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Eunji Kim, Hyeri Kim, Byung-Jun Park, Young-Hee Han, Jong Hyuk Park, Jinhan Cho, Sang-Soo Lee, Jeong Gon Son
From graphene oxide wrapped iron oxide particles with etching/reduction process, high-performance anode and cathode materials of lithium-ion hybrid supercapacitors are obtained in the same process with different etching conditions, which consist of partially etched crumpled graphene (CG) wrapped spiky iron oxide particles (CG@SF) for a battery-type anode, and fully etched CG for a capacitive-type cathode. The CG is formed along the shape of spikily etched particles, resulting in high specific surface area and electrical conductivity, thus the CG-based cathode exhibits remarkable capacitive performance of 210 F g-1 and excellent rate capabilities...
March 15, 2018: Small
Jinlong Liu, Yao Zheng, Yan Jiao, Zhenyu Wang, Zhouguang Lu, Anthony Vasileff, Shi-Zhang Qiao
Conventional development of nanomaterials for efficient electrocatalysis is largely based on performance-oriented trial-and-error/iterative approaches, while a rational design approach at the atomic/molecular level is yet to be found. Here, inspired by a fundamental understanding of the mechanism for both oxygen and hydrogen evolution half reactions (OER/HER), a unique strategy is presented to engineer RuO2 for superior alkaline water electrolysis through coupling with NiO as an efficient bifunctional promoter...
March 15, 2018: Small
Eliott Teston, Thomas Maldiney, Iris Marangon, Jeanne Volatron, Yoann Lalatonne, Laurence Motte, Catherine Boisson-Vidal, Gwennhael Autret, Olivier Clément, Daniel Scherman, Florence Gazeau, Cyrille Richard
Once injected into a living organism, cells diffuse or migrate around the initial injection point and become impossible to be visualized and tracked in vivo. The present work concerns the development of a new technique for therapeutic cell labeling and subsequent in vivo visualization and magnetic retention. It is hypothesized and subsequently demonstrated that nanohybrids made of persistent luminescence nanoparticles and ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles incorporated into a silica matrix can be used as an effective nanoplatform to label therapeutic cells in a nontoxic way in order to dynamically track them in real-time in vitro and in living mice...
March 15, 2018: Small
Zhi Chen, Dangui Yin, Ming Zhang
Sandwich-like MoS2 @SnO2 @C nanosheeets are prepared by facile hydrothermal reactions. SnO2 nanosheets can attach to exfoliated MoS2 nanosheets to prevent restacking of adjacent MoS2 nanosheets, and carbon transformed from polyvinylpyrrolidone is coated on MoS2 @SnO2 , forming a sandwich structure to maintain cycling stability. As an anode for sodium-ion batteries, the electrode greatly deliverers a high initial discharge specific capacity of 530 mA h g-1 and maintains at 396 mA h g-1 after 150 cycles at 0...
March 15, 2018: Small
Zhikai Zhao, Ran Liu, Dirk Mayer, Maristella Coppola, Lu Sun, Youngsang Kim, Chuankui Wang, Lifa Ni, Xing Chen, Maoning Wang, Zongliang Li, Takhee Lee, Dong Xiang
A straightforward method to generate both atomic-scale sharp and atomic-scale planar electrodes is reported. The atomic-scale sharp electrodes are generated by precisely stretching a suspended nanowire, while the atomic-scale planar electrodes are obtained via mechanically controllable interelectrodes compression followed by a thermal-driven atom migration process. Notably, the gap size between the electrodes can be precisely controlled at subangstrom accuracy with this method. These two types of electrodes are subsequently employed to investigate the properties of single molecular junctions...
March 15, 2018: Small
Andriy Yaroshchuk, Mykola P Bondarenko
Current-induced concentration polarization of nanoporous media is explored theoretically by using approach of local thermodynamic equilibrium within nanopore cross-sections. The problem is solved in quadratures in terms of irreversible thermodynamics. The phenomenological coefficients are further specified by using capillary space-charge model for straight slit-like and cylindrical capillaries. This analysis reveals several novel features of current-induced concentration polarization related to the (electro)osmotic volume transfer...
March 14, 2018: Small
Junbo Zhang, Qi Shao, Ying Zhang, Shuxing Bai, Yonggang Feng, Xiaoqing Huang
Although direct hydrogen (H2 ) oxidation to hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) is considered as a promising strategy for direct H2 O2 synthesis, the desirable conversion efficiency remains formidable challenge. Herein, highly active and selective direct H2 oxidation to H2 O2 is achieved by using hollow Pd-Sn intermetallic nanoparticles (NPs) as the catalysts. By tuning the catalytic solvents and catalyst supports, the efficiency of direct H2 oxidation to H2 O2 can be optimized well with the hollow Pd2 Sn NPs/P25 exhibiting H2 O2 selectivity up to 80...
March 13, 2018: Small
Ting He, Bing Ni, Simin Zhang, Yue Gong, Haiqing Wang, Lin Gu, Jing Zhuang, Wenping Hu, Xun Wang
Synthesizing ultrathin 2D metal-organic framework nanosheets in high yields has received increasing research interest but remains a great challenge. In this work, ultrathin zirconium-porphyrinic metal-organic framework (MOF) nanosheets with thickness down to ≈1.5 nm are synthesized through a pseudoassembly-disassembly strategy. Owing to the their unique properties originating from their ultrathin thickness and highly exposed active sites, the as-prepared ultrathin nanosheets exhibit far superior photocatalysis performance compared to the corresponding bulk MOF...
March 13, 2018: Small
Naohiro Kameta, Jiuchao Dong, Hiroharu Yui
A series of nanotubes with a dense layer of short poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chains on the inner surface are prepared by means of a coassembly process using glycolipids and PEG derivatives. Dehydration of the PEG chains by heating increases the hydrophobicity of the nanotube channel and fluorescent-dye-labeled amino acids are extracted from bulk solution. Rehydration of the PEG chains by cooling results in back-extraction of the amino acids into the bulk solution. Because of the supramolecular chirality of the nanotubes, amino acid enantiomers can be separated in the back-extraction procedure, which is detectable with the naked eye as a change in fluorescence as the amino acids are released from the nanotubes...
March 13, 2018: Small
Penglun Zheng, Yu Zhang, Zhengfei Dai, Yun Zheng, Khang Ngoc Dinh, Jun Yang, Raksha Dangol, Xiaobo Liu, Qingyu Yan
Heterostructures have attracted increasing attention due to their amazing synergetic effects, which may improve the electrochemical properties, such as good electrical/ionic conductivity, electrochemical activity, and mechanical stability. Herein, novel hierarchical Fe2 O3 @Ni3 Se4 nanotubes are successfully fabricated by a multistep strategy. The nanotubes show length sizes of ≈250-500 nm, diameter sizes of ≈100-150 nm, and wall thicknesses of ≈10 nm. The as-prepared Fe2 O3 @Ni3 Se4 nanotubes with INi:Fe = 1:10 show excellent Li storage properties (897 mAh g-1 high reversible charge capacity at 0...
March 12, 2018: Small
Alimohammad Anbari, Hung-Ta Chien, Sujit S Datta, Wen Deng, David A Weitz, Jing Fan
Complex fluid flow in porous media is ubiquitous in many natural and industrial processes. Direct visualization of the fluid structure and flow dynamics is critical for understanding and eventually manipulating these processes. However, the opacity of realistic porous media makes such visualization very challenging. Micromodels, microfluidic model porous media systems, have been developed to address this challenge. They provide a transparent interconnected porous network that enables the optical visualization of the complex fluid flow occurring inside at the pore scale...
March 12, 2018: Small
Luxi Peng, Jinxiu Wen, Huanjun Chen, Zebo Zheng, Ningsheng Xu, Jun Chen, Shaozhi Deng, Fei Liu
Boron is a narrow-bandgap (1.56 eV) semiconductor with high melting-point, low-density, large Young's modulus and very high refractive index (3.03) close to silicon. Therefore, boron nanostructures is expected to possess strong visible-light scattering properties. However, photonic and optoelectronic properties of the boron nanostructures are seldom studied until now. In this paper, we have successfully prepared single-crystalline boron nanowire (BNW) arrays with high-density on Si substrate. All the BNWs are found to possess strong light-scattering behaviors in the visible regime...
March 12, 2018: Small
Kevin M Koo, Shuvashis Dey, Matt Trau
Simultaneous analysis of messenger RNA (mRNA), microRNA (miRNA), and long noncoding RNA (lncRNA)-multi-RNA-type profiling-is increasingly crucial in cancer diagnostics. Yet, rapid multi-RNA-type profiling is challenging due to enzymatic amplification reliance and RNA-type-dependent characteristics. Here, a nanodevice is reported to uniquely use alterable alternating current electrohydrodynamic (ac-EHD) forces to enhance probe-target hybridization prior to direct native RNA target detection, without target amplification or surface functionalization...
March 12, 2018: Small
Qi Li, Jiangna Guo, Dan Xu, Jianqiang Guo, Xu Ou, Yin Hu, Haojun Qi, Feng Yan
Carbon nanofibers (CNF) with a 1D porous structure offer promising support to encapsulate transition-metal oxides in energy storage/conversion relying on their high specific surface area and pore volume. Here, the preparation of NiO nanoparticle-dispersed electrospun N-doped porous CNF (NiO/PCNF) and as free-standing film electrode for high-performance electrochemical supercapacitors is reported. Polyacrylonitrile and nickel acetylacetone are selected as precursors of CNF and Ni sources, respectively. Dicyandiamide not only improves the specific surface area and pore volume, but also increases the N-doping level of PCNF...
March 12, 2018: Small
Weijie Liu, Nishuang Liu, Yang Yue, Jiangyu Rao, Feng Cheng, Jun Su, Zhitian Liu, Yihua Gao
Piezoresistive sensor is a promising pressure sensor due to its attractive advantages including uncomplicated signal collection, simple manufacture, economical and practical characteristics. Here, a flexible and highly sensitive pressure sensor based on wrinkled graphene film (WGF)/innerconnected polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanowires/interdigital electrodes is fabricated. Due to the synergistic effect between WGF and innerconnected PVA nanowires, the as-prepared pressure sensor realizes a high sensitivity of 28...
March 12, 2018: Small
Nan Jiang, Yunuen Montelongo, Haider Butt, Ali K Yetisen
Contact lens is a ubiquitous technology used for vision correction and cosmetics. Sensing in contact lenses has emerged as a potential platform for minimally invasive point-of-care diagnostics. Here, a microlithography method is developed to fabricate microconcavities and microchannels in a hydrogel-based contact lens via a combination of laser patterning and embedded templating. Optical microlithography parameters influencing the formation of microconcavities including ablation power (4.3 W) and beam speed (50 mm s-1 ) are optimized to control the microconcavity depth (100 µm) and diameter (1...
March 9, 2018: Small
Chaeeun Kim, Jun-Cheol Park, Sun Young Choi, Yonghun Kim, Seung-Young Seo, Tae-Eon Park, Se-Hun Kwon, Byungjin Cho, Ji-Hoon Ahn
2D layered materials with sensitive surfaces are promising materials for use in chemical sensing devices, owing to their extremely large surface-to-volume ratios. However, most chemical sensors based on 2D materials are used in the form of laterally defined active channels, in which the active area is limited to the actual device dimensions. Therefore, a novel approach for fabricating self-formed active-channel devices is proposed based on 2D semiconductor materials with very large surface areas, and their potential gas sensing ability is examined...
March 9, 2018: Small
Chuanrui Chen, Emil Karshalev, Jianguo Guan, Joseph Wang
The new capabilities and functionalities of synthetic micro/nanomotors open up considerable opportunities for diverse environmental and biomedical applications. Water-powered micromachines are particularly attractive for realizing many of these applications. Magnesium-based motors directly use water as fuel to generate hydrogen bubbles for their propulsion, eliminating the requirement of common toxic fuels. This Review highlights the development of new Mg-based micromotors and discusses the chemistry that makes it extremely attractive for micromotor applications...
March 9, 2018: Small
Yuhong Qian, Tao An, Karl Erik Birgersson, Zhaolin Liu, Dan Zhao
The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is under intense research due to its significance in energy storage and conversion processes. Recent studies show that interconnected and hierarchically porous structures can further enhance ORR kinetics as well as catalyst durability, but their preparation can be quite time and/or chemical consuming. Here, a simple approach is reported to prepare such complex structures by pyrolyzing composites containing NaCl and ZIF-8. The templating effect of molten NaCl connects ZIF-8 particles into web-like carbon networks...
March 9, 2018: Small
Xijun Liu, Hui Yang, Jia He, Haoxuan Liu, Lida Song, Lan Li, Jun Luo
The electroreduction of CO2 to CH4 is a highly desirable, challenging research topic. In this study, an electrocatalytic system comprising ultrathin MoTe2 layers and an ionic liquid electrolyte for the reduction of CO2 to methane is reported, efficiently affording methane with a faradaic efficiency of 83 ± 3% (similar to the best Cu-based catalysts reported thus far) and a durable activity of greater than 45 h at a relatively high current density of 25.6 mA cm-2 (-1.0 VRHE ). The results obtained can facilitate research on the design of other transition-metal dichalcogenide electrocatalysts for the reduction of CO2 to valuable fuels...
March 8, 2018: Small
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