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Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418204/modeling-aesthetics-to-support-an-ecosystem-services-approach-for-natural-resource-management-decision-making
#1
Pieter N Booth, Sheryl A Law, Jane Ma, John Buonogurio, James Boyd, Jessica Turnley
This paper reviews literature on aesthetics and describes the development of vista and landscape aesthetics models. Spatially explicit variables were chosen to represent physical characteristics of natural landscapes that are important to aesthetic preferences. A vista aesthetics model evaluates the aesthetics of natural landscapes viewed from distances over 1,000 m. and a landscape aesthetics model evaluates the aesthetic value of wetlands and forests within 1,000 m from the viewer. Each of the model variables is quantified using spatially-explicit metrics on a pixel-specific basis within EcoAIM™, a GIS-based ecosystem services decision analysis support tool...
April 18, 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387998/anatomy-of-a-decision-iii-evaluation-of-national-disposal-at-sea-program-action-level-efficacy-considering-two-chemical-action-levels
#2
Sabine E Apitz, Chris Vivian, Suzanne Agius
The potential performance (i.e., ability to separate non-toxic from toxic sediments) of a range of international Disposal at Sea (DaS) chemical Action Levels (ALs) was compared using a sediment chemical and toxicological database. The use of chemistry alone (without the use of further lines of evidence) did not perform well at reducing costs and protecting the environment. Although some approaches for interpreting AL1 results are very effective at filtering out the majority of acutely toxic sediments, without subsequent toxicological assessment, a large proportion of non-toxic sediments would be unnecessarily subjected to treatment and containment, and a number of sub-lethally toxic sediments would be missed...
April 7, 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383801/new-approach-to-weight-of-evidence-assessment-of-ecotoxicological-effects-in-regulatory-decision-making
#3
A Tilghman Hall, Scott E Belanger, Pat D Guiney, Malyka Galay-Burgos, Gerd Maack, William Stubblefield, Olwenn Martin
Ecological risk assessments and risk management decisions are only as sound as the underlying information and processes to integrate them. It is important to develop transparent and reproducible procedures a priori to integrate often-heterogeneous evidence. Current weight-of-evidence (WoE) approaches for effects or hazard assessment tend to conflate aspects of the assessment of the quality of the data with the strength of the body of evidence as a whole. We take forward recent developments in the critical appraisal of the reliability and relevance of individual ecotoxicological studies as part of the effect or hazard assessment of prospective risk assessments and propose a streamlined WoE approach...
April 6, 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383771/using-adaptive-principles-to-develop-a-meaningful-robust-and-actionable-environmental-monitoring-programs
#4
T J Arciszewski, K R Munkittrick, G J Scrimgeour, M G Dubé, F J Wrona, R R Hazewinkel
The primary goals of environmental monitoring are to indicate if unexpected changes related to economic development are occurring in the physical, chemical, and biological attributes of ecosystems and to inform meaningful management intervention. Although achieving these objectives is conceptually simple, there are varying scientific and social challenges often resulting in their breakdown. Conceptualizing, designing, and operating monitoring programs to better delineate and align adaptive monitoring, adaptive management, and environmental risk assessment aspects with hypothesis-driven approaches, strong inference, and Adverse Outcome Pathways can overcome many of the challenges affecting existing environmental programs...
April 6, 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316137/more-for-less-analysis-of-the-performance-of-avian-acute-oral-guideline-oecd-223-from-empirical-data
#5
Peter J Edwards, Annegaaike Leopold, Joann B Beavers, Timothy A Springer, Peter Chapman, Samuel K Maynard, Patrick Hubbard
Since the publication of avian acute oral guideline OECD223, empirical data have become available to compare the performance of OECD223 with statistical simulations used to validate this guideline and with empirical data for USEPA Guideline OCSPP850.2100. Empirical studies comprised 244 for Northern bobwhite of which 73 were dose response tests and 171 were limit tests. Of the dose response tests, 26 were conducted to OECD223 (using 3-4 stages) and 33 to OCSPP850.2100 (using the single 50 bird design). Data were collected from five avian testing laboratories from studies performed between 2006 and 2013...
March 18, 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304134/a-modified-eco-efficiency-framework-and-methodology-for-advancing-the-state-of-practice-of-sustainability-analysis-as-applied-to-green-infrastructure
#6
Santosh R Ghimire, John M Johnston
We propose a modified eco-efficiency (EE) framework and novel sustainability analysis methodology for green infrastructure (GI) practices used in water resource management. GI practices such as rainwater harvesting (RWH), rain gardens, porous pavements, and green roofs are emerging as viable strategies for climate change adaptation. The modified framework includes four economic, 11 environmental, and three social indicators. Using six indicators from the framework, at least one from each dimension of sustainability, we demonstrate the methodology to analyze RWH designs...
March 17, 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304130/the-focus-on-chemicals-alone-in-human-dominated-ecosystems-is-inappropriate
#7
G Allen Burton
As the earth's human population continues to increase, mega-cities rapidly expand, and agriculture tries to meet their needs - ecosystems are increasingly dominated by humans. This, of course, equates to increased loadings of eroded soils, nutrients, and chemicals along with more degraded habitat. Governments will continue to struggle to address these conflicting issues and must adapt into more effective and efficient management modes. The traditional focus on using chemical-specific guidelines as the foundation of environmental protection and restoration no longer is sufficient and must move to a more realistic and effective approach...
March 17, 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294524/spatially-explicit-bioaccumulation-modeling-in-aquatic-environments-results-from-2-demonstration-sites
#8
Katherine von Stackelberg, Marc A Williams, Jonathan Clough, Mark S Johnson
Bioaccumulation models quantify the relationship between sediment and water exposure concentrations and resulting tissue levels of chemicals in aquatic organisms and represent a key link in the suite of tools used to support decision making at contaminated sediment sites. Predicted concentrations in the aquatic food web provide exposure estimates for human health and ecological risk assessments, which, in turn, provide risk-based frameworks for evaluating potential remedial activities and other management alternatives based on the fish consumption pathway...
March 11, 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294522/a-quantitative-screening-level-approach-to-incorporate-chemical-exposure-and-risk-into-alternative-assessment-evaluations
#9
Scott M Arnold, Bill Greggs, Katy O Goyak, Bryce D Landenberger, Ann M Mason, Brett Howard, Rosemary T Zaleski
As the general public and retailers ask for disclosure of chemical ingredients in the marketplace, a number of hazard screening tools were developed to evaluate the so-called "greenness" of individual chemical ingredients and/or formulations. The majority of these tools focus only on hazard, often using chemical lists, ignoring the other part of the risk equation: exposure. Using a hazard-only focus can result in regrettable substitutions, changing 1 chemical ingredient for another that turns out to be more hazardous or shifts the toxicity burden to others...
March 10, 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266137/development-of-groundwater-pesticide-exposure-modeling-scenarios-for-vulnerable-spring-and-winter-wheat-growing-areas
#10
Lauren Padilla, Michael Winchell, Natalia Peranginangin, Shanique Grant
Wheat crops and the major wheat-growing regions of the US are not included in the six crop and region specific scenarios developed by the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for exposure modeling with the Pesticide Root Zone Model conceptualized for groundwater (PRZM-GW). This work augments the current scenarios by defining appropriately vulnerable PRZM-GW scenarios for high-producing spring and winter wheat growing regions that are appropriate for use in refined pesticide exposure assessments. Initial screening-level modeling was conducted for all wheat areas across the conterminous US as defined by multiple years of the Cropland Data Layer land use dataset...
March 7, 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247928/advancing-alternatives-analysis-the-role-of-predictive-toxicology-in-selecting-safer-chemical-products-and-processes
#11
Timothy Malloy, Virginia Zaunbrecher, Elizabeth Beryt, Richard Judson, Raymond Tice, Patrick Allard, Ann Blake, Ila Cote, Hilary Godwin, Lauren Heine, Patrick Kerzic, Jakub Kostal, Gary Marchant, Jennifer McPartland, Kelly Moran, Andre Nel, Oladele Ogunseitan, Mark Rossi, Kristina Thayer, Joel Tickner, Margaret Whittaker, Ken Zarker
Alternatives analysis (AA) is a method used in regulation and product design to identify, assess, and evaluate the safety and viability of potential substitutes for hazardous chemicals. It requires toxicological data for the existing chemical and potential alternatives. Predictive toxicology uses in silico and in vitro approaches, computational models, and other tools to expedite toxicological data generation in a more cost-effective manner than traditional approaches. The present article briefly reviews the challenges associated with using predictive toxicology in regulatory AA, then presents 4 recommendations for its advancement...
March 1, 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440943/microplastics-as-a-vector-of-hydrophobic-contaminants-importance-of-hydrophobic-additives
#12
Jung-Hwan Kwon, Sein Chang, Sang Hee Hong, Won Joon Shim
Despite a recent boom in research on the environmental fate, distribution, and harmful effects of chemical substances associated with marine plastic debris, no consensus has been reached on whether chemicals originating from microplastics cause serious environmental harm. For the risk assessment of chemical contaminants associated with microplastics, it would be useful to group organic chemicals into 2 categories: additives and nonadditives. Whereas plastic particles are not likely to be diffuse sources of chemicals that are not intentionally added to plastic products, continuous leaching of additives would result in higher concentrations, at least at a local scale...
May 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440942/the-dangers-of-overestimating-avian-risks-of-pesticides
#13
Dwayne Rj Moore
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440941/ingestion-of-microplastics-by-fish-and-its-potential-consequences-from-a-physical-perspective
#14
Boris Jovanović
The European Marine Strategy Framework Directive and the United States Microbead Free Waters Act are credited for being ambitious in their goals for protecting the marine environment from microplastics pollution. As a result, the microplastic pollution of marine environments and the incidence of microplastic ingestion by fish is rapidly receiving an increase in overdue attention. This commentary summarizes recent discoveries regarding the potential negative effects of micro- and nanoplastic ingestion by fish...
May 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440940/from-the-sea-to-the-laboratory-characterization-of-microplastic-as-prerequisite-for-the-assessment-of-ecotoxicological-impact
#15
Annegret Potthoff, Kathrin Oelschlägel, Mechthild Schmitt-Jansen, Christoph Daniel Rummel, Dana Kühnel
The presence of microplastic (MP) in the aquatic environment is recognized as a global-scale pollution issue. Secondary MP particles result from an ongoing fragmentation process governed by various biotic and abiotic factors. For a reliable risk assessment of these MP particles, knowledge about interactions with biota is needed. However, extensive testing with standard organisms under reproducible laboratory conditions with well-characterized MP suspensions is not available yet. As MP in the environment represents a mixture of particles differing in properties (e...
May 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440939/trophic-transfer-of-microplastics-in-aquatic-ecosystems-identifying-critical-research-needs
#16
REVIEW
Sarah Y Au, Cindy M Lee, John E Weinstein, Peter van den Hurk, Stephen J Klaine
To evaluate the process of trophic transfer of microplastics, it is important to consider various abiotic and biotic factors involved in their ingestion, egestion, bioaccumulation, and biomagnification. Toward this end, a review of the literature on microplastics has been conducted to identify factors influencing their uptake and absorption; their residence times in organisms and bioaccumulation; the physical effects of their aggregation in gastrointestinal tracts; and their potential to act as vectors for the transfer of other contaminants...
May 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440938/overstated-risk-conclusions-wide-ranging-mammals
#17
Lawrence V Tannenbaum
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440937/microplastics-are-not-important-for-the-cycling-and-bioaccumulation-of-organic-pollutants-in-the-oceans-but-should-microplastics-be-considered-pops-themselves
#18
Rainer Lohmann
The role of microplastic particles in the cycling and bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is discussed. Five common concepts, sometimes misconceptions, about the role of microplastics are reviewed. While there is ample evidence that microplastics accumulate high concentrations of POPs, this does not result in microplastics being important for the global dispersion of POPs. Similarly, there is scant evidence that microplastics are an important transfer vector of POPs into animals, but possibly for plastic additives (flame retardants)...
May 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440936/harmonization-of-water-and-sediment-quality-guideline-derivation
#19
EDITORIAL
Graeme E Batley, Michael St J Warne
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440935/learned-discourse-timely-scientific-opinions
#20
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
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