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Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine

Madumali Kalubowilage, Obdulia Covarrubias-Zambrano, Aruni P Malalasekera, Sebastian O Wendel, Hongwang Wang, Asanka S Yapa, Lauren Chlebanowski, Yubisela Toledo, Raquel Ortega, Katharine E Janik, Tej B Shrestha, Christopher T Culbertson, Anup Kasi, Stephen Williamson, Deryl L Troyer, Stefan H Bossmann
Numerous proteases, such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMP's), cathepsins (CTS), and urokinase plasminogen activator (UpA), are dysfunctional (that is, over- or under-expressed) in solid tumors, when compared to healthy human subjects. This offers the opportunity to detect early tumors by liquid biopsies. This approach is of particular advantage for the early detection of pancreatic cancer, which is a "silent killer". We have developed fluorescence nanobiosensors for ultrasensitive (sub-femtomolar) arginase and protease detection, consisting of water-dispersible Fe/Fe3 O4 core/shell nanoparticles and two tethered fluorescent dyes: TCPP (Tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin) and cyanine 5...
May 18, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Hao-Jui Hsu, Yanxiao Han, Michael Cheong, Petr Král, Seungpyo Hong
A higher surface density of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) on polymeric micelles enhances their stability in serum, leading to improved plasma circulation. To obtain fundamental, mechanistic understanding of the PEG effect associated with polymeric architecture/configuration, we have synthesized PEGylated dendron-based copolymers (PDCs) and linear block copolymers (LBCs) with similar molecular weights. These copolymers formed dendron (hyperbranched) and linear micelles, respectively, which were compared in terms of their stabilities in serum, micelle-serum protein interactions, and in vivo biodistributions...
May 18, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Marta Jedynak, David Laurin, Patryk Dolega, Malgorzata Podsiadla-Bialoskorska, Inga Szurgot, Jadwiga Chroboczek, Ewa Szolajska
One of the major factors limiting the effectiveness of cancer chemotherapy is inefficient drug delivery. Systems enabling efficient delivery and enhanced intracellular uptake, appear particularly promising in this respect. Virus-like particle, adenoviral dodecahedron (Dd), employs receptor-mediated endocytosis for cell penetration and is able to deliver intracellularly dozens of cargo molecules attached to one particle. We focused on studying Dd properties in the context of cancer treatment, showing that intratumoral injection of Dd, assessed in mouse xenograft model, results in vector accumulation in tumor without spreading in off-target organs...
May 17, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Paolo Armanetti, Salvador Pocoví-Martínez, Alessandra Flori, Cinzia Avigo, Domenico Cassano, Luca Menichetti, Valerio Voliani
Ultrasound (US) imaging is a well-established diagnostic technique to image soft tissues in real time, while photoacoustic (PA) is an emerging imaging technique employed to collect molecular information. Integration of PA and US imaging provides complementary information enhancing diagnostic accuracy without employing ionizing radiations. The development of contrast agents able to combine PA and US features is pivotal to improve the significance of PAUS imaging and for PAUS-guided treatment of neoplasms. Here, we demonstrate in relevant ex-vivo models that disassembling passion fruit-like nano-architectures (pfNAs) can be employed in PAUS imaging...
May 17, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Alessandro E C Granato, André C Ribeiro, Fernanda R Marciano, Bruno V M Rodrigues, Anderson O Lobo, Marimelia Porcionatto
We present a methodology for production and application of electrospun hybrid materials containing commercial polyester (poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate; PBAT), and a conductive polymer (polypirrole; PPy) as scaffold for neuronal growth and differentiation. The physical-chemical properties of the scaffolds and optimization of the electrospinning parameters are presented. The electrospun scaffolds are biocompatible and allow proper adhesion and spread of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Fibers produced with PBAT with or without PPy were used as scaffold for Neuro2a mouse neuroblastoma cells adhesion and differentiation...
May 17, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Yingying Geng, Hira L Goel, Ngoc B Le, Tatsuyuki Yoshii, Rubul Mout, Gulen Y Tonga, John J Amante, Arthur M Mercurio, Vincent M Rotello
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) contribute to multidrug resistance, tumor recurrence and metastasis, making them prime therapeutic targets. Their ability to differentiate and lose stem cell properties makes them challenging to study. Currently, there is no simple assay that can capture and trace the dynamic phenotypic changes on the CSC surface. Here, we report rapid discrimination of breast CSCs from non-CSCs using a nanoparticle-fluorescent-protein based sensor. This nanosensor was employed to discriminate CSCs from non-CSCs, as well CSCs that had differentiated in vitro in two breast cancer models...
May 17, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
B S Ling Ding, B S Chenfei Zhu, M S Fei Yu, M S Pengkai Wu, M S Gang Chen, B S Aftab Ullah, Kaikai Wang, Minjie Sun, Jing Li, David Oupický
This report describes the development of polyplexes based on CXCR4-inhibiting poly(ethylenimine) derivative (PEI-C) for pulmonary delivery of siRNA to silence plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (siPAI-1) as a new combination treatment of pulmonary fibrosis (PF). Safety and delivery efficacy of the PEI-C/siPAI-1 polyplexes was investigated in vitro in primary lung fibroblasts isolated from mice with bleomycin-induced PF. Biodistribution analysis following intratracheal administration of fluorescently labeled polyplexes showed prolonged retention in the lungs...
May 16, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Arul Prakash Francis, Thiyagarajan Devasena, Selvam Ganapathy, Venkata Rajsekhar Palla, Prakhya Balakrishna Murthy, Sundara Ramaprabhu
Human beings and ecosystems are being possibly exposed to CNTs, as there is a rise in global production rate of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). This may affect the health of humans and increases the environmental risk. We have already reported the pulmonary toxicity due to the inhalation of MWCNTs. We claim that a compound with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity may ameliorate the CNT-induced toxic effect. With this view, we have investigated the ameliorative effect of intravenously-administered nano bis-demethoxy curcumin analog (NBDMCA) against MWCNTs-induced inhalation toxicity by examining the lung histopathology for inflammatory cell dynamics, pulmonary remodeling and estimating the inflammatory biomarkers in the broncho-alveolar lavage fluid...
May 16, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Dan Zhu, Dongxia Zhao, Jiaxuan Huang, Yu Zhu, Jie Chao, Shao Su, Jiang Li, Lihua Wang, Jiye Shi, Xiaolei Zuo, Lixing Weng, Qian Li, Lianhui Wang
Identification of tumor-related mRNA in living cells hold great promise for early cancer diagnosis and pathological research. Herein, we present poly-adenine (polyA)-mediated fluorescent spherical nucleic acid (FSNA) probes for intracellular mRNA detection with regulable sensitivities by programmably adjusting the loading density of DNA on gold nano-interface. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) functionalized with polyA-tailed recognition sequences were hybridized to fluorescent "reporter" strands to fabricate fluorescence-quenched FSNA probes...
May 16, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Marianna Teixeira de Pinho Favaro, Naroa Serna, Laura Sánchez-García, Rafael Cubarsi, Mónica Roldán, Alejandro Sánchez-Chardi, Ugutz Unzueta, Ramón Mangues, Neus Ferrer-Miralles, Adriano Rodrigues Azzoni, Esther Vázquez, Antonio Villaverde
Arginine-rich protein motifs have been described as potent cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) but also as rather specific ligands of the cell surface chemokine receptor CXCR4, involved in the infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Polyarginines are commonly used to functionalize nanoscale vehicles for gene therapy and drug delivery, aimed to enhance cell penetrability of the therapeutic cargo. However, under which conditions these peptides do act as either unspecific or specific ligands is unknown...
May 16, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Mónica Sofia Ventura Ferreira, Seyed Hadi Mousavi
Umbilical cord blood (CB) can be used as an alternative source of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) for transplantation in hematological and non- hematological disorders. Despite several recognized advantages the limited cell number in CB one unit still restricts its clinical use. The success of transplantation is greatly depending on the levels of total nucleated cell and CD34+ cell counts. Thus, many ex vivo strategies have been developed within the last decade in order to solve this obstacle, with more or less success, mainly determined by the degree of difficulty related with maintaining HSCs self-renewal and stemness properties after long-term expansion...
May 9, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Hanrui Li, Ke Li, Yunpeng Dai, Xinyi Xu, Xu Cao, Qi Zeng, Huyulong He, Liaojun Pang, Jimin Liang, Xueli Chen, Yonghua Zhan
Cancer metastasis is one of the biggest challenges in cancer treatments since it increases the likelihood that a patient will die from the disease. Therefore, the availability of techniques for the early detection and quantification of tumors is very important. We have prepared cyanine 7.5 NHS ester (Cy7.5 ) and folic acid (FA) conjugated biodegradable mesoporous silica nanoparticles (bMSN@Cy7.5 -FA NPs) (~100 nm) for visualizing tumors in vivo. The fluorescence spectra revealed that the emission peak of bMSN@Cy7...
May 4, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Alevtina S Semkina, Maxim A Abakumov, Alexander S Skorikov, Tatiana O Abakumova, Pavel A Melnikov, Nadejda F Grinenko, Sergey A Cherepanov, Daniil A Vishnevskiy, Victor A Naumenko, Klavdiya P Ionova, Alexander G Majouga, Vladimir P Chekhonin
In presented paper we have developed new system for cancer theranostics based on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) targeted magnetic nanoparticles. Conjugation of anti-VEGF antibodies with bovine serum albumin coated PEGylated magnetic nanoparticles allows for improved binding with murine breast adenocarcinoma 4T1 cell line and facilitates doxorubicin delivery to tumor cells. It was shown that intravenous injection of doxorubicin loaded VEGF targeted nanoparticles increases median survival rate of mice bearing 4T1 tumors up to 50%...
May 3, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Stefany Y Holguin, Naresh N Thadhani, Mark R Prausnitz
Intracellular delivery of molecules can be increased by laser-exposure of carbon black nanoparticles to cause photoporation of the cells. Here we sought to determine effects of multiple laser exposure parameters on intracellular uptake and cell viability with the goal of determining a single unifying parameter that predicts cellular bioeffects. DU145 human prostate cancer cells in suspension with nanoparticles were exposed to near-infrared nanosecond laser pulses over a range of experimental conditions. Increased bioeffects (i...
April 29, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Zongmin Zhao, Yun Hu, Theresa Harmon, Paul R Pentel, Marion Ehrich, Chenming Zhang
A series of hybrid nanoparticle-based nicotine nanovaccines (NanoNicVac) were engineered in this work by conjugating potent carrier protein candidates (Keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) multimer, KLH subunit, cross reactive material 197 (CRM197 ), or tetanus toxoid (TT)) for enhanced immunological efficacy. NanoNicVac with CRM197 or TT were processed by dendritic cells more efficiently than that with KLH multimer or subunit. NanoNicVac carrying CRM197 or TT exhibited a significantly higher immunogenicity against nicotine and a considerably lower immunogenicity against carrier proteins than NanoNicVac carrying KLH multimer or subunit in mice...
April 29, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Anqiang Pan, Meile Zhong, Hong Wu, Yi Peng, Hansong Xia, Qiyu Tang, Qiangru Huang, Lin Wei, Lehui Xiao, Cheng Peng
Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) has been demonstrated to specifically stimulate the multiplication and migration of keratinocytes. However, due to rapid degradation, the results of topical application of growth factors on wounds are unsatisfactory. In this study, we cross-linked KGF to the surface of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and explored their effects on wound healing. The as-synthesized nanocomposite (KGF-GNPs) displayed good colloidal stability, decent biocompatibility as well as negligible cellular cytotoxicity...
April 23, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Mookkandi Palsamy Kesavan, Niranjan G Kotla, Srinivasan Ayyanaar, Gujuluva Gangatharan Vinoth Kumar, Gurusamy Rajagopal, Gandhi Sivaraman, Thomas J Webster, Jegathalaprathaban Rajesh
In this work, a theranostic nanocage system was developed for the targeted delivery of the anti-cancer agents camptothecin (CPT) and luotonin A (LuA). The core of the nanocage system (Fe3 O4 @OA-AD-SP NCs) was formed by biogenically synthesized Fe3 O4 nanoparticles (NPs) decorated with a model anti cancer drug (AD) and biosurfactant saponin (SP). The Fe3 O4 @OA-AD-SP NCs showed a high lipophilic AD loading efficiency (>80%) and a controlled pH-responsive drug release in stimulated cancerous cells in pH6...
April 21, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
M G Herrera, M Pizzuto, C Lonez, K Rott, A Hütten, N Sewald, J-M Ruysschaert, V I Dodero
Gliadin, an immunogenic protein present in wheat, is not fully degraded by humans and after the normal gastric and pancreatic digestion, the immunodominant 33-mer gliadin peptide remains unprocessed. The 33-mer gliadin peptide is found in human faeces and urine, proving not only its proteolytic resistance in vivo but more importantly its transport through the entire human body. Here, we demonstrate that 33-mer supramolecular structures larger than 220nm induce the overexpression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) via a specific Toll-like Receptor (TLR) 2 and (TLR) 4 dependent pathway and the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IP-10/CXCL10 and TNF-α...
April 21, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Varun Kushwah, Sameer S Katiyar, Ashish Kumar Agrawal, Ramesh C Gupta, Sanyog Jain
The present report deals with conjugation of dual drug; docetaxel (DTX) and gemcitabine (GEM) with linker poly-ethylene-glycol (PEG) to develop amphiphilic molecule having self-assembled property. The synthesized conjugate (DTX-PEG-GEM) demonstrated critical micelle concentration (CMC) in the range of 5-10μg/ml which self-assembled to form NPs with size 124.2±5.7. Remarkably higher coumarin-6 (C-6) fluorescence signals observed in case of C-6 loaded NPs, suggested enhanced cellular uptake via clathrin mediated endocytosis...
April 20, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Yujuan Zhang, Xuelin Zhan, Shanshan Peng, Ying Cai, Yu Shrike Zhang, Yanling Liu, Zhigang Wang, Yanrong Yu, Yifan Wang, Qiaofa Shi, Xiaoping Zeng, Keng Yuan, Nanjin Zhou, Rakesh Joshi, Meng Zhang, Zhuxu Zhang, Weiping Min
Melanoma is significantly associated with mutant BRAF gene, a suitable target for siRNA-based anti-melanoma therapy. However, a tumor-specific delivery system is a major hurdle for clinical applications. Here, we developed a novel nano-carrier, FA-GNR-siBRAF for safe topical application, which consists of folic acid (FA) as the tumor-targeting moiety, golden nanorods (GNR) providing photothermal capability to kill tumor cells under laser irradiation, and siRNA specifically silencing BRAF (siBRAF). The in vitro and in vivo results revealed that FA-GNR-siBRAF displayed high transfection rates, and subsequently induced remarkable gene knockdown of BRAF, resulting in suppression of melanoma growth due to the interruption of the MEK/ERK pathway...
April 20, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
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