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Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management

Mary S Marty, Amy Blankinship, Janice Chambers, Lisa Constantine, Werner Kloas, Anupama Kumar, Laurent Lagadic, James Meador, Daniel Pickford, Tamar Schwarz, Tim Verslycke
For ecotoxicological risk assessment, endocrine disruptors require the establishment of an endocrine mode of action (MoA) with a plausible linkage to a population-relevant adverse effect. Current ecotoxicity test methods mostly incorporate apical endpoints although some also include mechanistic endpoints, subcellular-through-organ-level, which can help establish an endocrine MoA. However, the link between these endpoints and adverse population-level effects is often unclear. The case studies of endocrine-active substances (EAS) (tributyltin, ethinylestradiol, perchlorate, trenbolone, propiconazole, and vinclozolin) evaluated for the SETAC Pellston Workshop™: Environmental Hazard and Risk Assessment Approaches for Endocrine-Active Chemicals were used to evaluate the population relevance of toxicity endpoints in various taxa according to regulatory endocrine disruptor frameworks such as the OECD Conceptual Framework for Testing and Assessment of Endocrine Disruptors...
January 4, 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Ellen M Mihaich, Christoph Schäfers, David A Dreier, Markus Hecker, Lisa Ortego, Yukio Kawashima, Zhi-Chao Dang, Keith Solomon
As regulatory programs evaluate substances for their endocrine disrupting properties, careful study design and data interpretation is needed to distinguish between responses that are truly endocrine-specific and those that are not. This is particularly important in regulatory environments where criteria are under development to identify endocrine disrupting properties to enable hazard-based regulation. Irrespective of these processes, most jurisdictions use the WHO/IPCS definition of an endocrine disruptor (ED), requiring that a substance is demonstrated to cause a change in endocrine function that consequently leads to an adverse effect in an intact organism...
December 15, 2016: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Chengfang Pang, Artur Radomyski, Vrishali Subramanian, Mandana Nadimi-Goki, Antonio Marcomini, Igor Linkov
Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) have received greater attention in recent years due to an increase in the frequency of outbreaks and a growing potential for blooms to exact considerable economic losses and negatively impact ecosystem health. Human activity has been shown to intensify HAB outbreaks through increased eutrophication, elevated local air and water temperatures, disturbance of the thermal stratification of lakes, and modification of local hydrology. With the advent of new remediation technologies and a better understanding of the ecological factors affecting HABs, mitigating the adverse effects of HABs has become more feasible than ever before, but still requires balancing mitigation efficiency, environmental impacts, costs, and stakeholder needs...
December 15, 2016: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Rick A van Dam, Alicia C Hogan, Andrew J Harford
Water quality guideline values (GVs) are a key tool for water quality assessments. Site-specific GVs, which incorporate data relevant to local conditions and organisms, provide a higher level of confidence that the GV will protect the aquatic ecosystem at a site compared to generic GVs. Site-specific GVs are, therefore, considered particularly suitable for sites of high sociopolitical or ecological importance. The present paper provides an example of the refinement of a site-specific GV for high ecological value aquatic ecosystems in Kakadu National Park, Northern Territory, Australia, to improve its site specificity and statistical robustness, thereby increasing confidence in its application...
December 12, 2016: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Mark S Johnson, Catherine Aubee, Christopher J Salice, Katrina J Leigh, Elissa Liu, Ute Pott, David Pillard
Historically, ecological risk assessments have rarely included amphibian species, focusing preferentially on other aquatic (fish, invertebrates, algae) and terrestrial wildlife (birds and mammal) species. Often this lack of consideration is due to a paucity of toxicity data, significant variation in study design, uncertainty with regard to exposure or a combination of all three. Productive risk assessments for amphibians are particularly challenging given variations in complex life history strategies. Further consideration is needed for the development of useful laboratory animal models and appropriate experimental test procedures which can be effectively applied to the examination of biological response patterns...
December 12, 2016: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Meagan J Harris, Duane B Huggett, Jane P Staveley, John P Sumpter
Students and academic researchers conduct a diverse range of studies that add to the growing body of ecotoxicology research. Once an academic researcher entertains an applied research topic, there is potential for that research to be used in local, state or federal regulatory decision or action. The ability of regulatory decision makers to use academic studies to inform decisions is dependent on 1) the relevance of the experiment to regulatory decisions, 2) the reliability of the laboratory and the study itself, and 3) quality reporting of data such that study relevance and reliability are evident...
December 9, 2016: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Cta Moermond, A Beasley, R Breton, M Junghans, R Laskowski, K Solomon, H Zahner
In general, reliable studies are well designed, performed, and enough details on study design and performance are reported to assess the study. For hazard and risk assessment in various legal frameworks, many different types of ecotoxicity studies need to be evaluated for reliability. These studies vary in study design, methodology, quality, and in the level of detail reported (e.g., reviews, peer-reviewed research papers, or industry-sponsored studies documented under Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) guidelines)...
November 21, 2016: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Annegaaike Leopold, Mike Roberts, Peter Matthiessen
This collection of papers provides state-of-the-art science on a complex topic that has been challenging for scientists and regulators for a long time. The papers emanated from the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) Pellston Workshop(®) Environmental Hazard and Risk Assessment Approaches for Endocrine-Active Substances (EHRA). Forty-eight international experts met in early February 2016 to discuss whether the environmental risks posed by endocrine-disrupting substances (EDS) can be reliably assessed...
November 16, 2016: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Katja Knauer, Nadzeya Homazava, Marion Junghans, Inge Werner
Environmental risk assessment is an essential part of the authorization and approval process for marketing of pesticides. To determine the risk of a substance or formulation for aquatic communities, exposure concentrations are calculated and compared to ecotoxicological data obtained from standardized OECD laboratory studies and, if available, from field studies. Predicted environmental concentrations (PEC) in surface waters are derived using e.g. the European FOCUS or the German Exposit models, which distinguish between exposure to dissolved and particle-associated pesticide concentrations, since the dissolved concentration is thought to be the best predictor of bioavailability and toxicity...
November 15, 2016: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Dwayne Rj Moore, Colleen D Greer, Gillian Manning, Katie Wooding, Kerrie J Beckett, Richard A Brain, Gary Marshall
Atrazine is a selective triazine herbicide widely used in the United States primarily for control of broadleaf weeds in corn and sorghum. In 2003, the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) concluded that atrazine poses potential risks to sensitive aquatic species. Consequently, a surface water monitoring program was developed to assess whether measured levels of atrazine could impact aquatic plants in vulnerable watersheds. To facilitate evaluation of the monitoring data, the Agency needed to establish a level of concern (LOC) below which atrazine would not cause unacceptable adverse effects to aquatic plant communities...
November 11, 2016: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Joanne L Parrott, Poul Bjerregaard, Kristin E Brugger, L Earl Gray, Taisen Iguchi, Sarah M Kadlec, Lennart Weltje, James R Wheeler
Endocrine-disrupting substances (EDS) may have certain biological effects including delayed effects, multigenerational effects, and may display nonmonotonic dose-response (NMDR) relationships that require careful consideration when determining environmental hazards. Endocrine disrupting substances can have specific and profound effects when exposure occurs during sensitive windows of the life cycle (development, reproduction). This creates the potential for delayed effects that manifest when exposure has ceased, possibly in a different life stage...
November 11, 2016: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Katherine K Coady, Ronald C Biever, Nancy D Denslow, Melanie Gross, Patrick D Guiney, Henrik Holbech, Natalie K Karouna-Renier, Ioanna Katsiadaki, Hank Krueger, Steven L Levine, Gerd Maack, Mike Williams, Jeffrey C Wolf, Gerald T Ankley
In the present study, existing regulatory frameworks and test systems for assessing potential endocrine active chemicals are described, and associated challenges are discussed, along with proposed approaches to address these challenges. Regulatory frameworks vary somewhat across geographies, but all basically evaluate whether a chemical possesses endocrine activity and whether this activity can result in adverse outcomes either to humans or to the environment. Current test systems include in silico, in vitro, and in vivo techniques focused on detecting potential endocrine activity, and in vivo tests that collect apical data to detect possible adverse effects...
October 28, 2016: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Kathryn E Thomas, Roland I Hall, Garry J Scrimgeour
Monitoring biologists continually strive to improve the effectiveness of protocols to quantify environmental and ecological effects of anthropogenic activities. We developed and applied a reference condition approach (RCA) model to assess the ability of 3 descriptors of algal community structure (algal taxonomy, diatom taxonomy, and algal pigments) to identify impairment in 2 northern rivers in the South Nahanni River Watershed, Northwest Territories, Canada. We established reference conditions by sampling 62 regional reference (i...
October 28, 2016: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Ryan W Stevenson, Peter M Chapman
Weight of evidence (WOE) frameworks integrate environmental assessment data to reach conclusions regarding relative certainty of adverse environmental effects due to stressors, possible causation, and key uncertainties. Such studies can be investigative (i.e., determining whether adverse impact is occurring to identify a need for management) or retrospective (i.e., determining the cause of a detected impact such that management efforts focus on the correct stressor). WOE assessments do not themselves definitively establish causation; they provide the basis for subsequent follow-up studies to further investigate causation...
October 27, 2016: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Rachael A Smith, Michael St J Warne, Kerrie Mengersen, Ryan Dr Turner
Pollutant loads are widely used to set pollution reduction targets and assess regulatory compliance for the protection of receiving waterbodies. However, when a pollutant load consists of a mixture of chemicals, reducing the overall load (mass) will not necessarily reduce the toxicity by a similar amount. This can be overcome by setting targets based on toxicity-based loads (toxic loads, TLs), where the load is modified according to the relative toxicity (expressed as toxic equivalency factors [TEFs]) of each toxicant...
October 24, 2016: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Charles Menzie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Don MacDonald, Mary Lou Haines, Chris Ingersoll
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Elizabeth M Traudt, James F Ranville, Joseph S Meyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Rikke Poulsen, Nina Cedergreen, Martin Hansen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
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