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Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine

Marianna Giannini, Chiara Primerano, Liron Berger, Martina Giannaccini, Zhigang Wang, Elena Landi, Alfred Cuschieri, Luciana Dente, Giovanni Signore, Vittoria Raffa
The 3-D spatial and mechanical features of nano-topography can create alternative environments, which influence cellular response. In this paper, murine fibroblast cells were grown on surfaces characterized by protruding nanotubes. Cells cultured on such nano-structured surface exhibit stronger cellular adhesion compared to control groups but, despite the fact that stronger adhesion is generally believed to promote cell cycle progression, the time cells spend in G1 phase is doubled. This apparent contradiction is solved by confocal microscopy analysis, which shows that the nano-topography inhibits actin stress fiber formation...
July 13, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Qingqing Xiao, Xiao Zhu, Yuting Yuan, Lifang Yin, Wei He
Treatment of metastatic cancer continues to be a huge challenge worldwide. Notably, drug nanocrystals (Ns) in nanosuspensions clearly belong to a type of nanoparticle. Therefore, a question arose as to whether these drug particles can also be applied as carriers for drug delivery. Here, we design a novel paclitaxel (PTX) nanocrystal stabilized with complexes of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-sensitive β-casein/marimastat (MATT) for co-delivering MATT and PTX and combined therapy of metastatic breast cancer...
July 9, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Xue Yang, Huipeng Li, Chenggen Qian, Yuxin Guo, Chenzi Li, Fang Gao, Ying Yang, Kaikai Wang, David Oupicky, Minjie Sun
Tumor angiogenesis is a key step in the process of tumor development, and antitumor angiogenesis has a profound influence on tumor growth. Herein we report a dual-function drug delivery system comprising a Near-infrared (NIR) dye and an anti-angiogenic drug within liposomes (Lip-IR780-Sunitinib) for enhanced antitumor therapy. The hydrophobic NIR dye IR780 was loaded into the liposome phospholipid bilayer, and the bilayer would be disrupted by laser irradiation so that anti-angiogenic drug sunitinib release would be activated remotely at the tumor site...
July 4, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Nari Ryu, Min-A Kim, Dongsik Park, Byeonghyeon Lee, Ye-Ri Kim, Kyung-Hee Kim, Jeong-In Baek, Won Jong Kim, Kyu-Yup Lee, Un-Kyung Kim
The-state-of-art CRISPR/Cas9 is one of the most powerful among the approaches being developed to rescue fundamental causes of gene-based inheritable diseases. Several strategies for delivering such genome editing materials have been developed, but the safety, efficacy over time, cost of production, and gene size limitations are still under debate and must be addressed to further improve applications. In this study, we evaluated branched forms of the polyethylenimine (PEI)-branched PEI 25 kDa (BPEI-25K)-and found that it could efficiently deliver CRISPR/Cas9 plasmids...
June 30, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Teng Wu, Xiaoyan Chen, Yong Wang, Hong Xiao, Yuan Peng, Liteng Lin, Wenhao Xia, Ming Long, Jun Tao, Xintao Shuai
Inflammation and oxidative stress are two major factors that are involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. A smart drug delivery system that responds to the oxidative microenvironment of atherosclerotic plaques was constructed in the present study. Andrographolide-loaded micelle were assembled from the block copolymer of poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(propylene sulphide) (PEG-PPS) for the purpose of simultaneously decreasing inflammatory response and the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to treat atherosclerosis...
June 28, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Shijie Cao, Yonghou Jiang, Hangyu Zhang, Nina Kondza, Kim A Woodrow
A major sanctuary site for HIV infection is the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). The α4β7 integrin gut homing receptor is a promising therapeutic target for the virus reservoir because it leads to migration of infected cells to the GALT and facilitates HIV infection. Here, we developed a core-shell nanoparticle incorporating the α4β7 monoclonal antibody (mAb) as a dual-functional ligand for selectively targeting a protease inhibitor (PI) to gut-homing T cells in the GALT while simultaneously blocking HIV infection...
June 28, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Mostafa Shahrezaee, Majid Salehi, Sara Keshtkari, Ahmad Oryan, Amir Kamali, Babak Shekarchi
Large bone defects constitute a major challenge in bone tissue engineering and usually fail to heal due to the incomplete differentiation of recruited mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into osteogenic precursor cells. As previously proposed, metformin (MET) induces differentiation of MSCs into osteoblastic lineages in vitro. We fabricated a Poly (lactic acid) and Polycaprolactone (PLA/PCL) scaffold to deliver metformin loaded gelatin nanocarriers (MET/GNs) to critical-sized calvarial bone defects in a rat model...
June 28, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Aysu Yurdasiper, Gokhan Ertan, Charles M Heard
Stimulus-responsive drug-loaded poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) nanogels were examined as a means of enhancing the delivery of naproxen into skin ex vivo. Following massaging into skin, the epidermis was probed (with and without base activation) for depth penetration and transdermal delivery of drug, and anti-inflammatory activity in the relative levels of COX-2 expression. Rat paw oedema testing was used to determine anti-inflammatory effects in vivo. When activated by sodium carbonate, particle size reduced by 19%...
June 26, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Dinesh K Mishra, Ruchita Shandilya, P K Mishra
Over the recent couple of decades, pharmaceutical field has embarked most phenomenal noteworthy achievements in the field of medications as well as drug delivery. The rise of Nanotechnology in this field has reformed the existing drug delivery for targeting, diagnostic, remedial applications and patient monitoring. The convincing usage of nanotechnology in the conveyance of medications that prompts an extension of novel lipid-based nanocarriers and non-liposomal systems has been discussed. Present review deals with the late advances and updates in lipidic nanocarriers, their formulation strategies, challenging aspects, stability profile, clinical applications alongside commercially available products and products under clinical trials...
June 23, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Yan Li, Yuan Gao, Chunai Gong, Zhuo Wang, Qingming Xia, Fenfen Gu, Chuling Hu, Lijuan Zhang, Huiling Guo, Shen Gao
Exosomes have emerged as a promising drug carrier with low immunogenicity, high biocompatibility and delivery efficiency. Here in, we isolated exosomes from A33-positive LIM1215 cells (A33-Exo) and loaded them with doxorubicin (Dox). Furthermore, we coated surface-carboxyl superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (US) with A33 antibodies (A33Ab-US), expecting that these A33 antibodies on the surface of the nanoparticles could bind to A33-positive exosomes and form a complex (A33Ab-US-Exo/Dox) to target A33-positive colon cancer cells...
June 20, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Marzieh Mohammadi, Mona Alibolandi, Khalil Abnous, Zahra Salmasi, Mahmoud Reza Jaafari, Mohammad Ramezani
In the present study, we fabricated an efficient, simple biomimetic scaffold to stimulate osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Electrospun poly L-lactic acid nanofibers were employed to mimic the nanofibrillar structure of bone proteins and coated with hydroxyapatite nanoparticles to simulate bone minerals. Thereafter, we regulated the release pattern of BMP-2 peptide through covalent attachment of an optimized liposomal formulation to the scaffold. The fabricated platform provided a sustained release profile of BMP-2 peptide up to 21days while supported cellular attachment and proliferation without cytotoxicity...
June 19, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Luisa H A Silva, Sueli M da Silva, Emilia C D Lima, Renata C Silva, Daniel J Weiss, Marcelo M Morales, Fernanda F Cruz, Patricia R M Rocco
The magnetic targeting (MT) technique improves delivery of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) to target sites. However, the moderate-intensity static magnetic fields (SMF) used for MT may exert adverse effects on MSCs. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the effects of SMF on MSCs in vitro. Cells were initially magnetized using citrate-coated magnetite nanoparticles. Then, control and magnetized MSCs were transferred to an in vitro MT system and exposed to 0.3-0.45 Tesla SMFs. MSC viability, morphology, ultrastructure, proliferation rates, differentiation, and immunomodulation were evaluated after 24 and 48hours of exposure...
June 19, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Vimala N Bharadwaj, Rachel K Rowe, Jordan Harrison, Chen Wu, Trent R Anderson, Jonathan Lifshitz, P David Adelson, Vikram D Kodibagkar, Sarah E Stabenfeldt
Clinically, traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in complex heterogeneous pathology that cannot be recapitulated in single pre-clinical animal model. Therefore, we focused on evaluating utility of nanoparticle (NP)-based therapeutics following three diffuse-TBI models: mild-closed-head injury (mCHI), repetitive-mCHI and midline-fluid percussion injury (FPI). We hypothesized that NP accumulation after diffuse TBI correlates directly with blood-brain-barrier permeability. Mice received PEGylated-NP cocktail (20-500nm) (intravenously) after single- or repetitive-(1 impact/day, 5 consecutive days) CHI (immediately) and midline-FPI (1h, 3h and 6h)...
June 19, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Patrick H Kee, Delia Danila
Management of patients suffering from myocardial infarction (MI) is based on the extent of coronary artery disease and myocardial scar burden. We have developed a potentially clinically-useful X-ray molecular imaging contrast agent based on gold nanoparticle (AuNPs) functionalized with collagen-binding adhesion protein 35 (CNA35) with the capabilities of achieving prolonged blood pool enhancement for vascular imaging of the coronary arteries and specific targeting of collagen within myocardial scar. At a concentration of ~ 45mg Au/ml, AuNPs maintained a stable blood pool enhancement at 142-160 HU within an hour of intravenous administration...
June 19, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Daniele Vergara, Monica Bianco, Rosanna Pagano, Paola Priore, Paola Lunetti, Flora Guerra, Simona Bettini, Sonia Carallo, Alessandra Zizzari, Elena Pitotti, Livia Giotta, Loredana Capobianco, Cecilia Bucci, Ludovico Valli, Michele Maffia, Valentina Arima, Antonio Gaballo
Protein biomarkers are important diagnostic tools for cancer and several other diseases. To be validated in a clinical context, a biomarker should satisfy some requirements including the ability to provide reliable information on a pathological state by measuring its expression levels. In parallel, the development of an approach capable of detecting biomarkers with high sensitivity and specificity would be ideally suited for clinical applications. Here, we performed an immune-based label free assay using Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR)-based detection of the soluble form of E-cadherin, a cell-cell contact protein that is involved in the maintaining of tissue integrity...
June 11, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Fangyi Chen, Yibin Zeng, Xiaoxia Qi, Yanchao Chen, Zhe Ge, Zengxin Jiang, Xinchao Zhang, Yinmei Dong, Huaiwen Chen, Zuochong Yu
We previously developed salinomycin (sali)-entrapped nanoparticles labeled with CD133 aptamers which could efficiently eliminate CD133+ osteosarcoma cancer stem cells (CSCs). However, sufficient evidences suggest that the simultaneous targeting both CSCs and cancer cells is pivotal in achieving preferable cancer therapeutic efficacy, due to the spontaneous conversion between cancer cells and CSCs. We hereby constructed sali-entrapped lipid-polymer nanoparticles labeled with CD133 and EGFR aptamers (CESP) to target both osteosarcoma cells and CSCs...
June 10, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Akram Assali, Omid Akhavan, Mohsen Adeli, Shayan Razzazan, Rassoul Dinarvand, Saeid Zanganeh, Masuod Solaimani, Meshkat Dinarvand, Fatemeh Atyabi
Recent insights into the nanomedicine have revealed that nanoplatforms enhance the efficacy of carrier in therapeutic applications. Here, multifunctional nanoplatforms utilized in miRNA-101 delivery and NIR thermal therapy to induce apoptosis in breast cancer cells. Au nanorods (NRs) or nanospheres (NSs) covered with graphene oxide (GO) were prepared and functionalized with polyethylene glycol as a stabilizer and poly-L-arginine (P-L-Arg) as a targeting agent. In nanoplatforms, coupling Au@GO prepared stable structures with higher NIR reactivity...
June 7, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Tetsushi Kubota, Shinji Kuroda, Nobuhiko Kanaya, Toshiaki Morihiro, Katsuyuki Aoyama, Kakiuchi Yoshihiko, Satoru Kikuchi, Masahiko Nishizaki, Shunsuke Kagawa, Hiroshi Tazawa, Toshiyoshi Fujiwara
An issue of concern is that no current HER2-targeted therapeutic agent is effective against Trastuzumab (Tmab)-resistant gastric cancer. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are promising drug carriers with unique characteristics of a large surface area available for attachment of materials such as antibodies. Here, we created HER2-targeted AuNPs (T-AuNPs) and examined their therapeutic efficacy and cytotoxic mechanisms using HER2-postive Tmab-resistant (MKN7) or Tmab-sensitive (NCI-N87) gastric cancer cell lines. In vitro, T-AuNPs showed stronger cytotoxic effects than controls against MKN7 and NCI-N87 cells although Tmab had no effect on MKN7 cells...
June 7, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Jingcao Li, Lan Sun, Yan Liu, Hongjuan Yao, Shuang Jiang, YunzhuPu, Yajuan Li, Yingge Zhang
The publisher regrets that this article has been temporarily removed. A replacement will appear as soon as possible in which the reason for the removal of the article will be specified, or the article will be reinstated. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at
May 30, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Chao Song, Pan Deng, Long Que
This paper reports the multiplexed monitoring of two promising biomarkers, beta-amyloid (Aβ42) and total tau (T-tau), in both buffer and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for Alzheimer's disease (AD) using label-free optical nanosensors. It has been found that 7.8 pg/ml of Aβ42 in buffer and 15.6 pg/ml of T-au in buffer can be readily detected with very good specificity. Based on our measurements, the purchased CSF itself contains Aβ42, whose concentration is estimated to be about 400 pg/ml. Aβ42 and T-tau in the mixtures of Aβ42 and T-tau spiked in CSF have been detected successfully, indicating the feasibility of the optical nanosensors to detect these biomarkers in clinical samples...
May 29, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
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