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Ann-Kathrin Schneider, Pavel M Nikolov, Stefan Giselbrecht, Christof M Niemeyer
A novel SMART module, dubbed "DNA-SMART" (DNA substrate modification and replication by thermoforming) is reported, where polymer films are premodified with single-stranded DNA capture strands, microthermoformed into 3D structures, and postmodified with complementary DNA-protein conjugates to realize complex biologically active surfaces within microfluidic devices. As a proof of feasibility, it is demonstrated that microchannels presenting three different proteins on their inner curvilinear surface can be used for selective capture of cells under flow conditions...
February 22, 2017: Small
Lili Zhang, Liang-Xin Ding, Hongbin Chen, Dongdong Li, Suqing Wang, Haihui Wang
Inhibiting CO formation can more directly address the problem of CO poisoning during methanol electro-oxidation. In this study, 1D self-supported porous PtAuP alloy nanotube arrays (ANTAs) are synthesized via a facile electro-codeposition approach and present enhanced activity and improved resistance to CO poisoning through inhibiting CO formation (non-CO pathway) during the methanol oxidation reaction in acidic medium. This well-controlled Pt-/transition metal-/nonmetal ternary nanostructure exhibits a specific electroactivity twice as great as that of PtAu alloy nanotube arrays and Pt/C...
February 21, 2017: Small
Vinayak S Kale, Uk Sim, Jiwoong Yang, Kyoungsuk Jin, Sue In Chae, Woo Je Chang, Arun Kumar Sinha, Heonjin Ha, Chan-Cuk Hwang, Junghyun An, Hyo-Ki Hong, Zonghoon Lee, Ki Tae Nam, Taeghwan Hyeon
There is an urgent need to develop metal-free, low cost, durable, and highly efficient catalysts for industrially important oxygen evolution reactions. Inspired by natural geodes, unique melamine nanogeodes are successfully synthesized using hydrothermal process. Sulfur-modified graphitic carbon nitride (S-modified g-CN x ) electrocatalysts are obtained by annealing these melamine nanogeodes in situ with sulfur. The sulfur modification in the g-CN x structure leads to excellent oxygen evolution reaction activity by lowering the overpotential...
February 20, 2017: Small
Chunsen Liu, Xiao Yan, Jianlu Wang, Shijin Ding, Peng Zhou, David Wei Zhang
Atomic crystal charge trap memory, as a new concept of nonvolatile memory, possesses an atomic level flatness interface, which makes them promising candidates for replacing conventional FLASH memory in the future. Here, a 2D material WSe2 and a 3D Al2 O3 /HfO2 /Al2 O3 charge-trap stack are combined to form a charge-trap memory device with a separation of control gate and memory stack. In this device, the charges are erased/written by built-in electric field, which significantly enhances the write speed to 1 µs...
February 20, 2017: Small
Ming Li, Ying Chen, Wei Li, Xiang Li, He Tian, Xiao Wei, Zhaohui Ren, Gaorong Han
An ethanol solvothermal route has been developed to prepare ultrathin anatase TiO2 nanosheets with dominant {001} facets (≈97%), a thickness of ≈2.5 nm, and a side length of ≈200 nm. The introduction of ethanol solvent significantly enhances the content of surface chemisorbed F(-) on the TiO2 nanosheet, which has a higher stability and further lowers the surface energy of {001} facets, giving rise to the large percentage of active {001} facets. Adopting well-defined morphology, such nanosheets loaded with 1 wt% Pt exhibit an H2 evolution rate as high as 17...
February 20, 2017: Small
Jeong Ho Mun, Seung Keun Cha, Ye Chan Kim, Taeyeong Yun, Young Joo Choi, Hyeong Min Jin, Jae Eun Lee, Hyun Uk Jeon, So Youn Kim, Sang Ouk Kim
Spatial arrangement of 1D nanomaterials may offer enormous opportunities for advanced electronics and photonics. Moreover, morphological complexity and chemical diversity in the nanoscale components may lead to unique properties that are hardly anticipated in randomly distributed homogeneous nanostructures. Here, controlled chemical segmentation of metal nanowire arrays using block copolymer lithography and subsequent reversible metal ion loading are demonstrated. To impose chemical heterogeneity in the nanowires generated by block copolymer lithography, reversible ion loading method highly specific for one particular polymer block is introduced...
February 20, 2017: Small
Bikram K Mahajan, Xiaowei Yu, Wan Shou, Heng Pan, Xian Huang
Bioresorbable electronics is predominantly realized by complex and time-consuming anhydrous fabrication processes. New technology explores printable methods using inks containing micro- or nano-bioresorbable particles (e.g., Zn and Mg). However, these particles have seldom been obtained in the context of bioresorbable electronics using cheap, reliable, and effective approaches with limited study on properties essential to printable electronics. Here, irregular nanocrystalline Zn with controllable sizes and optimized electrical performance is obtained through ball milling approach using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as a process control agent to stabilize Zn particles and prevent cold welding...
February 20, 2017: Small
Jian Pei, Gang Chen, Qiang Zhang, Changfeng Bie, Jingxue Sun
Novel amorphous vanadium oxide coated copper vanadium oxide (Cu11 V6 O26 /V2 O5 ) microspheres with 3D hierarchical architecture have been successfully prepared via a microwave-assisted solution method and subsequent annealing induced phase separation process. Pure Cu11 V6 O26 microspheres without V2 O5 coating are also obtained by an H2 O2 solution dissolving treatment. When evaluated as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), the as-synthesized hybrid exhibits large reversible capacity, excellent rate capability, and outstanding capacity self-recovery...
February 20, 2017: Small
Hengxing Xu, Wei Qin, Mingxing Li, Ting Wu, Bin Hu
Experimental studies on magneto-photoluminescence based on two-photon excitation in up-conversion Y2 O2 S:Er, Yb crystal particles are reported. It is found that the up-conversion photoluminescence generated by two-photon excitation exhibits magnetic field effects at room temperature, leading to a two-photon excitation-induced magneto-photoluminescence, when the two-photon excitation exceeds the critical intensity. By considering the spin selection rule in electronic transitions, it is proposed that spin-antiparallel and spin-parallel transition dipoles with spin mixing are accountable for the observed magneto-photoluminescence...
February 20, 2017: Small
Hong Pan, Wen-Jun Li, Xiang-Jie Yao, Ya-Yun Wu, Lan-Lan Liu, Hua-Mei He, Ren-Li Zhang, Yi-Fan Ma, Lin-Tao Cai
Optical fluorescence imaging is an important strategy to explore the mechanism of virus-host interaction. However, current fluorescent tag labeling strategies often dampen viral infectivity. The present study explores an in situ fluorescent labeling strategy in order to preserve viral infectivity and precisely monitor viral infection in vivo. In contrast to pre-labeling strategy, mice are first intranasally infected with azide-modified H5N1 pseudotype virus (N3 -H5N1p), followed by injection of dibenzocyclooctyl (DBCO)-functionalized fluorescence 6 h later...
February 20, 2017: Small
João Ribas, Yu Shrike Zhang, Patrícia R Pitrez, Jeroen Leijten, Mario Miscuglio, Jeroen Rouwkema, Mehmet Remzi Dokmeci, Xavier Nissan, Lino Ferreira, Ali Khademhosseini
Organ-on-a-chip platforms seek to recapitulate the complex microenvironment of human organs using miniaturized microfluidic devices. Besides modeling healthy organs, these devices have been used to model diseases, yielding new insights into pathophysiology. Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a premature aging disease showing accelerated vascular aging, leading to the death of patients due to cardiovascular diseases. HGPS targets primarily vascular cells, which reside in mechanically active tissues...
February 17, 2017: Small
Lifang Tan, Chenxiao Wang, Mengqi Zeng, Lei Fu
As the most significant facilitator of human civilization, materials are eternal jewels in the view of researchers whose brilliance never faded. However, simple conventional materials, which are most commonly used and indispensable today, seem too primitive and insufficiently functional to meet the demands of the future intelligent and informational applications, urging more functions to be integrated. The ideal strategy to achieve the transformations of conventional materials non-destructively is functionalizing the surface and retaining the original properties at the same time...
February 15, 2017: Small
Jian Wang, Francesco Ciucci
The addition of transition metals, even in a trace amount, into heteroatom-doped carbon (M-N/C) is intensively investigated to further enhance oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity. However, the influence of metal decoration on the electrolysis of the reverse reaction of ORR, that is, oxygen evolution reaction (OER), is seldom reported. Moreover, further improving the bifunctional activity and corrosion tolerance for carbon-based materials remains a big challenge, especially in OER potential regions. Here, bimetal-decorated, pyridinic N-dominated large-size carbon tubes (MM'-N/C) are proposed for the first time as highly efficient and durable ORR and OER catalysts...
February 15, 2017: Small
Alyssa B Chinen, Chenxia M Guan, Caroline H Ko, Chad A Mirkin
The effect of serum protein adsorption on the biological fate of Spherical Nucleic Acids (SNAs) is investigated. Through a proteomic analysis, it is shown that G-quadruplexes templated on the surface of a gold nanoparticle in the form of SNAs mediate the formation of a protein corona that is rich in complement proteins relative to SNAs composed of poly-thymine (poly-T) DNA. Cellular uptake studies show that complement receptors on macrophage cells recognize the SNA protein corona, facilitating their internalization, and causing G-rich SNAs to accumulate in the liver and spleen more than poly-T SNAs in vivo...
February 14, 2017: Small
Botong Liu, Juan Xie, Hui Ma, Xi Zhang, Yue Pan, Jiawei Lv, Huan Ge, Na Ren, Haiquan Su, Xiaoji Xie, Ling Huang, Wei Huang
Many methods have been reported for synthesizing graphene oxide (GO) and graphene oxide quantum dots (GOQDs) where a tedious operational procedure and long reaction time are generally required. Herein, a facile one-pot solvothermal method that allows selective synthesis of pure GO and pure GOQDs, respectively is demonstrated. What is more, the final product of either GO or differently sized GOQDs can be easily controlled by adjusting the reaction temperatures or reactant ratios, which is also feasible when enlarged to gram scale...
February 13, 2017: Small
Chao Dong, Zi-Wei Liu, Jie-Yu Liu, Wei-Chao Wang, Lan Cui, Rui-Chun Luo, Hui-Long Guo, Xue-Li Zheng, Shi-Zhang Qiao, Xi-Wen Du, Jing Yang
Manganese-based oxides have exhibited high promise as noncoinage alternatives to Pt/C for catalyzing oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in basic solution and a mix of Mn(3+/4+) valence is believed to be vital in achieving optimum ORR performance. Here, it is proposed that, distinct from the most studied perovskites and spinels, Mn-based mullites with equivalent molar ratio of Mn(3+) and Mn(4+) provide a unique platform to maximize the role of Mn valence in facile ORR kinetics by introducing modest content of oxygen deficiency, which is also beneficial to enhanced catalytic activity...
February 13, 2017: Small
Juan Ma, Ruibin Li, Yin Liu, Guangbo Qu, Jing Liu, Wenli Guo, Haoyang Song, Xinghong Li, Yajun Liu, Tian Xia, Bing Yan, Sijin Liu
Although numerous toxicological studies have been performed on carbon nanotubes (CNTs), a few studies have investigated their secondary and indirect effects beyond the primary target tissues/organs. Here, a cascade of events are investigated: the initiating event and the subsequent key events necessary for the development of phenotypes, namely CNT-induced pro-inflammatory effects on iron homeostasis and red blood cell formation, which are linked to anemia of inflammation (AI). A panel of CNTs are prepared including pristine multiwall CNTs (P-MWCNTs), aminated MWCNTs (MWCNTs-NH2 ), polyethylene glycol MWCNTs (MWCNTs-PEG), polyethyleneimine MWCNTs (MWCNTs-PEI), and carboxylated MWCNTs (MWCNTs-COOH)...
February 13, 2017: Small
Zhixin Zhang, Yanyan Wang, Hongxiang Zhang, Zifan Tang, Wenpeng Liu, Yao Lu, Zefang Wang, Haitao Yang, Wei Pang, Hao Zhang, Daihua Zhang, Xuexin Duan
Efficient delivery of genes and therapeutic agents to the interior of the cell is critical for modern biotechnology. Herein, a new type of chemical-free cell poration method-hypersonic poration-is developed to improve the cellular uptake, especially the nucleus uptake. The hypersound (≈GHz) is generated by a designed piezoelectric nano-electromechanical resonator, which directly induces normal/shear stress and "molecular bombardment" effects on the bilayer membranes, and creates reversible temporal nanopores improving the membrane permeability...
February 13, 2017: Small
Houjuan Zhu, Zhuangchai Lai, Yuan Fang, Xu Zhen, Chaoliang Tan, Xiaoying Qi, Dan Ding, Peng Chen, Hua Zhang, Kanyi Pu
2D materials (TDMs) have been explored for photonic theranostics. To achieve deep-tissue penetration, near-infrared (NIR) light is essential for photoacoustic (PA) theranostics. However, because the absorption profiles of existing TDMs are generally featureless with no obvious NIR absorption peaks, their PA signals and therapeutic efficacies are limited. This paper herein reports the synthesis and application of ternary chalcogenide nanosheets (Ta2 NiS5 -P) for PA theranostics. In contrast to the current TDMs for such application, Ta2 NiS5 -P has a ternary instead of binary composition...
February 10, 2017: Small
O Lupan, V Postica, N Wolff, O Polonskyi, V Duppel, V Kaidas, E Lazari, N Ababii, F Faupel, L Kienle, R Adelung
A composed morphology of iron oxide microstructures covered with very thin nanowires (NWs) with diameter of 15-50 nm has been presented. By oxidizing metallic Fe microparticles at 255 °C for 12 and 24 h, dense iron oxide NW networks bridging prepatterned Au/Cr pads are obtained. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies reveal formation of α-Fe2 O3 and Fe3 O4 on the surface and it is confirmed by detailed high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) investigations that NWs are single phase α-Fe2 O3 and some domains of single phase Fe3 O4 ...
February 10, 2017: Small
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