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Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712920/amelioration-of-cirrhotic-portal-hypertension-by-targeted-cyclooxygenase-1-sirna-delivery-to-liver-sinusoidal-endothelium-with-polyethylenimine-grafted-hyaluronic-acid
#1
Liteng Lin, Mingyue Cai, Shaohui Deng, Wensou Huang, Jingjun Huang, Xinghua Huang, Mingsheng Huang, Yong Wang, Xintao Shuai, Kangshun Zhu
Portal hypertension (PH), a leading cause of mortality in cirrhosis, lacks effective clinical therapeutic strategies. The increased thromboxane A2 (TXA2), derived primarily from the upregulation of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) in cirrhotic liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs), is responsible for hepatic endothelial dysfunction and PH. Thus, blocking the COX-1 pathway in cirrhotic LSECs may benefit the treatment of PH. In this study, hyaluronate-graft-polyethylenimine (HA-PEI) was synthesized for the targeted delivery of COX-1 siRNA to LSECs...
July 13, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712919/an-innovative-mwcnts-dox-tc-nanosystem-for-chemo-photothermal-combination-therapy-of-cancer
#2
Xia Dong, Zhiting Sun, Xiaoxiao Wang, Xigang Leng
Chemotherapy and photothermal therapy can be efficiently integrated to achieve enhanced antitumor efficacy by using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) which are super in delivering drug and converting near infrared radiation (NIR) into heat. We previously developed an innovative TAT-chitosan functionalized MWCNTs (MWCNTs/TC) based drug delivery system for doxorubicin (DOX) and preliminarily investigated its release profile and antitumor effect. In the present study, the application potential of MWCNTs/DOX/TC in chemo-photothermal combination therapy was further explored...
July 13, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712918/topical-nitric-oxide-releasing-nanoparticles-are-effective-in-a-murine-model-of-dermal-trichophyton-rubrum-dermatophytosis
#3
Breanne Mordorski, Caroline Barcelos Costa-Orlandi, Ludmila M Baltazar, Leandro J Carreño, Angelo Landriscina, Jamie Rosen, Mahantesh Navati, Maria Jose Soares Mendes-Giannini, Joel M Friedman, Joshua D Nosanchuk, Adam J Friedman
Systemic therapies are preferred for treating dermal dermatophytosis due to inadequate penetration of topical agents. However, systemic antifungals are associated with off-target effects and limited tissue penetration, and antimicrobial resistance is a growing concern. To address this, we investigated topical nitric oxide-releasing nanoparticles (NO-np), which have been used against superficial fungal infections and bacterial abscesses. In addition to enhanced penetration and permeation conferred by nanoparticles, nitric oxide, a broad-spectrum multi-mechanistic antimicrobial agent, offers decreased likelihood of resistance development...
July 13, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712917/amphotericin-b-releasing-topical-nanoemulsion-for-the-treatment-of-candidiasis-and-aspergillosis
#4
Lilian Sosa, Beatriz Clares, Helen L Alvarado, Nuria Bozal, Oscar Domenech, Ana C Calpena
The present study was designed to develop a nanoemulsion formulation of Amphotericin B (AmB) for the treatment of skin candidiasis and aspergillosis. Several ingredients were selected on the basis of AmB solubility and compatibility with skin. The formulation that exhibited the best properties was selected from the pseudo-ternary phase diagram. After physicochemical characterization its stability was assessed. Drug release and skin permeation studies were also accomplished. The antifungal efficacy and skin tolerability of developed AmB nanoemulsion was demonstrated...
July 13, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712916/targeting-lipodisks-enable-selective-delivery-of-anticancer-peptides-to-tumour-cells
#5
Sara Ahlgren, Karin Reijmar, Katarina Edwards
Issues concerning non-specificity, degradation and haemolysis severely hamper the development of membranolytic amphiphilic peptides into safe and efficient anticancer agents. To increase the therapeutic potential, we have previously developed a strategy based on formulation of the peptides in biocompatible nanosized lipodisks. Studies using melittin as model peptide show that the proteolytic degradation and haemolytic effect of the peptide is substantially reduced upon loading in lipodisks. Here, we explored the possibilities to increase the specificity and boost the cytotoxicity of melittin to tumour cells by use of targeting lipodisk...
July 13, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711550/chitosan-whisker-grafted-with-oligo-lactic-acid-nanoparticles-via-a-green-synthesis-pathway-potential-as-a-transdermal-drug-delivery-system
#6
Visuta Engkagul, I-Yanut Klaharn, Amornpun Sereemaspun, Suwabun Chirachanchai
Chitosan whisker (CSWK) grafted with oligo(lactic acid) (OLA) nanoparticles (NPs) in water is developed to aid transferring therapeutic agents through the skin in a transdermal drug delivery system. Although several works in the past have shown grafting of poly(lactic acid) onto chitosan, the present work shows a green grafting system for the first time. The nano-sized CSWK provided effective conjugation of lactic acid even in a heterogeneous water-based system followed by polycondensation to form OLA. The OLA chain length is controlled by the lactic acid content and modulates the lipophilicity of CSWK-OLA...
July 13, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673853/enhanced-simultaneous-overlap-extension-pcr-by-gold-nanoparticles
#7
Wenchao Yang, Xueyan Cao, Xinhui Li
Methods to fuse multiple DNA fragments are extremely useful in synthetic biology and protein engineering. Here, we report a gold nanoparticle-mediated simultaneous overlap extension-PCR (AuNP-mediated SOE-PCR) method that enables the fusion of multiple DNA fragments simultaneously with their amplification in a single reaction using typical PCR conditions. Using greater concentrations of rTaq DNA polymerase and AuNPs significantly improves the performance of SOE-PCR especially for the fusion of more than three DNA fragments...
July 1, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673852/effective-encapsulation-and-biological-activity-of-phosphorylated-chemotherapeutics-in-calcium-phosphosilicate-nanoparticles-for-the-treatment-of-pancreatic-cancer
#8
Welley S Loc, Samuel S Linton, Zachary R Wilczynski, Gail L Matters, Christopher O McGovern, Thomas Abraham, Todd Fox, Christopher M Gigliotti, Xiaomeng Tang, Amra Tabakovic, Jo Ann Martin, Gary A Clawson, Jill P Smith, Peter J Butler, Mark Kester, James H Adair
Drug resistant cancers like pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are difficult to treat, and nanoparticle drug delivery systems can overcome some of the limitations of conventional systemic chemotherapy. In this study, we demonstrate that FdUMP and dFdCMP, the bioactive, phosphorylated metabolites of the chemotherapy drugs 5-FU and gemcitabine, can be encapsulated into calcium phosphosilicate nanoparticles (CPSNPs). The non-phosphorylated drug analogs were not well encapsulated by CPSNPs, suggesting the phosphate modification is essential for effective encapsulation...
July 1, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673854/nano-therapeutics-a-revolution-in-infection-control-in-post-antibiotic-era
#9
REVIEW
Sahar Zaidi, Lama Misba, Asad U Khan
With the arrival of antibiotics 70 years ago, meant a paradigm shift in overcoming infectious diseases. For decades, drugs have been used to treat different infections. However, with time bacteria have become resistant to multiple antibiotics, making some diseases difficult to fight. Nanoparticles (NPs) as antibacterial agents appear to have potential to overcome such problems and to revolutionize the diagnosis and treatment of bacterial infections. Therefore, there is significant interest in the use of NPs to treat variety of infections, particularly caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains...
June 30, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673851/peptide-multifunctionalized-gold-nanorods-decrease-toxicity-of-%C3%AE-amyloid-peptide-in-a-caenorhabditis-elegans-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
F Morales-Zavala, H Arriagada, N Hassan, C Velasco, A Riveros, A R Álvarez, A N Minniti, X Rojas-Silva, L Muñoz, R Vasquez, Katherine Rodriguez, M Sanchez-Navarro, E Giralt, E Araya, R Aldunate, M J Kogan
The properties of nanometric materials make nanotechnology a promising platform for tackling problems of contemporary medicine. In this work, gold nanorods were synthetized and stabilized with polyethylene glycols and modified with two kinds of peptides. The D1 peptide that recognizes toxic aggregates of Aβ, a peptide involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD); and the Angiopep 2 that can be used to deliver nanorods to the mammalian central nervous system. The nanoconjugates were characterized using absorption spectrophotometry, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy, among other techniques...
June 30, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669854/uptake-of-dendrimer-drug-by-different-cell-types-in-the-hippocampus-after-hypoxic-ischemic-insult-in-neonatal-mice-effects-of-injury-microglial-activation-and-hypothermia
#11
Christina L Nemeth, Gabrielle T Drummond, Manoj K Mishra, Fan Zhang, Patrice Carr, Maxine S Garcia, Sydney Doman, Ali Fatemi, Michael V Johnston, Rangaramanujam M Kannan, Sujatha Kannan, Mary Ann Wilson
Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) can result in neurodevelopmental disability, including cerebral palsy. The only treatment, hypothermia, provides incomplete neuroprotection. Hydroxyl polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers are being explored for targeted delivery of therapy for HIE. Understanding the biodistribution of dendrimer-conjugated drugs into microglia, neurons and astrocytes after brain injury is essential for optimizing drug delivery. We conjugated N-acetyl-L-cysteine to Cy5-labeled PAMAM dendrimer (Cy5-D-NAC) and used a mouse model of perinatal HIE to study effects of timing of administration, hypothermia, brain injury, and microglial activation on uptake...
June 30, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668625/plasma-activated-coating-immobilizes-apolipoprotein-a-i-to-stainless-steel-surfaces-in-its-bioactive-form-and-enhances-biocompatibility
#12
Laura Z Vanags, Joanne T M Tan, Miguel Santos, Praveesuda S Michael, Ziad Ali, Marcela M M Bilek, Steven G Wise, Christina A Bursill
We utilized a plasma activated coating (PAC) to covalently bind the active component of high density lipoproteins (HDL), apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, to stainless steel (SS) surfaces. ApoA-I suppresses restenosis and thrombosis and may therefore improve SS stent biocompatibility. PAC-coated SS significantly increased the covalent attachment of apoA-I, compared to SS alone. In static and dynamic flow thrombosis assays, PAC+apoA-I inhibited thrombosis and reduced platelet activation marker p-selectin. PAC+apoA-I reduced smooth muscle cell attachment and proliferation, and augmented EC attachment to PAC...
June 29, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666950/intracerebral-injections-of-dna-nanoparticles-encoding-for-a-therapeutic-gene-provide-partial-neuroprotection-in-an-animal-model-of-neurodegeneration
#13
D M Yurek, U Hasselrot, O Sesenoglu-Laird, L Padegimas, M J Cooper
This study reports proof of concept for administering compacted DNA nanoparticles (DNPs) intracerebrally as a means to protect against neurotoxin-induced neurodegeneration of dopamine (DA) neurons. In this study we used DNPs that encoded for human glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (hGDNF); GDNF is a potent neurotrophic factor for DA neurons. Intracerebral injections of DNPs into the striatum and/or substantia nigra were performed 1 week before treatment with a neurotoxin. We observed that the number of surviving DA cells, the density of DA fiber terminals and recovery of motor function were greater in animals injected with GDNF-encoding DNPs than in control animals receiving DNPs encoding for an inert reporter gene...
June 27, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648641/glypican-based-drug-releasing-titania-implants-to-regulate-bmp2-bioactivity-as-a-potential-approach-for-craniosynostosis-therapy
#14
Manpreet Bariana, Prem Dwivedi, Sarbin Ranjitkar, John A Kaidonis, Dusan Losic, Peter J Anderson
Advances in molecular biology and nanomedicine based therapies hold promise to obviate the need of multiple surgical interventions (associated with current management) in craniosynostosis by preventing bone re-ossification. One such adjunctive therapy involves application of glypicans 1 and 3 (GPC1 and GPC3) that are BMP inhibitors implicated in downregulating the BMP2 activity in prematurely fusing sutures. Electrochemically anodized Titania nanotube (TNT) arrays have been recognized as a promising localized, long-term drug delivery platform for bone-related therapies...
June 23, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648640/pulmonary-delivery-of-synergistic-combination-of-fluoroquinolone-antibiotic-complemented-with-proteolytic-enzyme-a-novel-antimicrobial-and-antibiofilm-strategy
#15
Purnima V Gupta, Abhijit M Nirwane, Tejashree Bellubi, Mangal S Nagarsenker
Bacterial resistance remains a major hindrance in treatment with antimicrobial agents. Therefore, we assessed the improved antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of Levofloxacin (LFX) and Serratiopeptidase (SRP) combinations in in vitro microbiological studies. Further, pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic studies of liposomal LFX in combination with SRP (LFX liposome-SRP) were performed in S. aureus infected rats. LFX at sub-MIC with SRP eradicated >90% of the preformed biofilm. The entrapment efficiency of LFX in liposome was >80% and the co-spray dried product had MMAD <5 μ...
June 23, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647592/liposphere-mediated-topical-delivery-of-thymoquinone-in-the-treatment-of-psoriasis
#16
Anjali Jain, P Venkatesh, Upendra Bulbake, Sindhu Doppalapudi, Towseef Amin Rafeeqi, Chandraiah Godugu, Wahid Khan
Thymoquinone (TMQ) is reported with good anti-psoriatic activity; however, the hydrophobicity, poor aqueous solubility, light and pH sensitive nature of TMQ hinder its delivery to target site. To address these delivery challenges of TMQ, lipospheres were explored. The topical use of lipospheres offers an effective mean of penetration along with stability and scalability. TMQ lipospheres of particle size below 70 nm were prepared and evaluated. These lipospheres resulted in deeper skin penetration, slow release and skin compatibility...
June 22, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647591/chitosan-based-nanocomposites-for-the-repair-of-bone-defects
#17
L Keller, A Regiel-Futyra, M Gimeno, S Eap, G Mendoza, V Andreu, Q Wagner, A Kyzioł, V Sebastian, G Stochel, M Arruebo, N Benkirane-Jessel
Chitosan scaffolds of different deacetylation degrees, average molecular weights and concentrations reinforced with silica nanoparticles were prepared for bone tissue regeneration. The resulting nanocomposites showed similar pore sizes (<300 μm) regardless the deacetylation degree and concentration used in their formulation. Their mechanical compression resistance was increased by a 30% with the addition of silica nanoparticles as nanofillers. The biocompatibility of the three-dimensional chitosan scaffolds was confirmed by the Alamar Blue assay in human primary osteoblasts as well as the formation of cell spheroids indicative of their great potential for bone regeneration...
June 22, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647590/differences-in-the-coronal-proteome-acquired-by-particles-depositing-in-the-lungs-of-asthmatic-versus-healthy-humans
#18
Abhinav Kumar, Elif Melis Bicer, Paul Pfeffer, Marco P Monopoli, Kenneth A Dawson, Jonny Eriksson, Katarina Edwards, Steven Lynham, Matthew Arno, Annelie F Behndig, Anders Blomberg, Graham Somers, Dave Hassall, Lea Ann Dailey, Ben Forbes, Ian Mudway
Most inhaled nanomedicines in development are for the treatment of lung disease, yet little is known about their interaction with the respiratory tract lining fluids (RTLFs). Here we combined the use of nano-silica, as a protein concentrator, with label-free snapshot proteomics (LC-MS/MS; key findings confirmed by ELISA) to generate a quantitative profile of the RTLF proteome and provided insight into the evolved corona; information that may be used in future to improve drug targeting to the lungs by inhaled medicines...
June 22, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647589/mannose-conjugated-layered-double-hydroxide-nanocomposite-for-targeted-sirna-delivery-to-enhance-cancer-therapy
#19
Li Li, Run Zhang, Wenyi Gu, Zhi Ping Xu
Sheet-like layered double hydroxide nanoparticles (LDH NPs) have showed great potentials in biomedical applications such as nanocarriers for drug and gene delivery, biosensors and imaging agents. However, target delivery of drugs and genes using LDH NPs to the desired tumor sites is a major challenge in cancer therapy. The aim of this study is to develop a functional LDH-based nanocomposite for target delivery of siRNA to cancer cells. Mannose as a targeting moiety was firstly conjugated onto SiO2-coated LDH nanocomposite...
June 22, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614736/nanoparticle-mediated-knockdown-of-dna-repair-sensitizes-cells-to-radiotherapy-and-extends-survival-in-a-genetic-mouse-model-of-glioblastoma
#20
Forrest M Kievit, Kui Wang, Tatsuya Ozawa, Aria W Tarudji, John R Silber, Eric C Holland, Richard G Ellenbogen, Miqin Zhang
Glioblastoma (GBM) remains incurable, and recurrent tumors rarely respond to standard-of-care radiation and chemo-therapies. Therefore, strategies that enhance the effects of these therapies should provide significant benefits to GBM patients. We have developed a nanoparticle delivery vehicle that can stably bind and protect nucleic acids for specific delivery into brain tumor cells. These nanoparticles can deliver therapeutic siRNAs to sensitize GBM cells to radiotherapy and improve GBM treatment via systemic administration...
June 11, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
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