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Yongcun Zhou, Feiteng Huang, Ying Yang, Pingli Wang, Zhen Zhang, Yining Tang, Youqing Shen, Kai Wang
Most chemotherapeutic drugs and their nanomedicine formulations exert anticancer activity by inducing cancer cell apoptosis. However, cancer cells inherently have and acquire many antiapoptosis mechanisms, causing cancer drug resistance and poor prognoses in patients. Herein, a potent paraptosis-inducing nanomedicine is reported that causes quick nonapoptotic death of cancer cells, overcoming apoptosis-based resistance and effectively inhibiting drug-resistant tumor growth. The nanomedicine is composed of micelles made from an amphiphilic 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQ)-conjugate block copolymer with polyethylene glycol...
January 19, 2018: Small
Rinku Saran, Richard J Curry
Visible spectrum photodetector devices fabricated using molecular crystals of carbon C60 are reported. The devices operate efficiently, extending over and beyond the full visible light spectrum (300-710 nm) with a bias voltage tunable responsivity of 4 mA-0.5 mA W-1 . Across this range of wavelengths, the noise equivalent power of these devices remains below 102 nW Hz-1/2 , providing a detectivity of 107 Jones. The noise current in these devices is found to have a strong dependence on both bias voltage and frequency, varying by 4 orders of magnitude from 1 nA Hz-1/2 to 0...
January 19, 2018: Small
Wenbo Shi, Yue Peng, Stephen A Steiner, Junhua Li, Desiree L Plata
The equimolar C2 H2 -CO2 reaction has shown promise for carbon nanotube (CNT) production at low temperatures and on diverse functional substrate materials; however, the electron-pushing mechanism of this reaction is not well demonstrated. Here, the role of CO2 is explored experimentally and theoretically. In particular, 13 C labeling of CO2 demonstrates that CO2 is not an important C source in CNT growth by thermal catalytic chemical vapor deposition. Consistent with this experimental finding, the adsorption behaviors of C2 H2 and CO2 on a graphene-like lattice via density functional theory calculations reveal that the binding energies of C2 H2 are markedly higher than that of CO2 , suggesting the former is more likely to incorporate into CNT structure...
January 16, 2018: Small
Liyuan Zhang, Kaiwen Chen, Haoyue Zhang, Bo Pang, Chang-Hyung Choi, Angelo S Mao, Hongbing Liao, Stefanie Utech, David J Mooney, Huanan Wang, David A Weitz
Controlled encapsulation and pairing of single cells within a confined 3D matrix can enable the replication of the highly ordered cellular structure of human tissues. Microgels with independently controlled compartments that can encapsulate cells within separately confined hydrogel matrices would provide precise control over the route of pairing single cells. Here, a one-step microfluidic method is presented to generate monodisperse multicompartment microgels that can be used as a 3D matrix to pair single cells in a highly biocompatible manner...
January 15, 2018: Small
Pierre Maudens, Christian Alexander Seemayer, Cédric Thauvin, Cem Gabay, Olivier Jordan, Eric Allémann
An efficient treatment for osteoarthritis (OA) can benefit from the local release of a high therapeutic dose over an extended period of time. Such a treatment will minimize systemic side effects and avoid the inconvenience of frequent injections. To this aim, nanocrystal-polymer particles (NPPs) are developed by combining the advantages of nanotechnology and microparticles. Nanocrystals are produced by wet milling kartogenin (KGN), which is known to promote chondrogenesis and to foster chondroprotection. A fluorescent biodegradable polymer is synthesized for intravital particle tracking...
January 12, 2018: Small
Jianhua Liu, Longhai Jin, Yinghui Wang, Xing Ding, Songtao Zhang, Shuyan Song, Daguang Wang, Hongjie Zhang
Design of new nanoagents that intrinsically have both diagnostic imaging and therapeutic capabilities is highly desirable for personalized medicine. In this work, a novel nanotheranostic agent is fabricated based on polydopamine (PDA)-functionalized Co-P nanocomposites (Co-P@PDA) for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided combined photothermal therapy and chemotherapy. The ultrahigh relaxivity of 224.61 mm-1 s-1 can enable Co-P@PDA to be applied as an excellent contrast agent for MRI in vitro and in vivo, providing essential and comprehensive information for tumor clinical diagnosis...
January 11, 2018: Small
Feng Wu, Songyue Chen, Baiyi Chen, Miao Wang, Lingli Min, Jack Alvarenga, Jie Ju, Ali Khademhosseini, Yuxing Yao, Yu Shrike Zhang, Joanna Aizenberg, Xu Hou
Flexible and stretchable microscale fluidic devices have a broad range of potential applications, ranging from electronic wearable devices for convenient digital lifestyle to biomedical devices. However, simple ways to achieve stable flexible and stretchable fluidic microchannels with dynamic liquid transport have been challenging because every application for elastomeric microchannels is restricted by their complex fabrication process and limited material selection. Here, a universal strategy for building microfluidic devices that possess exceptionally stable and stretching properties is shown...
January 11, 2018: Small
Chi Zhang, Li-Han Liu, Wen-Xiu Qiu, Yao-Hui Zhang, Wen Song, Lu Zhang, Shi-Bo Wang, Xian-Zheng Zhang
Multidrug resistance (MDR) remains one of the biggest obstacles in chemotherapy of tumor mainly due to P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated drug efflux. Here, a transformable chimeric peptide is designed to target and self-assemble on cell membrane for encapsulating cells and overcoming tumor MDR. This chimeric peptide (C16 -K(TPE)-GGGH-GFLGK-PEG8 , denoted as CTGP) with cathepsin B-responsive and cell membrane-targeting abilities can self-assemble into nanomicelles and further encapsulate the therapeutic agent doxorubicin (termed as CTGP@DOX)...
January 11, 2018: Small
Oleksii Nevskyi, Dmytro Sysoiev, Jes Dreier, Simon Christoph Stein, Alex Oppermann, Florian Lemken, Tobias Janke, Jörg Enderlein, Ilaria Testa, Thomas Huhn, Dominik Wöll
Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy allows for unprecedented in situ visualization of biological structures, but its application to materials science has so far been comparatively limited. One of the main reasons is the lack of powerful dyes that allow for labeling and photoswitching in materials science systems. In this study it is shown that appropriate substitution of diarylethenes bearing a fluorescent closed and dark open form paves the way for imaging nanostructured materials with three of the most popular super-resolution fluorescence microscopy methods that are based on different concepts to achieve imaging beyond the diffraction limit of light...
January 11, 2018: Small
Fen Wu, Zhiyong Zhao, Chun Chen, Tianyang Cao, Chuang Li, Yu Shao, Yiyang Zhang, Dong Qiu, Qian Shi, Qing-Hua Fan, Dongsheng Liu
On the basis of DNA self-assembly, a thermal responsive polymer polypropylene oxide (PPO) is evenly inserted into a rigid 3D DNA network for the study of single molecular self-collapsing process. At low temperature, PPO is hydrophilic and dispersed uniformly in the network; when elevating temperature, PPO becomes hydrophobic but can only collapse on itself because of the fixation and separation of DNA rigid network. The process has been characterized by rheological test and Small Angle X-Ray Scattering test...
January 11, 2018: Small
Sirimuvva Tadepalli, Jieun Yim, Sisi Cao, Zheyu Wang, Rajesh R Naik, Srikanth Singamaneni
Interfacing biomolecules with functional materials is a key strategy toward achieving externally-triggered biological function. The rational integration of functional proteins, such as enzymes, with plasmonic nanostructures that exhibit unique optical properties such as photothermal effect provides a means to externally control the enzyme activity. However, due to the labile nature of enzymes, the photothermal effect of plasmonic nanostructures is mostly utilized for the enhancement of the biocatalytic activity of thermophilic enzymes...
January 11, 2018: Small
Chan Wang, Lei Peng, Qi Qian, Jinyan Du, Sufan Wang, Yucheng Huang
Van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures, which have the advantage of integrating excellent properties of the stacked 2D materials by vdW interactions, have gained increasing attention recently. In this work, within the framework of density functional theory calculations, the electronic properties of vdW heterostructure composed of phosphorene (BP) in black phosphorus phase and GeS monolayer are systematically explored. The results show that the carriers are not separated for both lattice-match and lattice-mismatch heterostructures...
January 11, 2018: Small
Erling Li, Fa Yang, Zhemin Wu, Yong Wang, Mingbo Ruan, Ping Song, Wei Xing, Weilin Xu
Herein, a type of Fe, N-codoped carbon electrocatalyst (FeNx /C, Fe-N-BCNT#BP) containing bamboo carbon nanotubes and displaying bifunctional high catalytic efficiency for both oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and carbon dioxide reduction reaction (CO2RR) is reported. It shows high electrocatalytic activity and stability for both the ORR process with onset potential of 1.03 VRHE in alkaline and the CO2RR to CO with high faradic efficiency up to 90% and selectivity of about 100% at low overpotential of 0.49 V...
January 11, 2018: Small
Shuyan Zhu, Hao Tian, Nan Wang, Bin Chen, Yiyong Mai, Xinliang Feng
This study develops a novel strategy, based on block copolymer self-assembly in solution, for preparing two-dimensional (2D) graphene-based mesoporous nanohybrids with well-defined large pores of tunable sizes, by employing polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-b-PEO) spherical micelles as the pore-creating template. The resultant 2D nanohybrids possess a sandwich-like structure with Fe2 O3 nanoparticle-embedded mesoporous polypyrrole (PPy) monolayers grown on both sides of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets (denoted as mPPy-Fe2 O3 @rGO)...
January 11, 2018: Small
Sreekanth Perumbilavil, Alberto López-Ortega, Gaurav Kumar Tiwari, Josep Nogués, Tamio Endo, Reji Philip
Nonlinear optical nanostructured materials are gaining increased interest as optical limiters for various applications, although many of them suffer from reduced efficiencies at high-light fluences due to photoinduced deterioration. The nonlinear optical properties of ferrite core/shell nanoparticles showing their robustness for ultrafast optical limiting applications are reported. At 100 fs ultrashort laser pulses the effective two-photon absorption (2PA) coefficient shows a nonmonotonic dependence on the shell thickness, with a maximum value obtained for thin shells...
January 11, 2018: Small
Ruoning Wang, Yue Han, Bo Sun, Ziqiang Zhao, Yaw Opoku-Damoah, Hao Cheng, Huaqing Zhang, Jianping Zhou, Yang Ding
The relevance of personalized medicine has inspired research for individually concerted diagnosis and therapy. Numerous efforts are devoted to designing drug particulates with capabilities of tumor penetrating and subcellular trafficking to concurrently discharge theranostics in response to multistimulations. In this study, a bioinspired particulate, formulated with whole components of native high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) and decorated with the tumor-penetrating peptide iRGD, is proposed to promote tumor penetration of HDLs (pHDLs) together with payloads...
January 10, 2018: Small
Misbah Ullah Khan, Hongjun You, Xiaotong Liu, Lingling Zhang, Jixiang Fang
Precisely engineering the decoration of metal nanoparticles on the special surface of semiconductor represents a promising strategy to design efficient metal-semiconductor heterostructured photocatalysts. This study demonstrates a versatile soft-template method to fabricate a novel nonsymmetrical heterostructured Ag/AgI nanoplate, in which only one side surface of the nanoplate is covered with uniform 2D Ag nanoweb. Compared with symmetrical heterostructure, the nonsymmetrical heterostructure may further facilitate the separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs and shows a greatly enhanced photocatalytic activity...
January 10, 2018: Small
Yang Mi, Zhixiong Liu, Qiuyu Shang, Xinxiang Niu, Jia Shi, Shuai Zhang, Jie Chen, Wenna Du, Zhiyong Wu, Rui Wang, Xiaohui Qiu, Xiaoyong Hu, Qing Zhang, Tom Wu, Xinfeng Liu
Recently, organometal halide perovskite-based optoelectronics, particularly lasers, have attracted intensive attentions because of its outstanding spectral coherence, low threshold, and wideband tunability. In this work, high-quality CH3 NH3 PbBr3 single crystals with a unique shape of cube-corner pyramids are synthesized on mica substrates using chemical vapor deposition method. These micropyramids naturally form cube-corner cavities, which are eminent candidates for small-sized resonators and retroreflectors...
January 10, 2018: Small
Li Shi, Liuqing Yang, Wei Zhou, Yanyu Liu, Lisha Yin, Xiao Hai, Hui Song, Jinhua Ye
Holey defective g-C3 N4 photocatalysts, which are easily prepared via a novel photoassisted heating process, are reported. The photoassisted treatment not only helps to create abundant holes, endowing g-C3 N4 with more exposed catalytic active sites and crossplane diffusion channels to shorten the diffusion distance of both reactants from the surface to bulk and charge carriers from the bulk to surface, but also introduces nitrogen vacancies in the tri-s-triazine repeating units of g-C3 N4 , inducing the narrowing of intrinsic bandgap and the formation of defect states within bandgap to extend the visible-light absorption range and suppress the radiative electron-hole recombination...
January 10, 2018: Small
Nan Zhou, Renyan Wang, Xing Zhou, Hongyue Song, Xing Xiong, Yao Ding, Jingtao Lü, Lin Gan, Tianyou Zhai
The important role of p-n junction in modulation of the optoelectronic properties of semiconductors is widely cognized. In this work, for the first time the synthesis of p-GaSe/n-MoS2 heterostructures via van der Waals expitaxial growth is reported, although a considerable lattice mismatching of ≈18% exists. According to the simulation, a significant type II p-n junction barrier located at the interface is expected to be formed, which can modulate optoelectronic properties of MoS2 effectively. It is intriguing to reveal that the presence of GaSe can result in obvious Raman and photoluminescence (PL) shift of MoS2 compared to that of pristine one, more interestingly, for PL peak shift, the effect of GaSe-induced tensile strain on MoS2 has overcome the p-doping effect of GaSe, evidencing the strong interlayer coupling between GaSe and MoS2 ...
January 10, 2018: Small
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