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Annual Review of Clinical Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220204/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-controversy-developmental-mechanisms-and-multiple-levels-of-analysis
#1
Stephen P Hinshaw
Controversy abounds regarding the symptom dimensions of attention problems, impulsivity, and hyperactivity, developmentally extreme and impairing levels of which compose the diagnostic category of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). I highlight causal factors, underlying mechanisms, developmental manifestations, and female manifestations of ADHD, integrating the psychobiological underpinnings of this syndrome with contextual factors related to its clinical presentation, impairments, and soaring increases in diagnosed prevalence...
December 8, 2017: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482691/the-philosophy-of-nosology
#2
Peter Zachar, Kenneth S Kendler
Many scholars believe that psychiatric nosology is undergoing a crisis of confidence. Some of the issues up for debate hark back to the introduction of the natural history approach to classification in the seventeenth century. Natural histories map sameness and difference rather than speculate about causes. In contrast, the natural classification approach aspires to carve nature at the joints by demarcating classifications by causes. Natural classifications are more ideal scientifically, but speculation about causality has had a poor track record in psychiatric nosology...
May 8, 2017: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482690/clinical-psychology-training-accreditation-and-beyond
#3
Robert W Levenson
Beginning with efforts in the late 1940s to ensure that clinical psychologists were adequately trained to meet the mental health needs of the veterans of World War II, the accreditation of clinical psychologists has largely been the province of the Commission on Accreditation of the American Psychological Association. However, in 2008 the Psychological Clinical Science Accreditation System began accrediting doctoral programs that adhere to the clinical science training model. This review discusses the goals of accreditation and the history of the accreditation of graduate programs in clinical psychology, and provides an overview of the evaluation procedures used by these two systems...
May 8, 2017: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482689/irritability-in-children-and-adolescents
#4
Melissa A Brotman, Katharina Kircanski, Ellen Leibenluft
Irritability is a common and impairing clinical presentation in children and adolescents. Despite its significant public health impact, irritability remains an elusive construct. Chronic and severe irritability is the primary symptom of the new DSM-5 diagnosis, disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD). However, empirical and clinical approaches to irritability are in their relative infancy, and questions regarding the validity of the DMDD diagnosis have been raised. Moreover, irritability is a trait distributed continuously in youth, thereby fitting within the National Institute of Mental Health Research Domain Criteria initiative...
May 8, 2017: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482688/subjective-cognitive-decline-in-preclinical-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Laura A Rabin, Colette M Smart, Rebecca E Amariglio
Older adults with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) in the absence of objective neuropsychological dysfunction are increasingly viewed as at risk for non-normative cognitive decline and eventual progression to Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia. The past decade has witnessed tremendous growth in research on SCD, which may reflect the recognition of SCD as the earliest symptomatic manifestation of AD. Yet methodological challenges associated with establishing common assessment and classification procedures hamper the construct...
May 8, 2017: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482687/psychological-treatments-for-the-world-lessons-from-low-and-middle-income-countries
#6
Daisy R Singla, Brandon A Kohrt, Laura K Murray, Arpita Anand, Bruce F Chorpita, Vikram Patel
Common mental disorders, including depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress, are leading causes of disability worldwide. Treatment for these disorders is limited in low- and middle-income countries. This systematic review synthesizes the implementation processes and examines the effectiveness of psychological treatments for common mental disorders in adults delivered by nonspecialist providers in low- and middle-income countries. In total, 27 trials met the eligibility criteria; most treatments targeted depression or posttraumatic stress...
May 8, 2017: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482686/medical-marijuana-and-marijuana-legalization
#7
Rosalie Liccardo Pacula, Rosanna Smart
State-level marijuana liberalization policies have been evolving for the past five decades, and yet the overall scientific evidence of the impact of these policies is widely believed to be inconclusive. In this review we summarize some of the key limitations of the studies evaluating the effects of decriminalization and medical marijuana laws on marijuana use, highlighting their inconsistencies in terms of the heterogeneity of policies, the timing of the evaluations, and the measures of use being considered...
May 8, 2017: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482685/introduction
#8
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 8, 2017: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375728/personal-sensing-understanding-mental-health-using-ubiquitous-sensors-and-machine-learning
#9
David C Mohr, Mi Zhang, Stephen M Schueller
Sensors in everyday devices, such as our phones, wearables, and computers, leave a stream of digital traces. Personal sensing refers to collecting and analyzing data from sensors embedded in the context of daily life with the aim of identifying human behaviors, thoughts, feelings, and traits. This article provides a critical review of personal sensing research related to mental health, focused principally on smartphones, but also including studies of wearables, social media, and computers. We provide a layered, hierarchical model for translating raw sensor data into markers of behaviors and states related to mental health...
May 8, 2017: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375727/self-regulation-and-psychopathology-toward-an-integrative-translational-research-paradigm
#10
Timothy J Strauman
This article presents a general framework in which different manifestations of psychopathology can be conceptualized as dysfunctions in one or more mechanisms of self-regulation, defined as the ongoing process of managing personal goal pursuit in the face of internal, interpersonal, and environmental forces that would derail it. The framework is based on the assertion that self-regulation is a critical locus for the proximal influence on motivation, cognition, emotion, and behavior of more distal factors such as genetics, temperament, socialization history, and neurophysiology...
May 8, 2017: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375726/schooling-and-children-s-mental-health-realigning-resources-to-reduce-disparities-and-advance-public-health
#11
Marc S Atkins, Elise Cappella, Elisa S Shernoff, Tara G Mehta, Erika L Gustafson
Schools have long been the primary setting for children's mental health services but have neither the resources nor the expertise to manage these services independently. The critical importance of school success for children's adjustment provides a strong rationale for schooling as an essential component of children's mental health services. In this article, we review evidence for how schooling and mental health coalesce, suggesting an alignment of school and community mental health resources that prioritizes successful schooling as a key mental health outcome...
May 8, 2017: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375725/memory-reconsolidation-interference-as-an-emerging-treatment-for-emotional-disorders-strengths-limitations-challenges-and-opportunities
#12
Tom Beckers, Merel Kindt
Experimental research on emotional memory reconsolidation interference, or the induction of amnesia for previously established emotional memory, has a long tradition, but the potential of that research for the development of novel interventions to treat psychological disorders has been recognized only recently. Here we provide an overview of basic research and clinical studies on emotional memory reconsolidation interference. We point out specific advantages of interventions based on memory reconsolidation interference over traditional treatment for emotional disorders...
May 8, 2017: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375724/panic-disorder-comorbidity-with-medical-conditions-and-treatment-implications
#13
Alicia E Meuret, Juliet Kroll, Thomas Ritz
Panic disorder (PD) is unique among the anxiety disorders in that panic symptoms are primarily of a physical nature. Consequently, comorbidity with medical illness is significant. This review examines the association between PD and medical illness. We identify shared pathophysiological and psychological correlates and illustrate how physiological activation in panic sufferers underlies their symptom experience in the context of the fight-or-flight response and beyond a situation-specific response pattern. We then review evidence for bodily symptom perception accuracy in PD...
May 8, 2017: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375723/brain-mechanisms-of-the-placebo-effect-an-affective-appraisal-account
#14
Yoni K Ashar, Luke J Chang, Tor D Wager
Placebos are sham medical treatments. Nonetheless, they can have substantial effects on clinical outcomes. Placebos depend on a person's psychological and brain responses to the treatment context, which influence appraisals of future well-being. Appraisals are flexible cognitive evaluations of the personal meaning of events and situations that can directly impact symptoms and physiology. They also shape associative learning processes by guiding what is learned from experience. Appraisals are supported by a core network of brain regions associated with the default mode network involved in self-generated emotion, self-evaluation, thinking about the future, social cognition, and valuation of rewards and punishment...
May 8, 2017: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375722/the-link-between-mental-illness-and-firearm-violence-implications-for-social-policy-and-clinical-practice
#15
John S Rozel, Edward P Mulvey
The United States has substantially higher levels of firearm violence than most other developed countries. Firearm violence is a significant and preventable public health crisis. Mental illness is a weak risk factor for violence despite popular misconceptions reflected in the media and policy. That said, mental health professionals play a critical role in assessing their patients for violence risk, counseling about firearm safety, and guiding the creation of rational and evidence-based public policy that can be effective in mitigating violence risk without unnecessarily stigmatizing people with mental illness...
May 8, 2017: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375721/emotions-in-depression-what-do-we-really-know
#16
Jonathan Rottenberg
Major depressive disorder is among the most common and costly of all mental health conditions, and in the last 20 years, emotional dysfunction has been increasingly seen as central to depression. Accordingly, research on emotions in depression has proceeded with fury. The urgency of the work has tempted investigators to issue premature declarations and to sometimes overlook theoretical and methodological challenges entailed in studying emotion. I report on what we have learned thus far about how depression influences emotional reactivity and emotion regulation, and also carefully demarcate the vast terrain of what we do not yet know...
May 8, 2017: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375720/child-maltreatment-and-risk-for-psychopathology-in-childhood-and-adulthood
#17
Sara R Jaffee
Although rates of child maltreatment are declining, more than 600,000 children in the United States are substantiated victims of abuse or neglect. The focus of this review is on the relationship between maltreatment and mental health problems in childhood and adulthood. Children and adults who are exposed to abuse or neglect in childhood are at risk for a range of poor mental health outcomes, including internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, posttraumatic stress disorder, psychotic symptoms, and personality disorders...
May 8, 2017: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375719/predictive-processing-source-monitoring-and-psychosis
#18
Juliet D Griffin, Paul C Fletcher
A comprehensive understanding of psychosis requires models that link multiple levels of explanation: the neurobiological, the cognitive, the subjective, and the social. Until we can bridge several explanatory gaps, it is difficult to explain how neurobiological perturbations can manifest in bizarre beliefs or hallucinations, or how trauma or social adversity can perturb lower-level brain processes. We propose that the predictive processing framework has much to offer in this respect. We show how this framework may underpin and complement source monitoring theories of delusions and hallucinations and how, when considered in terms of a dynamic and hierarchical system, it may provide a compelling model of several key clinical features of psychosis...
May 8, 2017: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375718/trait-impulsivity-and-the-externalizing-spectrum
#19
Theodore P Beauchaine, Aimee R Zisner, Colin L Sauder
This article reviews evidence that trait impulsivity-expressed early in life as the hyperactive-impulsive and combined presentations of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-is a bottom-up, subcortically mediated vulnerability to all externalizing disorders. This vulnerability arises from deficient mesolimbic dopamine responding, which imbues psychological states (irritability, discontentment) that motivate excessive approach behavior (hyperactivity, impulsivity). Through complex interactions with (a) aversive motivational states that arise from largely independent subcortical systems, (b) emotion regulatory mechanisms that arise from top-down, cortical modulation of subcortical neural function, and (c) environmental risk factors that shape and maintain emotion dysregulation, trait impulsivity confers vulnerability to increasingly severe externalizing behaviors across development...
May 8, 2017: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301765/controversies-in-narcissism
#20
Joshua D Miller, Donald R Lynam, Courtland S Hyatt, W Keith Campbell
There has been a surge in interest in and research on narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder (NPD). Despite or because of this increased attention, there are several areas of substantial debate that surround the construct, including descriptions of grandiose and vulnerable dimensions or variants, questions regarding the existence of a consensual description, central versus peripheral features of narcissism, distinctions between normal and pathological narcissism, possible etiological factors, the role of self-esteem in narcissism, where narcissism should be studied, how it can be assessed, and its representation in diagnostic nosologies...
May 8, 2017: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
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