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Zhi-Zhou Li, Liang-Sheng Liao, Xue-Dong Wang
Organic microcrystals are of essential importance for high fluorescence efficiency, ordered molecular packing mode, minimized defects, and smooth shapes, which are extensively applied in organic optoelectronics. The molecular packing mode significantly influences the optical/electrical properties of organic microcrystals, which makes the controllable preparation of organic microcrystals with desired molecular packing mode extremely important. In the study, yellow-emissive α phase organic microcrystals with rectangular morphology and green-emissive β phase perylene microcrystals with rhombic morphology are separately prepared by simply controlling the solution concentration...
November 17, 2017: Small
Yu Li, Shuangming Chen, Dawei Xi, Yanan Bo, Ran Long, Chengming Wang, Li Song, Yujie Xiong
The electrocatalytic oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is a highly important reaction that requires a relatively high overpotential and determines the rate of water splitting-a process for producing hydrogen. The overall OER performance is often largely limited by uncontrollable interface when active catalysts are loaded on conductive supports, for which polymer binders are widely used, but inevitably block species transportation channels. Here, a scalable fabrication approach to freestanding graphitized carbon nanofiber networks is reported, which provides abundant sites for in situ growing Fe/Ni catalysts with the improved interface...
November 17, 2017: Small
Jingwen Ma, Min Wang, Guangyu Lei, Guoliang Zhang, Fengbao Zhang, Wenchao Peng, Xiaobin Fan, Yang Li
The development of highly efficient and durable non-noble metal electrocatalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is significant for clean and renewable energy research. This work reports the synthesis of N-doped graphene nanosheets supported N-doped carbon coated cobalt phosphide (CoP) nanoparticles via a pyrolysis and a subsequent phosphating process by using polyaniline. The obtained electrocatalyst exhibits excellent electrochemical activity for HER with a small overpotential of -135 mV at 10 mA cm(-2) and a low Tafel slope of 59...
November 17, 2017: Small
Jianping Sheng, Liqiang Wang, Yajing Han, Wansong Chen, Hong Liu, Min Zhang, Liu Deng, You-Nian Liu
Fabrication of clinically translatable nanoparticles (NPs) as photothermal therapy (PTT) agents against cancer is becoming increasingly desirable, but still challenging, especially in facile and controllable synthesis of biocompatible NPs with high photothermal efficiency. A new strategy which uses protein as both a template and a sulfur provider is proposed for facile, cost-effective, and large-scale construction of biocompatible metal sulfide NPs with controlled structure and high photothermal efficiency...
November 17, 2017: Small
Gülbahar Saat, Fadime Mert Balci, Elif Pınar Alsaç, Ferdi Karadas, Ömer Dag
Mesoporous thin films of transition metal lithiates (TML) belong to an important group of materials for the advancement of electrochemical systems. This study demonstrates a simple one pot method to synthesize the first examples of mesoporous LiCoO2 and LiMn2 O4 thin films. Molten salt assisted self-assembly can be used to establish an easy route to produce mesoporous TML thin films. The salts (LiNO3 and [Co(H2 O)6 ](NO3 )2 or [Mn(H2 O)4 ](NO3 )2 ) and two surfactants (10-lauryl ether and cethyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) or cethyltrimethylammonium nitrate (CTAN)) form stable liquid crystalline mesophases...
November 17, 2017: Small
Weixing Song, Jianxiong Zhu, Baoheng Gan, Shuyu Zhao, Hui Wang, Congju Li, Jie Wang
The graphene with 3D porous network structure is directly laser-induced on polyimide sheets at room temperature in ambient environment by an inexpensive and one-step method, then transferred to silicon rubber substrate to obtain highly stretchable, transparent, and flexible electrode of the all-solid-state planar microsupercapacitors. The electrochemical capacitance properties of the graphene electrodes are further enhanced by nitrogen doping and with conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) coating. With excellent flexibility, stretchability, and capacitance properties, the planar microsupercapacitors present a great potential in fashionable and comfortable designs for wearable electronics...
November 17, 2017: Small
Caterina Credi, Gianmarco Griffini, Marinella Levi, Stefano Turri
The present work reports the first demonstration of straightforward fabrication of monolithic unibody lab-on-a-chip (ULOCs) integrating bioactive micrometric 3D scaffolds by means of multimaterial stereolithography (SL). To this end, a novel biotin-conjugated photopolymer is successfully synthesized and optimally formulated to achieve high-performance SL-printing resolution, as demonstrated by the SL-fabrication of biotinylated structures smaller than 100 µm. By optimizing a multimaterial single-run SL-based 3D-printing process, such biotinylated microstructures are incorporated within perfusion microchambers whose excellent optical transparency enables real-time optical microscopy analyses...
November 15, 2017: Small
Jorge S Valera, Rafael Gómez, Luis Sánchez
Herein, the synthesis and self-assembling features of N-heterotriangulenes 1-3 decorated in their periphery with 3,4,5-trialkoxy-N-(alkoxy)benzamide moieties that enable kinetic control of the supramolecular polymerization process are described. The selection of an appropriate solvent results in a tunable energy landscape in which the relative energy of the different monomeric or aggregated species can be regulated. Thus, in a methylcyclohexane/toluene (MCH/Tol) mixture, intramolecular hydrogen-bonding interactions in the peripheral side units favor the formation of metastable inactivated monomers that evolve with time at precise conditions of concentration and temperature...
November 15, 2017: Small
Ankit, Naveen Tiwari, Mayank Rajput, Nguyen Anh Chien, Nripan Mathews
Human-machine haptic interaction is typically detected by variations in friction, roughness, hardness, and temperature, which combines to create sensation of surface texture change. Most of the current technologies work to simulate changes in tactile perception (via electrostatic, lateral force fields, vibration motors, etc.) without creating actual topographical transformations. This makes it challenging to provide localized feedback. Here, a new concept for on-demand surface texture augmentation that is capable of physically forming local topographic features in any predesigned pattern is demonstrated...
November 15, 2017: Small
Ye Niu, Xu Zhang, Ting Si, Yuntian Zhang, Lin Qi, Gang Zhao, Ronald X Xu, Xiaoming He, Yi Zhao
Geometric and mechanical characterizations of hydrogel materials at the microscale are attracting increasing attention due to their importance in tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and drug delivery applications. Contemporary approaches for measuring the these properties of hydrogel microbeads suffer from low-throughput, complex system configuration, and measurement inaccuracy. In this work, a continuous-flow device is developed to measure geometric and viscoelastic properties of hydrogel microbeads by flowing the microbeads through a tapered microchannel with an array of interdigitated microelectrodes patterned underneath the channel...
November 15, 2017: Small
Talia Yeshua, Michael Layani, Rimma Dekhter, Uwe Huebner, Shlomo Magdassi, Aaron Lewis
The field of printed electronics is continually trying to reduce the dimensions of the electrical components. Here, a method of printing metallic lines with widths as small as 15 nm and up to a few micrometers using fountain pen nanolithography (FPN) is shown. The FPN technique is based on a bent nanopipette with atomic force feedback that acts similar to a nanopen. The geometry of the nanopen allows for rapid placement accuracy of the printing tip, on any desired location, with the highest of optical sub-micrometer resolution...
November 14, 2017: Small
Seyedmehdi Hossaini Nasr, Hovig Kouyoumdjian, Christiane Mallett, Sherif Ramadan, David C Zhu, Erik M Shapiro, Xuefei Huang
The accumulation and formation of β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques in the brain are distinctive pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Designing nanoparticle (NP) contrast agents capable of binding with Aβ highly selectively can potentially facilitate early detection of AD. However, a significant obstacle is the blood brain barrier (BBB), which can preclude the entrance of NPs into the brain for Aβ binding. In this work, bovine serum albumin (BSA) coated NPs are decorated with sialic acid (NP-BSAx -Sia) to overcome the challenges in Aβ imaging in vivo...
November 14, 2017: Small
Tadesse Billo, Fang-Yu Fu, Putikam Raghunath, Indrajit Shown, Wei-Fu Chen, Hsiang-Ting Lien, Tzu-Hsien Shen, Jyh-Fu Lee, Ting-Shan Chan, Kuo-You Huang, Chih-I Wu, M C Lin, Jih-Shang Hwang, Chih-Hao Lee, Li-Chyong Chen, Kuei-Hsien Chen
One of the key challenges in artificial photosynthesis is to design a photocatalyst that can bind and activate the CO2 molecule with the smallest possible activation energy and produce selective hydrocarbon products. In this contribution, a combined experimental and computational study on Ni-nanocluster loaded black TiO2 (Ni/TiO2[Vo] ) with built-in dual active sites for selective photocatalytic CO2 conversion is reported. The findings reveal that the synergistic effects of deliberately induced Ni nanoclusters and oxygen vacancies provide (1) energetically stable CO2 binding sites with the lowest activation energy (0...
November 14, 2017: Small
Dae-Yoon Kim, Sang-A Lee, Soeun Kim, Changwoon Nah, Seung Hee Lee, Kwang-Un Jeong
Since the molecular self-assembly of nanomaterials is sensitive to their surface properties, the molecular packing structure on the surface is essential to build the desired chemical and physical properties of nanomaterials. Here, a new nanosurfactant is proposed for the automatic construction of macroscopic surface alignment layer for liquid crystal (LC) molecules. An asymmetric nanosurfactant (C60 NS) consisted of mesogenic cyanobiphenyl moieties with flexible alkyl chains and a [60]fullerene nanoatom is newly designed and precisely synthesized...
November 14, 2017: Small
Kun Liang, Kyle Marcus, Zhenzhong Yang, Le Zhou, Hao Pan, Yuanli Bai, Yingge Du, Mark H Engelhard, Yang Yang
In this work, a freestanding NiFe oxyfluoride (NiFeOF) holey film is prepared by electrochemical deposition and anodic treatments. With the combination of good electrical conductivity and holey structure, the NiFeOF holey film offers superior electrochemical performance with maximum specific capacitance of 670 F cm(-3) (134 mF cm(-2) ), due to the following reasons: (i) The residual metal alloy framework can be used as the current collector to improve electrode conductivity. Moreover, the as-prepared freestanding NiFeOF holey film can be used as a supercapacitor electrode without reliance on binders and other additives...
November 14, 2017: Small
Zhipeng Ma, Yunfei Huang, Seongsu Park, Kentaro Kawai, Do-Nyun Kim, Yoshikazu Hirai, Toshiyuki Tsuchiya, Hirofumi Yamada, Osamu Tabata
DNA origami methods enable the fabrication of various nanostructures and nanodevices, but their effective use depends on an understanding of their structural and mechanical properties and the effects of basic structural features. Frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy is introduced to directly characterize, in aqueous solution, the crossover regions of sets of 2D DNA origami based on different crossover/nick designs. Rhombic-shaped nanostructures formed under the influence of flexible crossovers placed between DNA helices are observed in DNA origami incorporating crossovers every 3, 4, or 6 DNA turns...
November 13, 2017: Small
Jongho Kim, Taek Seung Lee
Two conjugated polymers (CPs) with various compositions of phenylene and benzoselenadiazoben (BSD) are synthesized to have a special emitting property; different fluorescence colors in solution and in the solid states, allowing the resulting conjugated polymer dots (Pdots) to emit different fluorescence colors upon their size variation. The photophysical property of such different-sized Pdots is investigated using fluorescence spectra and fluorescence lifetimes. A decrease in the fluorescence lifetime of Pdots is observed with an increase in the size of Pdots, caused by quantitative change in energy transfer from phenylene (energy donor) to the BSD unit (energy acceptor)...
November 13, 2017: Small
Chengbing Wang, San Ling, Jin Yang, Dewei Rao, Zhiguang Guo
Phase transformation between carbon allotropes usually requires high pressures and high temperatures. Thus, the development of low-temperature phase transition approaches between carbon allotropes is highly desired. Herein, novel amorphous carbon nanocapsules are successfully synthesized by pulsed plasma glow discharge. These nanocapsules are comprised of highly strained carbon clusters encapsulated in a fullerene-like carbon matrix, with the formers serving as nucleation sites. These nucleation sites favored the formation of a diamond unit cell driven by the self-nanoscopic local excessive pressure, thereby significantly decreasing the temperature required for its transformation into a diamond nanocrystal...
November 13, 2017: Small
Amir Nabil Hanna, Arwa Talal Kutbee, Ram Chandra Subedi, Boon Ooi, Muhammad Mustafa Hussain
A novel wavy-shaped thin-film-transistor (TFT) architecture, capable of achieving 70% higher drive current per unit chip area when compared with planar conventional TFT architectures, is reported for flexible display application. The transistor, due to its atypical architecture, does not alter the turn-on voltage or the OFF current values, leading to higher performance without compromising static power consumption. The concept behind this architecture is expanding the transistor's width vertically through grooved trenches in a structural layer deposited on a flexible substrate...
November 13, 2017: Small
Sarah Bertlein, Daichi Hikimoto, Gernot Hochleitner, Julia Hümmer, Tomasz Jungst, Michiya Matsusaki, Mitsuru Akashi, Jürgen Groll
A remaining challenge in tissue engineering approaches is the in vitro vascularization of engineered constructs or tissues. Current approaches in engineered vascularized constructs are often limited in the control of initial vascular network geometry, which is crucial to ensure full functionality of these constructs with regard to cell survival, metabolic activity, and potential differentiation ability. Herein, the combination of 3D-printed poly-ε-caprolactone scaffolds via melt electrospinning writing with the cell-accumulation technique to enable the formation and control of capillary-like network structures is reported...
November 13, 2017: Small
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