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Oju Jeon, Keewon Lee, Eben Alsberg
Growth factors are potent stimuli for regulating cell function in tissue engineering strategies, but spatially patterning their presentation in 3D in a facile manner using a single material is challenging. Micropatterning is an attractive tool to modulate the cellular microenvironment with various biochemical and physical cues and study their effects on stem cell behaviors. Implementing heparin's ability to immobilize growth factors, dual-crosslinkable alginate hydrogels are micropatterned in 3D with photocrosslinkable heparin substrates with various geometries and micropattern sizes, and their capability to establish 3D micropatterns of growth factors within the hydrogels is confirmed...
May 21, 2018: Small
Koji Miki, Kenzo Saiki, Tomokazu Umeyama, Jinseok Baek, Takeru Noda, Hiroshi Imahori, Yuta Sato, Kazu Suenaga, Kouichi Ohe
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) interlocked by cyclic compounds through supramolecular interaction are promising rotaxane-like materials applicable as 2D and 3D networks of nanowires and disease-specific theranostic agents having multifunctionalities. Supramolecular complexation of CNTs with cyclic compounds in a "ring toss'' manner is a straightforward method to prepare interlocked CNTs; however, to date, this has not been reported on. Here, the "ring toss" method to prepare interlocked CNTs by using π-conjugated carbon nanorings: [8]-, [9]-, and [10]cycloparaphenyleneacetylene (CPPA) is reported...
May 21, 2018: Small
Leilei Shi, Xihui Gao, Wangzhang Yuan, Li Xu, Hongping Deng, Chenwei Wu, Jiapei Yang, Xin Jin, Chuan Zhang, Xinyuan Zhu
Herein, a highly stable aggregation-induced emission (AIE) fluorescent nanodot assembled by an amphiphilic quinoxalinone derivative-peptide conjugate, namely Quino-1-Fmoc-RACR (also termed as Q1-PEP), which exhibits large Stokes shift and an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-targeting capacity for bioimaging is reported. It is found that the resulting nanodot can effectively enter the ER with high fluorescent emission. As the ER is mainly involved in the transport of synthesized proteins in vesicles to the Golgi or lysosomes, the Q1-PEP nanodot with ER-targeting capacity can be used to monitor vesicular transport inside the cells...
May 21, 2018: Small
Nemanja Anicˇić, Marija Vukomanović, Tilen Koklicˇ, Danilo Suvorov
Magnesium oxide (MgO) is recognised as exhibiting a contact-based antibacterial activity. However, a comprehensive study of the impact of atomic-scale surface features on MgO's antibacterial activity is lacking. In this study, the nature and abundance of the native surface defects on different MgO powders are thoroughly investigated. Their impacts on the hydrolysis kinetics, antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (ATCC 47076), Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation potential are determined and explained...
May 21, 2018: Small
Zongmin Zheng, Lele Lin, Shiguang Mo, Daohui Ou, Jing Tao, Ruixuan Qin, Xiaoliang Fang, Nanfeng Zheng
2D layered metal hydroxides (LMH) are promising materials for electrochemical energy conversion and storage. Compared with exfoliation of bulk layered materials, wet chemistry synthesis of 2D LMH materials under mild conditions still remains a big challenge. Here, an "MgO-mediated strategy" for mass production of various 2D LMH nanosheets is presented by hydrolyzing MgO in metal salt aqueous solutions at room temperature. Benefiting from this economical and scalable strategy, ultrathin LMH nanosheets (M = Ni, Fe, Co, NiFe, and NiCo) and their derivatives (e...
May 17, 2018: Small
Van Son Nguyen, Van Huy Mai, Pascale Auban Senzier, Claude Pasquier, Kang Wang, Marcelo J Rozenberg, Nathalie Brun, Katia March, François Jomard, John Giapintzakis, Cristian N Mihailescu, Evripides Kyriakides, Pavan Nukala, Thomas Maroutian, Guillaume Agnus, Philippe Lecoeur, Silvia Matzen, Pascal Aubert, Sylvain Franger, Raphaël Salot, Pierre-Antoine Albouy, David Alamarguy, Brahim Dkhil, Pascal Chrétien, Olivier Schneegans
Lithium cobalt oxide nanobatteries offer exciting prospects in the field of nonvolatile memories and neuromorphic circuits. However, the precise underlying resistive switching (RS) mechanism remains a matter of debate in two-terminal cells. Herein, intriguing results, obtained by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) 3D imaging, clearly demonstrate that the RS mechanism corresponds to lithium migration toward the outside of the Lix CoO2 layer. These observations are very well correlated with the observed insulator-to-metal transition of the oxide...
May 17, 2018: Small
Ankur Anand, Chih-Hung Chi, Subhasree Banerjee, Ming-Yi Chou, Fan-Gang Tseng, Chien-Yuan Pan, Yit-Tsong Chen
The Zn2+ stored in the secretory vesicles of glutamatergic neurons is coreleased with glutamate upon stimulation, resulting in the elevation of extracellular Zn2+ concentration (CZn2+ex). This elevation of CZn2+ex regulates the neurotransmission and facilitates the fibrilization of amyloid-β (Aβ). However, the exact CZn2+ex surrounding neurons under (patho)physiological conditions is not clear and the connection between CZn2+ex and the Aβ fibrilization remains obscure. Here, a silicon nanowire field-effect transistor (SiNW-FET) with the Zn2+ -sensitive fluorophore, FluoZin-3 (FZ-3), to quantify the CZn2+ex in real time is modified...
May 16, 2018: Small
Shang-Bo Yu, Qi Qi, Bo Yang, Hui Wang, Dan-Wei Zhang, Yi Liu, Zhan-Ting Li
Enrichment of molecular photosensitizers and catalysts in a confined nanospace is conducive for photocatalytic reactions due to improved photoexcited electron transfer from photosensitizers to catalysts. Herein, the self-assembly of a highly stable 3D supramolecular organic framework from a rigid bipyridine-derived tetrahedral monomer and cucurbit[8]uril in water, and its efficient and simultaneous intake of both [Ru(bpy)3 ]2+ -based photosensitizers and various polyoxometalates, that can take place at very low loading, are reported...
May 16, 2018: Small
Youwei Zhang, Hemei Zheng, Qiyuan Wang, Chunxiao Cong, Laigui Hu, Pengfei Tian, Ran Liu, Shi-Li Zhang, Zhi-Jun Qiu
Graphene is characterized by demonstrated unique properties for potential novel applications in photodetection operated in the frequency range from ultraviolet to terahertz. To date, detailed work on identifying the origin of photoresponse in graphene is still ongoing. Here, scanning photocurrent microscopy to explore the nature of photocurrent generated at the monolayer-multilayer graphene junction is employed. It is found that the contributing photocurrent mechanism relies on the mismatch of the Dirac points between the monolayer and multilayer graphene...
May 16, 2018: Small
Philippe Kowalczyk, Françoise Hippert, Nicolas Bernier, Cristian Mocuta, Chiara Sabbione, Walter Batista-Pessoa, Pierre Noé
Van der Waals layered GeTe/Sb2 Te3 superlattices (SLs) have demonstrated outstanding performances for use in resistive memories in so-called interfacial phase-change memory (iPCM) devices. GeTe/Sb2 Te3 SLs are made by periodically stacking ultrathin GeTe and Sb2 Te3 crystalline layers. The mechanism of the resistance change in iPCM devices is still highly debated. Recent experimental studies on SLs grown by molecular beam epitaxy or pulsed laser deposition indicate that the local structure does not correspond to any of the previously proposed structural models...
May 14, 2018: Small
Chunzhi Cui, Na Yeon Hong, Dong June Ahn
The present study reports a quantified monitoring by means of in situ resonance Raman scattering that analyzes phase-shifting characteristics of π-systems upon interacting with target analytes. A chemo- and thermochromic polydiacetylene vesicular probe is evaluated with multiple-wavelength Raman scattering modes in resonance with its phases, respectively, and thus can trace the phase-shifts. This Raman scattering-based analytical quantification is also successful in monitoring host-guest recognition events by utilizing much narrower bands, compared to those in conventional absorption or photoluminescence (PL) methods...
May 14, 2018: Small
Qing Li, Yuxia Xu, Shasha Zheng, Xiaotian Guo, Huaiguo Xue, Huan Pang
A breakthrough in technologies having "green" and sustainable energy storage conversion is urgent, and supercapacitors play a crucial role in this area of research. Owing to their unique porous structure, amorphous materials are considered one of the best active materials for high-performance supercapacitors due to their high specific capacity, excellent cycling stability, and fast charging rate. This Review summarizes the synthesis of amorphous materials (transition metal oxides, carbon-based materials, transition metal sulfides, phosphates, hydroxides, and their complexes) to highlight their electrochemical performance in supercapacitors...
May 14, 2018: Small
Zhi Li, Alberto Lopez-Ortega, Antonio Aranda-Ramos, José Luis Tajada, Jordi Sort, Carme Nogues, Paolo Vavassori, Josep Nogues, Borja Sepulveda
A crucial challenge in nanotherapies is achieving accurate and real-time control of the therapeutic action, which is particularly relevant in local thermal therapies to minimize healthy tissue damage and necrotic cell deaths. Here, a nanoheater/thermometry concept is presented based on magnetoplasmonic (Co/Au or Fe/Au) nanodomes that merge exceptionally efficient plasmonic heating and simultaneous highly sensitive detection of the temperature variations. The temperature detection is based on precise optical monitoring of the magnetic-induced rotation of the nanodomes in solution...
May 14, 2018: Small
Xuejiao Yang, Yuefei Wang, Wei Qi, Jiaxing Zhang, Liwei Zhang, Renliang Huang, Rongxin Su, Zhimin He
The photo-induced reconfigurable assembly of nanostructures via the simultaneous noncovalent and covalent polymerization of a functional ferrocene-tyrosine (Fc-Y) molecule is reported. The Fc-Y monomers can directly self-assemble into nanospheres with a smooth surface driven by noncovalent interactions. By covalent photo-crosslinking of the Fc-Y monomers, the nanospheres transform spontaneously into hollow vesicles composed of hierarchically ordered lamellar structures. It is worth noting that the formed nanostructures exhibit both reducing property for in situ mineralization of gold nanoparticles with tunable biocatalytic behavior, and the redox activity for superior energy storage capacity...
May 14, 2018: Small
Daniela Guarnieri, Paola Sánchez-Moreno, Antonio Esaú Del Rio Castillo, Francesco Bonaccorso, Francesca Gatto, Giuseppe Bardi, Cristina Martín, Ester Vázquez, Tiziano Catelani, Stefania Sabella, Pier Paolo Pompa
The biotransformation and biological impact of few layer graphene (FLG) and graphene oxide (GO) are studied, following ingestion as exposure route. An in vitro digestion assay based on a standardized operating procedure (SOP) is exploited. The assay simulates the human ingestion of nanomaterials during their dynamic passage through the different environments of the gastrointestinal tract (salivary, gastric, intestinal). Physical-chemical changes of FLG and GO during digestion are assessed by Raman spectroscopy...
May 14, 2018: Small
Fakhre Alam Khan, C Muhammed Ajmal, Seonghyun Bae, Sungwon Seo, Hyungpil Moon, Seunghyun Baik
Soft conductive materials should enable large deformation while keeping high electrical conductivity and elasticity. The graphene oxide (GO)-based sponge is a potential candidate to endow large deformation. However, it typically exhibits low conductivity and elasticity. Here, the highly conductive and elastic sponge composed of GO, flower-shaped silver nanoparticles (AgNFs), and polyimide (GO-AgNF-PI sponge) are demonstrated. The average pore size and porosity are 114 µm and 94.7%, respectively. Ag NFs have thin petals (8-20 nm) protruding out of the surface of a spherical bud (300-350 nm) significantly enhancing the specific surface area (2...
May 13, 2018: Small
Kai-Xue Wang, Qian-Cheng Zhu, Jie-Sheng Chen
Rechargeable aprotic lithium (Li)-O2 batteries with high theoretical energy densities are regarded as promising next-generation energy storage devices and have attracted considerable interest recently. However, these batteries still suffer from many critical issues, such as low capacity, poor cycle life, and low round-trip efficiency, rendering the practical application of these batteries rather sluggish. Cathode catalysts with high oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and evolution reaction activities are of particular importance for addressing these issues and consequently promoting the application of Li-O2 batteries...
May 11, 2018: Small
Yan Li, Yuxia Xu, Wenping Yang, Wanxin Shen, Huaiguo Xue, Huan Pang
Over the past two decades, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), a type of porous material, have aroused great interest as precursors or templates for the derivation of metal oxides and composites for the next generation of electrochemical energy storage applications owing to their high specific surface areas, controllable structures, and adjustable pore sizes. The electrode materials, which affect the performance in practical applications, are pivotal components of batteries and supercapacitors. Metal oxide composites derived from metal-organic frameworks possessing high reversible capacity and superior rate and cycle performance are excellent electrode materials...
May 11, 2018: Small
Taek-Seung Kim, Hee Jo Song, Jae-Chan Kim, Bobae Ju, Dong-Wan Kim
Developing nonprecious, highly active, and stable catalysts is essential for efficient electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction in water splitting. In this study, the facile synthesis of a 3D flower-like Cox P/carbon architecture is proposed composed of an assembly of nanosheets interconnected by silk fibroin that acts as 3D scaffolds and a carbon source. This unique 3D architecture coupled with a carbon matrix enhances catalytic activity by exposing more active sites and increasing charge transport. The flower-like Cox P/carbon can facilitate a lower overpotential, Tafel slope, charge transfer resistance, and a higher electrochemically active surface than carbon-free and silk-free Cox P...
May 10, 2018: Small
Chao Huang, Chaoran Pi, Xuming Zhang, Kang Ding, Ping Qin, Jijiang Fu, Xiang Peng, Biao Gao, Paul K Chu, Kaifu Huo
Molybdenum phosphide (MoP) is a promising non-noble-metal electrocatalyst in the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), but practical implementation is impeded by the sluggish HER kinetics and poor chemical stability. Herein, a novel high-efficiency HER electrocatalyst comprising MoP nanoflakes intercalated nitrogen-doped graphene nanobelts (MoP/NG), which are synthesized by one-step thermal phosphiding organic-inorganic hybrid dodecylamine (DDA) inserted MoO3 nanobelts, is reported. The intercalated DDA molecules are in situ carbonized into the NG layer and the sandwiched MoO3 layer is converted into MoP nanoflakes which are intercalated between the NG layers forming the alternatingly stacked MoP/NG hybrid nanobelts...
May 10, 2018: Small
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