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Nature Physics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30079097/physical-forces-determining-the-persistency-and-centering-precision-of-microtubule-asters
#1
Hirokazu Tanimoto, Jeremy Sallé, Louise Dodin, Nicolas Minc
In early embryos, microtubules form star-shaped aster structures that can measure up to hundreds of micrometres, and move at high speeds to find the geometrical centre of the cell. This process, known as aster centration, is essential for the fidelity of cell division and development, but how cells succeed in moving these large structures through their crowded and fluctuating cytoplasm remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the positional fluctuations of migrating sea urchin sperm asters are small, anisotropic, and associated with the stochasticity of dynein-dependent forces moving the aster...
August 2018: Nature Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30079096/pressure-tuning-of-light-induced-superconductivity-in-k-3-c-60
#2
A Cantaluppi, M Buzzi, G Jotzu, D Nicoletti, M Mitrano, D Pontiroli, M Riccò, A Perucchi, P Di Pietro, A Cavalleri
Optical excitation at terahertz frequencies has emerged as an effective means to dynamically manipulate complex materials. In the molecular solid K3 C60 , short mid-infrared pulses transform the high-temperature metal into a non-equilibrium state with the optical properties of a superconductor. Here we tune this effect with hydrostatic pressure and find that the superconducting-like features gradually disappear at around 0.3 GPa. Reduction with pressure underscores the similarity with the equilibrium superconducting phase of K3 C60 , in which a larger electronic bandwidth induced by pressure is also detrimental for pairing...
August 2018: Nature Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30079095/spontaneous-shear-flow-in-confined-cellular-nematics
#3
G Duclos, C Blanch-Mercader, V Yashunsky, G Salbreux, J-F Joanny, J Prost, P Silberzan
In embryonic development or tumor evolution, cells often migrate collectively within confining tracks defined by their microenvironment 1,2. In some of these situations, the displacements within a cell strand are antiparallel 3, giving rise to shear flows. However, the mechanisms underlying these spontaneous flows remain poorly understood. Here, we show that an ensemble of spindle-shaped cells plated in a well-defined stripe spontaneously develop a shear flow whose characteristics depend on the width of the stripe...
July 2018: Nature Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30079094/amplification-of-intense-light-fields-by-nearly-free-electrons
#4
Mary Matthews, Felipe Morales, Alexander Patas, Albrecht Lindinger, Julien Gateau, Nicolas Berti, Sylvain Hermelin, Jerome Kasparian, Maria Richter, Timm Bredtmann, Olga Smirnova, Jean-Pierre Wolf, Misha Ivanov
Light can be used to modify and control properties of media, as in the case of electromagnetically induced transparency or, more recently, for the generation of slow light or bright coherent XUV and X-ray radiation. Particularly unusual states of matter can be created by light fields with strengths comparable to the Coulomb field that binds valence electrons in atoms, leading to nearly-free electrons oscillating in the laser field and yet still loosely bound to the core [1,2]. These are known as Kramers-Henneberger states [3], a specific example of laser-dressed states [2]...
July 2018: Nature Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30151030/geometric-constraints-during-epithelial-jamming
#5
Lior Atia, Dapeng Bi, Yasha Sharma, Jennifer A Mitchel, Bomi Gweon, Stephan Koehler, Stephen J DeCamp, Bo Lan, Jae Hun Kim, Rebecca Hirsch, Adrian F Pegoraro, Kyu Ha Lee, Jacqueline R Starr, David A Weitz, Adam C Martin, Jin-Ah Park, James P Butler, Jeffrey J Fredberg
As an injury heals, an embryo develops, or a carcinoma spreads, epithelial cells systematically change their shape. In each of these processes cell shape is studied extensively whereas variability of shape from cell-to-cell is regarded most often as biological noise. But where do cell shape and its variability come from? Here we report that cell shape and shape variability are mutually constrained through a relationship that is purely geometrical. That relationship is shown to govern processes as diverse as maturation of the pseudostratified bronchial epithelial layer cultured from non-asthmatic or asthmatic donors, and formation of the ventral furrow in the Drosophila embryo...
June 2018: Nature Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29861780/observation-of-roton-mode-population-in-a-dipolar-quantum-gas
#6
L Chomaz, R M W van Bijnen, D Petter, G Faraoni, S Baier, J H Becher, M J Mark, F Wächtler, L Santos, F Ferlaino
The concept of a roton, a special kind of elementary excitation, forming a minimum of energy at finite momentum, has been essential to understand the properties of superfluid 4 He 1. In quantum liquids, rotons arise from the strong interparticle interactions, whose microscopic description remains debated 2. In the realm of highly-controllable quantum gases, a roton mode has been predicted to emerge due to magnetic dipole-dipole interactions despite of their weakly-interacting character 3. This prospect has raised considerable interest 4-12; yet roton modes in dipolar quantum gases have remained elusive to observations...
May 2018: Nature Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760764/human-brain-organoids-on-a-chip-reveal-the-physics-of-folding
#7
Eyal Karzbrun, Aditya Kshirsagar, Sidney R Cohen, Jacob H Hanna, Orly Reiner
Human brain wrinkling has been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders and yet its origins remain unknown. Polymer gel models suggest that wrinkling emerges spontaneously due to compression forces arising during differential swelling, but these ideas have not been tested in a living system. Here, we report the appearance of surface wrinkles during the in vitro development and self-organization of human brain organoids in a micro-fabricated compartment that supports in situ imaging over a timescale of weeks...
May 2018: Nature Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736183/universality-of-clone-dynamics-during-tissue-development
#8
Steffen Rulands, Fabienne Lescroart, Samira Chabab, Christopher J Hindley, Nicole Prior, Magdalena K Sznurkowska, Meritxell Huch, Anna Philpott, Cedric Blanpain, Benjamin D Simons
The emergence of complex organs is driven by the coordinated proliferation, migration and differentiation of precursor cells. The fate behaviour of these cells is reflected in the time evolution their progeny, termed clones, which serve as a key experimental observable. In adult tissues, where cell dynamics is constrained by the condition of homeostasis, clonal tracing studies based on transgenic animal models have advanced our understanding of cell fate behaviour and its dysregulation in disease (1, 2). But what can be learned from clonal dynamics in development, where the spatial cohesiveness of clones is impaired by tissue deformations during tissue growth? Drawing on the results of clonal tracing studies, we show that, despite the complexity of organ development, clonal dynamics may converge to a critical state characterized by universal scaling behaviour of clone sizes...
May 2018: Nature Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736182/robust-integer-and-fractional-helical-modes-in-the-quantum-hall-effect
#9
Yuval Ronen, Yonatan Cohen, Daniel Banitt, Moty Heiblum, Vladimir Umansky
Electronic systems harboring one-dimensional helical modes, where spin and momentum are locked, have lately become an important field of its own. When coupled to a conventional superconductor, such systems are expected to manifest topological superconductivity; a unique phase hosting exotic Majorana zero modes. Even more interesting are fractional helical modes, yet to be observed, which open the route for realizing generalized parafermions. Possessing non-abelian exchange statistics, these quasiparticles may serve as building blocks in topological quantum computing...
April 2018: Nature Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910827/synthetic-antiferromagnetic-spintronics
#10
R A Duine, Kyung-Jin Lee, Stuart S P Parkin, M D Stiles
Spintronic and nanomagnetic devices often derive their functionality from layers of different materials and the interfaces between them. This is especially true for synthetic antiferromagnets - two or more ferromagnetic layers that are separated by metallic spacers or tunnel barriers and which have antiparallel magnetizations. Here, we discuss the new opportunities that arise from synthetic antiferromagnets, as compared to crystal antiferromagnets or ferromagnets.
March 2018: Nature Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422941/role-of-graph-architecture-in-controlling-dynamical-networks-with-applications-to-neural-systems
#11
Jason Z Kim, Jonathan M Soffer, Ari E Kahn, Jean M Vettel, Fabio Pasqualetti, Danielle S Bassett
Networked systems display complex patterns of interactions between components. In physical networks, these interactions often occur along structural connections that link components in a hard-wired connection topology, supporting a variety of system-wide dynamical behaviors such as synchronization. While descriptions of these behaviors are important, they are only a first step towards understanding and harnessing the relationship between network topology and system behavior. Here, we use linear network control theory to derive accurate closed-form expressions that relate the connectivity of a subset of structural connections (those linking driver nodes to non-driver nodes) to the minimum energy required to control networked systems...
2018: Nature Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29983725/coherent-control-of-an-opsin-in-living-brain-tissue
#12
Kush Paul, Parijat Sengupta, Eugene D Ark, Haohua Tu, Youbo Zhao, Stephen A Boppart
Retinal-based opsins are light-sensitive proteins. The photoisomerization reaction of these proteins has been studied outside cellular environments using ultrashort tailored light pulses1-5 . However, how living cell functions can be modulated via opsins by modifying fundamental nonlinear optical properties of light interacting with the retinal chromophore has remained largely unexplored. We report the use of chirped ultrashort near-infrared pulses to modulate light-evoked ionic current from Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in brain tissue, and consequently the firing pattern of neurons, by manipulating the phase of the spectral components of the light...
November 2017: Nature Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109755/geometrical-frustration-yields-fiber-formation-in-self-assembly
#13
Martin Lenz, Thomas A Witten
Controlling the self-assembly of supramolecular structures is vital for living cells, and a central challenge for engineering at the nano- and microscales [1, 2]. Nevertheless, even particles without optimized shapes can robustly form well-defined morphologies. This is the case in numerous medical conditions where normally soluble proteins aggregate into fibers [3, 4]. Beyond the diversity of molecular mechanisms involved [5, 6], we propose that fibers generically arise from the aggregation of irregular particles with short-range interactions...
November 2017: Nature Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883888/spectroscopic-evidence-of-a-new-energy-scale-for-superconductivity-in-h3s
#14
F Capitani, B Langerome, J-B Brubach, P Roy, A Drozdov, M I Eremets, E J Nicol, J P Carbotte, T Timusk
The discovery of a superconducting phase in sulfur hydride under high pressure with a critical temperature above 200 K has provided fresh impetus to the search for superconductors at ever higher temperatures. Although this systems displays all the hallmarks of superconductivity, the mechanism through which it arises remains to be determined. Here we provide a first optical spectroscopy study of this superconductor. Experimental results for the optical reflectivity of H3S, under hydrostatic pressure of 150 GPa, for several temperatures and over the range 60 to 600 meV of photon energies, are compared with theoretical calculations based on Eliashberg theory...
September 2017: Nature Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781605/mottness-at-finite-doping-and-charge-instabilities-in-cuprates
#15
S Peli, S Dal Conte, R Comin, N Nembrini, A Ronchi, P Abrami, F Banfi, G Ferrini, D Brida, S Lupi, M Fabrizio, A Damascelli, M Capone, G Cerullo, C Giannetti
The influence of the Mott physics on the doping-temperature phase diagram of copper oxides represents a major issue that is subject of intense theoretical and experimental effort. Here, we investigate the ultrafast electron dynamics in prototypical single-layer Bi-based cuprates at the energy scale of the O-2p→Cu-3d charge-transfer (CT) process. We demonstrate a clear evolution of the CT excitations from incoherent and localized, as in a Mott insulator, to coherent and delocalized, as in a conventional metal...
August 2017: Nature Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781604/high-frequency-microrheology-reveals-cytoskeleton-dynamics-in-living-cells
#16
Annafrancesca Rigato, Atsushi Miyagi, Simon Scheuring, Felix Rico
Living cells are viscoelastic materials, with the elastic response dominating at long timescales (≳1 ms)1. At shorter timescales, the dynamics of individual cytoskeleton filaments are expected to emerge, but active microrheology measurements on cells accessing this regime are scarce2. Here, we develop high-frequency microrheology (HF-MR) to probe the viscoelastic response of living cells from 1Hz to 100 kHz. We report the viscoelasticity of different cell types and upon cytoskeletal drug treatments. At previously inaccessible short timescales, cells exhibit rich viscoelastic responses that depend on the state of the cytoskeleton...
August 2017: Nature Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781603/hot-spot-mediated-non-dissipative-and-ultrafast-plasmon-passage
#17
Eva-Maria Roller, Lucas V Besteiro, Claudia Pupp, Larousse Khosravi Khorashad, Alexander O Govorov, Tim Liedl
Plasmonic nanoparticles hold great promise as photon handling elements and as channels for coherent transfer of energy and information in future all-optical computing devices.1-5 Coherent energy oscillations between two spatially separated plasmonic entities via a virtual middle state exemplify electron-based population transfer, but their realization requires precise nanoscale positioning of heterogeneous particles.6-10 Here, we show the assembly and optical analysis of a triple particle system consisting of two gold nanoparticles with an inter-spaced silver island...
August 2017: Nature Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706560/experimental-realization-and-characterization-of-an-electronic-lieb-lattice
#18
Marlou R Slot, Thomas S Gardenier, Peter H Jacobse, Guido C P van Miert, Sander N Kempkes, Stephan J M Zevenhuizen, Cristiane Morais Smith, Daniel Vanmaekelbergh, Ingmar Swart
Geometry, whether on the atomic or nanoscale, is a key factor for the electronic band structure of materials. Some specific geometries give rise to novel and potentially useful electronic bands. For example, a honeycomb lattice leads to Dirac-type bands where the charge carriers behave as massless particles [1]. Theoretical predictions are triggering the exploration of novel 2D geometries [2-10], such as graphynes, Kagomé and the Lieb lattice. The latter is the 2D analogue of the 3D lattice exhibited by perovskites [2]; it is a square-depleted lattice, which is characterised by a band structure featuring Dirac cones intersected by a flat band...
July 2017: Nature Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890730/quantifying-the-quantum
#19
Stephan Schlamminger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Nature Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917231/magnetotail-energy-dissipation-during-an-auroral-substorm
#20
E V Panov, W Baumjohann, R A Wolf, R Nakamura, V Angelopoulos, J M Weygand, M V Kubyshkina
Violent releases of space plasma energy from the Earth's magnetotail during substorms produce strong electric currents and bright aurora. But what modulates these currents and aurora and controls dissipation of the energy released in the ionosphere? Using data from the THEMIS fleet of satellites and ground-based imagers and magnetometers, we show that plasma energy dissipation is controlled by field-aligned currents (FACs) produced and modulated during magnetotail topology change and oscillatory braking of fast plasma jets at 10-14 Earth radii in the nightside magnetosphere...
December 2016: Nature Physics
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