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Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913213/enhanced-efficacy-of-combination-heat-shock-targeted-polymer-therapeutics-with-high-intensity-focused-ultrasound
#1
Nick Frazier, Allison Payne, Christopher Dillon, Nithya Subrahmanyam, Hamidreza Ghandehari
Combination of polymer therapeutics and hyperthermia has been shown to enhance accumulation in selectively heated tumor tissue. The additional use of heat shock (HS)-targeting towards tumor tissues can further enhance accumulation and retention, and improve therapeutic outcomes. In this work, high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) was used to generate hyperthermia in prostate tumor tissue. Upregulation of the cell surface HS receptor glucose regulated protein 78kDa (GRP78) was observed after treatment with HIFU hyperthermia which was then targeted by specific HS-targeting peptides...
November 29, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890659/rna-nanoparticles-harboring-annexin-a2-aptamer-can-target-ovarian-cancer-for-tumor-specific-doxorubicin-delivery
#2
Fengmei Pi, Hui Zhang, Hui Li, Varatharasa Thiviyanathan, David G Gorenstein, Anil K Sood, Peixuan Guo
A novel modified nucleic acid nanoparticle harboring an annexin A2 aptamer for ovarian cancer cell targeting and a GC rich sequence for doxorubicin loading is designed and constructed. The system utilizes a highly stable three-way junction (3WJ) motif from phi29 packaging RNA as a core structure. A phosphorothioate-modified DNA aptamer targeting annexin A2, Endo28, was conjugated to one arm of the 3WJ. The pRNA-3WJ motif retains correct folding of attached aptamer, keeping its functions intact. It is of significant utility for aptamer-mediated targeted delivery...
November 25, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890658/magnetic-mapping-of-iron-in-rodent-spleen
#3
Angela R Blissett, Brooke Ollander, Brittany Penn, Dana M McTigue, Gunjan Agarwal
Evaluation of iron distribution and density in biological tissues is important to understand the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases and the fate of exogenously administered iron-based carriers and contrast agents. Iron distribution in tissues is typically characterized via histochemical (Perl's) stains or immunohistochemistry for ferritin, the major iron storage protein. A more accurate mapping of iron can be achieved via ultrastructural transmission electron microscopy (TEM) based techniques, which involve stringent sample preparation conditions...
November 25, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890657/targeting-tumor-highly-expressed-lat1-transporter-with-amino-acid-modified-nanoparticles-toward-a-novel-active-targeting-strategy-in-breast-cancer-therapy
#4
Lin Li, Xingsheng Di, Mingrui Wu, Zhisu Sun, Lu Zhong, Yongjun Wang, Qiang Fu, Qiming Kan, Jin Sun, Zhonggui He
Designing active targeting nanocarriers with increased cellular accumulation of chemotherapeutic agents is a promising strategy in cancer therapy. Herein, we report a novel active targeting strategy based on the large amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) overexpressed in a variety of cancers. Glutamate was conjugated to polyoxyethylene stearate as a targeting ligand to achieve LAT1-targeting PLGA nanoparticles. The targeting efficiency of nanoparticles was investigated in HeLa and MCF-7 cells. Significant increase in cellular uptake and cytotoxicity was observed in LAT1-targeting nanoparticles compared to the unmodified ones...
November 25, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890656/nanoparticle-delivery-of-sirna-against-twist-to-reduce-drug-resistance-and-tumor-growth-in-ovarian-cancer-models
#5
Cai M Roberts, Sophia Allaf Shahin, Wei Wen, James B Finlay, Juyao Dong, Ruining Wang, Thanh H Dellinger, Jeffrey I Zink, Fuyuhiko Tamanoi, Carlotta A Glackin
Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most deadly gynecologic malignancy on account of its late stage at diagnosis and frequency of drug resistant recurrences. Novel therapies to overcome these barriers are urgently needed. TWIST is a developmental transcription factor reactivated in cancers and linked to angiogenesis, metastasis, cancer stem cell phenotype, and drug resistance, making it a promising therapeutic target. In this work, we demonstrate the efficacy of TWIST siRNA (siTWIST) and two nanoparticle delivery platforms to reverse chemoresistance in EOC models...
November 25, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890655/silver-nanoparticle-treatment-ameliorates-biliary-atresia-syndrome-in-rhesus-rotavirus-inoculated-mice
#6
Ruizhong Zhang, Zefeng Lin, Vincent Ch Lui, Kenneth Ky Wong, Paul Kh Tam, Puiyan Lee, Chun Nam Lok, Jonathan R Lamb, Yan Chen, Huimin Xia
Biliary atresia (BA) is a neonatal biliary system disease closely associated with viral infection and bile duct inflammation. Silver nanoparticles (AgNps) have previously revealed antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we have investigated the effects of AgNps in the treatment of the Rhesus rotavirus inoculation induced BA in mice. The morphology, liver histopathology, clinical biochemistry examination, and inflammatory cells were analyzed in BA mice. Results indicated that AgNps could significantly increase the survival rate of BA mice, and reduce jaundice and weight lost and the liver enzymes and bilirubin metabolism clinical parameters were close to the normal levels...
November 25, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888095/modulation-of-voltage-gated-conductances-of-retinal-horizontal-cells-by-uv-excited-tio2-nanoparticles
#7
Xenia Meshik, Min Choi, Adam Baker, R Paul Malchow, Leigha Covnot, Samuel Doan, Souvik Mukherjee, Sidra Farid, Mitra Dutta, Michael A Stroscio
This study examines the ability of optically-excited titanium dioxide nanoparticles to influence voltage-gated ion channels in retinal horizontal cells. Voltage clamp recordings were obtained in the presence and absence of TiO2 and ultraviolet laser excitation. Significant current changes were observed in response to UV light, particularly in the -40 mV to +40 mV region where voltage-gated Na(+) and K(+) channels have the highest conductance. Cells in proximity to UV-excited TiO2 exhibited a left-shift in the current-voltage relation of around 10 mV in the activation of Na(+) currents...
November 22, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888094/nano-analyses-of-wear-particles-from-metal-on-metal-and-non-metal-on-metal-dual-modular-neck-hip-arthroplasty
#8
Zhidao Xia, Benjamin F Ricciardi, Zhao Liu, Christopher von Ruhland, Mike Ward, Alex Lord, Louise Hughes, Steven R Goldring, Edward Purdue, David Murray, Giorgio Perino
Increased failure rates due to metallic wear particle-associated adverse local tissue reactions (ALTR) is a significant clinical problem in resurfacing and total hip arthroplasty. Retrieved periprosthetic tissue of 53 cases with corrosion/conventional metallic wear particles from 285 revision operations for ALTR was selected for nano-analyses. Three major classes of hip implants associated with ALTR, metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty (MoM HRA) and large head total hip replacement (MoM LHTHA) and non-metal-on-metal dual modular neck total hip replacement (Non-MoM DMNTHA) were included...
November 22, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884641/nanoparticle-delivery-of-chemotherapy-combination-regimen-improves-the-therapeutic-efficacy-in-mouse-models-of-lung-cancer
#9
Jing Tian, Zachary Rodgers, Yuanzeng Min, Xiaomeng Wan, Hui Qiu, Yu Mi, Xi Tian, Kyle T Wagner, Joseph M Caster, Yanfei Qi, Kyle Roche, Tian Zhang, Jianjun Cheng, Andrew Z Wang
The combination chemotherapy regimen of cisplatin (CP) and docetaxel (DTX) is effective against a variety of cancers. However, combination therapies present unique challenges that can complicate clinical application, such as increases in toxicity and imprecise exposure of tumors to specific drug ratios that can produce treatment resistance. Drug co-encapsulation within a single nanoparticle (NP) formulation can overcome these challenges and further improve combinations' therapeutic index. In this report, we employ a CP prodrug (CPP) strategy to formulate poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-PEG) NPs carrying both CPP and DTX...
November 21, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884640/biodegradation-of-the-zno-eu-nanoparticles-in-the-tissues-of-adult-mouse-after-alimentary-application
#10
Paula Kielbik, Jaroslaw Kaszewski, Julita Rosowska, Ewelina Wolska, Bartłomiej S Witkowski, Mikolaj A Gralak, Zdzisław Gajewski, Marek Godlewski, Michal M Godlewski
Biodegradable zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are considered promising materials for future biomedical applications. To fulfil this potential, biodistribution and elimination patterns of ZnO NPs in the living organism need to be resolved. In order to investigate gastrointestinal absorption of ZnO NPs and their intra-organism distribution, water suspension of ZnO or fluorescent ZnO:Eu (Europium-doped zinc oxide) NPs (10mg/ml; 0.3ml/mouse) was alimentary-administered (IG: intra-gastric) to adult mice. Internal organs collected at key time-points after IG were evaluated by AAS for Zn concentration and analysed by cytometric techniques...
November 21, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884639/amphiphilic-poly-n-vinylpyrrolidone-nanoparticles-as-carriers-for-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-in-vitro-cytotoxicity-and-in-vivo-acute-toxicity-study
#11
Andrey N Kuskov, Pavel P Kulikov, Anastasia V Goryachaya, Manolis N Tzatzarakis, Anca O Docea, Kelly Velonia, Michael I Shtilman, Aristidis M Tsatsakis
Polymeric nanoparticles were prepared from self-assembled amphiphilic N-vinylpyrrolidone polymers in aqueous media and evaluated as novel carriers of indomethacin, a non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory drug. It was determined that these nanoparticles could be created in spherical morphologies with sizes less than 100nm, narrow size distributions and high indomethacin contents(up to 35%) combined with high drug loading efficiencies(up to 95%). In cytotoxicity tests using the human embryonic stem cell derived fibroblasts (EBF-H9) and hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2), the indomethacin-loaded polymeric nanoparticles showed higher cell viability compared to that of free indomethacin at the same concentration...
November 21, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884638/particle-size-effect-of-curcumin-nanosuspensions-on-cytotoxicity-cellular-internalization-in-vivo-pharmacokinetics-and-biodistribution
#12
C Bi, X Q Miao, S F Chow, W J Wu, R Yan, Y H Liao, Ahl Chow, Y Zheng
This study aimed to investigate the particle size effect on bioactivity, cellular internalization and bioavailability of curcumin (CUR) nanosuspension (CUR-NS). CUR-NSs of different particle sizes were prepared by two different anti-solvent precipitation methods. CUR-NS with the smallest size showed similar in vitro anticancer activity and bioavailability to the CUR solution, whereas nanosuspensions of larger particle sizes displayed higher in vitro cellular internalization and cytotoxicity, as well as higher in vivo AUC and slower clearance rate after i...
November 21, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884637/phototheranostic-nanoplatform-based-on-a-single-cyanine-dye-for-image-guided-combinatorial-phototherapy
#13
Tony Duong, Xiaoning Li, Bona Yang, Canan Schumann, Hassan A Albarqi, Olena Taratula, Oleh Taratula
This study represents a novel phototheranostic nanoplatform based on the near-infrared (NIR) heptamethine cyanine dye, IR775, which is capable of concurrent real-time fluorescence imaging and cancer eradication with combinatorial phototherapy. To achieve water solubility and enhance tumor delivery, the hydrophobic IR775 dye was loaded into a biocompatible polymeric nanoparticle with a diameter of ~40nm and slightly negative surface charge (-2.34mV). The nanoparticle-encapsulated hydrophobic IR775 dye (IR775-NP) is characterized by an enhanced fluorescence quantum yield (16%) when compared to the water soluble analogs such as ICG (2...
November 21, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884636/an-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-study-of-peptide-functionalized-nanoparticles-for-brain-targeting-the-importance-of-selective-blood-brain-barrier-uptake
#14
Gerard H Bode, Gregory Coué, Christian Freese, Karin E Pickl, Maria Sanchez-Purrà, Berta Albaiges, Salvador Borrós, Ewoud C van Winden, Leto-Aikaterini Tziveleka, Zili Sideratou, Johan F Engbersen, Smriti Singh, Krystyna Albrecht, Jürgen Groll, Martin Möller, Andy J G Pötgens, Christoph Schmitz, Eleonore Fröhlich, Christian Grandfils, Frank M Sinner, C James Kirkpatrick, Harry W M Steinbusch, Hans-Georg Frank, Ronald E Unger, Pilar Martinez-Martinez
Targeted delivery of drugs across endothelial barriers remains a formidable challenge, especially in the case of the brain, where the blood-brain barrier severely limits entry of drugs into the central nervous system. Nanoparticle-mediated transport of peptide/protein-based drugs across endothelial barriers shows great potential as a therapeutic strategy in a wide variety of diseases. Functionalizing nanoparticles with peptides allows for more efficient targeting to specific organs. We have evaluated the hemocompatibilty, cytotoxicity, endothelial uptake, efficacy of delivery and safety of liposome, hyperbranched polyester, poly(glycidol) and acrylamide-based nanoparticles functionalized with peptides targeting brain endothelial receptors, in vitro and in vivo...
November 21, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871963/uptake-of-silica-nanoparticles-in-the-brain-and-effects-on-neuronal-differentiation-using-different-in-vitro-models
#15
A D Ducray, A Stojiljkovic, A Möller, M H Stoffel, H R Widmer, M Frenz, M Mevissen
Nanomedicine offers a promising tool for therapies of brain diseases, but they may be associated with potential adverse effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the uptake of silica-nanoparticles engineered for laser-tissue soldering in the brain using SH-SY5Y cells, dissociated and organotypic slice cultures from rat hippocampus. Nanoparticles were predominantly taken up by microglial cells in the hippocampal cultures but nanoparticles were also found in differentiated SH-SY5Y cells. The uptake was time- and concentration-dependent in primary hippocampal cells...
November 19, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845234/tyroservatide-tpgs-paclitaxel-liposomes-tyroservatide-as-a-targeting-ligand-for-improving-breast-cancer-treatment
#16
Xin Jin, Mengying Li, Lifang Yin, Jianping Zhou, Zhenhai Zhang, Huixia Lv
Tyroservatide (YSV) is a tripeptide that has been approved for clinical testing, as a new anticancer drug. In the current study, YSV-stearic acid (YSV-SA) was inserted into the surface of d-alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate monoester (TPGS)-modified paclitaxel (PTX) liposomes (TP-Lip) to form YSV-conjugated TP-Lip (TYP-Lip). Both in vivo imaging and in vitro cell uptake analysis indicated that these modifications could increase tumor-targeting and cell uptake of the liposomes. Optimal antitumor effects were achieved via tail vein injections of TYP-Lip in MB-231 tumor-bearing nude mice...
November 12, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27840314/assessment-of-in-vivo-systemic-toxicity-and-biodistribution-of-iron-doped-silica-nanoshells
#17
Natalie Mendez, Alexander Liberman, Jacqueline Corbeil, Christopher Barback, Robert Viveros, James Wang, Jessica Wang-Rodriguez, Sarah L Blair, Robert Mattrey, David Vera, William Trogler, Andrew C Kummel
Silica nanoparticles are an emerging class of biomaterials which may be used as diagnostic and therapeutic tools for biomedical applications. In particular, hollow silica nanoshells are attractive due to their hollow core. Approximately 70% of a 500 nm nanoshell is hollow, therefore more particles can be administered on a mg/kg basis compared to solid nanoparticles. Additionally, their nanoporous shell permits influx/efflux of gases and small molecules. Since the size, shape, and composition of a nanoparticle can dramatically alter its toxicity and biodistribution, the toxicology of these nanomaterials was assessed...
November 11, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826115/prussian-blue-nanoparticle-based-photothermal-therapy-combined-with-checkpoint-inhibition-for-photothermal-immunotherapy-of-neuroblastoma
#18
Juliana Cano-Mejia, Rachel A Burga, Elizabeth E Sweeney, John P Fisher, Catherine M Bollard, Anthony D Sandler, Conrad Russell Y Cruz, Rohan Fernandes
We describe "photothermal immunotherapy," which combines Prussian blue nanoparticle (PBNP)-based photothermal therapy (PTT) with anti-CTLA-4 checkpoint inhibition for treating neuroblastoma, a common, hard-to-treat pediatric cancer. PBNPs exhibit pH-dependent stability, which makes them suitable for intratumorally-administered PTT. PBNP-based PTT is able to lower tumor burden and prime an immune response, specifically an increased infiltration of lymphocytes and T cells to the tumor area, which is complemented by the antitumor effects of anti-CTLA-4 immunotherapy, providing a more durable treatment against neuroblastoma in an animal model...
November 4, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816527/comprehensive-study-of-hexarhenium-cluster-complex-na4-re6te8-cn-6-in-terms-of-a-new-promising-luminescent-and-x-ray-contrast-agent
#19
Anna A Krasilnikova, Anastasiya O Solovieva, Anton A Ivanov, Kristina E Trifonova, Tatyana N Pozmogova, Alphiya R Tsygankova, Anton I Smolentsev, Evgeniy I Kretov, David S Sergeevichev, Michael A Shestopalov, Yuri V Mironov, Alexander M Shestopalov, Alexander F Poveshchenko, Lidiya V Shestopalova
Octahedral rhenium cluster complexes may have considerable potential as therapeutic and diagnostic drugs due to their luminescent and X-ray contrast properties, as well as their ability to generate singlet oxygen upon photoirradiation. However, their potential biological effects and toxicity in vitro and in vivo are rather far from being understood. Thus, the aim of our research was to study cytotoxicity, intracellular localization and cellular uptake/elimination kinetics in vitro, biodistribution and acute intravenous toxicity in vivo of a complex Na4[{Re6Te8}(CN)6] as the promising compound for biomedical application...
November 2, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815176/mitochondrial-targeted-photosensitizer-loaded-folate-albumin-nanoparticle-for-photodynamic-therapy-of-cancer
#20
Gantumur Battogtokh, Young Tag Ko
The objective of this study was to develop a mitochondria-targeted photosensitizer (PS) for photodynamic therapy (PDT). Herein, a porphyrin-derivative photosensitizer, pheophorbide-a (PheoA), was conjugated to carboxybutyltriphenylphosphonium (TPP) via a carbodiimide linkage to enhance mitochondrial targeting and TPP-PheoA conjugate was further loaded into folate-cholesteryl albumin (FA-chol-BSA) nanoparticles (NPs) to improve its biocompatibility. Cellular uptake results showed that TPP-PheoA and TPP-PheoA@FA-chol-BSA NPs were readily taken up by B16F10 and HeLa cells...
November 1, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
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