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Sumit Kumar, Issac J Michael, Juhee Park, Steve Granick, Yoon-Kyoung Cho
Exosomes-nanosized extracellular vesicles (EVs) naturally secreted from cells-have emerged as promising biomarkers and potential therapeutic vehicles, but methods to manipulate them for engineering purposes remain elusive. Among the technical obstacles are the small size and surface complexity of exosomes and the complex processing steps required, which reduce the biocompatibility of currently available methods. The encapsulation of exosomes with a nanofilm of supramolecular complexes of ferric ions (Fe3+ ) and tannic acid is demonstrated here...
July 19, 2018: Small
Puspanjali Sahu, Gyanaranjan Prusty, Amit K Guria, Narayan Pradhan
For efficient charge separations, multimaterial hetero-nanostructures are being extensively studied as photocatalysts. While materials with one heterojunction are widely established, the chemistry of formation of multijunction heterostructures is not explored. This needs a more sophisticated approach and modulations. To achieve these, a generic multistep seed mediated growth following controlled ion diffusion and ion exchange is reported which successfully leads to triple-material hetero-nanostructures with bimetallic-binary alloy-binary/ternary semiconductors arrangements...
July 19, 2018: Small
Sudhanshu Garg, Shalin Shah, Hieu Bui, Tianqi Song, Reem Mokhtar, John Reif
DNA devices have been shown to be capable of evaluating Boolean logic. Several robust designs for DNA circuits have been demonstrated. Some prior DNA-based circuits are use-once circuits since the gate motifs of the DNA circuits get permanently destroyed as a side effect of the computation, and hence cannot respond correctly to subsequent changes in inputs. Other DNA-based circuits use a large reservoir of buffered gates to replace the working gates of the circuit and can be used to drive a finite number of computation cycles...
July 18, 2018: Small
Naohiro Kameta, Haruhisa Akiyama
Molecular monolayer nanotubes produced by self-assembly of an amphiphile modified with a 2-nitrobenzyl group as a photoresponsive unit are able to encapsulate dinucleotides via electrostatic attraction. Upon photoirradiation, the 18 nm inner diameter of the nanotubes shrinks to less than 2 nm as a result of photochemical cleavage of the 2-nitrobenzyl group in the amphiphile. This shrinking of the nanotube channels leads to a propulsive release of the dinucleotides into the bulk solution and simultaneously accelerates formation of the dinucleotide duplexes...
July 18, 2018: Small
Han Bit Lee, Young Won Kim, Sang Hoon Kim, Suk Hee Park, Joon-Phil Choi, Clodualdo Aranas
A modular solder system with hierarchical morphology and micro/nanofeatures in which solder nanoparticles are distributed on the surface of template micropowders is reported. A core-shell structure of subsidiary nanostructures, which improved the intended properties of the modular solder is also presented. In addition, polymer additives can be used not only as an adhesive (like epoxy resin) but also to impart other functions. By combining all of these, it is determined that the modular solder system is able to increase reflowability on a heat-sensitive plastic substrate, oxidation resistance, and electrical conductivity...
July 18, 2018: Small
Kun Zhao, Shenlong Zhao, Chao Gao, Jian Qi, Huajie Yin, Ding Wei, Megasia Feyissa Mideksa, Xiaoli Wang, Yan Gao, Zhiyong Tang, Ranbo Yu
CO2 conversion into value-added chemical fuels driven by solar energy is an intriguing approach to address the current and future demand of energy supply. Currently, most reported surface-sensitized heterogeneous photocatalysts present poor activity and selectivity under visible light irradiation. Here, photosensitized porous metallic and magnetic 1200 CoC composites (PMMCoCC-1200) are coupled with a [Ru(bpy)3 ]Cl2 photosensitizer to efficiently reduce CO2 under visible-light irradiation in a selective and sustainable way...
July 18, 2018: Small
Giorgia Zampardi, Jorg Thöming, Hendrik Naatz, Hatem M A Amin, Suman Pokhrel, Lutz Mädler, Richard G Compton
The electrochemical behavior of copper oxide nanoparticles is investigated at both the single particle and at the ensemble level in neutral aqueous solutions through the electrode-particle collision method and cyclic voltammetry, respectively. The influence of Cl- and NO3 - anions on the electrochemical processes occurring at the nanoparticles is further evaluated. The electroactivity of CuO nanoparticles is found to differ between the two types of experiments. At the single-particle scale, the reduction of the CuO nanoparticles proceeds to a higher extent in the presence of chloride ion than of nitrate ion containing solutions...
July 17, 2018: Small
Feng Liu, Chao Wang, Qiheng Tang
In conventional foams, electrical properties often play a secondary role. However, this scenario becomes different for 3D graphene foams (GrFs). In fact, one of the motivations for synthesizing 3D GrFs is to inherit the remarkable electrical properties of individual graphene sheets. Despite immense experimental efforts to study and improve the electrical properties of 3D GrFs, lack of theoretical studies and understanding limits further progress. The causes to this embarrassing situation are identified as the multiple freedoms introduced by graphene sheets and multiscale nature of this problem...
July 17, 2018: Small
Sesi Li, Yunhao Zhao, Zhengwang Liu, Liting Yang, Jie Zhang, Min Wang, Renchao Che
The ingenious design of a freestanding flexible electrode brings the possibility for power sources in emerging wearable electronic devices. Here, reduced graphene oxide (rGO) wraps carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and rGO tightly surrounded by MnO2 nanosheets, forming a 3D multilevel porous conductive structure via vacuum freeze-drying. The sandwich-like architecture possesses multiple functions as a flexible anode for lithium-ion batteries. Micrometer-sized pores among the continuously waved rGO layers could extraordinarily improve ion diffusion...
July 15, 2018: Small
Remya Satheesan, Smrithi Krishnan R, Kozhinjampara R Mahendran
Controlling the molecular interactions through protein nanopores is crucial for effectively detecting single molecules. Here, the development of a hetero-oligomeric nanopore derived from Nocardia farcinica porin AB (NfpAB) is discussed for single-molecule sensing of biopolymers. Using single-channel recording, the interaction of cyclic oligosaccharides such as cationic cyclodextrins (CDs) of different symmetries and charges with NfpAB is measured. Studies of the transport kinetics of CDs reveal asymmetric geometry and charge distribution of NfpAB...
July 15, 2018: Small
Alexandra Stubelius, Wangzhong Sheng, Sangeun Lee, Jason Olejniczak, Monica Guma, Adah Almutairi
For conditions with inflammatory flare-ups, fast drug-release from a depot is crucial to reduce cell infiltration and prevent long-term tissue destruction. While this concept has been explored for chronic diseases, preventing acute inflammatory flares has not been explored. To address this issue, a preventative inflammation-sensitive system is developed and applied to acute gout, a condition where millions of inflammatory cells are recruited rapidly, causing excruciating and debilitating pain. Rapid drug release is first demonstrated from a pH-responsive acetalated dextran particle loaded with dexamethasone (AcDex-DXM), reducing proinflammatory cytokines in vitro as efficiently as free drug...
July 15, 2018: Small
Liang Huang, Diana Santiago, Patricia Loyselle, Liming Dai
Along with the quick development of flexible and wearable electronic devices, there is an ever-growing demand for light-weight, flexible, and wearable power sources. Because of the high power density, excellent cycling stability and easy fabrication, flexible supercapacitors are widely studied for this purpose. Graphene-based nanomaterials are attractive electrode materials for flexible and wearable supercapacitors owing to their high surface area, good mechanical and electrical properties, and excellent electrochemical stability...
July 15, 2018: Small
Sungho Kim, Bongsik Choi, Meehyun Lim, Yeamin Kim, Hee-Dong Kim, Sung-Jin Choi
For the efficient recognition and classification of numerous images, neuroinspired deep learning algorithms have demonstrated their substantial performance. Nevertheless, current deep learning algorithms that are performed on von Neumann machines face significant limitations due to their inherent inefficient energy consumption. Thus, alternative approaches (i.e., neuromorphic systems) are expected to provide more energy-efficient computing units. However, the implementation of the neuromorphic system is still challenging due to the uncertain impacts of synaptic device specifications on system performance...
July 15, 2018: Small
Dongyang Miao, Zhan Huang, Xianfeng Wang, Jianyong Yu, Bin Ding
Directional water transport is a predominant part of functional textiles used for continuous sweat release in daily life. However, it has remained a great challenge to design such textiles which ensure continuous directional water transport and superior prevention of water penetration in the reverse direction. Here, a scalable strategy is reported to create trilayered fibrous membranes with progressive wettability by introducing a transfer layer, which can guide the directional water transport continuously and spontaneously, thus preventing the skin from being rewetted...
July 13, 2018: Small
Wei Zong, Feili Lai, Guanjie He, Jianrui Feng, Wei Wang, Ruqian Lian, Yue-E Miao, Gui-Chang Wang, Ivan P Parkin, Tianxi Liu
The use of free-standing carbon-based hybrids plays a crucial role to help fulfil ever-increasing energy storage demands, but is greatly hindered by the limited number of active sites for fast charge adsorption/desorption processes. Herein, an efficient strategy is demonstrated for making defect-rich bismuth sulfides in combination with surface nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers (dr-Bi2 S3 /S-NCNF) as flexible free-standing electrodes for asymmetric supercapacitors. The dr-Bi2 S3 /S-NCNF composite exhibits superior electrochemical performances with an enhanced specific capacitance of 466 F g-1 at a discharge current density of 1 A g-1 ...
July 12, 2018: Small
Fanxin Liu, Boxiang Song, Guangxu Su, Owen Liang, Peng Zhan, Han Wang, Wei Wu, Yahong Xie, Zhenlin Wang
A strongly confined and enhanced electromagnetic (EM) field due to gap-plasmon resonance offers a promising pathway for ultrasensitive molecular detections. However, the maximum enhanced portion of the EM field is commonly concentrated within the dielectric gap medium that is inaccessible to external substances, making it extremely challenging for achieving single-molecular level detection sensitivity. Here, a new family of plasmonic nanostructure created through a unique process using nanoimprint lithography is introduced, which enables the precise tailoring of the gap plasmons to realize the enhanced field spilling to free space...
July 12, 2018: Small
Fan-Lu Meng, Kai-Hua Liu, Yan Zhang, Miao-Miao Shi, Xin-Bo Zhang, Jun-Min Yan, Qing Jiang
Large-scale application of renewable energy and rapid development of electric vehicles have brought unprecedented demand for advanced energy-storage/conversion technologies and equipment. Rechargeable zinc (Zn)-air batteries represent one of the most promising candidates because of their high energy density, safety, environmental friendliness, and low cost. The air electrode plays a key role in managing the many complex physical and chemical processes occurring on it to achieve high performance of Zn-air batteries...
July 12, 2018: Small
Axel R Persson, Wondwosen Metaferia, Sudhakar Sivakumar, Lars Samuelson, Martin H Magnusson, Reine Wallenberg
For the purpose of functionalizing III-V semiconductor nanowires using n-doping, Sn-doped GaAs zincblende nanowires are produced, using the growth method of Aerotaxy. The growth conditions used are such that Ga droplets, formed on the nanowire surface, increase in number and concentrations when the Sn-precursor concentration is increased. Droplet-covered wires grown with varying Sn concentrations are analyzed by transmission electron microscopy and electron tomography, which together establish the positioning of the droplets to be preferentially on {-111}B facets...
July 12, 2018: Small
Nhu Hoa Thi Tran, Kieu The Loan Trinh, Jun-Ho Lee, Won Jung Yoon, Heongkyu Ju
Plasmonic enhancement of fluorescence from SYBR Green I conjugated with a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) amplicon is demonstrated on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products. Theoretical computation leads to use of the bimetallic (Au 2 nm-Ag 50 nm) surface plasmons due to larger local fields (higher quality factors) than monometallic (Ag or Au) ones at both dye excitation and emission wavelengths simultaneously, optimizing fluorescence enhancement with surface plasmon coupled emission (SPCE). Two kinds of reverse Kretschmann configurations are used, which favor, in signal-to-noise ratio, a fluorescence assay that uses optically dense buffer such as blood plasma...
July 12, 2018: Small
Hang Ren, Nan Cui, Qingxin Tang, Yanhong Tong, Xiaoli Zhao, Yichun Liu
Ultrathin organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) have received extensive attention due to their outstanding advantages, such as extreme flexibility, good conformability, ultralight weight, and compatibility with low-cost and large-area solution-processed techniques. However, compared with the rigid substrates, it still remains a challenge to fabricate high-performance ultrathin OTFTs. In this study, a high-performance ultrathin 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT) OTFT array is demonstrated via a simple spin-coating method, with mobility as high as 11 cm2 V-1 s-1 (average mobility: 7...
July 12, 2018: Small
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