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Mamta Amrute-Nayak, Arnab Nayak, Walter Steffen, Georgios Tsiavaliaris, Tim Scholz, Bernhard Brenner
Myosin family motors play diverse cellular roles. Precise insights into how the light chains contribute to the functional variabilities among myosin motors, however, remain unresolved. Here, it is demonstrated that the fast skeletal muscle myosin II isoform myosin heavy chain (MHC-IID) can be transformed into a processive motor, by simply replacing the native regulatory light chain MLC2f with the regulatory light chain variant MLC2v from the slow muscle myosin II. Single molecule kinetic analyses and optical trapping measurements of the hybrid motor reveal marked changes such as increased association rate of myosin toward adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and actin by more than twofold...
January 18, 2019: Small
Yan Wang, Jing Yang, Zhanpeng Wang, Jinrui Chen, Qing Yang, Ziyu Lv, Ye Zhou, Yongbiao Zhai, Zongxiao Li, Su-Ting Han
It is desirable to imitate synaptic functionality to break through the memory wall in traditional von Neumann architecture. Modulating heterosynaptic plasticity between pre- and postneurons by another modulatory interneuron ensures the computing system to display more complicated functions. Optoelectronic devices facilitate the inspiration for high-performance artificial heterosynaptic systems. Nevertheless, the utilization of near-infrared (NIR) irradiation to act as a modulatory terminal for heterosynaptic plasticity emulation has not yet been realized...
January 17, 2019: Small
Jeong Eun Shin, Maria O Ogunyankin, Joseph A Zasadzinski
The threshold flux for nanobubble formation and liposome rupture is reduced by 50-60% by adding a liquid mixture of tetradecanol and perfluoroheptane to the interior cavity of 40 nm diameter hollow gold nanoshells (HGN), and allowing the tetradecanol to solidify to hold the perfluoroheptane in place. On absorption of picosecond pulses of near-infrared light, the perfluoroheptane vaporizes to initiate cavitation-like nanobubbles as the HGN temperature increases. The lower spinodal temperature and heat capacity of perfluoroheptane relative to water causes the threshold flux for nanobubble formation to decrease...
January 17, 2019: Small
Jizhen Zhang, Shayan Seyedin, Si Qin, Zhiyu Wang, Sepehr Moradi, Fangli Yang, Peter A Lynch, Wenrong Yang, Jingquan Liu, Xungai Wang, Joselito M Razal
Fiber-shaped supercapacitors (FSCs) are promising energy storage solutions for powering miniaturized or wearable electronics. However, the scalable fabrication of fiber electrodes with high electrical conductivity and excellent energy storage performance for use in FSCs remains a challenge. Here, an easily scalable one-step wet-spinning approach is reported to fabricate highly conductive fibers using hybrid formulations of Ti3 C2 Tx MXene nanosheets and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate...
January 17, 2019: Small
Jun Gao, Xueli Liu, Yanan Jiang, Liping Ding, Lei Jiang, Wei Guo
Nanofluidic blue energy harvesting attracts great interest due to its high power density and easy-to-implement nature. Proof-of-concept studies on single-pore platforms show that the power density approaches up to 103 to 106 W m-2 . However, to translate the estimated high power density into real high power becomes a challenge in membrane-scale applications. The actual power density from existing membrane materials is merely several watts per square meter. Understanding the origin and thereby bridging the giant gap between the single-pore demonstration and the membrane-scale application is therefore highly demanded...
January 17, 2019: Small
Wenling Jiao, Chen Chen, Wenbin You, Jie Zhang, Jiwei Liu, Renchao Che
A yolk-shell Fe/Fe4 N@Pd/C (FFPC) nanocomposite is synthesized successfully by two facile steps: interfacial polymerization and annealing treatment. The concentration of Pd2+ is the key factor for the density of Pd nanoparticles (Pd NPs) embedded in the carbon shells, which plays a role in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) properties. The ORR and SERS performances of FFPC nanocomposites under different concentrations of PdCl2 are investigated. The optimal ORR performance exhibits that onset potential and tafel slope can reach 0...
January 16, 2019: Small
Chen Chen, Dafeng Yan, Yu Wang, Yangyang Zhou, Yuqin Zou, Yafei Li, Shuangyin Wang
Electrochemical synthesis has garnered attention as a promising alternative to the traditional Haber-Bosch process to enable the generation of ammonia (NH3 ) under ambient conditions. Current electrocatalysts for the nitrogen reduction reaction (NRR) to produce NH3 are comprised of noble metals or transitional metals. Here, an efficient metal-free catalyst (BCN) is demonstrated without precious component and can be easily fabricated by pyrolysis of organic precursor. Both theoretical calculations and experiments confirm that the doped BN pairs are the active triggers and the edge carbon atoms near to BN pairs are the active sites toward the NRR...
January 16, 2019: Small
Tiansheng Gan, Wenhui Shang, Stephan Handschuh-Wang, Xuechang Zhou
Shape morphing nanosystems have recently attracted much attention and a number of applications are developed, spanning from autonomous robotics to drug delivery. However, the fabrication of such nanosystems remains at an early stage owing to limited choices of strategies and materials. This work reports a facile method to fabricate liquid metal (LM) nanodroplets by sonication of bulk LM in an aqueous dopamine hydrochloride solution and their application in light-induced shape morphing at the nanoscale. In this method, dopamine acts as a surfactant, which stabilizes the LM nanodroplets dispersion during the sonication, and results in downsizing of the nanodroplets...
January 16, 2019: Small
Michael H Huang
Recent observations of facet-dependent electrical conductivity and photocatalytic activity of various semiconductor crystals are presented. Then, the discovery of facet-dependent surface plasmon resonance absorption of metal-Cu2 O core-shell nanocrystals with tunable sizes and shapes is discussed. The Cu2 O shells also exhibit a facet-specific optical absorption feature. The facet-dependent electrical conductivity, photocatalytic activity, and optical properties are related phenomena, resulting from the presence of an ultrathin surface layer with different band structures and thus varying degrees of band bending for the {100}, {110}, and {111} faces of Cu2 O to absorb light of somewhat different wavelengths...
January 16, 2019: Small
Caixia Song, Zeyu Zhao, Xinxin Sun, Yanhong Zhou, Ying Wang, Debao Wang
Developing earth-abundant electrocatalysts for high-efficiency hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) has become one of the leading research frontiers in energy conversion. Here, the design and in situ growth of Ag nanodots decorated Cu2 O porous nanobelts networks on Cu foam (denoted as Ag@Cu2 O/CF) are carried out via a simple one-pot solution strategy at room temperature. Serving as self-supporting electrocatalysts, Ag@Cu2 O porous nanobelts provide plentiful active sites, and the 3D hybrid foams provide fast transportation for electrolyte and short diffusion path for newly formed H2 bubbles, which result in excellent electrocatalytic HER activity and long-term stability...
January 16, 2019: Small
Zheng Zhang, Jingrong Yang, Qingqing Min, Chenjie Ling, Debabrata Maiti, Jiaying Xu, Liqiang Qin, Kai Yang
Hypoxic microenvironments in the solid tumor play a negative role in radiotherapy. Holo-lactoferrin (holo-Lf) is a natural protein, which acts as a potential ligand of transferrin receptor (TfR). In this work, an anticancer drug, doxorubicin (Dox)-loaded liposome-holo-Lf nanocomposites, is developed for tumor targeting and imaging guided combined radiochemotherapy. Dox-loaded liposome-holo-Lf (Lf-Liposome-Dox) nanocomposites exhibit significant cellular uptake likely owing to the TfR receptor-mediated targeting accumulation of Lf-Liposome-Dox nanocomposites...
January 15, 2019: Small
Bingqing Wang, Jing Shang, Chong Guo, Jianze Zhang, Fengnian Zhu, Aijuan Han, Junfeng Liu
Structure engineering of ultrathin metal-organic framework (MOF) nanosheets to self-supporting and well-aligned MOF superstructures is highly desired for diverse applications, especially important for electrocatalysis. In this work, a facile layered double hydroxides in situ transformation strategy is developed to synthesize ultrathin bimetal-MOF nanosheets (BMNSs) arrays on conductive substrates. This approach is versatile, and applicable to obtain various BMNSs or even trimetal-MOF nanosheets arrays on different substrates...
January 15, 2019: Small
Paul Douglas Godfrin, Hyundo Lee, Ji Hyun Lee, Patrick S Doyle
Formulation technologies are critical for increasing the efficacy of drug products containing poorly soluble hydrophobic drugs, which compose roughly 70% of small molecules in commercial pipelines. Nanomedicines, such as nanocrystal formulations and amorphous solid suspensions, are effective approaches to increasing solubility. However, existing techniques require additional processing into a final dosage form, which strongly influences drug delivery and clinical performance. To enhance hydrophobic drug product efficacy and clinical throughput, a hydrogel material is developed as a sacrificial template to simultaneously form and encapsulate nanocrystals...
January 15, 2019: Small
Qiao Huang, Travis P Pollard, Xiaolei Ren, Doyoub Kim, Alexandre Magasinski, Oleg Borodin, Gleb Yushin
The rapid development of ultrahigh-capacity alloying or conversion-type anodes in rechargeable lithium (Li)-ion batteries calls for matching cathodes for next-generation energy storage devices. The high volumetric and gravimetric capacities, low cost, and abundance of iron (Fe) make conversion-type iron fluoride (FeF2 and FeF3 )-based cathodes extremely promising candidates for high specific energy cells. Here, the substantial boost in the capacity of FeF2 achieved with the addition of NiF2 is reported. A systematic study of a series of FeF2 -NiF2 solid solution cathodes with precisely controlled morphology and composition reveals that the presence of Ni may undesirably accelerate capacity fading...
January 15, 2019: Small
Haifeng Lin, Bowen Sun, Hui Wang, Qinqin Ruan, Yanling Geng, Yanyan Li, Jiakun Wu, Wenjing Wang, Jie Liu, Xun Wang
Development of noble-metal-free photocatalysts for highly efficient sunlight-driven water splitting is of great interest. Nevertheless, for the photocatalytic H2 evolution reaction (HER), the integrated regulation study on morphology, electronic band structures, and surface active sites of catalyst is still minimal up to now. Herein, well-defined 1D Cd1- x Znx S@O-MoS2 /NiOx hybrid nanostructures with enhanced activity and stability for photocatalytic HER are prepared. Interestingly, the band alignments, exposure of active sites, and interfacial charge separation of Cd1- x Znx S@O-MoS2 /NiOx are optimized by tuning the Zn-doping content as well as the growth of defect-rich O-MoS2 layer and NiOx nanoparticles, which endow the hybrids with excellent HER performances...
January 15, 2019: Small
Leli Zeng, Gongcheng Ma, Han Xu, Jing Mu, Fan Li, Xiaoting Gao, Zhuoting Deng, Junle Qu, Peng Huang, Jing Lin
The detection of Cu2+ in living plants and animals is of great importance for environment monitoring and disease diagnosis. Here, a near-infrared (NIR) turn-on photoacoustic (PA) probe (denoted as LET-2) is developed for Cu2+ detection in living subjects, such as soybean sprouts and mice. The absorbance band of LET-2 shifts from 625 to 715 nm after the interaction with Cu2+ , thus producing strong PA signal output at 715 nm (PA715 ) as an indicator. The PA715 value is increased as a function of the concentration of Cu2+ (0 × 10-6 -20 × 10-6 m), with a calculated limit of detection of 10...
January 15, 2019: Small
Yizhou Zhao, Siyu Zhang, Yue Lu, Shangui Lan, Cheng Zhu, Jiawen Xiao, Huachao Zai, Manling Sui, Dehui Li, Huanping Zhou, Yujing Li, Qi Chen
The low-dimensional halide perovskites have received enormous attention due to their unique photovoltaic and optoelectronic performances. Periodic spacers are used to inhibit the growth of 3D perovskite and fabricate a 2D counterpart with layered structure, mostly based on organic/inorganic cations. Herein, by introducing organic anions (e.g., pentanedioic acid (PDA) and hexanedioic acid (HDA) simultaneously), leaf-shaped (Cs3 Pb2 Br5 )2 (PDA-HDA) microplates with low-dimensional structure are synthesized. They also exhibit significant photoluminescence (PL) centered at 540 nm with a narrow emission peak...
January 15, 2019: Small
Kun Zhou, Jinyi Dong, Yihao Zhou, Jinchen Dong, Meng Wang, Qiangbin Wang
Nucleic acids and proteins are the two primary building materials of living organisms. Over the past decade, artificial DNA-protein hybrid structures have been pursued for a wide range of applications. DNA nanotechnology, in particular, has dramatically expanded nanoscale molecule engineering and contributed to the spatial arrangement of protein components. Strategies for designing site-specific coupling of DNA oligomers to proteins are needed in order to allow for precise control over stoichiometry and position...
January 15, 2019: Small
Yifan Zhang, Yanjun Gong, Bo Li, Ren-Min Ma, Yanke Che, Jincai Zhao
Despite many advances in the development of artificial systems with helical twist motions or deformations, obtaining materials that can undergo continuous twist movements upon an energy input remains a great challenge. In this work, a continuous twist movement of microribbons driven by scanning laser irradiation, a process that a twist generates initially at one end of the microribbon and is continuously transmitted to the other end and then kept twisting, is reported. Key factors to the achievement of this movement are the fabrication of elastic microribbons that possess relatively low elastic modulus and diagonal photoinduced π-stacking distortion relative to the microribbon long axis...
January 15, 2019: Small
Yijie Chen, Yue Zhang, Mengchun Chen, Jia Zhuang, Ronnie H Fang, Weiwei Gao, Liangfang Zhang
Polymeric nanoparticles coated with membrane of intact red blood cells have emerged as biomimetic toxin nanosponges (RBC-NS) that absorb and neutralize bacterial virulence factors associated with numerous bacterial infections. Despite its promise, a clear correlation between in vitro neutralization of complex bacterial toxins and in vivo therapeutic efficacy remains elusive. In this study, the whole secreted proteins (wSP) of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are collected to induce lethality in mice...
January 13, 2019: Small
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