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Sang Jun Lee, Ji Yoon Kang, Wonjoon Choi, Rhokyun Kwak
Nanofluidic resistive pulse sensing (RPS) has been extensively used to measure the size, concentration, and surface charge of nanoparticles in electrically conducting solutions. Although various methods have been explored for improving detection performances, intrinsic problems including the extremely low particle-to-pore volume ratio (<0.01%) and fast nanoparticle translocation (10-1000 µs) still induce difficulties in detection, such as low signal magnitudes and short translocation times. Herein, we present an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) in a nanofluidic RPS for amplifying translocation signals and decreasing translocation speeds simultaneously...
October 18, 2016: Small
Feng Hu, Hongchao Yang, Changhong Wang, Yejun Zhang, Huan Lu, Qiangbin Wang
Rational design of cost-effective, nonprecious metal-based catalysts with desirable oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) performance is extremely important for future fuel cell commercialization, etc. Herein, a new type of ORR catalyst of Co-N-doped mesoporous carbon hollow sphere (Co-N-mC) was developed by pyrolysis from elaborately fabricated polystyrene@polydopamine-Co precursors. The obtained catalysts with active Co sites distributed in highly graphitized mesoporous N-doped carbon hollow spheres exhibited outstanding ORR activity with an onset potential of 0...
October 18, 2016: Small
Thomas Sannicolo, Mélanie Lagrange, Anthony Cabos, Caroline Celle, Jean-Pierre Simonato, Daniel Bellet
Transparent electrodes attract intense attention in many technological fields, including optoelectronic devices, transparent film heaters and electromagnetic applications. New generation transparent electrodes are expected to have three main physical properties: high electrical conductivity, high transparency and mechanical flexibility. The most efficient and widely used transparent conducting material is currently indium tin oxide (ITO). However the scarcity of indium associated with ITO's lack of flexibility and the relatively high manufacturing costs have a prompted search into alternative materials...
October 18, 2016: Small
Ming Jiang, Hao Wang, Yingjie Li, Haichuan Zhang, Guoxin Zhang, Zhiyi Lu, Xiaoming Sun, Lei Jiang
Constructing a nanostructured electrode with superaerophobic surface property (i.e., superlow adhesion to gas bubbles) has been strikingly highlighted as an advanced technology to minimize the energy loss during various electrochemical gas evolution reactions. Herein, aiming at enhancing the performance of chlorine evolution reaction (ClER), which holds the key for chlor-alkali industry as well as water treatment, a nanostructured RuO2 @TiO2 electrode is demonstrated to overcome the bubble shielding effect, thereby maximizing the working area and offering a robust working condition...
October 18, 2016: Small
Albert C Aragonès, Ernesto Medina, Miriam Ferrer-Huerta, Nuria Gimeno, Meritxell Teixidó, Julio L Palma, Nongjian Tao, Jesus M Ugalde, Ernest Giralt, Ismael Díez-Pérez, Vladimiro Mujica
The electronic spin filtering capability of a single chiral helical peptide is measured. A ferromagnetic electrode source is employed to inject spin-polarized electrons in an asymmetric single-molecule junction bridging an α-helical peptide sequence of known chirality. The conductance comparison between both isomers allows the direct determination of the polarization power of an individual chiral molecule.
October 18, 2016: Small
Anna Polomska, Marc A Gauthier, Jean-Christophe Leroux
Drug nanocrystals (NCs) are colloidal dispersions composed almost entirely of drug. As such, there is substantial interest in targeting them to diseased tissues, where they can locally deliver high doses of the therapeutic. However, because of their uncontrolled dissolution characteristics in vivo and uptake by the monomolecular phagocyte system, achieving tumor accumulation is challenging. To address these issues, a layer-by-layer approach is adopted to coat paclitaxel NCs with alternating layers of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes, using a PEGylated copolymer as the top layer...
October 17, 2016: Small
Jiong Zhao, Honggi Nam, Thuc Hue Ly, Seok Joon Yun, Sera Kim, Suyeon Cho, Heejun Yang, Young Hee Lee
Defects in bulk crystals can be classified into vacancies, interstitials, grain boundaries, stacking faults, dislocations, and so forth. In particular, the vacancy in semiconductors is a primary defect that governs electrical transport. Concentration of vacancies depends mainly on the growth conditions. Individual vacancies instead of aggregated vacancies are usually energetically more favorable at room temperature because of the entropy contribution. This phenomenon is not guaranteed in van der Waals 2D materials due to the reduced dimensionality (reduced entropy)...
October 17, 2016: Small
Sasanka Dalapati, Cheng Gu, Donglin Jiang
Enormous research efforts are focusing on the design and synthesis of advanced luminescent systems, owing to their diverse capability in scientific studies and technological developments. In particular, fluorescence systems based on aggregation-induced emission (AIE) have emerged to show great potential for sensing, bio-imaging, and optoelectronic applications. Among them, integrating AIE mechanisms to design porous polymers is unique because it enables the combination of porosity and luminescence activity in one molecular skeleton for functional design...
October 14, 2016: Small
Zhaodong Li, Fei Wang, Xudong Wang
Vanadium oxide (VOx ) nanorods are uniformly synthesized on dense Si nanowire arrays. This 3D hierarchical nanoarchitecture offers a novel high-performance supercapacitor electrode design with significantly improved specific capacitance and high-rate capability.
October 14, 2016: Small
Shuai Shao, Trang Nhu Do, Aida Razi, Upendra Chitgupi, Jumin Geng, Richard J Alsop, Boris G Dzikovski, Maikel C Rheinstädter, Joaquin Ortega, Mikko Karttunen, Joseph A Spernyak, Jonathan F Lovell
Computer simulations are used to design more hydrated bilayers, formed from amine-modified porphyrin-phospholipids (PoPs). Experiments confirm that the new constructs give rise to bilayers with greater water content. When chelated with manganese, amine-modified PoPs provide improved contrast for magnetic resonance and are safely used for imaging in vivo.
October 14, 2016: Small
Jovana Zečević, Justus Hermannsdörfer, Tobias Schuh, Krijn P de Jong, Niels de Jonge
Liquid-phase transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is used for in-situ imaging of nanoscale processes taking place in liquid, such as the evolution of nanoparticles during synthesis or structural changes of nanomaterials in liquid environment. Here, it is shown that the focused electron beam of scanning TEM (STEM) brings about the dissolution of silica nanoparticles in water by a gradual reduction of their sizes, and that silica redeposites at the sides of the nanoparticles in the scanning direction of the electron beam, such that elongated nanoparticles are formed...
October 13, 2016: Small
Xianxian Yao, Xingxing Niu, Kexin Ma, Ping Huang, Julia Grothe, Stefan Kaskel, Yufang Zhu
A multifunctional platform is reported for synergistic therapy with controlled drug release, magnetic hyperthermia, and photothermal therapy, which is composed of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) as caps and local photothermal generators and magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MMSN) as drug carriers and magnetic thermoseeds. The structure, drug release behavior, magnetic hyperthermia capacity, photothermal effect, and synergistic therapeutic efficiency of the MMSN/GQDs nanoparticles are investigated. The results show that monodisperse MMSN/GQDs nanoparticles with the particle size of 100 nm can load doxorubicin (DOX) and trigger DOX release by low pH environment...
October 13, 2016: Small
Sha-Sha Wang, Hui-Biao Liu, Xiao-Nan Kan, Li Wang, Yan-Huan Chen, Bin Su, Yu-Liang Li, Lei Jiang
As a new member of carbon allotropes, graphdiyne is a promising material with excellent electronic performance and high elasticity, indicating the possibility of graphdiyne to serve as the building blocks in flexible electronics. However, precise positioning/patterning of graphdiyne is still a challenge for the realization of large-area and flexible organic electronic devices and circuits. Here, the direct in situ synthesis of patterning graphdiyne stripe arrays dominated by the superlyophilic grooved templates is reported, whereas the superlyophilicity of grooved templates plays a key role in allowing continuous mass transport of raw reactants into the microscale spacing...
October 7, 2016: Small
Zijian Zhao, Ling Zhu, Haiyun Li, Peng Cheng, Jiaxi Peng, Yudan Yin, Yang Yang, Chen Wang, Zhiyuan Hu, Yanlian Yang
The oligomerization and aggregation of amyloid β (Aβ) play central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Molecular binding agents for modulating the formation of Aβ oligomers and fibrils have promising application potential in AD therapies. By screening a peptoid library using surface plasmon resonance imaging, amyloid inhibitory peptoid 1 (AIP1) that has high affinity to Aβ42 is identified. AIP1 is demonstrated to inhibit Aβ42 oligomerization and fibrillation and to rescue Aβ42-induced cytotoxicity through decreasing the content of Aβ42 oligomers that is related to cell membrane permeability...
October 7, 2016: Small
Long Pan, Yi-Tao Liu, Xu-Ming Xie, Xiong-Ying Ye
To obtain 2D materials with large quantity, low cost, and little pollution, liquid-phase exfoliation of their bulk form in water is a particularly fascinating concept. However, the current strategies for water-borne exfoliation exclusively employ stabilizers, such as surfactants, polymers, or inorganic salts, to minimize the extremely high surface energy of these nanosheets and stabilize them by steric repulsion. It is worth noting, however, that the remaining impurities inevitably bring about adverse effects to the ultimate performances of 2D materials...
October 6, 2016: Small
Jingu Kang, Jaehyun Kim, Jeong-Wan Jo, Jae Sang Heo, Myung-Gil Kim, Yong-Hoon Kim, Jaekyun Kim, Sung Kyu Park
Solution-processed organic single crystals with high carrier mobility have been actively investigated for diverse applications such as displays, sensors, and next generation electronics on a flexible platform. However, the lack of precise alignment and growth control of organic single crystals impedes the widespread adoption of organic materials in an industrial perspective. Here, a photochemical modification approach is reported tailoring the solubility and molecular diffusivity of polymeric sacrificial layer and sequential batch-type vapor annealing to implement high-performance (average saturation mobility: 8...
October 6, 2016: Small
Jiao-Rong Fan, Jia Zhu, Wen-Gang Wu, Yun Huang
In view of the toxic potential of a bioweapon threat, rapid visual recognition and sensing of ricin has been of considerable interest while remaining a challenging task up to date. In this study, a gold nanopin-based colorimetric sensor is developed realizing a multicolor variation for ricin qualitative recognition and analysis. It is revealed that such plasmonic metasurfaces based on nanopin-cavity resonator exhibit reflective color appearance, due to the excitation of standing-wave resonances of narrow bandwidth in visible region...
October 6, 2016: Small
Zhengyi Zhao, Hui Zhang, Dan Shu, Carlo Montemagno, Baoquan Ding, Jingyuan Li, Peixuan Guo
The significance of bionanomotors in nanotechnology is analogous to mechanical motors in daily life. Here the principle and approach for designing and constructing biomimetic nanomotors with continuous single-directional motion are reported. This bionanomotor is composed of a dodecameric protein channel, a six-pRNA ring, and an ATPase hexamer. Based on recent elucidations of the one-way revolving mechanisms of the phi29 double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) motor, various RNA and protein elements are designed and tested by single-molecule imaging and biochemical assays, with which the motor with active components has been constructed...
October 6, 2016: Small
Yue-Cun Wang, Lin Tian, Fan Liu, Yuan-Bin Qin, Gong Zheng, Jing-Tao Wang, Evan Ma, Zhi-Wei Shan
Silicon is used as a prominent case to demonstrate the dramatic effects of helium ion microscope nanofabrication. Structurally, a submicrometer Si pillar can turn completely amorphous at He(+) doses typically used for micromachining, forming nanobubbles at higher doses. In terms of mechanical properties, the flow stress decreases markedly with increasing dosage, and the softened amorphous Si exhibits spread-out plastic flow.
October 6, 2016: Small
Pan-Yong Kuang, Ping-Xuan Zheng, Zhao-Qing Liu, Jin-Long Lei, Hao Wu, Nan Li, Tian-Yi Ma
Rational design and development of new-generation photocatalysts with high hydrogen evolution activity is recognized as an effective strategy to settle energy crisis. To this regard, hybrid photocatalysts of Au quantum dots embedded in rimous cadmium sulfide nanospheres are synthesized by using a simple hydrothermal process followed by photoreduction. The rimous cadmium sulfide nanospheres with rough surface and irregular fissures greatly strengthen their adhesion and interaction with Au quantum dots, which effectively facilitates the separation, restrains the recombination, and accelerates the consumption of photoinduced electron-hole pairs...
October 6, 2016: Small
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