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Zhixiong Zhang, Yu-Chih Chen, Sumithra Urs, Lili Chen, Diane M Simeone, Euisik Yoon
Cancer heterogeneity is a notorious hallmark of this disease, and it is desirable to tailor effective treatments for each individual patient. Drug combinations have been widely accepted in cancer treatment for better therapeutic efficacy as compared to a single compound. However, experimental complexity and cost grow exponentially with more target compounds under investigation. The primary challenge remains to efficiently perform a large-scale drug combination screening using a small number of patient primary samples for testing...
September 21, 2018: Small
Wenjuan Liu, Hongbin Ge, Zhongwei Gu, Xiaolong Lu, Jinxing Li, Joseph Wang
Artificial micro/nanomotors that could perform diverse tasks autonomously at the micro/nanoscale have been emerging as promising tools in many practical applications. Electrochemical synthesis is one of the dominating methods to fabricate these micro/nanodevices with diverse geometries and material components. By changing the conditions of electrochemical deposition, the surface morphology, crystal structure, and hence the resultant performance of deposited material could be tailored. In the current work, a feasible fabrication strategy is presented in terms of three unique electrodeposition types (i...
September 21, 2018: Small
Mi Sook Sung, Jik-Han Jung, Cherlhyun Jeong, Tae-Young Yoon, Ji-Ho Park
Cancer cells actively release extracellular vesicles (EVs) as important carriers of cellular information to tumor microenvironments. Although the composition and quantity of the proteins contained in EVs are characterized, it remains unknown how these proteins in EVs are related to those in the original cells at the functional level. With epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in lung adenocarcinoma cells as a model oncoprotein, it is studied how distinct types of EVs, microvesicles and exosomes, represent their original cells at the protein and protein-protein interaction (PPI) level...
September 21, 2018: Small
Wenguang Xi, Gang Yan, Zhongling Lang, Yuanyuan Ma, Huaqiao Tan, Haotian Zhu, Yonghui Wang, Yangguang Li
A rationally designed oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalyst with advanced structural and compositional superiority is highly desirable to optimize electrocatalytic performance. Prussian blue analogues (PBAs) with adjustable element compositions and accessible porous structures represent a promising precursor for the preparation of OER catalysts. Herein, oxygen-doped nickel iron phosphide nanocube arrays (Ni2 P/(NiFe)2 P(O) NAs) grown on Ni foam is rationally designed and fabricated from PBAs. The porous structure and the synergistic effect of Ni and Fe enable superior electrocatalytic performance and stability toward the OER in alkaline electrolytes...
September 21, 2018: Small
Lin Ding, Chenjie Yao, Xiaofeng Yin, Chenchen Li, Yanan Huang, Min Wu, Bin Wang, Xiaoya Guo, Yanli Wang, Minghong Wu
Size, shape, and protein corona play a key role in cellular uptake and removal mechanisms of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). The 15 nm nanoparticles (NP1), the 45 nm nanoparticles (NP2), and the rod-shaped nanoparticles (NR) enter into cells via a receptor-mediated endocytosis (RME) pathway. The star-shaped nanoparticles (NS) adopt not only clathrin-mediated, but also caveolin-mediated endocytosis pathways. However, the 80 nm nanoparitcles (NP3) mainly enter into the cells by macropinocytosis pathway due to the big size...
September 21, 2018: Small
Lianqing Liu, Jialin Shi, Meng Li, Peng Yu, Tie Yang, Guangyong Li
The phase mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) lithography and monolayer lift-off process are combined to fabricate electronics based on 2D materials (2DMs), which remove the need for pre-fabricating markers and increase the accuracy of the overlay and alignment. The promising phase mode of AFM lithography eliminates the drawbacks of the conventional force mode such as the over-cut, under-cut, debris effect, and severe tip wear. The planar size of MoS2 thin-film transistors is shrunken down to sub-micrometer by the proposed method, and the fabricated devices demonstrate n-type characteristics...
September 21, 2018: Small
Xu Wang, Larysa Baraban, Vyacheslav R Misko, Franco Nori, Tao Huang, Gianaurelio Cuniberti, Jürgen Fassbender, Denys Makarov
Insight is provided into the collective behavior of visible-light photochemically driven plasmonic Ag/AgCl Janus particles surrounded by passive polystyrene (PS) beads. The active diffusion of single Janus particles and their clusters (small: consisting of two or three Janus particles and large: consisting of more than ten Janus particles), and their interaction with passive PS beads, are analyzed experimentally and in simulations. The diffusivity of active Janus particles, and thus the exclusive effect to passive PS beads, can be regulated by the number of single Janus particles in the cluster...
September 20, 2018: Small
Yu Qi, Haiqing Song, Haihua Xiao, Gang Cheng, Bingran Yu, Fu-Jian Xu
Nucleic acid-based therapy specially needs a safe and robust delivery vector. Herein, a novel fluorinated acid-labile branched hydroxyl-rich polycation (ARP-F) is proposed for the flexible and effective delivery nanovector of different plasmids including reporter genes and the Cas9 plasmid. Acid-responsive polycation (ARP) with plentiful ortho ester linkages and hydroxyl groups is first synthesized via a facile one-pot ring-opening polymerization, followed by decoration of fluorinated alkyl chains onto ARP to achieve ARP-F...
September 20, 2018: Small
Changtai Zhao, Chang Yu, Shaofeng Li, Wei Guo, Yang Zhao, Qiang Dong, Xiaoting Lin, Zhongxin Song, Xinyi Tan, Changhong Wang, Matthew Zheng, Xueliang Sun, Jieshan Qiu
A safe, high-capacity, and long-life Li metal anode is highly desired due to recent developments in high-energy-density Li-metal batteries. However, there are still rigorous challenges associated with the undesirable formation of Li dendrites, lack of suitable host materials, and unstable chemical interfaces. Herein, a carbon nanofiber-stabilized graphene aerogel film (G-CNF film), inspired by constructional engineering, is constructed. As the host material for Li deposition, the G-CNF film features a large surface area, porous structure, and a robust skeleton that can render low local current density...
September 20, 2018: Small
Yu Yao, Wanlin Feng, Minglong Chen, Xiongwu Zhong, Xiaojun Wu, Haibin Zhang, Yan Yu
Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have attracted more and more attention because they represent one of the most promising candidates to satisfy emerging energy storage demands. The biggest challenge regarding the application of the Li-S battery is to suppress the polysulfide shuttle while maintaining a high sulfur loading mass. Here, a dual polysulfide confinement strategy is designed by confinement of sulfur in polydopamine-coated MXene nanosheets (denoted as S@Mxe@PDA) that performs as a high-performance cathode for Li-S cells owing to their inherently high underlying metallic conductivity and chemical bonding and strong chemical adsorption to lithium polysulfides (LPs)...
September 19, 2018: Small
Haige Wang, Bo Hou, Yang Yang, Qianwang Chen, Meifang Zhu, Arne Thomas, Yaozu Liao
Cobalt nanocrystals encapsulated in N,O-dual-doped porous carbons as efficient and stable electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) are reported. A heteroatom-rich-conjugated microporous polymer is first chemically deposited on a carbon fiber cloth, and after addition of a cobalt salt, pyrolyzed to produce a heteroatom-doped C/Co nanocrystal composite. With this process, the use of additional binders for preparation of electrodes can be avoided. With a trace cobalt loading (0.46 wt%), the electrodes achieve a low Tafel slope of 46 mV dec-1 and overpotential of only 69 mV at a current density of 10 mA cm-2 in 0...
September 18, 2018: Small
Yunfei Bu, Gyutae Nam, Seona Kim, Keunsu Choi, Qin Zhong, JunHee Lee, Yong Qin, Jaephil Cho, Guntae Kim
Fabricating perovskite oxide/carbon material composite catalysts is a widely accepted strategy to enhance oxygen reduction reaction/oxygen evolution reaction (ORR and OER) catalytic activities. Herein, synthesized, porous, perovskite-type Sm0.5 Sr0.5 CoO3-δ hollow nanofibers (SSC-HF) are hybridized with cross-linked, 3D, N-doped graphene (3DNG). This rationally designed hybrid catalyst, SSC-HF-3DNG (SSC-HG), exhibits a remarkable enhancement in ORR/OER activity in alkaline media. The synergistic effects between SSC and 3DNG during their ORR and OER processes are firstly revealed by density functional theory calculations...
September 18, 2018: Small
Xiaoding Xu, Jun Wu, Shuaishuai Liu, Phei Er Saw, Wei Tao, Yujing Li, Lisa Krygsman, Srinivasan Yegnasubramanian, Angelo M De Marzo, Jinjun Shi, Charles J Bieberich, Omid C Farokhzad
Biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) have demonstrated significant potential to improve the systemic delivery of RNA interference (RNAi) therapeutics, such as small interfering RNA (siRNA), for cancer therapy. However, the slow and inefficient siRNA release inside tumor cells generally observed for most biodegradable polymeric NPs may result in compromised gene silencing efficacy. Herein, a biodegradable and redox-responsive NP platform, composed of a solid poly(disulfide amide) (PDSA)/cationic lipid core and a lipid-poly(ethylene glycol) (lipid-PEG) shell for systemic siRNA delivery to tumor cells, is developed...
September 17, 2018: Small
Jared Houghtaling, Jonathan List, Michael Mayer
Aggregates of misfolded proteins are associated with several devastating neurodegenerative diseases. These so-called amyloids are therefore explored as biomarkers for the diagnosis of dementia and other disorders, as well as for monitoring disease progression and assessment of the efficacy of therapeutic interventions. Quantification and characterization of amyloids as biomarkers is particularly demanding because the same amyloid-forming protein can exist in different states of assembly, ranging from nanometer-sized monomers to micrometer-long fibrils that interchange dynamically both in vivo and in samples from body fluids ex vivo...
September 17, 2018: Small
Yu Fang, Xizhen Lian, Yanyan Huang, Guo Fu, Zhifeng Xiao, Qi Wang, Beiyan Nan, Jean-Philippe Pellois, Hong-Cai Zhou
Understanding the key factors for successful subcellular compartment targeting for cargo delivery systems is of great interest in a variety of fields such as bionanotechnology, cell biology, and nanotherapies. However, the fundamental basis for intracellular transportation with these systems has thus far rarely been discussed. As a cargo vector, porous coordination cages (PCCs) have great potential for use in cancer nanotherapy and to elucidate fundamental insight regarding subcellular compartment targeting...
September 17, 2018: Small
Chunpeng Wang, Ullrich Steiner, Alessandro Sepe
The rapid development of synchrotrons has massively increased the speed at which experiments can be performed, while new techniques have increased the amount of raw data collected during each experiment. While this has created enormous new opportunities, it has also created tremendous challenges for national facilities and users. With the huge increase in data volume, the manual analysis of data is no longer possible. As a result, only a fraction of the data collected during the time- and money-expensive synchrotron beam-time is analyzed and used to deliver new science...
September 17, 2018: Small
Hoon-Hee Ryu, Geon-Tae Park, Chong S Yoon, Yang-Kook Sun
Because electric vehicles (EVs) are used intermittently with long resting periods in the fully charged state before driving, calendar aging behavior is an important criterion for the application of Li-ion batteries used in EVs. In this work, Ni-rich Li[Nix Coy Mn1 -x-y ]O2 (x = 0.8 and 0.9) cathode materials with high energy densities, but low cycling stabilities are investigated to characterize their microstructural degradation during accelerated calendar aging. Although the particles seem to maintain their crystal structures and morphologies, the microcracks which develop during calendar aging remain even in the fully discharged state...
September 14, 2018: Small
Sintayehu Nibret Tiruneh, Bong Kyun Kang, Hyung Wook Choi, Seok Bin Kwon, Min Seob Kim, Dae Ho Yoon
Nickel sulfides have drawn much attention with the benefits of a high redox activity, high electrical conductivity, low cost, and fabrication ease; however, these metal sulfides are susceptible to mechanical degradation regarding their cycling performance. Conversely, hollow carbon shells exhibit a substantial electrochemical steadiness in energy storage applications. Here, the design and development of a novel millerite core-nitrogen-doped carbon hollow shell (NiS-NC HS) structure for electrochemical energy storage is presented...
September 14, 2018: Small
Yajie Yan, Qingqing Wu, Yuhang Zhao, Shoumian Chen, Shaojian Hu, Jianjun Zhu, Jia Huang, Ziqi Liang
Recent years have witnessed rapid developments in organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites, among which 2D Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) perovskites stand out due to their outstanding ambient stability. In photodetector applications, 2D RP perovskites are mostly limited to lateral device configuration because of their preferred in-plane charge transportation within quantum well structures. In this work, the low-temperature solution construction of 2D RP perovskite-based photodiodes in vertical device architecture is demonstrated...
September 14, 2018: Small
Evan C Jones, Daniel G Nocera
Reactive interface patterning promoted by lithographic electrochemistry serves as a facile method for generating submicron structures on conductive substrates. A binary-potential step applied to a metal layer with a resist overlayer allows silicon to be patterned with metal oxides. In this study, the role and influence of the resist overlayer on the uniformity of pattern formation are examined. The ability of the resist to detach from the underlying metal is a critical determinant of pattern geometry. By choosing an appropriate resist, large patterns with submicron precision are generated quickly by the application of the binary-potential steps...
September 14, 2018: Small
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