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Drug Discovery Today. Technologies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769362/fragment-based-in-silico-screening-of-bromodomain-ligands
#1
Dimitrios Spiliotopoulos, Amedeo Caflisch
We review the results of fragment-based high-throughput docking to the N-terminal bromodomain of BRD4 and the CREBBP bromodomain. In both docking campaigns the ALTA (anchor-based library tailoring) procedure was used to reduce the size of the initial library by selecting for flexible docking only the molecules that contain a fragment with favorable predicted binding energy. Ranking by a force field-based energy with solvation has resulted in small-molecule hits with low-micromolar affinity and favorable ligand efficiency...
March 2016: Drug Discovery Today. Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769361/development-of-chemical-probes-for-the-bromodomains-of-brd7-and-brd9
#2
Peter G K Clark, Darren J Dixon, Paul E Brennan
The bromodomain family of proteins are 'readers' of acetylated lysines of histones, a key mark in the epigenetic code of gene regulation. Without high quality chemical probes with which to study these proteins, their biological function, and potential use in therapeutics, remains unknown. Recently, a number of chemical ligands were reported for the previously unprobed bromodomain proteins BRD7 and BRD9. Herein the development and characterisation of probes against these proteins is detailed, including the preliminary biological activity of BRD7 and BRD9 assessed using these probes...
March 2016: Drug Discovery Today. Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769360/development-of-small-molecule-inhibitors-of-brpf1-and-trim24-bromodomains
#3
Wylie S Palmer
The entry of small molecule inhibitors of the bromodomain and extra C-terminal domain (BET) family of bromodomains into the clinic has demonstrated the therapeutic potential for this class of epigenetic acetyl-lysine reader proteins. Within the past two years, the development of potent inhibitors for the bromodomain and PHD finger containing protein (BRPF) family and the tripartite motif containing protein 24 (TRIM24) have been reported and are the subject of this review. Both proteins contain other domains with diverse functions and can also be part of a complex of proteins which have implications in epigenetic signaling and disease...
March 2016: Drug Discovery Today. Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769359/regulation-of-gene-expression-in-human-cancers-by-trim24
#4
Srikanth Appikonda, Kaushik N Thakkar, Michelle Craig Barton
Tripartite Motif-containing protein 24 (TRIM24) functions as an E3 ligase targeting p53 for ubiquitination, a histone 'reader' that interacts with a specific signature of histone post-translational modifications and a co-regulator of nuclear receptor-regulated transcription. Although mouse models of Trim24 depletion suggest that TRIM24 may be a liver-specific tumor suppressor, several studies show that human TRIM24 is an oncogene when aberrantly over expressed. This review focuses on the mechanisms of TRIM24 functions in oncogenesis and metabolic reprogramming, which underlie recent interest in therapeutic targeting of aberrant TRIM24 in human cancers...
March 2016: Drug Discovery Today. Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769358/the-exploitation-of-fret-probes-to-track-bromodomain-histone-interactions-in-cells-for-bromodomain-inhibitors
#5
Kazuki Sasaki, Minoru Yoshida
Bromodomain-containing proteins are epigenetic readers of histone codes, which recognize acetylated histones and are involved in transcription, nucleosome remodeling and DNA repair. Chromosomal translocations of bromodomain-containing proteins have been implicated in many diseases. In this regard, small molecules that inhibit bromodomains are promising as therapeutic agents. A fluorescence microscopy-based approach provides information on bromodomain inhibitors that abrogate the interaction between acetylated histones and bromodomains in living cells...
March 2016: Drug Discovery Today. Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769357/clinical-trials-for-bet-inhibitors-run-ahead-of-the-science
#6
REVIEW
Guillaume Andrieu, Anna C Belkina, Gerald V Denis
Several cancer clinical trials for small molecule inhibitors of BET bromodomain proteins have been initiated. There is enthusiasm for the anti-proliferative effect of inhibiting BRD4, one of the targets of these inhibitors, which is thought to cooperate with MYC, a long-desired target for cancer therapeutics. However, no current inhibitor is selective for BRD4 among the three somatic BET proteins, which include BRD2 and BRD3; their respective functions are partially overlapping and none are functionally redundant with BRD4...
March 2016: Drug Discovery Today. Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769356/suppression-of-th17-mediated-pathology-through-bet-bromodomain-inhibition
#7
Srimoyee Ghosh, Jose M Lora
Epigenetic control of gene expression is enforced in part through histone modifications. Bromodomain and extra terminal domain (BET) proteins function as crucial chromatin readers, responsible for interpretation of the chromatin code in diverse cellular contexts, ultimately impacting gene transcription. BET proteins can play a major role in inflammation by profoundly affecting the biology of the Thelper 17 (TH17) lineage. We summarize recent studies focusing on BET inhibition as a viable therapeutic alternative for the control of autoimmune diseases driven by aberrant activation of TH17 cells...
March 2016: Drug Discovery Today. Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769355/structural-features-and-inhibitors-of-bromodomains
#8
Jamel Meslamani, Steven G Smith, Roberto Sanchez, Ming-Ming Zhou
Bromodomains are conserved structural modules responsible for recognizing acetylated-lysine residues on histone tails and other transcription-associated proteins, such as transcription factors and co-factors. Owing to their important functions in the regulation of ordered gene transcription in chromatin, bromodomains of the BET family proteins have recently been shown as druggable targets for a wide array of human diseases, including cancer and inflammation. Here we review the structural and functional features of the bromodomains and their small-molecule inhibitors...
March 2016: Drug Discovery Today. Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769354/role-of-bet-proteins-in-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#9
Ester Fernandez-Salas, Shaomeng Wang, Arul M Chinnaiyan
Castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is a deadly disease with few therapeutic options once patients become resistant to second generation drugs targeting the AR-transcriptional program. The BET-BRD readers of chromatin are key regulators of AR-, ERG-, and c-Myc-mediated transcription in CRPC. BET-BRD inhibitors have demonstrated pre-clinical efficacy in models of CRPC and are currently being evaluated in several clinical trials. These novel drugs have the potential to transform the way we treat CRPC in the near future...
March 2016: Drug Discovery Today. Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769353/erythropoiesis-provides-a-brd-s-eye-view-of-bet-protein-function
#10
REVIEW
Aaron J Stonestrom, Sarah C Hsu, Michael T Werner, Gerd A Blobel
Pharmacologic inhibitors of the bromodomain and extra-terminal motif (BET) protein family are in clinical trials for the treatment of hematologic malignancies, yet the functions of individual BET proteins remain largely uncharacterized. We review the molecular roles of BETs in the context of erythropoiesis. Studies in this lineage have provided valuable insights into their mechanisms of action, and helped define the individual and overlapping functions of BET protein family members BRD2, BRD3, and BRD4. These studies have important ramifications for our understanding of the molecular and physiologic roles of BET proteins, and provide a framework for elucidating some of the beneficial and adverse effects of pharmacologic inhibitors...
March 2016: Drug Discovery Today. Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769352/phospho-brd4-transcription-plasticity-and-drug-targeting
#11
REVIEW
Cheng-Ming Chiang
BRD4 is an epigenetic regulator and transcription cofactor whose phosphorylation by CK2 and dephosphorylation by PP2A modulates its function in chromatin targeting, factor recruitment, and cancer progression. While the bromodomains of BET family proteins, including BRD4, BRD2, BRD3 and BRDT, have been the primary targets of small compounds such as JQ1, I-BET and MS417 that show promising anticancer effects against some hematopoietic cancer and solid tumors, drug resistance upon prolonged treatment necessitates a better understanding of alternative pathways underlying not only the resistance but also persistent BET protein dependence for identifying new targets and effective combination therapy strategies...
March 2016: Drug Discovery Today. Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769351/bromodomains-as-targets-for-therapeutic-intervention
#12
Steven G Smith, Ming-Ming Zhou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: Drug Discovery Today. Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26723894/challenges-in-profiling-and-lead-optimization-of-drug-discovery-for-methyltransferases
#13
REVIEW
Kurumi Y Horiuchi
The importance of epigenetics in the initiation and progression of disease has attracted many investigators to incorporate this novel and exciting field in drug development. Protein methyltransferases are one of the target classes which have gained attention as potential therapeutic targets after promising results of inhibitors for EZH2 and DOT1L in clinical trials. There are many technologies developed in order to find small molecule inhibitors for protein methyltransferases. However, in contrast to high throughput screening, profiling against different methyltransferases is challenging since each enzyme has a different substrate preference so that it is hard to profile in one assay format...
November 2015: Drug Discovery Today. Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26723893/kinase-profiling-in-early-stage-drug-discovery-sorting-things-out
#14
REVIEW
Olivier Defert, Sandro Boland
Protein kinases represent one of the largest superfamilies of drugable targets and a major research area for both the pharmaceutical industry and academic groups. This has resulted in the emergence of numerous screening technologies and services dedicated to kinase profiling. In spite of this plentiful offering, the field is not without its own pitfalls, as the profusion of reported conditions and data can ultimately complicate interpretation of project results. Here, we discuss how kinase profiling was used in our early stage drug discovery efforts, from the perspective of a smaller biotech relying largely on assay outsourcing...
November 2015: Drug Discovery Today. Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26723892/preface
#15
EDITORIAL
Haiching Ma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2015: Drug Discovery Today. Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26723891/screening-and-profiling-assays-for-hdacs-and-sirtuins
#16
REVIEW
Konrad T Howitz
Epigenetic factors are enzymes or proteins that confer, remove or recognize covalent modifications to chromatin DNA or proteins. They can be divided into three broad groups, commonly referred to as the 'writers', 'erasers' and 'readers'. The HDACs and sirtuins, which remove acetyl groups from the ɛ-amino of protein lysine residues, fall into the 'eraser' category. Due to their important effects on gene expression and involvement in various disease states, these enzymes have been the subjects of many assay development efforts in recent years...
November 2015: Drug Discovery Today. Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26723890/gpcr-profiling-from-hits-to-leads-and-from-genotype-to-phenotype
#17
REVIEW
Mary Ellen Cvijic, Chi Shing Sum, Andrew Alt, Litao Zhang
GPCRs remain one of the most important classes of drug targets and, therefore, GPCR assay development and high-throughput GPCR ligand profiling continue to be major efforts in drug discovery. This article focuses on GPCR platform strategies from hits to leads with miniaturized complex pharmacology approaches. Three main areas of GPCR profiling are discussed including pharmacologically relevant hit identification, the pharmacology dossier applied to parallel structure activity and structure liability relationships and high-throughput mechanism studies from genotype to phenotype...
November 2015: Drug Discovery Today. Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26723889/profiling-technologies-for-the-identification-and-characterization-of-small-molecule-histone-deacetylase-inhibitors
#18
REVIEW
Daiqing Liao
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are promising drug targets for treating cancer, neurologic, inflammatory and metabolic diseases. Four small molecule inhibitors of HDACs have gained regulatory approval for treating lymphomas and multiple myelomas. Highly sensitive in vitro and cell-based profiling technologies have been developed to discover HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) and characterize their inhibitory potency, target-binding specificity and kinetics. In particular, proteomic profiling can define the specificity of an inhibitor at a single residue resolution...
November 2015: Drug Discovery Today. Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26723888/ion-channel-profiling-to-advance-drug-discovery-and-development
#19
REVIEW
Beiyan Zou
In vitro pharmacological profiling provides crucial information to eliminate drug candidates with potential toxicity early in drug discovery and reduce failure in later stages. It has become a common practice in industry to test lead compounds against a panel of ion channel targets for selectivity and safety liability at early drug discovery stages. Ion channel profiling technologies include binding assays, flux assays, fluorescent membrane potential assays, automated and conventional electrophysiology. Instead of examining compound effects on individual ion channel targets, automated current clamp, optical electrophysiology, and multi-electrode assays have evolved to investigate the integrated compound effects on cardiac myocytes...
November 2015: Drug Discovery Today. Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26723887/cell-based-assays-to-support-the-profiling-of-small-molecules-with-histone-methyltransferase-and-demethylase-modulatory-activity
#20
REVIEW
Natalia J Martinez, Anton Simeonov
Histone methylation is a prevalent and dynamic chromatin modification, executed by the action of histone methyltransferases (HMTs) and demethylases (HDMs). Aberrant activity of many of these enzymes is associated with human disease, hence, there is a growing interest in identifying corresponding small molecule inhibitors with therapeutic potential. To date, most of the technologies supporting the identification of these inhibitors constitute in vitro biochemical assays which, although robust and sensitive, do not study HMTs and HDMs in their native cellular state nor provide information of inhibitor's cell permeability and toxicity...
November 2015: Drug Discovery Today. Technologies
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