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Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine

Jacob S Brenner, Kartik Bhamidipati, Patrick Glassman, N Ramakrishnan, Depeng Jiang, Andrew J Paris, Jacob W Myerson, Daniel C Pan, Vladimir V Shuvaev, Carlos Villa, Elizabeth D Hood, Raisa Kiseleva, Colin F Greineder, Ravi Radhakrishnan, Vladimir R Muzykantov
Inflamed organs display marked spatial heterogeneity of inflammation, with patches of inflamed tissue adjacent to healthy tissue. To investigate how nanocarriers (NCs) distribute between such patches, we created a mouse model that recapitulates the spatial heterogeneity of the inflammatory lung disease ARDS. NCs targeting the epitope PECAM strongly accumulated in the lungs, but were shunted away from inflamed lung regions due to hypoxic vasoconstriction (HVC). In contrast, ICAM-targeted NCs, which had lower whole-lung uptake than PECAM/NCs in inflamed lungs, displayed markedly higher NC levels in inflamed regions than PECAM/NCs, due to increased regional ICAM...
January 5, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Jin Yang, Xiaoqun Gong, Lei Fang, Qi Fan, Lei Cai, Xiaodi Qiu, Bo Zhang, Jin Chang, Yi Lu
Cataract is a major cause of visual impairment for diabetic patients. It is imperative to develop efficient therapeutic agents against diabetic cataract (DC) because diabetes confers higher risk for complications after cataract surgery. We have previously reported the role of CeCl3 loaded mesoporous silica (CeCl3@mSiO2) nanoparticles in reducing the oxidative stress of lens epithelial cells. However, the potential of CeCl3@mSiO2 in preventing diabetic cataract development remains unclear. In this study, we applied CeCl3@mSiO2 nanoparticles with a size of 87...
January 5, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Kexin Shen, Di Li, Jingjing Guan, Jianxun Ding, Zhongtang Wang, Jingkai Gu, Tongjun Liu, Xuesi Chen
A c(RGDfC)-decorated polylactide stereocomplex micelle (cRGD-SCM) was prepared through the stereocomplex and hydrophobic interactions among 4-arm poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(D-lactide) (4-arm PEG-b-PDLA), methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(L-lactide) (mPEG-b-PLLA), and c(RGDfC)-poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(L-lactide) (cRGD-PEG-b-PLLA) for targeted treatment of αvβ3 integrin-positive C26 colon cancer. Doxorubicin (DOX), a model antitumor drug, was loaded into cRGD-SCM with a diameter of approximately 100nm, and the drug loading efficiency was 45...
January 5, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Marlene Pedersen Elnegaard, Markus List, Helle Christiansen, Steffen Schmidt, Jan Mollenhauer, Ines Block
The nanomaterial community calls for standardized in vitro assays to determine nanoparticle toxicity in the effort to reduce the number of in vivo validation experiments. We demonstrate that chip-based protein detection is suitable for assessing toxicity and may complement traditional assays to improve selection of primary hits for subsequent analysis. As nanodrug mimics, we analyzed the effect of transiently transfected siRNAs in MCF7 breast cancer cells and normal MCF12A breast cells, resembling a differential screen...
January 5, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Carla Caddeo, Maria Letizia Manca, Maria Matos, Gemma Gutierrez, Octavio Díez-Sales, José Esteban Peris, Iris Usach, Xavier Fernàndez-Busquets, Anna Maria Fadda, Maria Manconi
Resveratrol and gallic acid, a lipophilic and a hydrophilic phenol, were co-loaded in innovative, biocompatible nanovesicles conceived for ensuring the protection of the skin from oxidative- and inflammatory-related affections. The basic vesicles, liposomes and glycerosomes, were produced by a simple, one-step method involving the dispersion of phospholipid and phenols in water or water/glycerol blend, respectively. Liposomes and glycerosomes were modified by the addition of poloxamer, a stabilizer and viscosity enhancer, thus obtaining viscous or semisolid dispersions of structured vesicles...
January 4, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
My N Bui, M Brittany Johnson, Mathias Viard, Emily Satterwhite, Angelica N Martins, Zhihai Li, Ian Marriott, Kirill A Afonin, Emil F Khisamutdinov
RNA nanotechnology employs synthetically modified ribonucleic acid (RNA) to engineer highly stable nanostructures in one, two, and three dimensions for medical applications. Despite the tremendous advantages in RNA nanotechnology, unmodified RNA itself is fragile and prone to enzymatic degradation. In contrast to use traditionally modified RNA strands e.g. 2'-fluorine, 2'-amine, 2'-methyl, we studied the effect of RNA/DNA hybrid approach utilizing a computer-assisted de novo RNA tetra-uracil (tetra-U) motif as a toolkit to address questions related to assembly efficiency, versatility, stability, and the production costs of hybrid RNA/DNA nanoparticles...
January 4, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Albin Jakobsson, Maximilian Ottosson, Marina Castro Zalis, David O'Carroll, Ulrica Englund Johansson, Fredrik Johansson
We demonstrate an artificial three-dimensional (3D) electrical active human neuronal network system, by the growth of brain neural progenitors in highly porous low density electrospun poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) fiber scaffolds. In neuroscience research cell-based assays are important experimental instruments for studying neuronal function in health and disease. Traditional cell culture at 2D-surfaces induces abnormal cell-cell contacts and network formation. Hence, there is a tremendous need to explore in vivo-resembling 3D neural cell culture approaches...
January 4, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Jenolyn F Alexander, David Aguirre-Villarreal, Biana Godin
The burgeoning application of nanotechnology to a variety of industries including cosmetics, food, medicine and materials has led to the exploration of nanotoxicology as a trending subject of research. However the role of a nanovector, in affecting the mutagenicity of its therapeutic payload has not yet been investigated. In this study, we compare the mutagenicity of the free drug - doxorubicin hydrochloride with its nanoencapsulated form - doxorubicin loaded liposome, using conventional methods required for regulatory approval...
January 3, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Dylan K McDaniel, Ami Jo, Veronica M Ringel-Scaia, Sheryl Coutermarsh-Ott, Daniel E Rothschild, Michael Powell, Rui Zhang, Timothy E Long, Kenneth Oestreich, Judy S Riffle, Richey M Davis, Irving C Allen
Nanoparticle based drug delivery platforms have the potential to transform disease treatment paradigms and therapeutic strategies, especially in the context of pulmonary medicine. Once administered, nanoparticles disperse throughout the lung and many are phagocytosed by macrophages. However, there is a paucity of knowledge regarding cellular up-take dynamics of nanoparticles due largely to macrophage heterogeneity. To address this issue, we sought to better define nanoparticle up-take using polarized M1 and M2 macrophages and novel TIPS-pentacene loaded PEO-PDLLA nanoparticles...
December 28, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Jayesh A Kulkarni, J Layne Myhre, Sam Chen, Yuen Yi C Tam, Adrian Danescu, Joy M Richman, Pieter R Cullis
Lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) containing distearolyphosphatidlycholine (DSPC), and ionizable amino-lipids such as (6Z,9Z,28Z,31Z)-heptatriaconta-6,9,28,31-tetraen-19-yl-4-(dimethylamino)butanoate (DLin-MC3-DMA) are potent siRNA delivery vehicles in vivo. Here we explore the utility of similar LNP systems as transfection reagents for plasmid DNA (pDNA). It is shown that replacement of DSPC by unsaturated PCs and DLin-MC3-DMA by the related lipid DLin-KC2-DMA resulted in highly potent transfection reagents for HeLa cells in vitro...
December 28, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Afzal Hussain, Sima Singh, Thomas J Webster, Farhan Jalees Ahmad
This study aimed to develop nanoemulsions (NEs) for the topical delivery of Amphotericin B using lipids and surfactants with innate antifungal activity. NEs were formulated by a slow spontaneous titration method and characterized for particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, zone of inhibition (ZOI), in vitro release, enhanced ex vivo rat skin permeation-deposition, hemolysis followed by interaction with the skin using scanning electron microscopy, and histopathology. The ZOI values of the optimized NEs (ANE3) were 21...
December 20, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Aguilar Ludwig Erik, Amin GhavamiNejad, Chan Hee Park, Cheol Sang Kim
A functional cover made up of core-shell nanofibers with a unique combination of thermoresponsive polymeric shell and stretchable polymeric core for non-vascular nitinol stents that uses an alternating magnetic field (AMF) to induce heat in the stent for hyperthermia therapy and simultaneously release 5-fluorouracil and/or paclitaxel was designed. Varied ratios of NIPAAm to HMAAm monomer resulted in different LCST properties was utilized for an on-demand drug release. Biocompatibility test using NIH-3T3 fibroblast cells indicates that the composite with drug content is biocompatible and the in-vitro cancer cytotoxicity test using ESO26 and OE21 cancer cells proved that the material shows cancer cytotoxic properties via combination of dual drug and hyperthermia therapy...
December 20, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Weixin Hou, Tan Boon Toh, Lissa Nurrul Abdullah, Tay Wei Zheng Yvonne, Kuan J Lee, Ilonka Guenther, Edward Kai-Hua Chow
Contrast agent-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is critical for the diagnosis and monitoring of a number of diseases, including cancer. Certain clinical applications, including the detection of liver tumors, rely on both T1 and T2-weighted images even though contrast agent-enhanced MR imaging is not always reliable. Thus, there is a need for improved dual mode contrast agents with enhanced sensitivity. We report the development of a nanodiamond-manganese dual mode contrast agent that enhanced both T1 and T2-weighted MR imaging...
December 18, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Xiao-Yu Jiang, Christopher D Sarsons, M Juliana Gomez-Garcia, David T Cramb, Kristina D Rinker, Sarah J Childs
Nanoparticle (NP) interactions with biological tissues are affected by the size, shape and surface chemistry of the NPs. Here we use in vivo (zebrafish) and in vitro (HUVEC) models to investigate association of quantum dots (QDs) with endothelial cells and the effect of fluid flow. After injection into the developing zebrafish, circulating QDs associate with endothelium and penetrate surrounding tissue parenchyma over time. Amino-functionalized QDs cluster, interact with cells, and clear more rapidly than carboxy-functionalized QDs in vivo, highlighting charge influences...
December 18, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Federica Caponnetto, Ivana Manini, Miran Skrap, Timea Palmai-Pallag, Carla Di Loreto, Antonio Paolo Beltrami, Daniela Cesselli, Enrico Ferrari
The ability of exosomes to elicit specific cellular responses suggests that they may be increasingly used as therapeutics. Their vesicular nature makes them suitable as potential nanocarriers for drugs or nucleic acids delivery. Here we address the question whether the method of preparation of enriched exosomal fractions can affect their uptake by cells and their ability to trigger a response. We compared ultracentrifugation and polymer-based precipitation methods on supernatants of glioma-associated stem cells isolated from a high-grade glioma patient...
December 18, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Michael S Gee, Arezou A Ghazani, Rizwan Haq, Jennifer A Wargo, Matthew Sebas, Ryan J Sullivan, Hakho Lee, Ralph Weissleder
This study evaluates μNMR technology for molecular profiling of tumor fine needle aspirates and peripheral blood of melanoma patients. In vitro assessment of melanocyte (MART-1, HMB45) and MAP kinase signaling (pERK, pS6K) molecule expression was performed in human cell lines, while clinical validation was performed in an IRB-approved study of melanoma patients undergoing biopsy and blood sampling. Tumor FNA and blood specimens were compared with BRAF genetic analysis and cross-sectional imaging. μNMR in vitro analysis showed increased expression of melanocyte markers in melanoma cells as well as increased expression of phosphorylated MAP kinase targets in BRAF-mutant melanoma cells...
December 18, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Yinyin Chen, Xiaoran Deng, Chunxia Li, Fei He, Bei Liu, Zhiyao Hou, Ziyong Cheng, Bengang Xing, Jun Lin
Anticancer drug doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX)-loaded photothermal nanocomposite MnFe2O4@mSiO2 with magnetic targeting and T1/T2-weighted dual-mode magnetic resonance imaging of MnFe2O4 core and NIR/pH-coupling sensitive mesoporous silica shell nanocarriers was designed and synthesized successfully. The anticancer drug DOX can be absorbed into mesoporous layer of MnFe2O4@mSiO2 nanocomposite, which shows obvious photothermal/chemo dual-modal synergistic therapies triggered by NIR/pH. Under 808 nm irradiation, MnFe2O4 can transform light into thermo, which can not only ablate tumor cells directly but also promote chemotherapy drugs releasing from mesoporous layer to kill tumor cells...
December 18, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Lorena P Suarez-Kelly, Amanda R Campbell, Isaac V Rampersaud, Ambika Bumb, Min S Wang, Jonathan P Butchar, Susheela Tridandapani, Lianbo Yu, Arfaan A Rampersaud, William E Carson
Fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs) are nontoxic, infinitely photostable, and emit fluorescence in the near infrared region. Natural killer (NK) cells and monocytes are part of the innate immune system and are crucial to the control of carcinogenesis. FND-mediated stimulation of these cells may serve as a strategy to enhance anti-tumor activity. FNDs were fabricated with a diameter of 70±28 nm. Innate immune cell FND uptake, viability, surface marker expression, and cytokine production were evaluated in vitro...
December 18, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Alessandro Roncador, Elisa Oppici, Marina Talelli, Amaya Niño Pariente, Marta Donini, Stefano Dusi, Carla Borri Voltattorni, María J Vicent, Barbara Cellini
Alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) is a liver peroxisomal enzyme whose deficit causes the rare disorder Primary Hyperoxaluria Type I (PH1). We now describe the conjugation of poly(ethylene glycol)-co-poly(L-glutamic acid) (PEG-PGA) block-co-polymer to AGT via the formation of disulfide bonds between the polymer and solvent-exposed cysteine residues of the enzyme. PEG-PGA conjugation did not affect AGT structural/functional properties and allowed the enzyme to be internalized in a cellular model of PH1 and to restore glyoxylate-detoxification...
December 18, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Dan Yan, Zhidong Teng, Shiqi Sun, Shan Jiang, Hu Dong, Yuan Gao, Yanquan Wei, Wenwu Qin, Xiangtao Liu, Hong Yin, Huichen Guo
The surface of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV)-like particles (VLPs) contains a conserved arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) motif. Natural FMDV specifically attaches to overexpressed integrin receptors in several cancer cells. The FMDV VLPs produced in Escherichia coli were used for the first time as a delivery system of anti-tumor drug doxorubicin (DOX). The DOX-loaded VLPs exhibited a distinct release profile in different physiological conditions. The effects of FMDV-VLPs-DOX on cellular internalization and viability were evaluated in vitro by cell imaging, MTT assay and apoptosis, respectively...
December 18, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
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