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Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine

Riya Mukherjee, Debanjan Dutta, Mousumi Patra, Biplab Chatterjee, Tarakdas Basu
We reported earlier about nano-formulation of tetracycline through its entrapment within calcium-phosphate nano-particle (CPNP) and about killing of pathogenic bacterium Shigella flexnari 2a, resistant to tetracycline (and 9 other antibiotics), by the nanonized antibiotic (Tet-CPNP). Here, we report on therapeutic role of Tet-CPNP against deadly diarrheal disease 'shigellosis' in mice, caused by Shigella infection. Our findings revealed that occurrence of mushy-stool excretion, colon-length shortening, weight-loss and bacterial colonization in gastrointestinal tract of mice due to shigellosis was significantly reduced by Tet-CPNP treatment...
November 15, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Christakis Constantinides, Eileen McNeill, Ricardo Carnicer, Ayman Al Haj Zen, Raquel Sainz Urruela, Andrew Shaw, Jyoti Patel, Edyta Swider, Rita Azaloian, Louiza Potamiti, Andreas Hadjisavvas, Sergi Padilla-Parra, Kyriacos Kyriacou, Mangala Srinivas, Carolyn A Carr
Herein, we maximize the labeling efficiency of cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) using perfluorocarbon nanoparticles (PFCE-NP) and 19 F MRI detectability, determine the temporal dynamics of single-cell label uptake, quantify the temporal viability/fluorescence persistence of labeled CPCs in vitro, and implement in vivo, murine cardiac CPC MRI/tracking that could be translatable to humans. FuGENEHD -mediated CPC PFCE-NP uptake is confirmed with flow cytometry/confocal microscopy. Epifluorescence imaging assessed temporal viability/fluorescence (up to 7days [D])...
November 15, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
S Berwin Singh, Eunkyeong Jung, Joungyoun Noh, Donghyuck Yoo, Changsun Kang, Hyejin Hyeon, Gi-Wook Kim, Gilson Khang, Dongwon Lee
Curcumin is a major active phenolic component of turmeric and has gained great attention in pharmaceutics due to its potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activity. Here, we developed poly(oxalate-co-curcumin) (POC) as a hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 )-activatable polymeric prodrug of curcumin by incorporating curcumin in the backbone of H2 O2 -responsive polyoxalate. POC particles effectively scavenged H2 O2 and released curcumin in a H2 O2 -triggered manner. POC particles exhibited excellent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity in activated cells...
November 13, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Marsha Pellegrino, Francesca Ceccacci, Stefania Petrini, Marco Cappa, Giovanna Mancini, Alessandra Fierabracci
In autoimmune diseases as Type 1 diabetes, the actual treatment that provides the missing hormones is not able, however, to interrupt the underlining immunological mechanism. Importantly, novel immunotherapies are exploited to protect and rescue the remaining hormone producing cells. Among probable targets of immunotherapy, the C1858T mutation in the PTPN22 gene, which encodes for the lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase (Lyp) variant R620W, reveals an autoimmunity related pathophysiological role. Our scope was to establish new C1858T PTPN22 siRNA duplexes delivered by liposomal carriers (lipoplexes) to patients PBMC...
November 12, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Rui Li, Yuan Huang, Li Chen, Haihui Zhou, Mingwan Zhang, Lei Chang, Hong Shen, Meiling Zhou, Ping Su, Dongya Zhu
The lack of effective therapies mandates the development of new treatment strategies for ischemic stroke. The NR2B9c peptide can prevent N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-mediated neurotoxicity induced by ischemia without affecting essential NMDAR activity and brings hope for stroke therapy. However, it is very difficult for NR2B9c to cross by itself the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the neuron membrane. To provide a suitable delivery for unleashing the therapeutic potential of NR2B9c, in consideration of a high affinity of wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) for WGA receptors abundantly present on olfactory epithelium and neuronal surface, we developed WGA-modified nanoparticles carrying NR2B9c (NR2B9c-WGA-NPs)...
November 11, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Yu-Wei Ge, Jia-Wei Lu, Zhen-Yu Sun, Zhi-Qing Liu, Jun Zhou, Qin-Fei Ke, Yuan-Qing Mao, Ya-Ping Guo, Zhen-An Zhu
Bioglass scaffolds have great application potentials in orthopedics, and Ursolic acid (UA) can effectively promote in vivo new bone formation. Herein, we for the first time developed the mesoporous bioglass/chitosan porous scaffolds loaded with UA (MBG/CS/UA) for enhanced bone regeneration. The MBG microspheres with particle sizes of ~300nm and pore sizes of ~3.9nm were uniformly dispersed on the CS films. The mesoporous structure within the MBG microspheres and the hydrogen bonding between the scaffolds and UA drugs made the MBG/CS/UA scaffolds have controlled drug release performances...
November 9, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Alexandre Berquand, Marie Meunier, Jessica Thevenard Devy, Corinne Ivaldi, Océane Campion, Stéphane Dedieu, Michael Molinari, Jérôme Devy
To get more insight into the role of LRP-1 in the mechanism of tumor progression in triple negative breast cancer. Atomic force microscopy, videomicroscopy, confocal microscopy and Rho-GTPAse activity assay were used on MDA-MB-231 and LRP-1-silenced cells. Silencing of LRP-1 in MDA-MB-231 cells was shown to led to a dramatic increase in the Young's modulus in parallel to a spectacular drop in membrane extension dynamics as well as a decrease in the cells migration abilities on both collagen I and fibronectin substrates...
November 9, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Alexandra Francian, Shelby Namen, Madigan Stanley, Kristine Mann, Holly Martinson, Max Kullberg
Antigen presenting cells (APCs) initiate the immune response against cancer by engulfing and presenting tumor antigen to T cells. Our lab has recently developed a liposomal nanoparticle that binds complement C3 proteins, allowing it to bind to the complement C3 receptors of APCs and directly deliver antigenic peptides. APCs were shown to internalize and process complement C3-bound liposomes containing ovalbumin (OVA), resulting in a significant increase in activated T cells that recognize OVA. Mice bearing A20-OVA lymphoma tumors were treated with OVA-loaded C3-liposomes, which led to reduced tumor growth in both treated and distal tumors in all mice...
November 9, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Plaban Bhattacharya, Achintya Saha, Souvik Basak
Elevated serum interleukins (IL-6, IL-1β) over baseline concentration help in blastocyst adhesion to the uterine endometrium in the early phase of pregnancy. A nano PLA (Piperolactam A)-HPBCD (2-hydroxy-propyl-β-cyclodextrin) inclusion complex, was developed as an interleukin down-regulator that exhibited 100% anti-implantation activity in rodents at a dose as low as 2.5-5.0mg/kg. On metabolomics study, among major glyco-lipo-protein metabolites, only serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) or very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) levels revealed alteration by the formulation...
November 6, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Andrew W Simonson, Atip Lawanprasert, Tyler D P Goralski, Kenneth C Keiler, Scott H Medina
We report the design, synthesis and efficacy of a new class of gel-like nano-carrier, or 'nanogel', prepared via templated electrostatic assembly of anionic hyaluronic acid (HA) polysaccharides with the cationic peptide amphiphile poly-L-lysine (PLL). Small molecules and proteins present during nanogel assembly become directly encapsulated within the carrier and are precisely released by tuning the nanogel HA:PLL ratio to control particle swelling. Remarkably, nanogels exhibit versatile and complimentary mechanisms of cargo delivery depending on the biologic context...
November 3, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Kuan-Chieh Liu, Arundhathi Arivajiagane, Shang-Jung Wu, Shey-Cherng Tzou, Chiao-Yun Chen, Yun-Ming Wang
A novel EGFR-targeting, thermal-sensitive multifunctional liposome (TSML) was developed based on manganese-dopedmagnetism-engineered iron oxide nanoparticles (MnMEIOs) and gold nanorods (AuNRs) for efficient photothermal therapy and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. An Erbitux-conjugatedTSML (Erb-TSML) was encapsulated with doxorubicin and gold nanorods conjugated with manganese-dopedmagnetism-engineered iron oxide nanoparticles, for theranostic applications of EGFR-positive tumors. The Erb-TSML selectively targeted EGFR-positive tumors and promoted tumor destruction by laser activation...
November 1, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Gantumur Battogtokh, Oyuntuya Gotov, Ji Hee Kang, Eun Ji Hong, Min Suk Shim, Dongyun Shin, Young Tag Ko
Photodynamic therapy is a clinically approved treatment approach for cancer. However, it has limited applications owing to poor water solubility and the short wavelength absorption of the photosensitizer (PS). We selected a near-infrared photosensitizer, SiNC, and encapsulated into a gold nanocage (AuNC) in the presence of phase-changing material. Then, the PS-encapsulated nanocage was coated with glycol chitosan (GC) with a cleavable peptide linkage or stable cysteine linkage to protect the PS from premature release and to improve the biocompatibility of the nanocage...
October 31, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Renuka Khatik, Zhengyun Wang, Fenfen Li, Debo Zhi, Sonia Kiran, Pankaj Dwivedi, Ronald X Xu, Gaolin Liang, Bensheng Qiu, Qing Yang
Tissue specific T1 /T2 dual contrast abilities for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have great significance in initial detection of cancer lesions. Herein, we developed a novel kind of Magnus nano-bullets (Mn-DTPA-F-MSNs) distinguished by magnetic (Fe3 O4 -NPs) head combined with mesoporous (SiO2 ) persist body, respectively. Subsequently, modify mesoporous SiO2 group and finally loaded with Mn2+ . These Magnus nano-bullets have relaxivity value (r1  = 5.12 mM-1  s-1 ) and relaxivity value (r2  = 265...
October 26, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Gayong Shim, Dongyoon Kim, Sangbin Lee, Rae Sung Chang, Junho Byun, Yu-Kyoung Oh
We designed a bacterio-mimetic nanoparticle that can noncovalently control the orientation of attached antibodies. Liposomes with Fc-binding peptide (FcBP), formulated using FcBP-conjugated PEGylated lipid, were used as model nanoparticles. Compared with control nanoparticles surface-modified with antibody covalently attached via maleimide functional groups (Mal-NPs), FcBP-capped nanoparticles (FcBP-NPs) exhibited greater binding affinity to the target protein. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-specific antibody-modified FcBP-NPs (HER2/FcBP-NPs) showed 5...
October 24, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Agathe Belime, Nicole M Thielens, Edmond Gravel, Philippe Frachet, Sarah Ancelet, Pascale Tacnet, Charlotte Caneiro, Jane Chuprin, Christine Gaboriaud, Guy Schoehn, Eric Doris, Wai Li Ling
Nanodiamonds are promising nanomedicines for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. As nanodiamonds are mainly administered intravenously, it is critical to understand the humoral immune response upon exposure to nanodiamonds. Here, we report the interactions of pristine, oxidized, and PEG-functionalized nanodiamonds with human complement, an important part of our humoral innate immunity. In particular, we report the nanodiamond binding properties of the recognition protein of the classical complement pathway: C1q, which also takes part in many other physiological and pathological processes...
October 24, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Xue Li, Menglin Wu, Jiahui Wang, Yan Dou, Xiaoqun Gong, Yajuan Liu, Qi Guo, Xuening Zhang, Jin Chang, Yuanjie Niu
Nonintrusive and precise imaging for tumor angiogenesis is critical in accurate assessment of cancer diagnosis and prognosis. However, reticulo-endothelial system (RES) capture and inadequate accumulation remain major bottlenecks for current nanoparticle to retain at tumor angiogenesis site. Herein, we report the ultrasmall contrast agent (cNGR-Au:Gd@GSH NMs) could accumulate at tumor vasculature site and enhance the tumor angiogenesis-contrast. It is demonstrated that by loading Au and Gd atom into the naturally-occurring glutathione (GSH) shell with cNGR peptide modification, cNGR-Au:Gd@GSH NMs exhibit the high X-ray photon absorption, longer rotational correlation time and efficient tumor vascular endothelia cell targeting...
October 22, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Ryan M Pearson, Joseph R Podojil, Lonnie D Shea, Nicholas Jc King, Stephen D Miller, Daniel R Getts
Autoimmune diseases, such as celiac disease, multiple sclerosis, and type 1 diabetes, are leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States. In these disease states, immune regulatory mechanisms fail that result in T and B cell-mediated destruction of self-tissues. The known role of T cells in mediating autoimmune diseases has led to the emergence of numerous therapies aimed at inactivating T cells, however successful 'tolerance-inducing' strategies have not yet emerged for approved standard-of-care clinical use...
October 21, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Yaoyao Liang, Jiahui Peng, Ning Li, Cynthia Yu-Wai-Man, Qian Wang, Yuhong Xu, Hongxia Wang, Aristides D Tagalakis, Zixiu Du
We developed an anticancer siRNA delivery system (named HLPR) through modular assembly of endogenous molecules. The structure of HLPR was a tightly condensed siRNA-peptide inner core in turn surrounded by the disordered lipid layer and thin HA coating from which the EGFR-targeted amino acid sequences of YHWYGYTPQNVI partially protrude outside of cell surfaces. Both HA and YHWYGYTPQNVI anchored on HLPR were responsible for targeting CD44 and EGFR overexpressed on the tumor cell surfaces, respectively. HLPR was relatively stable in the blood circulation and reached the tumor tissue in vivo through passive and active targeting...
October 21, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Jay R Dave, Ankush M Dewle, Suhas T Mhaske, Prashant T Phulpagar, Vikas L Mathe, Supriya E More, Ayesha A Khan, Appala Venkata Ramana Murthy, Suwarna S Datar, Ajay J Jog, Megha Page, Geetanjali B Tomar
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) has been a major contributor to the anabolic therapy for osteoporosis, but its delivery to bone without losing activity and avoiding adverse local effects remain a challenge. Being the natural component of bone, use of hydroxyapatite for this purpose brings a major breakthrough in synergistic anabolism. This study focuses on synthesis, characterization and evaluation of in vitro and in vivo efficacy of PTH (1-34) adsorbed hydroxyapatite nanocarrier for synergistic enhancement in the anabolic activity of PTH for bone regeneration...
October 19, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Smrithi Padmakumar, Bindhu Paul-Prasanth, Keechilat Pavithran, Dehannathparambil Kottarathil Vijaykumar, Anupama Rajanbabu, Thangalazhi Balakrishnan Sivanarayanan, Ekta Kadakia, Mansoor M Amiji, Shantikumar V Nair, Deepthy Menon
A woven nanotextile implant was developed and optimized for long-term continuous drug delivery for potential oncological applications. Electrospun polydioxanone (PDS) nanoyarns, which are twisted bundles of PDS nanofibres, were loaded with paclitaxel (PTX) and woven into nanotextiles of different packing densities. A mechanistic modeling of in vitro drug release proved that a combination of diffusion and matrix degradation controlled the slow PTX-release from a nanoyarn, emphasizing the role of nanostructure in modulating release kinetics...
October 18, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
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