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Pharmacological Reports: PR

Marta Jóźwiak-Bębenista, Magdalena Jasińska-Stroschein, Edward Kowalczyk
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK)-associated signaling pathway in the frontal cortical areas demonstrates abnormal activity in cases of schizophrenia. Moreover, schizophrenia patients often display alterations in the regional cellular energy metabolism and blood flow of the brain; these are shown to parallel changes in angiogenesis primarily mediated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). METHODS: The present study examines the differential effects of time-dependent treatment with haloperidol, olanzapine and amisulpride (20 μM) on VEGF and MAPK mRNA expression and VEGF level, using the T98 cell line as an example of nerve cells...
August 22, 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Klaudia Kwiatkowski, Joanna Mika
The treatment of neuropathic pain resulting from nervous system malfunction remains a challenging problem for doctors and scientists. The lower effectiveness of conventionally used analgesics in neuropathic pain is associated with complex and not fully understood mechanisms of its development. Undoubtedly, interactions between immune and nervous system are crucial for maintenance of painful neuropathy. Nerve injury induces glial cell activation and thus enhances the production of numerous pronociceptive factors by these cells, including interleukins and chemokines...
August 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Hanaa Mahmoud Ali
BACKGROUND: Lead acetate (Led) and mercury chloride (Mer) represent important ecological and public health concerns due to their hazardous toxicities. Naturally found products play a vital role in chemopreventive agent innovation. The current study aimed to assess the modifying effect of garlic (Gar) and/or vitamin E (Vit E) against the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) Led and/or Mer-induced cytotoxic, genotoxic and apoptotic effects. METHODS: Human lung cells (WI-38) were pretreated with Gar and/or Vit E for 24h and then treated with Led and/or Mer either alone or with their combination for 24h...
August 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Tomasz Kocki, Ewa M Urbańska, Janusz Kocki, Renata Kloc, Katarzyna Kocka, Marcin Olajossy, Björn Owe-Larsson
BACKGROUND: Accumulating data suggest an important role of disturbed kynurenine pathway and altered glutamatergic transmission in the pathogenesis of depression. In here, we focused on detailed analyses of kynurenic acid (KYNA) status in vivo following single and 14-day administration of selected tricyclic antidepressant drugs (TCAs) and serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in rats. METHODS: The effect of antidepressants on serum and brain KYNA levels, as well as on the activity of kynurenine aminotransferases (KATs I and II) and expression of Kat1 and Kat2 genes mRNA was studied in three brain regions...
August 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Monika Majewska-Szczepanik, Paulina Kowalczyk, Dominika Biała, Katarzyna Marcińska, Anna Strzępa, Dorota Woźniak, Piotr Sura, James Pearson, Li Wen, Marian Szczepanik
BACKGROUND: Cyclophosphamide (CY) is one of the most widely used alkylating agents in the treatment of various cancers and some autoimmune diseases. Numerous reports suggest that CY exerts immunoregulatory effects. Animal studies have shown CY affects contact sensitivity (CS) response by depleting CD4+ CD25+ T regulatory cells and CD8+ T suppressor (Ts) cells. In a mouse model of CS, we previously showed that in vivo treatment with CY shapes the immunogenic/immunoregulatory balance of peritoneal macrophages...
August 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Arun K Sharma, Ashish Kumar, Gaurav Taneja, Upendra Nagaich, Aakash Deep, Ashok K Datusalia, Satyendra K Rajput
BACKGROUND: Myocardial infarction (MI) is a solitary fatal condition with towering prevalence of mortality worldwide. Our previous study reports that low-dose copper nanoparticles (CuNP) can halt the progression of diabetes-induced cardiotoxicity as copper has anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative and anti-oxidant potential. In addition, exercise training has also been considered a hallmark for cardiac health. METHOD: Cardioprotective potential of CuNP (1mg/kg/day, po, 4 weeks) and exercise (swimming, 90min, 5days/4 weeks) either alone or in combination was estimated by measuring the surge in serum nitrite/nitrate concentration and reduction in creatine kinase MB (CKMB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), cardiac troponin I (cTnI), lipid profile, oxidative stress, structural abnormalities against isproterenol (ISO)-induced MI...
August 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Thiago Roberto Lima Romero, Raquel Rodrigues Soares Santos, Marina Gomes Miranda E Castor, Júlia Alvarenga Petrocchi, Luciana Souza Guzzo, Andre Klein, Igor Dimitri Gama Duarte
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate this involvement in not inflammatory model of pain and which opioid receptor subtype mediates noradrenaline-induced peripheral antinociception. Noradrenaline is involved in the intrinsic control of pain-inducing pro-nociceptive effects in the primary afferent nociceptors. However, inflammation can induce various plastic changes in the central and peripheral noradrenergic system that, upon interaction with the immune system, may contribute, in part, to peripheral antinociception...
August 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Maksym V Kopanitsa, Gemma Gou, Nurudeen O Afinowi, Àlex Bayés, Seth G N Grant, Noboru H Komiyama
BACKGROUND: Synaptic Ras-GTPase-activating protein 1 (SYNGAP1) is an abundant brain-specific protein localized at the postsynaptic density of mammalian excitatory synapses. SYNGAP1 functions as a crucial regulator of downstream intracellular signaling triggered by N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor activation. One of the most important signaling pathways regulated by SYNGAP1 is the Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK pathway. SYNGAP1 deficiency is associated with hyperphosphorylation of MEK and ERK kinases and with altered synaptic function in Syngap1+/- mice...
August 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Inci Kazkayasi, Nihan Burul-Bozkurt, Muhammad-Al-Mustafa Ismail, Paula Merino-Serrais, Can Pekiner, Angel Cedazo-Minguez, Serdar Uma
BACKGROUND: Many studies have indicated a relationship between diabetes and Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the molecular mechanism underlying this association has not been clarified. Among several factors, insulin degrading enzyme (IDE), which plays roles in the degradation of both insulin and amyloid β (Aβ), has gained interest as a potential target in efforts to solve this puzzle. This study sought to examine the effects of varying insulin and/or glucose concentrations on IDE expression...
August 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Sayed Aliul Hasan Abdi, Mohd Amir Afjal, Abul Kalam Najmi, Sheikh Raisuddin
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the modulatory effect of S-allyl cysteine against cyclophosphamide-induced changes in uroplakin IIIa, CCL11 and TNF-α. METHODS: Mice were treated with cyclophosphamide (200mg/kg×7 d, ip). S-allyl cysteine (150mg/kg×7d, ip), and comparator compound mesna (40mg/kg×7d, ip) were administered 1h before and 4h after each cyclophosphamide dose. The urinary bladder was analysed for mRNA and protein changes in uroplakin IIIa (UPIIIa), CCL11 and TNF-α and histopathological findings...
August 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Piotr Buczko, Dariusz Pawlak, Irena Kasacka
BACKGROUND: Limited data demonstrate the effect of nickel released from orthodontic appliances. The mechanism of this action is not clear. The present study aimed to investigate the role of kynurenines, oxidative stress and caspase pathway in the mechanism of nickel action. METHODS: We studied the concentration of nickel, 3-hydroxykynurenine, total oxidative status in saliva and caspase-3 in epithelial cells in 10 subjects before and one week after orthodontic treatment...
August 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Maurizio Viale, Massimiliano Monticone, Irena Maric, Valentina Giglio, Aldo Profumo, Anna Aprile, Michele Cilli, Maria Luisa Abelmoschi, Mattia Rocco
BACKGROUND: Local delivery of anticancer drugs represents a desirable type of treatment. Nevertheless, characteristics such as availability, biocompatibility, ease of operation, and efficacy sometimes represent difficult to overcome hurdles. Fibrin gels (FBGs) may be attractive biomaterials for local treatment when loaded with different chemotherapeutics or with polymer-anticancer-drug conjugates and nanoparticles. These components, linked together, might represent candidates to counteract local recurrences or reduce the volume of inoperable tumors...
August 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Felipe J Cavichioli, Graylin N B Bernal, Iandra Holzmann, Juliana Bagatini Klein, Ricardo Escarcena, Esther Del Olmo, Arturo San Feliciano, Valdir Cechinel Filho, Nara L M Quintão
BACKGROUND: The study evaluated the effects of two sphingosine derivatives N-(2-tert-butoxycarbamylhexadecyl)glutaramide (AA) and N-(1-benzyloxyhexadec-2-yl)glutaramide (OA) in different models of hypersensitivity in mice. METHODS: Male Swiss mice were orally pre-treated with AA or OA (0.3-3mg/kg). After 1h, they received λ-carrageenan (300μg/paw), lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100ng/paw), bradykinin (BK; 500ng/paw) or prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ; 0.1nmol/paw) or epinephrine (100ng/paw), and the mechanical withdrawal thresholds were evaluated using von Frey filament (0...
August 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Chien-Hsing Lee, Zen-Kong Dai, Cheng-Ting Yen, Su-Ling Hsieh, Bin-Nan Wu
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycemia accompanied by impaired vascular and endothelial function. Activation of ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP ) channels can protect endothelial function against hypertension and hyperglycemia. KMUP-1, a xanthine derivative, has been demonstrated to modulate K+ -channel activity in smooth muscles. This study investigated protective mechanisms of KMUP-1 in impaired mesenteric artery (MA) reactivity in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats...
August 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Namrata Chaudhari, Palaniyandi Ravanan
BACKGROUND: Bardoxolone methyl (RTA 402, CDDOMe) has been long known for its anti-inflammatory and exceptional cytotoxic activity. The biological responses to CDDOMe are truly dose dependent. And owing to the structural modifications introduced in its parent molecule oleanolic acid, CDDOMe is able to form reversible adducts with cellular proteins containing redox sensitive cysteine residues. This nature of CDDOMe makes it a multifunctional molecule targeting multiple signaling pathways...
August 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Samah S Abbas, Hesham M Mahmoud, Mona F Schaalan, Hanan S El-Abhar
BACKGROUND: The current study is focusing on the role of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), a substrate of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) enzyme, and its signaling survival pathway in the cardioprotective mechanism of sitagliptin, a DPP-4 inhibitor. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were randomized into 7 groups, sham, I/R, KT-5823 (selective protein kinase (PK) G inhibitor), 5-HD (selective mito-KATP channel blocker), sitagliptin (300mg/kg, po), sitagliptin+KT-5823, and sitagliptin+5-HD...
August 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Saeed Mehrzadi, Iman Fatemi, Ali Reza Malayeri, Ali Khodadadi, Fatemeh Mohammadi, Esrafil Mansouri, Mohammad Rashno, Mehdi Goudarzi
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ellagic acid (EA) on arsenic-induced renal and hepatic toxicity in rats. METHODS: A total number of 35 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five experimental groups. Group 1 received normal saline (po). Group 2 received sodium arsenite (SA, 10mg/kg, po) for 21days. Group 3 received EA (30mg/kg, po) for 14days. Groups 4 and 5 received SA 7days prior to EA (10 and 30mg/kg respectively) treatment and continued up to 21days simultaneous with SA administration...
August 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Xiang-Fan Chen, Xiao-Li Li, Jin-Xin Liu, Jing Xu, Yan-Yan Zhao, Min Yang, Yan Zhang
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to study the osteo-preservative effects of captopril, an inhibitor on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), on bone mass, micro-architecture and histomorphology as well as the modulation of captopril on skeletal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and regulators for bone metabolism in mice with bilateral orchidectomy. METHODS: The orchidectomized (ORX) mice were orally administered with vehicle or captopril at low dose (10mg/kg) and high dose (50mg/kg) for six weeks...
August 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Yanier Nuñez-Figueredo, Jeney Ramírez-Sánchez, Gilberto L Pardo Andreu, Estael Ochoa-Rodríguez, Yamila Verdecia-Reyes, Diogo O Souza
Ischemic stroke is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. Thrombolysis by tissue plasminogen activator is the only pharmacological treatment approved for clinical practice, but has a narrow therapeutic window and poor efficacy when the cell death cascade is activated. Numerous drugs that are thought to protect neurons against injury have previously failed in human trials despite showing efficacy in experimental models of stroke. Herein, we reviewed the main pre-clinical results of the neuroprotective effects of JM-20, a new hybrid molecule, against brain ischemia...
August 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Jan Jaracz, Edyta Tetera- Rudnicka, Magdalena Bierejszyk, Kaja Witczyk, Agnieszka Raczyńska, Wojciech Nowak, Anna Pisarczyk, Krzysztof Woźniak, Wojciech Czernaś, Adam Moniakowski, Krystyna Jaracz
BACKGROUND: The concomitant use of two or more mood stabilisers (MS), second-generation antipsychotics (SGA), lamotrigine as well as antidepressants, is frequently reported in the treatment of bipolar patients The aim of this study was to investigate the pattern of pharmacological treatment with special regard to polypharmacy defined as two or more psychiatric drugs taken at the same time in the same patients with bipolar disorder discharged from psychiatric units in Poland. METHOD: Pharmacotherapy of 127 consecutive patients (57 females and 70 males) with an ICD-10 diagnosis of bipolar disorder (BP) at the point of discharge from five psychiatric regional hospitals/units in Poland, was evaluated in 2015/2016 on the basis of medical files...
August 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
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