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Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management

Rachael A Smith, Michael St J Warne, Kerrie Mengersen, Ryan D R Turner
Pollutant loads are a means for assessing regulatory compliance and setting targets to reduce pollution entering receiving waterbodies. However, a pollutant load is often comprised of multiple chemicals, which may exert joint toxicity on biota. When the ultimate goal for assessing pollutant loads is to protect ecosystems from adverse effects of toxicants, then the total pollutant load needs to be calculated based on the principles of mixture toxicology. In this paper, an improved method is proposed to convert a pollutant load to a toxicity-based load (toxic load) using a modified toxic equivalency factor (TEF) derivation method...
October 15, 2016: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
David R Katz, Mark G Cantwell, Julia C Sullivan, Monique M Perron, Robert M Burgess, Kay T Ho
The Pawtuxet River in Rhode Island, USA, has a long history of industrial activity and pollutant discharges. Metal contamination of the river sediments is well documented and historically exceeded toxicity thresholds for a variety of organisms. The Pawtuxet River dam, a low-head dam at the mouth of the river, was removed in August 2011. The removal of the dam was part of an effort to restore the riverine ecosystem after centuries of anthropogenic impact. Sediment traps were deployed below the dam to assess changes in metal concentrations and fluxes (Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) from the river system into Pawtuxet Cove...
October 6, 2016: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Kristian Syberg, Gary Banta, Peter Bruce, Jonas S Gunnarsson, Mikael Gustavsson, Wayne R Munns, Robert Rämö, Henriette Selck, Thomas Backhaus
Growth of human populations and increased human activity, particularly in coastal areas, increase pressure on coastal ecosystems and the ecosystem services (ES) they provide. As a means toward being able to assess impact of multiple stressors on ES we here propose a seven-step conceptual approach for assessing effects of chemical mixtures and other stressors on ES in coastal areas: A: Identify the relevant problem(s) and policy aims B: identify temporal and spatial boundaries; C: identify relevant ES; D: identify relevant stressors (e...
September 23, 2016: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Molly K Reif, Heather J Theel
Restoration monitoring is generally perceived as costly and time-consuming, given the assumptions of successfully restoring ecological functions and services of a particular ecosystem or habitat. Opportunities exist for remote sensing to bolster the restoration science associated with a wide variety of injured resources, including resources affected by fire, hydropower operations, chemical releases and oil spills, among others. In the last decade, the role of remote sensing to support restoration monitoring has increased, in part due to the advent of high resolution satellite sensors as well as other sensor technology, such as lidar...
September 14, 2016: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Dawn A Zemo, Kirk T O'Reilly, Rachel E Mohler, Renae I Magaw, Catalina Espino Devine, Sungwoo Ahn, Asheesh K Tiwary
This paper summarizes the results of a 5-year research study of the nature and toxicity of petroleum biodegradation metabolites in groundwater at fuel release sites that are quantified as diesel-range "Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons" (TPH; aka TPHd, DRO, etc.), unless a silica gel cleanup (SGC) step is used on the sample extract prior to the TPH analysis. This issue is important for site risk management in regulatory jurisdictions that use TPH as a metric; the presence of these metabolites may preclude site closure even if all other factors can be considered "low-risk...
September 14, 2016: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Christina Ruden, Julie Adams, Marlene Ågerstrand, Theo C M Brock, Veronique Poulsen, Christian E Schlekat, James R Wheeler, Tala R Henry
Regulatory policies in many parts of the world either recognize the utility of, or mandate, that all available studies be considered in Environmental/Ecological Hazard and Risk Assessment (ERA) of chemicals, including studies from the peer-reviewed literature. Consequently, a vast array of different studies and data types need to be considered. The first steps in the evaluation process involve determining whether the study is relevant to the ERA and sufficiently reliable. Relevance evaluation is typically performed using existing guidance but involves application of 'expert judgement' by risk assessors...
September 7, 2016: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Luise Heinrich, Torsten Krause
Ocean acidification (OA) describes a change in the ocean's carbonate chemistry. Whereas its chemical processes are largely understood, the biological and socioeconomic consequences particularly in relation to fisheries are less known. Norway is a major fishing nation worldwide and is potentially affected by OA. To improve the understanding of the socioeconomic consequences of OA, we conducted a risk assessment among the Norwegian counties using a modified version of a risk assessment framework introduced in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's "Special Report: Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation," which considers risk to be the sum of hazard, exposure, and vulnerability...
August 26, 2016: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Randall J F Bruins, Timothy J Canfield, Clifford Duke, Larry Kapustka, Amanda M Nahlik, Ralf B Schäfer
Ecological production functions (EPFs) link ecosystems, stressors, and management actions to ecosystem service (ES) production. Though acknowledged as being essential to improve environmental management, relatively little attention has been directed toward the use of EPFs in ecological risk assessment. EPFs may be defined as usable expressions (i.e., models) of the processes by which ecosystems produce ecosystem services, often including external influences on those processes. We identify key attributes of EPFs and discuss both actual and idealized examples of their use to inform decision-making...
August 19, 2016: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Scott Belanger, Mace Barron, Peter Craig, Scott Dyer, Malyka Galay-Burgos, Mick Hamer, Stuart Marshall, Leo Posthuma, Sandy Raimondo, Paul Whitehouse
A species sensitivity distribution (SSD) is a probability model of the variation of species sensitivities to a stressor, in particular chemical exposure. The SSD approach has been used as a decision support tool in environmental protection and management since the 1980 s, and the ecotoxicological, statistical and regulatory basis and applications continue to evolve. This article summarizes the findings of a 2014 workshop held by ECETOC (the European Center for Toxicology and Ecotoxicology of Chemicals) and the UK Environment Agency in Amsterdam, the Netherlands on the ecological relevance, statistical basis, and regulatory applications of SSDs...
August 17, 2016: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Ingvar Eide, Frank Westad, Ingunn Nilssen, Felipe Sales de Freitas, Natalia Gomes Dos Santos, Francisco Dos Santos, Marcelo Montenegro Cabral, Marcia Caruso Bicego, Rubens Figueira, Ståle Johnsen
The present paper describes integration of environmental monitoring and discharge data, and interpretation using multivariate statistics, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression. The monitoring was carried out at the Peregrino oil field off the coast of Brazil. One sensor platform and three sediment traps were placed on the seabed. The sensors measured current speed and direction, turbidity, temperature and conductivity. The sediment trap samples were used to determine suspended particulate matter which was characterized with respect to a number of chemical parameters (26 alkanes, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrogen, carbon, calcium carbonate and barium)...
August 8, 2016: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Ignacio A Rodríguez-Jorquera, Pablo Siroski, Winfred Espejo, Jorge Nimptsch, Paloma Gusso Choueri, Rodrigo Brasil Choueri, Claudio A Moraga, Miguel Mora, Gurpal S Toor
Protected areas (PAs) are critically important means to preserve species and maintain natural ecosystems. However, the potential impacts of chemical pollution on PAs are seldom mentioned in the scientific literature. Research on the extent of the occurrence of chemical pollution inside PAs and in-depth assessments of how chemical contaminants may adversely affect the maintenance of species abundance, species survival, and ecosystem functions are scarce to nonexistent. We investigated 1) the occurrence of chemical contaminants inside 119 PAs in Latin America from publically available databases, and 2) reviewed case studies of chemical contaminants and pollution in 4 Latin American PAs...
August 6, 2016: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Joke Van Wensem, Peter Calow, Annik Dollacker, Lorraine Maltby, Lydia Olander, Magnus Tuvendal, George Van Houtven
The presumption is that ecosystem services (ES) approaches provide a better basis for environmental decision-making than other approaches because they make explicit the connection between human well-being and ecosystem structures and processes. However, the existing literature does not provide a precise description of ES approaches for environmental policy and decision-making, nor does it assess whether these applications will make a difference in terms of changing decisions and improving outcomes. We describe three criteria that can be used to identify whether and to what extent ES approaches are being applied: connect impacts all the way from ecosystem changes to human well-being; consider all relevant ES affected by the decision; consider and compare the changes in well-being of different stakeholders...
July 30, 2016: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
David W Moore, Pieter Booth, Anne Alix, Sabine E Apitz, David Forrow, Elisabeth Huber-Sannwald, Nishad Jayasundara
An ecosystem services (ES) approach to natural resource management (NRM) can provide the framework for balancing economic, ecological, and societal drivers in decision making. The efficacy of such an approach depends on the successful execution of several key activities, from early and continuous engagement with relevant stakeholders, to development and application of ecological production functions (EPFs), to explicit recognition of uncertainty in the process. Although there are obstacles to the implementation of an ES approach in NRM, including unclear regulatory and policy frameworks and the paucity of useful EPFs, many of the tools are currently available or sufficiently developed...
July 30, 2016: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Wayne R Munns, Veronique Poulsen, William R Gala, Stuart J Marshall, Anne W Rea, Mary T Sorensen, Katherine von Stackelberg
The ecosystem services (ES) concept holds much promise for environmental decision making. Even so, the concept has yet to gain full traction in the decisions and policies of environmental agencies in the United States, Europe, and elsewhere. Here we examine the opportunities for and implications of including ES in risk assessments and the risk management decisions that they inform. We assert that use of ES will: 1) lead to more comprehensive environmental protection; 2) help to articulate the benefits of environmental decisions, policies, and actions; 3) better inform the derivation of environmental quality standards; 4) enable integration of human health and ecological risk assessment; and 5) facilitate horizontal integration of policies, regulations, and programs...
July 27, 2016: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Sigrun A Kullik, Andrew M Belknap
Veterinary drugs administered to food animals primarily enter ecosystems through the application of livestock waste to agricultural land. While veterinary drugs are essential for protecting animal health, their entry into the environment may pose a risk for non-target organisms. A means to predict environmental concentrations of new veterinary drug ingredients in soil (PECsoil) is required to assess their environmental fate, distribution and potential effects. The Canadian PECsoil for intensively reared animals is based on the approach currently used by the European Medicines Agency for VICH Phase I environmental assessment of new veterinary drugs...
July 27, 2016: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Ursula Klaschka
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Jessica J Holden, Sarah E Dudas, Francis Juanes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Tasha Hall, Jordana van Geest, Jonathan Love
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Jonathan Love, Alison Humphries, Tasha Hall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Alison Snow, Jerry Vandenberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
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