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Pharmacological Reports: PR

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128802/chronic-social-isolation-in-adaptation-of-hpa-axis-to-heterotypic-stress
#1
Anna Gądek-Michalska, Andrzej Bugajski, Joanna Tadeusz, Paulina Rachwalska, Jan Bugajski
BACKGROUND: Social crowding and isolation are recognized as major stressors and risk factors for development of psychiatric disorders. Chronic isolation stress (IS) and crowding stress (CS) activate neuroendocrine and neurochemical mechanisms, that activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Changes of the plasma level of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), ACTH and corticosterone (CORT) after chronic psychosocial IS and CS were investigated. METHODS: Control rats were kept 5 per cage and not stressed...
November 9, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550802/mechanism-of-action-of-three-newly-registered-drugs-for-multiple-sclerosis-treatment
#2
REVIEW
Kaja Kasarełło, Agnieszka Cudnoch-Jędrzejewska, Andrzej Członkowski, Dagmara Mirowska-Guzel
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease of suspected autoimmune origin leading to neurodegeneration. The disease pathomechanism is considered to be primarily based on neuroinflammation directed against myelin antigens caused by autoreactive T cells. MS etiology remains still unknown, which makes it difficult to create an efficient therapy, therefore, MS treatment targets mechanisms involved in disease pathology. In this review, we present the mechanism of action of three newly registered drugs for MS. Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is an agent presenting a broad spectrum of action...
August 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501682/the-role-of-arachidonic-acid-cyclooxygenase-cascade-phosphodiesterase-iv-and-rho-kinase-in-h2s-induced-relaxation-in-the-mouse-corpus-cavernosum
#3
Fatma Aydinoglu, Nuran Ogulener
BACKGROUND: Penile corpus cavernosum is an extremely vascularized tissue and cavernosal smooth muscle tone is regulated by the balance between contractile and relaxant factor. We investigated the possible role of arachidonic acid/cyclooxygenase cascade, phosphodiesterase IV (PDEIV) and Rho-kinase in exogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S)-induced relaxation in mouse corpus cavernosum. METHODS: The relaxant response to H2S (NaHS as exogenous H2S; 1-1000μM) were obtained in isolated mouse corpus cavernosum tissues which pre-contracted by phenylephrine (5μM)...
August 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128811/autophagy-mitophagy-and-apoptotic-gene-changes-in-the-hippocampal-ca1-area-in-a-rat-ischemic-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Marzena Ułamek-Kozioł, Janusz Kocki, Anna Bogucka-Kocka, Sławomir Januszewski, Jacek Bogucki, Stanisław J Czuczwar, Ryszard Pluta
BACKGROUND: Postichemic brain injury correlates with poor prognosis since selectively vulnerable parts of brain are associated with apoptotic neuronal death. But autophagy has been recognized, as a probable survival mechanism following brain ischemia. METHODS: We have analyzed, by quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR assay protocol, three genes: autophagy, mitophagy and caspase 3 for neuronal death response in ischemic hippocampal CA1 area. RESULTS: We have found that autophagy gene was not significantly modified at all time points after ischemia, whereas mitophagy and caspase 3 genes were upregulated at day 2 and decreased to basal values at days 7 and 30...
July 14, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128798/mechanistic-evaluation-of-neuroprotective-effect-of-estradiol-on-rotenone-and-6-ohda-induced-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Dongfang Shen, Xiaoyan Tian, Binbin Zhang, Rongrong Song
BACKGROUND: The present study was intended to investigate the protective effect of estradiol against Parkinson's disease through the use of rotenone-induced neurotoxicity model. METHODS: To define the effect on the behavioral function, Tail suspension test, morris water maize test and cylinder tests were performed. Several biochemical and histological markers related to Parkinson's disease was determined in animal and cell culture models. To evaluate the effect of estradiol on the cellular architecture in rotenone-induced brain tissue, the histopathological examination was carried out by using Haemotoxylin and Eosin staining...
July 8, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128794/baicalin-protects-against-gastroduodenal-ulcers-via-the-modulation-of-nrf2-expression-experimental-biochemical-and-histological-analyses
#6
Tao Zhang, Dong Yang, Xiangyu Meng
BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to determine the mechanisms underlying the gastroprotective effects of baicalin using several animal models of chemically induced gastric ulcers. METHODS: The gastroprotective effects of baicalin against ulcers induced by water immersion stress, alcohol-induced ligation, and indomethacin-induced pylorus ligation were assessed in the present study. Additionally, macroscopic evaluations were performed at the completion of the study and Western blot analyses of Nrf2 were conducted to determine the possible mechanisms of action underlying the effects of baicalin...
July 8, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128795/chemosensitive-effects-of-astragaloside-iv-in-osteosarcoma-cells-via-induction-of-apoptosis-and-regulation-of-caspase-dependent-fas-fasl-signaling
#7
Tongzhou Hu, Zhenghua Fei, Nan Wei
BACKGROUND: The response of conventional chemotherapy for osteosarcoma treatment is usually poor, and chemotherapy-related severe side effects and drug resistance remain a problem. Abundant evidence has shown that Astragaloside IV, extracted from Astragalus membranaceus Bunge, strongly inhibits the growth of many carcinomas. We aimed to investigate the chemosensitive effects of Astragaloside IV in osteosarcoma in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: Human osteosarcoma cell lines MG-63 and 143B, and BALB/c nu/nu mice xenograft were used...
July 5, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128800/beneficial-roles-of-honey-polyphenols-against-some-human-degenerative-diseases-a-review
#8
REVIEW
Md Sakib Hossen, Md Yousuf Ali, M H A Jahurul, Mohamed M Abdel-Daim, Siew Hua Gan, Md Ibrahim Khalil
Honey contains many active constituents and antioxidants such as polyphenols. Polyphenols are phytochemicals, a generic term for the several thousand plant-based molecules with antioxidant properties. Many in vitro studies in human cell cultures as well as many animal studies confirm the protective effect of polyphenols on a number of diseases such as cardiovascular diseases (CVD), diabetes, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, pulmonary diseases, liver diseases and so on. Nevertheless, it is challenging to identify the specific biological mechanism underlying individual polyphenols and to determine how polyphenols impact human health...
July 4, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128799/fty720-inhibits-the-nrf2-are-pathway-in-human-glioblastoma-cell-lines-and-sensitizes-glioblastoma-cells-to-temozolomide
#9
Li Zhang, Handong Wang
BACKGROUND: Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a redox-sensitive transcription factor regulating the expression of various cytoprotective genes. Constitutive Nrf2 activation in many cancers enhances cell survival and resistance to anti-cancer drugs. Our previous studies have shown that FTY720 induced autophagy-related apoptosis and necroptosis and inhibited invasion and migration in human glioblastoma cells. However, whether FTY720 regulated Nrf2 in glioblastoma cells remained unclear...
July 4, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128804/hexachlorobenzene-as-a-persistent-organic-pollutant-toxicity-and-molecular-mechanism-of-action
#10
REVIEW
Beata Starek-Świechowicz, Bogusława Budziszewska, Andrzej Starek
Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is an organochlorine pesticide widely distributed in the environment. Chronic exposure of humans to HCB leads to a number of effects, such as triggering of porphyria, microsomal enzyme induction, thyroid dysfunctions, neurological symptoms, and immunological disorders. In animals, HCB induced hepatic porphyria, neurotoxic effects, and toxic effects on the thyroid function, reproductive system, and immune system. HCB as a dioxin-like compound and a weak ligand of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a hormonal disruptor...
July 1, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128791/acpa-and-jwh-133-modulate-the-vascular-tone-of-superior-mesenteric-arteries-through-cannabinoid-receptors-bkca-channels-and-nitric-oxide-dependent-mechanisms
#11
Evelyn López-Dyck, Felipa Andrade-Urzúa, Alejandro Elizalde, Tania Ferrer-Villada, Adan Dagnino-Acosta, Miguel Huerta, Zyanya Osuna-Calleros, Cinthia Rangel-Sandoval, Enrique Sánchez-Pastor
BACKGROUND: Some cannabinoids, a family of compounds derived from Cannabis sativa (marijuana), have previously shown vasodilator effects in several studies, a feature that makes them suitable for the generation of a potential treatment for hypertension. The mechanism underlying this vasodilator effect in arteries is still controversial. In this report, we explored how the synthetic cannabinoids ACPA (CB1-selective agonist) and JWH-133 (CB2-selective agonist) regulate the vascular tone of rat superior mesenteric arteries...
July 1, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132093/a-benzothiazole-piperazine-derivative-with-acetylcholinesterase-inhibitory-activity-improvement-in-streptozotocin-induced-cognitive-deficits-in-rats
#12
Ümide Demir Özkay, Özgür Devrim Can, Begüm Nurpelin Sağlık, Nazlı Turan
BACKGROUND: Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are frequently prescribed to mitigate the cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease. Thus, we investigated the possible efficacy of the AChE inhibitor 2-[(6-Nitro-2-benzothiazolyl)amino]-2-oxoethyl4-[2-(N,N-dimethylamino)ethyl] piperazine-1 carbodithioate (BPCT) in a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced Alzheimer's disease model (SADM). METHODS: First, we analyzed the molecular interaction of BPCT with AChE via a docking study...
June 30, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128808/attenuation-of-renal-damage-in-type-i-diabetic-rats-by-umbelliferone-a-coumarin-derivative
#13
Mayuresh S Garud, Yogesh A Kulkarni
BACKGROUND: It is well known that diabetes is one of the non-communicable disease affecting a large population worldwide. When diabetes remains untreated or uncontrolled, it leads to further serious complications, affecting vital organs like eyes, kidney, heart, etc. The present study was designed to evaluate effects of umbelliferone, a phytochemical, in treatment of diabetic nephropathy. METHODS: Experimental model used was streptozotocin (55mg/kg, ip) induced diabetic nephropathy in male Sprague Dawley rats...
June 27, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128807/apigenin-a-novel-candidate-involving-herb-drug-interaction-hdi-interacts-with-organic-anion-transporter-1-oat1
#14
Ting Wu, Haixin Li, Jiasheng Chen, Ying Cao, Weimin Fu, Pingzheng Zhou, Jianxin Pang
BACKGROUND: Apigenin is a flavonoid compound, widely distributed in natural plants. Various studies have suggested that apigenin has inhibitory effects towards several drug transporters, such as the organic anion transporting (OAT) polypeptides, 1B1 and 1B3 (OATP1B1 and OATP1B3). However, the mechanism by which apigenin interacts with OAT1 has not been well studied. METHODS: MDCK cells stably-expressing OAT1 were used to examine the inhibitory effects of apigenin on OAT1...
June 27, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132096/quercetin-prevents-type-1-diabetic-liver-damage-through-inhibition-of-cyp2e1
#15
Oksana Maksymchuk, Angela Shysh, Inna Rosohatska, Mykola Chashchyn
BACKGROUND: Increased CYP2E1 protein and activity levels can be the main cause of stress-mediated liver damage in diabetes. In this work we investigated the quercetin properties to prevent diabetic oxidative liver injury through inhibition of CYP2E1. METHODS: Animals were randomly divided into three groups (n=5 for each group): non-diabetic control, STZ-diabetic rats and STZ-diabetic rats administered with quercetin (50mg/kg bw, per day, during 30days). Markers of oxidative stress and liver injury, hepatocyte ultrastructure and levels of CYP2E1 protein and activity were examined using biochemical, electron microscopy and molecular biological methods...
June 24, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128796/nanomechanical-testing-of-drug-activities-at-the-cellular-level-case-study-for-endothelium-targeted-drugs
#16
Agnieszka M Kolodziejczyk, Marta Targosz-Korecka, Marek Szymonski
BACKGROUND: The pharmacological treatment of cardiovascular diseases that may potentially be attributed to endothelial dysfunction often requires the application of endothelium-targeted drugs. Simvastatin is one of such drugs currently on the market due to its established anti-inflammatory activities. The nanomechanical response to drug treatment at the cellular level is not yet known. However, this response mechanism is promising as a prospective testing method for newly developing drugs...
June 24, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128806/emotional-disorders-induced-by-hemopressin-and-rvd-hemopressin-%C3%AE-administration-in-rats
#17
Sheila Leone, Lucia Recinella, Annalisa Chiavaroli, Sara Martinotti, Claudio Ferrante, Adriano Mollica, Giorgia Macedonio, Azzurra Stefanucci, Szabolcs Dvorácskó, Csaba Tömböly, Luciano De Petrocellis, Michele Vacca, Luigi Brunetti, Giustino Orlando
BACKGROUND: The endocannabinoid (eCB) system plays an important role in regulating emotional disorders, and is involved, directly or indirectly, in psychiatric diseases, such as anxiety and depression. Hemopressin, a hemoglobin α chain-derived peptide, and RVD-hemopressin(α), a N-terminally extended form of hemopressin, act as antagonist/inverse agonist and negative allosteric modulator of the cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor, respectively. METHODS: Considering the possible involvement of these peptides on emotional behaviour, the aim of our study was to investigate the behavioural effects of a single intraperitoneal (ip) injection of hemopressin (0...
June 23, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136581/honokiol-exerts-dual-effects-on-browning-and-apoptosis-of-adipocytes
#18
Jameel Lone, Jong Won Yun
BACKGROUND: Induction of brown adipocyte-like phenotype (browning) in white adipocytes and promotion of apoptosis by dietary and pharmacological compounds is considered a novel strategy against obesity. Here, we show that honokiol exerts dual modulatory effects on adipocytes via induction of browning in 3T3-L1 white adipocytes and apoptosis as well as activation of HIB1B brown adipocytes combined with inhibition of apoptosis. METHODS: Honokiol-induced browning and apoptosis were investigated by determining expression levels of brown adipocyte-specific genes and proteins by RT-PCR and immunoblot analysis, respectively...
June 19, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132092/berberine-attenuates-cognitive-impairment-and-ameliorates-tau-hyperphosphorylation-by-limiting-the-self-perpetuating-pathogenic-cycle-between-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-oxidative-stress-and-neuroinflammation
#19
Wenbo He, Chuanling Wang, Yi Chen, Yongli He, Zhiyou Cai
BACKGROUND: Berberine (BBR) plays an important role in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present work was to explore whether BBR ameliorates cognitive deficits in AD and to investigate whether its underlying mechanism involves inhibiting hyperphosphorylated tau protein. METHODS: The cognitive function was measured by the Morris water maze (MWM) test. The levels of hyperphosphorylated tau proteins were determined by Western blot. The biomarkers of NF-κB signaling pathway and oxidative stress were detected by Western blot and biochemical assays...
June 15, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128809/icariin-induces-apoptosis-in-acute-promyelocytic-leukemia-by-targeting-pim1
#20
Hong Zhang, Ping Li, Jing Li, Tongguo Song, Lin Wang, Enze Li, Jiao Wang, Luning Wang, Na Wei, Zhi Wang
BACKGROUND: Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is one type of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) featured by abnormal, heavily granulated promyelocytes. This study aimed to investigate the antitumor activity of icariin in APL cells. METHODS: APL cell lines (HL-60 and NB4) were used to investigate the effect of icariin in vitro. Cell viability was determined by WST-8 proliferation assay, while cell apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry. The mRNA and protein expression was determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot, respectively...
June 15, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
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