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Cell Metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506519/sodium-glucose-co-transporters-and-their-inhibition-clinical-physiology
#1
REVIEW
Ele Ferrannini
Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) is selectively expressed in the human kidney, where it executes reabsorption of filtered glucose with a high capacity; it may be overactive in patients with diabetes, especially in the early, hyperfiltering stage of the disease. As a therapeutic target, SGLT2 has been successfully engaged by orally active, selective agents. Initially developed as antihyperglycemic drugs, SGLT2 inhibitors have deployed a range of in vivo actions. Consequences of their primary effect, i...
May 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479366/cholesterol-accumulation-in-dendritic-cells-links-the-inflammasome-to-acquired-immunity
#2
Marit Westerterp, Emmanuel L Gautier, Anjali Ganda, Matthew M Molusky, Wei Wang, Panagiotis Fotakis, Nan Wang, Gwendalyn J Randolph, Vivette D D'Agati, Laurent Yvan-Charvet, Alan R Tall
Autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are associated with increased cardiovascular disease and reduced plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. HDL mediates cholesterol efflux from immune cells via the ATP binding cassette transporters A1 and G1 (ABCA1/G1). The significance of impaired cholesterol efflux pathways in autoimmunity is unknown. We observed that Abca1/g1-deficient mice develop enlarged lymph nodes (LNs) and glomerulonephritis suggestive of SLE. This lupus-like phenotype was recapitulated in mice with knockouts of Abca1/g1 in dendritic cells (DCs), but not in macrophages or T cells...
May 4, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416194/foxp3-reprograms-t-cell-metabolism-to-function-in-low-glucose-high-lactate-environments
#3
Alessia Angelin, Luis Gil-de-Gómez, Satinder Dahiya, Jing Jiao, Lili Guo, Matthew H Levine, Zhonglin Wang, William J Quinn, Piotr K Kopinski, Liqing Wang, Tatiana Akimova, Yujie Liu, Tricia R Bhatti, Rongxiang Han, Benjamin L Laskin, Joseph A Baur, Ian A Blair, Douglas C Wallace, Wayne W Hancock, Ulf H Beier
Immune cells function in diverse metabolic environments. Tissues with low glucose and high lactate concentrations, such as the intestinal tract or ischemic tissues, frequently require immune responses to be more pro-tolerant, avoiding unwanted reactions against self-antigens or commensal bacteria. T-regulatory cells (Tregs) maintain peripheral tolerance, but how Tregs function in low-glucose, lactate-rich environments is unknown. We report that the Treg transcription factor Foxp3 reprograms T cell metabolism by suppressing Myc and glycolysis, enhancing oxidative phosphorylation, and increasing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidation...
April 11, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467946/quiescence-like-metabolism-to-push-cancer-out-of-the-race
#4
Verónica Torrano, Arkaitz Carracedo
Biological features acquired or lost during the tumorigenic process are a source for the discovery of molecular cues relevant to cancer. The latest study led by the Weinberg lab (Keckesova et al., 2017) focuses on the transcriptional program underlying quiescence to uncover a novel metabolic tumor suppressor, LACTB.
May 2, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467945/when-size-matters-how-astrocytic-processes-shape-metabolism
#5
Ariane Sharif, Vincent Prevot
The hypothalamic control of metabolism appears to be a puzzle that cannot be explained by neuronal function alone. Zhang and colleagues (2017) add a few new pieces by demonstrating that astrocytes critically modulate neural circuits controlling energy homeostasis through nutritional-status-dependent morphological plasticity and IKKβ/NF-κB signaling, which modulate extracellular neurotransmitter bioavailability.
May 2, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467944/metabolic-teamwork-in-the-stem-cell-niche
#6
Jatin Roper, Ömer H Yilmaz
Nearby cells can support stem cell differentiation, but the metabolic activities in stem cell niches are unknown. A recent study (Rodríguez-Colman et al., 2017) reveals a metabolic partnership in the intestinal stem cell niche: glycolysis in niche Paneth cells provides lactate to drive mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in intestinal stem cells.
May 2, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467943/beyond-making-ends-meet-dna-pk-metabolism-and-aging
#7
Xiao Tian, Andrei Seluanov, Vera Gorbunova
DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), a central player in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair, shows emerging roles in metabolic regulation. In this issue of Cell Metabolism, Park et al. (2017) elucidate a molecular mechanism whereby DNA-PK negatively regulates AMPK, contributing to metabolic and fitness decline during aging.
May 2, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467942/sprinting-toward-fitness
#8
Martin J Gibala, John A Hawley
Intense intermittent exercise, or interval training, is a powerful stimulus to induce many of the physiological adaptations typically associated with traditional, moderate-intensity continuous training. While coaches and athletes have recognized the value of interval training to enhance performance for over a century, recent scientific interest has focused on the application of this training method for health promotion. Despite renewed attention, the mechanistic basis for the physiological remodeling that occurs after interval training and the role that the stochastic nature of this type of exercise plays in mediating adaptive responses remains to be elucidated...
May 2, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467941/metabolic-surgery-in-a-pill
#9
Alexander D Miras, Carel W le Roux
Bariatric surgery has evolved from a very effective treatment of weight to a treatment of "metabolism" and end-organ damage. Even though surgery was designed with the aim of causing mechanical restriction and calorie malabsorption, mechanistic work in humans and rodents over the last 10 years or so has informed us that this could not be further from the truth. Dietary, pharmacological, and medical device interventions for weight loss and metabolic control have also evolved rapidly only very recently. In this Crosstalk we discuss how close we are to harnessing the clinical efficacy of surgery through a metabolic "polypill...
May 2, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467940/exercise-metabolism
#10
(no author information available yet)
As a preview of the upcoming Cell Symposium on Exercise Metabolism in Gothenburg, Sweden, May 21-23 (http://cell-symposia.com/exercisemetabolism-2017/), several of our speakers and other Cell Press exercise enthusiasts share a wide range of experiences from bench pressing goals to bench research insights.
May 2, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467939/exercise-metabolism-set-2
#11
EDITORIAL
Anne Granger, Rosalind Mott, Taneli Helenius, Nikla Emambokus
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467938/targeting-abl-ire1%C3%AE-signaling-spares-er-stressed-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-to-reverse-autoimmune-diabetes
#12
Shuhei Morita, S Armando Villalta, Hannah C Feldman, Ames C Register, Wendy Rosenthal, Ingeborg T Hoffmann-Petersen, Morvarid Mehdizadeh, Rajarshi Ghosh, Likun Wang, Kevin Colon-Negron, Rosa Meza-Acevedo, Bradley J Backes, Dustin J Maly, Jeffrey A Bluestone, Feroz R Papa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467937/matching-dietary-amino-acid-balance-to-the-in-silico-translated-exome-optimizes-growth-and-reproduction-without-cost-to-lifespan
#13
Matthew D W Piper, George A Soultoukis, Eric Blanc, Andrea Mesaros, Samantha L Herbert, Paula Juricic, Xiaoli He, Ilian Atanassov, Hanna Salmonowicz, Mingyao Yang, Stephen J Simpson, Carlos Ribeiro, Linda Partridge
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467936/clock-regulation-of-metabolites-reveals-coupling-between-transcription-and-metabolism
#14
Saikumari Y Krishnaiah, Gang Wu, Brian J Altman, Jacqueline Growe, Seth D Rhoades, Faith Coldren, Anand Venkataraman, Anthony O Olarerin-George, Lauren J Francey, Sarmistha Mukherjee, Saiveda Girish, Christopher P Selby, Sibel Cal, Ubeydullah Er, Bahareh Sianati, Arjun Sengupta, Ron C Anafi, I Halil Kavakli, Aziz Sancar, Joseph A Baur, Chi V Dang, John B Hogenesch, Aalim M Weljie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467935/deciphering-pancreatic-islet-%C3%AE-cell-and-%C3%AE-cell-maturation-pathways-and-characteristic-features-at-the-single-cell-level
#15
Wei-Lin Qiu, Yu-Wei Zhang, Ye Feng, Lin-Chen Li, Liu Yang, Cheng-Ran Xu
Pancreatic β and α cells play essential roles in maintaining glucose homeostasis. However, the mechanisms by which these distinct cell populations are generated, expand, and mature during pancreas development remain unclear. In this study, we addressed this critical question by performing a single-cell transcriptomic analysis of mouse β and α cells sorted from fetal to adult stages. We discovered that β and α cells use different regulatory strategies for their maturation and that cell proliferation peaks at different developmental times...
May 2, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467934/ppar%C3%AE-promotes-running-endurance-by-preserving-glucose
#16
Weiwei Fan, Wanda Waizenegger, Chun Shi Lin, Vincenzo Sorrentino, Ming-Xiao He, Christopher E Wall, Hao Li, Christopher Liddle, Ruth T Yu, Annette R Atkins, Johan Auwerx, Michael Downes, Ronald M Evans
Management of energy stores is critical during endurance exercise; a shift in substrate utilization from glucose toward fat is a hallmark of trained muscle. Here we show that this key metabolic adaptation is both dependent on muscle PPARδ and stimulated by PPARδ ligand. Furthermore, we find that muscle PPARδ expression positively correlates with endurance performance in BXD mouse reference populations. In addition to stimulating fatty acid metabolism in sedentary mice, PPARδ activation potently suppresses glucose catabolism and does so without affecting either muscle fiber type or mitochondrial content...
May 2, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467933/ppar%C3%AE-is-essential-for-maintaining-normal-levels-of-pgc-1%C3%AE-and-mitochondria-and-for-the-increase-in-muscle-mitochondria-induced-by-exercise
#17
Jin-Ho Koh, Chad R Hancock, Shin Terada, Kazuhiko Higashida, John O Holloszy, Dong-Ho Han
The objective of this study was to evaluate the specific mechanism(s) by which PPARβ regulates mitochondrial content in skeletal muscle. We discovered that PPARβ increases PGC-1α by protecting it from degradation by binding to PGC-1α and limiting ubiquitination. PPARβ also induces an increase in nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1) expression, resulting in increases in mitochondrial respiratory chain proteins and MEF2A, for which NRF-1 is a transcription factor. There was also an increase in AMP kinase phosphorylation mediated by an NRF-1-induced increase in CAM kinase kinase-β (CaMKKβ)...
May 2, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467932/pseudotemporal-ordering-of-single-cells-reveals-metabolic-control-of-postnatal-%C3%AE-cell-proliferation
#18
Chun Zeng, Francesca Mulas, Yinghui Sui, Tiffany Guan, Nathanael Miller, Yuliang Tan, Fenfen Liu, Wen Jin, Andrea C Carrano, Mark O Huising, Orian S Shirihai, Gene W Yeo, Maike Sander
Pancreatic β cell mass for appropriate blood glucose control is established during early postnatal life. β cell proliferative capacity declines postnatally, but the extrinsic cues and intracellular signals that cause this decline remain unknown. To obtain a high-resolution map of β cell transcriptome dynamics after birth, we generated single-cell RNA-seq data of β cells from multiple postnatal time points and ordered cells based on transcriptional similarity using a new analytical tool. This analysis captured signatures of immature, proliferative β cells and established high expression of amino acid metabolic, mitochondrial, and Srf/Jun/Fos transcription factor genes as their hallmark feature...
May 2, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467931/activation-of-skeletal-muscle-ampk-promotes-glucose-disposal-and-glucose-lowering-in-non-human-primates-and-mice
#19
Emily C Cokorinos, Jake Delmore, Allan R Reyes, Bina Albuquerque, Rasmus Kjøbsted, Nicolas O Jørgensen, Jean-Luc Tran, Aditi Jatkar, Katherine Cialdea, Ryan M Esquejo, John Meissen, Matthew F Calabrese, Jason Cordes, Robert Moccia, David Tess, Christopher T Salatto, Timothy M Coskran, Alan C Opsahl, Declan Flynn, Matthew Blatnik, Wenlin Li, Erick Kindt, Marc Foretz, Benoit Viollet, Jessica Ward, Ravi G Kurumbail, Amit S Kalgutkar, Jørgen F P Wojtaszewski, Kimberly O Cameron, Russell A Miller
The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a potential therapeutic target for metabolic diseases based on its reported actions in the liver and skeletal muscle. We evaluated two distinct direct activators of AMPK: a non-selective activator of all AMPK complexes, PF-739, and an activator selective for AMPK β1-containing complexes, PF-249. In cells and animals, both compounds were effective at activating AMPK in hepatocytes, but only PF-739 was capable of activating AMPK in skeletal muscle. In diabetic mice, PF-739, but not PF-249, caused a rapid lowering of plasma glucose levels that was diminished in the absence of skeletal muscle, but not liver, AMPK heterotrimers and was the result of an increase in systemic glucose disposal with no impact on hepatic glucose production...
May 2, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467930/dna-pk-promotes-the-mitochondrial-metabolic-and-physical-decline-that-occurs-during-aging
#20
Sung-Jun Park, Oksana Gavrilova, Alexandra L Brown, Jamie E Soto, Shannon Bremner, Jeonghan Kim, Xihui Xu, Shutong Yang, Jee-Hyun Um, Lauren G Koch, Steven L Britton, Richard L Lieber, Andrew Philp, Keith Baar, Steven G Kohama, E Dale Abel, Myung K Kim, Jay H Chung
Hallmarks of aging that negatively impact health include weight gain and reduced physical fitness, which can increase insulin resistance and risk for many diseases, including type 2 diabetes. The underlying mechanism(s) for these phenomena is poorly understood. Here we report that aging increases DNA breaks and activates DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) in skeletal muscle, which suppresses mitochondrial function, energy metabolism, and physical fitness. DNA-PK phosphorylates threonines 5 and 7 of HSP90α, decreasing its chaperone function for clients such as AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is critical for mitochondrial biogenesis and energy metabolism...
May 2, 2017: Cell Metabolism
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