartung, Carl Schreck, Pawel Gniewek, Lucy Hu, Stephan Herminghaus, Oskar Hallatschek
In natural settings, microbes tend to grow in dense populations [1-4] where they need to push against their surroundings to accommodate space for new cells. The associated contact forces play a critical role in a variety of population-level processes, including biofilm formation [5-7], the colonization of porous media [8, 9], and the invasion of biological tissues [10-12]. Although mechanical forces have been characterized at the single cell level [13-16], it remains elusive how collective pushing forces result from the combination of single cell forces...
August 2016: Nature Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27540410/single-dna-molecule-jamming-and-history-dependent-dynamics-during-motor-driven-viral-packaging
#12
Nicholas Keller, Shelley Grimes, Paul J Jardine, Douglas E Smith
In many viruses molecular motors forcibly pack single DNA molecules to near-crystalline density into ~50-100 nm prohead shells(1, 2). Unexpectedly, we found that packaging frequently stalls in conditions that induce net attractive DNA-DNA interactions(3). Here, we present findings suggesting that this stalling occurs because the DNA undergoes a nonequilibrium jamming transition analogous to that observed in many soft-matter systems, such as colloidal and granular systems(4-8). Experiments in which conditions are changed during packaging to switch DNA-DNA interactions between purely repulsive and net attractive reveal strongly history-dependent dynamics...
August 2016: Nature Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980602/size-dependent-protein-segregation-at-membrane-interfaces
#13
Eva M Schmid, Matthew H Bakalar, Kaushik Choudhuri, Julian Weichsel, HyoungSook Ann, Phillip L Geissler, Michael L Dustin, Daniel A Fletcher
Membrane interfaces formed at cell-cell junctions are associated with characteristic patterns of membrane protein organization, such as E-cadherin enrichment in epithelial junctional complexes and CD45 exclusion from the signaling foci of immunological synapses. To isolate the role of protein size in these processes, we reconstituted membrane interfaces in vitro using giant unilamellar vesicles decorated with synthetic binding and non-binding proteins. We show that size differences between binding and non-binding proteins can dramatically alter their organization at membrane interfaces in the absence of active contributions from the cytoskeleton, with as little as a ~5 nm increase in non-binding protein size driving its exclusion from the interface...
July 2016: Nature Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27239219/quantum-limited-heat-conduction-over-macroscopic-distances
#14
Matti Partanen, Kuan Yen Tan, Joonas Govenius, Russell E Lake, Miika K Mäkelä, Tuomo Tanttu, Mikko Möttönen
The emerging quantum technological apparatuses1, 2, such as the quantum computer3-6, call for extreme performance in thermal engineering7. Cold distant heat sinks are needed for the quantized electric degrees of freedom due to the increasing packaging density and heat dissipation. Importantly, quantum mechanics sets a fundamental upper limit for the flow of information and heat, which is quantified by the quantum of thermal conductance8-10. However, the short distance between the heat-exchanging bodies in the previous experiments11-14 hinders their applicability in quantum technology...
May 2016: Nature Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27158255/hybridization-controlled-charge-transfer-and-induced-magnetism-at-correlated-oxide-interfaces
#15
M N Grisolia, J Varignon, G Sanchez-Santolino, A Arora, S Valencia, M Varela, R Abrudan, E Weschke, E Schierle, J E Rault, J-P Rueff, A Barthélémy, J Santamaria, M Bibes
At interfaces between conventional materials, band bending and alignment are classically controlled by differences in electrochemical potential. Applying this concept to oxides in which interfaces can be polar and cations may adopt a mixed valence has led to the discovery of novel two-dimensional states between simple band insulators such as LaAlO3 and SrTiO3. However, many oxides have a more complex electronic structure, with charge, orbital and/or spin orders arising from strong Coulomb interactions between transition metal and oxygen ions...
May 2016: Nature Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27213004/ferromagnetic-and-antiferromagnetic-order-in-bacterial-vortex-lattices
#16
Hugo Wioland, Francis G Woodhouse, Jörn Dunkel, Raymond E Goldstein
Despite their inherent non-equilibrium nature1, living systems can self-organize in highly ordered collective states2,3 that share striking similarities with the thermodynamic equilibrium phases4,5 of conventional condensed matter and fluid systems. Examples range from the liquid-crystal-like arrangements of bacterial colonies6,7, microbial suspensions8,9 and tissues10 to the coherent macro-scale dynamics in schools of fish11 and flocks of birds12. Yet, the generic mathematical principles that govern the emergence of structure in such artificial13 and biological6-9,14 systems are elusive...
April 2016: Nature Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27499800/the-flagellar-motor-of-caulobacter-crescentus-generates-more-torque-when-a-cell-swims-backward
#17
Pushkar P Lele, Thibault Roland, Abhishek Shrivastava, Yihao Chen, Howard C Berg
Caulobacter crescentus, a monotrichous bacterium, swims by rotating a single right-handed helical filament. CW motor rotation thrusts the cell forward (1), a mode of motility known as the pusher mode; CCW motor rotation pulls the cell backward, a mode of motility referred to as the puller mode (2). The situation is opposite in E. coli, a peritrichous bacterium, where CCW rotation of multiple left-handed filaments drives the cell forward. The flagellar motor in E. coli generates more torque in the CCW direction than the CW direction in swimming cells (3,4)...
February 2016: Nature Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746823/a-universal-moir%C3%A3-effect-and-application-in-x-ray-phase-contrast-imaging
#18
Houxun Miao, Alireza Panna, Andrew A Gomella, Eric E Bennett, Sami Znati, Lei Chen, Han Wen
A moiré pattern is created by superimposing two black-and-white or gray-scale patterns of regular geometry, such as two sets of evenly spaced lines. We observed an analogous effect between two transparent phase masks in a light beam which occurs at a distance. This phase moiré effect and the classic moiré effect are shown to be the two ends of a continuous spectrum. The phase moiré effect allows the detection of sub-resolution intensity or phase patterns with a transparent screen. When applied to x-ray imaging, it enables a polychromatic far-field interferometer (PFI) without absorption gratings...
2016: Nature Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27330541/brownian-carnot-engine
#19
I A Martínez, É Roldán, L Dinis, D Petrov, J M R Parrondo, R A Rica
The Carnot cycle imposes a fundamental upper limit to the efficiency of a macroscopic motor operating between two thermal baths1. However, this bound needs to be reinterpreted at microscopic scales, where molecular bio-motors2 and some artificial micro-engines3-5 operate. As described by stochastic thermodynamics6,7, energy transfers in microscopic systems are random and thermal fluctuations induce transient decreases of entropy, allowing for possible violations of the Carnot limit8. Here we report an experimental realization of a Carnot engine with a single optically trapped Brownian particle as the working substance...
January 2016: Nature Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27182278/advances-in-thermometry
#20
Michael R Moldover, Weston L Tew, Howard W Yoon
The last 25 years have seen tremendous progress in thermometry in the moderate temperature range (1 K to 1235 K). Various primary thermometers - based on different physics -have uncovered errors in the International Temperature Scale of 1990 and set the stage for the planned redefinition of the kelvin.
January 2016: Nature Physics
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