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Janina Wirth, Kory K Green, Megan O'Connor, Shuang F Lim
Upconverting nanoparticles show potential applications in the field of photovoltaics and array-based detection devices. While fluorescence enhancement using interference of incident radiation is well known in Stokes-shift type systems such as fluorescent dyes; the effect of such interference geometry in nonlinear Anti-Stokes type emission, such as in upconversion rare earth photophysics is demonstrated for the first time. This work describes in detail the influence of the interference modulation on both the excitation (interion energy transfer) and radiative decay with nonradiative decay processes active between emissive levels...
December 2, 2016: Small
Varun Kumar Singh, Sai Kishore Ravi, Wanxin Sun, Swee Ching Tan
Alarming levels of particulate matter pollution in air pose a serious health threat in several countries, therefore intriguing a strong need for an economic and a viable technology of air filtration. Current air purification technology is rather expensive with certain types even having the risk of emitting hazardous by-products. The authors have developed a multifunctional air filter inspired from the nasal hairs possessing an ability to specifically trap/exhale the foreign particles and allergens while still letting the air flow...
December 2, 2016: Small
Shiqian Hu, Meng An, Nuo Yang, Baowen Li
A novel approachis proposed to enhance the thermal rectification ratio, namely, arranging two thermal rectifiers in series. Through theoretical analysis and molecular dynamics simulations on graphene/phononic crystal structures, the results show that the series thermal rectifiers enhance thermal rectification ratio significantly, compared to a single rectifier. Meanwhile, the results of theoretical prediction match well with simulation results.
December 1, 2016: Small
Wenbo Zhang, Liangbing Wang, Kaiwen Wang, Munir Ullah Khan, Menglin Wang, Hongliang Li, Jie Zeng
The photothermal effect is applied in CO2 hydrogenation to reduce the reaction temperature under illumination by encapsulating Pt nanocubes and Au nanocages into a zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-8). Under illumination, the heat generated by the photothermal effect of Au nanocages is mainly insulated in the ZIF-8 to form a localized high-temperature region, thereby improving the catalytic activity of Pt nanocubes.
November 30, 2016: Small
Shaohui Li, Jingwei Chen, Mengqi Cui, Guofa Cai, Jiangxin Wang, Peng Cui, Xuefei Gong, Pooi See Lee
Lithium-ion capacitors (LICs) are promising electrical energy storage systems for mid-to-large-scale applications due to the high energy and large power output without sacrificing long cycle stability. However, due to the different energy storage mechanisms between anode and cathode, the energy densities of LICs often degrade noticeably at high power density, because of the sluggish kinetics limitation at the battery-type anode side. Herein, a high-performance LIC by well-defined ZnMn2 O4 -graphene hybrid nanosheets anode and N-doped carbon nanosheets cathode is presented...
November 28, 2016: Small
Peihong Xue, Jingjie Nan, Tieqiang Wang, Shuli Wang, Shunsheng Ye, Junhu Zhang, Zhanchen Cui, Bai Yang
Geometric gradients within ordered micro/nanostructures exhibit unique wetting properties. Well-defined and ordered microsphere arrays with geometric gradient (OMAGG) are successfully fabricated through combining colloidal lithography and inclined reactive ion etching (RIE). During the inclined RIE, the graded etching rates in vertical direction of etcher chamber are the key to generating a geometric gradient. The OMAGG can be used as an effective mask for the preparation of micro/nanostructure arrays with geometric gradient by selective RIE...
November 25, 2016: Small
Yibin Deng, Li Huang, Hong Yang, Hengte Ke, Hui He, Zhengqing Guo, Tao Yang, Aijun Zhu, Hong Wu, Huabing Chen
Smart nanoparticles are increasingly important in a variety of applications such as cancer therapy. However, it is still a major challenge to develop light-responsive nanoparticles that can maximize the potency of synergistic thermo-chemotherapy under light irradiation. Here, spatially confined cyanine-anchored silica nanochannels loaded with chemotherapeutic doxorubicin (CS-DOX-NCs) for light-driven synergistic cancer therapy are introduced. CS-DOX-NCs possess a J-type aggregation conformation of cyanine dye within the nanochannels and encapsulate doxorubicin through the π-π interaction with cyanine dye...
November 23, 2016: Small
Rami T ElAfandy, Ayman F AbuElela, Pawan Mishra, Bilal Janjua, Hassan M Oubei, Ulrich Büttner, Mohammed A Majid, Tien Khee Ng, Jasmeen S Merzaban, Boon S Ooi
Knowledge of materials' thermal-transport properties, conductivity and diffusivity, is crucial for several applications within areas of biology, material science and engineering. Specifically, a microsized, flexible, biologically integrated thermal transport sensor is beneficial to a plethora of applications, ranging across plants physiological ecology and thermal imaging and treatment of cancerous cells, to thermal dissipation in flexible semiconductors and thermoelectrics. Living cells pose extra challenges, due to their small volumes and irregular curvilinear shapes...
November 23, 2016: Small
Liqiang Pan, Wenbin Zhao, Jun Lai, Ding Ding, Qian Zhang, Xiaoyue Yang, Minmin Huang, Shijie Jin, Yingchun Xu, Su Zeng, James J Chou, Shuqing Chen
Antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) targeting antigens expressed on the surface of tumor cells are an effective approach for delivering drugs into the cells via antigen-mediated endocytosis. One of the well-known tumor antigens, the CD20 of B-lymphocyte, has long been suggested to be noninternalizing epitope, and is thus not considered a desirable target for ADCs. Here, sortase A (srtA)-mediated transpeptidation is used to specifically conjugate triple glycine-modified monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE), a highly toxic antimitotic agent, to anti-CD20 ofatumumab (OFA) equipped with a short C-terminal LPETG (5 amino acids) tag at heavy chain (HL), which generates ADCs that show extremely strong potency in killing CD20 positive cancer cells...
November 22, 2016: Small
Kanokwan Sansanaphongpricha, Michael C DeSantis, Hongwei Chen, Wei Cheng, Kai Sun, Bo Wen, Duxin Sun
The asymmetrical features and unique properties of multibuilding block Janus nanostructures (JNSs) provide superior functions for biomedical applications. However, their production process is very challenging. This problem has hampered the progress of JNS research and the exploration of their applications. In this study, an asymmetrical multibuilding block gold/iron oxide JNS has been generated to enhance photothermal effects and display colored Brownian motion in an optical trap. JNS is formed by seed-mediated self-assembly of nanoparticle-loaded thermocleavable micelles, where the hydrophobic backbones of the polymer are disrupted at high temperatures, resulting in secondary self-assembly and structural rearrangement...
November 22, 2016: Small
Hongye Chen, Wenwen Fei, Jianxin Zhou, Chunyang Miao, Wanlin Guo
A quick method for estimating the layer number of black phosphorus is demonstrated by simple color-comparison using optical microscope in this paper. A thickness-dependent reflection model of black phosphorus/SiO2 /Si is constructed and a colorbar confirmed by experiments is obtained for quick identifying layer number. The enhanced visibility affected by substrates or wavelength of light is further verified by calculating the contrast.
November 18, 2016: Small
Junli Liu, Yong Yang, Bing Ni, Haoyi Li, Xun Wang
Fullerene-like nickel oxysulfide hollow nanospheres with ≈50 nm are constructed by in situ growth on the surface of nickel foam by taking advantage of solvothermal reaction. The as-prepared composite exhibits exhilaratingly high HER and OER performance in 1 m KOH, which opens up a very promising aspect for non-noble metal chalcogenides as bifunctional electrocatalysts.
November 18, 2016: Small
Aabhash Shestha, Yanting Yin, Gunther G Andersson, Nigel A Spooner, Shizhang Qiao, Sheng Dai
A robust solution phase ligand exchange system for lead sulfide (PbS) quantum dots (QDs) in the presence of Pb-thiolate ligands is presented that can better preserve the excitonic absorption and emission features as compared to the conventional ligands. The photoluminescence after ligand exchange of PbS QDs with Pb-thiolate ligand is preserved up to 78% of the original oleate capped PbS QDs.
November 18, 2016: Small
Yalin Xiong, Hao Shan, Zhengnan Zhou, Yucong Yan, Wenlong Chen, Yaxiong Yang, Yongfeng Liu, He Tian, Jianbo Wu, Hui Zhang, Deren Yang
Icosahedral, octahedral, and cubic Pd@Pt core-shell nanocrystals with two atomic Pt layers are epitaxially generated under thermodynamic control. Such icosahedra exhibit remarkably enhanced catalytic properties for oxygen reduction reaction compared to the octahedra and cubes as well as commercial Pt/C, which can be attributed to ligand and geometry effects, especially twin-induced strain effect that is revealed by geometrical phase analysis.
November 18, 2016: Small
Tong Liu, Ji-Jing Xu, Qing-Chao Liu, Zhi-Wen Chang, Yan-Bin Yin, Xiao-Yang Yang, Xin-Bo Zhang
An ultrathin, lightweight, and wearable Li-O2 battery with a novel segmented structure is first fabricated by employing a "break up the whole into parts" strategy. Superior battery performance including low overpotential, high specific capacity, good rate capability, excellent cycle stability, and high gravimetric/volumetric energy density (294.68 Wh kg(-1) /274.06 Wh L(-1) ) is successfully achieved even under repeatedly various deformation.
November 18, 2016: Small
Xiao Huang, Yifan Lai, Gary B Braun, Norbert O Reich
Targeted delivery of siRNA controlled by near-infrared light using hollow gold nanoshells has been demonstrated in cancer and stem cells models. Here, a universal surface module and several functionalization rules for the maximized delivery of short nucleic acids (here, siRNA) applicable for diverse gold nanocarriers are described. Streptavidin is devised as a handle to assemble biotinylated cell penetrating peptides (e.g., transactivating transcriptional activator (TAT)), as well as an insulator between the positive charge of TAT and the dense negative charge of RNA...
November 18, 2016: Small
Kenry, Alisha Geldert, Zhuangchai Lai, Ying Huang, Peng Yu, Chaoliang Tan, Zheng Liu, Hua Zhang, Chwee Teck Lim
The novel application of two-dimensional (2D) single-layer ternary chalcogenide nanosheets as "capture-release" fluorescence-based biomolecular nanosensors is demonstrated. Fluorescently labeled biomolecular probe is first captured by the ultrathin Ta2 NiS5 nanosheets and then released upon adding analyte containing a target biomolecule due to the higher probe-target affinity. Here, the authors use a nucleic acid probe for the model target biomolecule Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase, which is an important malarial biomarker...
November 18, 2016: Small
Lingxia Zheng, Kai Hu, Feng Teng, Xiaosheng Fang
A feasible strategy for hybrid photodetector by integrating an array of self-ordered TiO2 nanotubes (NTs) and selenium is demonstrated to break the compromise between the responsivity and response speed. Novel heterojunction between the TiO2 NTs and Se in combination with the surface trap states at TiO2 help regulate the electron transport and facilitate the separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs under photovoltaic mode (at zero bias), leading to a high responsivity of ≈100 mA W(-1) at 620 nm light illumination and the ultrashort rise/decay time (1...
November 17, 2016: Small
Wei Chen, Yan Zou, Zhiyuan Zhong, Rainer Haag
Cyclo(Arg-Gly-Asp) peptide (cRGD) decorated disulfide (SS) containing poly(vinyl alcohol) nanogels (cRGD-SS-NGs) with an average diameter of 142 nm prepared by inverse nanoprecipitation, "click" reaction, and cRGD conjugation are developed for targeted treatment of integrin overexpressing human glioblastoma in vivo. Doxorubicin (DOX) release from cRGD-SS-NGs is highly inhibited under physiological conditions, while accelerated at endosomal pH and in response to cytoplasmic concentration of glutathione. Confocal microscopy shows that cRGD-SS-NGs facilitate the cellular uptake and intracellular DOX release in αv β3 integrin overexpressing human glioblastoma U87-MG cells...
November 16, 2016: Small
Shan Fang, Jing Lin, Chunxiao Li, Peng Huang, Wenxiu Hou, Chunlei Zhang, Jingjing Liu, Sisi Huang, Yongxiang Luo, Wenpei Fan, Daxiang Cui, Yunsheng Xu, Zhiming Li
Multimodal imaging guided synergistic therapy promises more accurate diagnosis than any single imaging modality, and higher therapeutic efficiency than any single one or their simple "mechanical" combination. Herein, we report a dual-stimuli responsive nanotheranostic based on a hierarchical nanoplatform, composed of mesoporous silica-coated gold nanorods (GNR@SiO2), Indocyanine Green (ICG), and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), for in vivo multimodal imaging guided synergistic therapy. The 5-FU loaded ICG-conjugated silica-coated gold nanorods (GNR@SiO2-5-FU-ICG) was able to response specifically to the two stimuli of pH change and near-infrared (NIR) light irradiation...
November 15, 2016: Small
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