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Kilsoo Lee, Jaehong Lee, Gwangmook Kim, Youngjae Kim, Subin Kang, Sungjun Cho, SeulGee Kim, Jae-Kang Kim, Wooyoung Lee, Dae-Eun Kim, Shinill Kang, DaeEun Kim, Taeyoon Lee, Wooyoung Shim
Fabrication strategies that pursue "simplicity" for the production process and "functionality" for a device, in general, are mutually exclusive. Therefore, strategies that are less expensive, less equipment-intensive, and consequently, more accessible to researchers for the realization of omnipresent electronics are required. Here, this study presents a conceptually different approach that utilizes the inartificial design of the surface roughness of paper to realize a capacitive pressure sensor with high performance compared with sensors produced using costly microfabrication processes...
May 19, 2017: Small
Yahui Li, Zhenhao Zhao, Feng Lin, Xiaobing Cao, Xian Cui, Jinquan Wei
It is of great importance to investigate the crystallization of organometallic perovskite from solution for enhancing performance of perovskite solar cells. Here, this study develops a facile method for in situ observation of crystallization and growth of the methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3 ) perovskite from microdroplets ejected by an alternating viscous and inertial force jetting method. It is found that there are two crystallization modes when MAPbI3 grows from the CH3 NH3 I (MAI)/PbI2 /N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) solution: needle precursors and granular perovskites...
May 17, 2017: Small
Younghye Kim, Boyeong Kang, Hyo-Yong Ahn, Jiwon Seo, Ki Tae Nam
A porphyrin-peptoid-hybridized silica-coated gold nanoparticle is developed, which is inspired by the protein-chlorophyll ensemble found in photosynthetic antenna. In the natural antenna, chlorophylls are integrated into dense assemblies that are supported by frameworks of proteins, which ensure optimal pigment arrangement for effective light harvesting. In the subject platform, porphyrins are conjugated to the peptoid helix scaffold in a structurally well-defined alignments and subsequently immobilized on the surface of nanoparticles...
May 17, 2017: Small
Jiangling He, Youling He, Yonghao Chen, Bingfu Lei, Jianle Zhuang, Yong Xiao, Yeru Liang, Mingtao Zheng, Haoran Zhang, Yingliang Liu
Stable solid-state red fluorescence from organosilane-functionalized carbon dots (CDs) with sizes around 3 nm is reported for the first time. Meanwhile, a novel method is also first reported for the efficient construction of dual-fluorescence morphologies. The quantum yield of these solid-state CDs and their aqueous solution is 9.60 and 50.7%, respectively. The fluorescence lifetime is 4.82 ns for solid-state CDs, and 15.57 ns for their aqueous solution. These CDs are detailedly studied how they can exhibit obvious photoluminescence overcoming the self-quenching in solid state...
May 17, 2017: Small
Ching-Ping Liu, Te-Haw Wu, Chia-Yeh Liu, Kuan-Chung Chen, Yu-Xing Chen, Gin-Shin Chen, Shu-Yi Lin
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) typically involves oxygen (O2 ) consumption and therefore suffers from greatly limited anticancer therapeutic efficacy in tumor hypoxia. Here, it is reported for the first time that amine-terminated, PAMAM dendrimer-encapsulated gold nanoclusters (AuNCs-NH2 ) can produce O2 for PDT via their intrinsic catalase-like activity. The AuNCs-NH2 not only show optimum H2 O2 consumption via the catalase-like activity over the physiological pH range (i.e., pH 4.8-7.4), but also extend such activity to acidic conditions...
May 16, 2017: Small
Yedong Zhang, Jiansheng Jie, Yuning Sun, Seok-Gy Jeon, Xiujuan Zhang, Gaole Dai, Cheol Jin Lee, Xiaohong Zhang
Owing to the extraordinary properties, organic micro/nanocrystals are important building blocks for future low-cost and high-performance organic electronic devices. However, integrated device application of the organic micro/nanocrystals is hampered by the difficulty in high-throughput, high-precision patterning of the micro/nanocrystals. In this study, the authors demonstrate, for the first time, a facile capillary-assisted alternating-electric field method for the large-scale assembling and patterning of both 0D and 1D organic crystals...
May 16, 2017: Small
Yuchi Fan, Shintaro Ida, Aleksandar Staykov, Taner Akbay, Hidehisa Hagiwara, Junko Matsuda, Kenji Kaneko, Tatsumi Ishihara
Obtaining bifunctional electrocatalysts with high activity for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is a main hurdle in the application of rechargeable metal-air batteries. Earth-abundant 3d transition metal-based catalysts have been developed for the OER and ORR; however, most of these are based on oxides, whose insulating nature strongly restricts their catalytic performance. This study describes a metallic Ni-Fe nitride/nitrogen-doped graphene hybrid in which 2D Ni-Fe nitride nanoplates are strongly coupled with the graphene support...
May 16, 2017: Small
Wangen Zhao, Dong Yang, Shengzhong Frank Liu
Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite as a kind of promising photovoltaic material is booming due to its low-cost, high defect tolerance, and easy fabrication, which result in the huge potential in industrial production. In the pursuit of high efficiency photovoltaic devices, high-quality absorbing layer is essential. Therefore, developing organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite thin films with good coverage, improved uniformity, and crystalline in a single pass deposition is of great concern in realizing good performance of perovskite thin-film solar cell...
May 16, 2017: Small
Feng Liu, Qiheng Tang, Tzu-Chiang Wang
Due to lack of the third dimension in 3D bulk materials, the crack tip in graphene locates on several atoms implying that its fracture behavior can be closely associated with its lattice structure, i.e., the bond length and angle. As the bond length reflects the discrete nature of the atomic structure, theoretical discussion is focused on the concomitant size effect at the nanoscale with few or no reports about the influence of the bond angle. Through the comparisons between theoretical calculations and experimental data, here it is first demonstrated that the bond angle is essential for understanding the fracture behavior in graphene, serving as an intrinsic notch reducing the stress singularity near the crack tip (the intrinsic notch effect), leading to the breakdown of the Griffith criterion in graphene...
May 16, 2017: Small
Ling Li, Ting Zhang, Junqing Yan, Xuediao Cai, Shengzhong Frank Liu
A P doped MoO3-x nanocomposite material with rich oxygen vacancies is successfully fabricated by a two-step intercalation method, which presents superior activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction with low overpotential and fast electron transfer. In 0.5 m H2 SO4 , it displays an overpotential of 166 mV for driving the current density of 10 mA cm(-2) . Moreover, it also shows a good catalytic stability in the electrolytes with different pH, 0.5 m H2 SO4 (strong acid), 0.5 m Na2 SO4 (neutral solution), and 0...
May 16, 2017: Small
Bo-Quan Li, Shu-Yuan Zhang, Cheng Tang, Xiaoyang Cui, Qiang Zhang
The construction of active sites with intrinsic oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is of great significance to overcome the limited efficiency of abundant sustainable energy devices such as fuel cells, rechargeable metal-air batteries, and in water splitting. Anionic regulation of electrocatalysts by modulating the electronic structure of active sites significantly promotes OER performance. To prove the concept, NiFeS electrocatalysts are fabricated with gradual variation of atomic ratio of S:O. With the rise of S content, the overpotential for water oxidation exhibits a volcano plot under anionic regulation...
May 16, 2017: Small
Rui Gao, Yao Lin, Yi-Lun Ying, Xiao-Yuan Liu, Xin Shi, Yong-Xu Hu, Yi-Tao Long, He Tian
The self-assembly of nanoparticles is a challenging process for organizing precise structures with complicated and ingenious structures. In the past decades, a simple, high-efficiency, and reproducible self-assembly method from nanoscale to microscale has been pursued because of the promising and extensive application prospects in bioanalysis, catalysis, photonics, and energy storage. However, microscale self-assembly still faces big challenges including improving the stability and homogeneity as well as pursuing new assembly methods and templates for the uniform self-assembly...
May 16, 2017: Small
Hai Hu, Baoxing Liao, Xiangdong Guo, Debo Hu, Xiaofen Qiao, Ning Liu, Ruina Liu, Ke Chen, Bing Bai, Xiaoxia Yang, Qing Dai
Due to weak interactions between micrometer-wavelength infrared (IR) light and nanosized samples, a high signal to noise ratio is a prerequisite in order to precisely characterize nanosized samples using IR spectroscopy. Traditional micrometer-thick window substrates, however, have considerable IR absorption which may introduce unavoidable deformations and interruptions to IR spectra of nanoscale samples. A promising alternative is the use of a suspended graphene substrate which has ultrahigh IR transmittance (>97...
May 16, 2017: Small
Yonghai Yue, Qi Zhang, Xuejiao Zhang, Zhenyu Yang, Penggang Yin, Lin Guo
Using a homemade, novel, in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) double tilt tensile device, plastic behavior of single crystalline Cu nanowires of around 150 nm are studied. Deformation twins occur during the tests as predesigned before the experiments. In situ observation of twin boundary sliding (TBS) caused by full dislocation (extended dislocation) is first revealed at the atomic scale which is confirmed by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation results. Combined with twin boundary migration and multiple dislocations nucleated from surface, TBS causes a superlarge fracture strain which is over 166% and a severe necking which is over 93%, far beyond the typical values for most nanomaterials without twins...
May 16, 2017: Small
Chao Li, Zhen-Yu Wu, Hai-Wei Liang, Jia-Fu Chen, Shu-Hong Yu
Nanostructured carbon aerogels with outstanding physicochemical properties have exhibited great application potentials in widespread fields and therefore attracted extensive attentions recently. It is still a challenge so far to develop flexible and economical routes to fabricate high-performance nanocarbon aerogels, preferably based on renewable resources. Here, ultralight and multifunctional reduced graphene oxide/carbon nanofiber (RGO/CNF) aerogels are fabricated from graphene oxide and low-cost, industrially produced bacterial cellulose by a three-step process of freeze-casting, freeze-drying, and pyrolysis...
May 16, 2017: Small
Xuhai Liu, Dejian Yu, Fei Cao, Xiaoming Li, Jianping Ji, Jun Chen, Xiufeng Song, Haibo Zeng
All-inorganic photodetectors based on scattered CsPbBr3 nanoplatelets with lateral dimension as large as 10 µm are fabricated, and the CsPbBr3 nanoplatelets are solution processed governed by a newly developed ion-exchange soldering mechanism. Under illumination of a 442 nm laser, the photoresponsivity of photodetectors based on these scattered CsPbBr3 nanoplatelets is as high as 34 A W(-1) , which is the largest value reported from all-inorganic perovskite photodetectors with an external driven voltage as small as 1...
May 16, 2017: Small
Fangyuan Zhao, Nicolas Plumeré, Marc M Nowaczyk, Adrian Ruff, Wolfgang Schuhmann, Felipe Conzuelo
In the development of photosystem-based energy conversion devices, the in-depth understanding of electron transfer processes involved in photocurrent generation and possible charge recombination is essential as a basis for the development of photo-bioelectrochemical architectures with increased efficiency. The evaluation of a bio-photocathode based on photosystem 1 (PS1) integrated within a redox hydrogel by means of scanning photoelectrochemical microscopy (SPECM) is reported. The redox polymer acts as a conducting matrix for the transfer of electrons from the electrode surface to the photo-oxidized P700 centers within PS1, while methyl viologen is used as charge carrier for the collection of electrons at the reduced FB site of PS1...
May 16, 2017: Small
Jiawei Wang, Tianjun Liu, Ji Dong, Molin Li, Jun He, Chao Jiang
A modified liquid method is employed to grow an ultralarge 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene crystal, ensuring fabrication and measurements of the two terminal devices. The hole transport mechanism is studied by analyzing the space charge limited currents (SCLCs) at various temperatures. Modified SCLC theory with a small polaron hopping model is developed and employed to successfully simulate the I-V curves. Values of effective hopping distance, transfer integral, and reorganization energy are extracted and reasonably discussed...
May 16, 2017: Small
Faming Wang, Enguo Ju, Yijia Guan, Jinsong Ren, Xiaogang Qu
Nanozymes have shown great potential in bioapplications owing to their low cost, high stability, multiple activity, and biocompatibility. However, most of the known nanozymes are always at turn-on state, hindering their further applications. Herein, a simple and versatile method for constructing activity-controllable nanozymes is presented. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to utilize the light-driven isomerization of azobenzene (Azo) and host-guest interaction to reversibly photoregulating the activity of nanozyme...
May 16, 2017: Small
Min Ma, Fengli Qu, Xuqiang Ji, Danni Liu, Shuai Hao, Gu Du, Abdullah M Asiri, Yadong Yao, Liang Chen, Xuping Sun
There is an urgent demand to develop earth-abundant electrocatalysts for efficient and durable water oxidation under mild conditions. A nickel-substituted cobalt-borate nanowire array is developed on carbon cloth (Ni-Co-Bi/CC) via oxidative polarization of NiCo2 S4 nanoarray in potassium borate (K-Bi). As a bimetallic electrocatalyst for water oxidation, such Ni-Co-Bi/CC is superior in catalytic activity and durability in 0.1 m K-Bi (pH: 9.2), with a turnover frequency of 0.33 mol O2 s(-1) at the overpotential of 500 mV and nearly 100% Faradaic efficiency...
May 16, 2017: Small
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