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Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine

Anna Ohradanova-Repic, Eugénia Nogueira, Ingrid Hartl, Andreia C Gomes, Ana Preto, Eva Steinhuber, Vanessa Mühlgrabner, Marko Repic, Mario Kuttke, Alexander Zwirzitz, Marek Prouza, Miloslav Suchanek, Gordana Wozniak-Knopp, Vaclav Horejsi, Gernot Schabbauer, Artur Cavaco-Paulo, Hannes Stockinger
Liposomes functionalized with monoclonal antibodies or their antigen-binding fragments have attracted much attention as specific drug delivery devices for treatment of various diseases including cancer. The conjugation of antibodies to liposomes is usually achieved by covalent coupling using cross-linkers in a reaction that might adversely affect the characteristics of the final product. Here we present an alternative strategy for liposome functionalization: we created a recombinant Fab antibody fragment genetically fused on its C-terminus to the hydrophobic peptide derived from pulmonary surfactant protein D, which became inserted into the liposomal bilayer during liposomal preparation and anchored the Fab onto the liposome surface...
September 19, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Gabriela Kania, Magdalena Sternak, Agnieszka Jasztal, Stefan Chlopicki, Agnieszka Błażejczyk, Anna Nasulewicz-Goldeman, Joanna Wietrzyk, Krzysztof Jasiński, Tomasz Skórka, Szczepan Zapotoczny, Maria Nowakowska
Bioreactivity of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) coated with thin layers of either cationic or anionic chitosan derivatives and serving as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was studied in vivo using BALB/c mouse model. Synthesized dual-modal fluorescing SPION were tracked in time using both fluorescent imaging and MRI. Although SPION started to be excreted by kidneys relatively shortly after administration they were uptaken by liver enhancing MRI contrast even up to 7days...
September 19, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Laurence Dallet, Marion Decossas, Jean-Christophe Taveau, Sophie Lecomte, Sylvie Poussard, Olivier Lambert, Bruno Pitard
Delivery of biologically active proteins into cells is emerging as important strategy for many applications. Previous experiments have shown that lipoaminoglycosides were capable of delivery of the anti-cytokeratin8 antibody (anti-K8) but only when formulated with lipid helpers potentially leading to toxicity from excess lipids. Here, we optimized anti-K8 delivery with various lipoaminoglycosides in the absence of a lipid helper. Results led to the identification of the aminoglycoside lipid dioleyl phosphoramido ribostamycin (DOPRI) as a potent intracellular delivery system for anti-K8...
September 19, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Li Fan, Saisai Zhao, Xin Jin, Yongsheng Zhang, Chaojun Song, Hong Wu
Chemo-photodynamic combination has been manifested great potential for synergistic cancer therapy. Moreover, the synergistic efficacy could be significantly enhanced by well designed sequential release manner of photosensitizers (PSs). Here we propose a "Big & small combo nanoparticles (NPbig&small)" system for double loading PSs methylene blue (MB) and single absorbing chemotherapeutics drug Gemcitabine hydrochloride (GM(.)HCl). The "grown-in" MB from NPbig&small show two-peak sequential release profile, significantly improve the absorbed chemo therapeutic efficacy of GM(...
September 15, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Alexander S Timin, Albert R Muslimov, Kirill V Lepik, Olga S Epifanovskaya, Alena I Shakirova, Ulrike Mock, Kristoffer Riecken, Maria V Okilova, Vladislav S Sergeev, Boris V Afanasyev, Boris Fehse, Gleb B Sukhorukov
CRISPR-Cas9 is a revolutionary genome-editing technology that has enormous potential for the treatment of genetic diseases. However, the lack of efficient and safe, non-viral delivery systems has hindered its clinical application. Here, we report on the application of polymeric and hybrid microcarriers, made of degradable polymers such as polypeptides and polysaccharides and modified by silica shell, for delivery of all CRISPR-Cas9 components. We found that these microcarriers mediate more efficient transfection than a commercially available liposome-based transfection reagent (>70% vs...
September 13, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Michael A Harris, Timothy R Pearce, Thomas Pengo, Huihui Kuang, Colleen Forster, Efrosini Kokkoli
In this work we hypothesized that the chemokine fractalkine can serve as a cancer molecular target. We engineered aptamer micelles functionalized with an outer poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) corona, and investigated the extent and efficacy of using them as a targeting tool against fractalkine-expressing colon adenocarcinoma cells. In vitro cell binding results showed that aptamer micelles bound and internalized to fractalkine-expressing cancer cells with the majority of the micelles found free in the cytoplasm...
September 11, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Huijuan Zhang, Xiaoge Zhang, Xing Zhu, Jianjiao Chen, Qianqian Chen, Hongling Zhang, Lin Hou, Zhenzhong Zhang
NIR responsive inorganic hybrid (Ti@GO) was synthesized. It could absorb NIR light and convert it into local hyperthermia and ROS synchronously. Ti@GO was firstly developed as photosensitizer and photothermal agent to realize tumor PTT and PDT. For anti-tumor application, HA was grafted on Ti@GO simultaneously as water solubility improver and tumor targeting moiety. ICG was chose as model drug. Results demonstrated HA-Ti@GO could remarkably improve ICG stability and drug accumulation in 4 T1 cells, to enhance tumor phototherapy efficiency and reduce light-associated side effects...
September 7, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Garry Kerch
The direct and indirect (by changing mechanical properties) effects of hydration at interfaces on cellular processes and tissue diseases are reviewed. The essential effect of substrate stiffness on cellular processes was demonstrated in the last decade. The combined effect of surface stiffness and hydration at interfaces has garnered much less attention, though hydration and dehydration play important roles in biological processes. This review focuses on the studies that demonstrate how hydration affects biological processes at interfaces...
September 7, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Md Imam Uddin, Ashwath Jayagopal, Alexis Wong, Gary W McCollum, David W Wright, John S Penn
Vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) is an important inflammatory biomarker correlating with retinal disease progression. Thus, detection of VCAM-1 mRNA expression levels at an early disease stage could be an important predictive biomarker to assess the risk of disease progression and monitoring treatment response. We have developed VCAM-1 targeted antisense hairpin DNA-functionalized gold nanoparticles (AS-VCAM-1 hAuNP) for the real time detection of VCAM-1 mRNA expression levels in retinal endothelial cells...
September 7, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Zhen Zhao, Yuanke Li, Akshay Jain, Zhijin Chen, Hao Liu, Wei Jin, Kun Cheng
Insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (IGF2R) is overexpressed in activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and therefore can be utilized for HSC-specific drug delivery. We recently discovered an IGF2R-specific peptide using a novel biopanning. Here, we adopted biotin-conjugated IGF2R-specific peptide, cholesterol, and vitamin A as the targeting ligands for the neutravidin-based siRNA nanocomplex to deliver PCBP2 siRNA, a potentially antifibrotic agent, to HSCs. Compared to vitamin A and cholesterol, the IGF2R-specific peptide exhibited the highest targeting effect to human LX-2 HSC, rat HSC-T6 cell line, and activated primary rat HSCs...
September 7, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Kai Schulze, Thomas Ebensen, Saranya Chandrudu, Mariusz Skwarczynski, Istvan Toth, Colleen Olive, Carlos A Guzman
Despite the broad knowledge about the pathogenicity of Streptococcus pyogenes there is still a controversy about the correlate of protection in GAS infections. We aimed in further improving the immune responses stimulated against GAS comparing different vaccine formulations including bis-(3',5')-cyclic dimeric adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) and BPPCysMPEG, a derivative of the macrophage-activating lipopeptide (MALP-2), as adjuvants, respectively, to be administered with and without the universal T helper cell epitope P25 along with the optimized B cell epitope J14 of the M protein and B and T cell epitopes of SfbI...
September 5, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
D E Tranca, S G Stanciu, R Hristu, B M Witgen, George A Stanciu
We present a novel method for nanoscale reconstruction of complex refractive index by using scattering-type Scanning Near-field Optical Microscopy (s-SNOM). Our method relies on correlating s-SNOM experimental image data with computational data obtained through simulation of the classical oscillating point-dipole model. This results in assigning a certain dielectric function for every pixel of the s-SNOM images, which further results in nanoscale mapping of the refractive index. This method is employed on human erythrocytes to demonstrate the approach in a biologically relevant manner...
September 5, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Yang Xia, Huimin Chen, Feimin Zhang, Chongyun Bao, Michael D Weir, Mark A Reynolds, Junqing Ma, Ning Gu, Hockin H K Xu
In this study, a novel calcium phosphate cement containing gold nanoparticles (GNP-CPC) was developed. Its osteogenic induction ability on human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) was investigated for the first time. The incorporation of GNPs improved hDPSCs behavior on CPC, including better cell adhesion (about 2-fold increase in cell spreading) and proliferation, and enhanced osteogenic differentiation (about 2-3-fold increase at 14days). GNPs endow CPC with micro-nano-structure, thus improving surface properties for cell adhesion and subsequent behaviors...
September 5, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Carlos Lopez-Chaves, Juan Soto-Alvaredo, Maria Montes-Bayon, Jörg Bettmer, Juan Llopis, Cristina Sanchez-Gonzalez
Concerns about the bioaccumulation and toxicity of gold nanoparticles inside humans have recently risen. HT-29 and HepG2 cell lines and Wistar rats were exposed to 10, 30 or 60nm gold nanoparticles to determine their tissue distribution, subcellular location and deleterious effects. Cell viability, ROS production and DNA damage were evaluated in vitro. Lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation were determined in liver. ICP-MS measurements showed the presence of gold in intestine, kidney, liver, spleen, faeces and urine...
September 4, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Anders Elias Hansen, Frederikke Petrine Fliedner, Jonas Rosager Henriksen, Jesper Tranekjær Jørgensen, Andreas Ettrup Clemmensen, Betina Børresen, Dennis Ringkjøbing Elema, Andreas Kjær, Thomas Lars Andresen
Radiation therapy may affect several important parameters in the tumor microenvironment and thereby influence the accumulation of liposomes by the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR)-effect. Here we investigate the effect of single dose radiation therapy on liposome tumor accumulation by PET/CT imaging using radiolabeled liposomes. Head and neck cancer xenografts (FaDu) and syngenic colorectal (CT26) cancer models were investigated. Radiotherapy displayed opposite effects in the two models. FaDu tumors displayed increased mean accumulation of liposomes for radiation doses up to 10Gy, whereas CT26 tumors displayed a tendency for decreased accumulation...
September 4, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Liang Ge, Xinyi He, Yajie Zhang, Yuan Zhang, Fujuan Chai, Liqun Jiang, Thomas J Webster, Chunli Zheng
Dabigatran etexilate (DE) is insoluble at neutral pH values but soluble at low pH values due to protonation, which is the major cause for the poor bioavailability of commercial DE products. Here, we first developed a DE nanoemulsion system and improved dissolution in simulated intestinal fluids by encapsulating DE into an oil phase, but 35.8% of the drug still leaked out. Further, we prepared a DE-phospholipid complex (DE-PC) to enhance lipophilicity and solubility of DE. The resulting DE-PC nanoemulsions significantly (P<0...
August 27, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Amin Reza Nikpoor, Jalil Tavakkol-Afshari, Kayvan Sadri, Seyed Amir Jalali, Mahmoud Reza Jaafari
Cancer immunotherapies using monoclonal antibodies including cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein-4 (CTLA-4) blocking monoclonal antibody have several drawbacks including lack of appropriate penetration to the tumors, and organ toxicity. To address these obstacles, PEGylated and non-PEGylated liposomes containing CTLA-4 was prepared, characterized and the anti-tumor therapeutic responses were studied on the mice bearing C26 colon cancer tumors. The biodistribution study showed that the PEGylated liposomes had prolonged blood half-lives and accumulated remarkably more than non-PEGylated liposomes and free CTLA-4 antibody in tumor area...
August 25, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Frederico Nogueira, Natia Karumidze, Ia Kusradze, Marina Goderdzishvili, Pilar Teixeira, Isabel C Gouveia
Opportunistic bacteria that cause life-threatening infections are still a central problem associated with a healthcare setting. Bacteriophage capsid immobilization on nanostructured polymers maximizes its tail exposure and looks promising in applications toward skin-infections as alternative to antibiotics standardly used. The main goal of this work was to investigate the covalent immobilization of vB_Pae_Kakheti25 bacteriophage capsid on polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibers (non-woven textile), as a potential effective antimicrobial, laundry resistant and non-toxic dressing for biomedical use...
August 25, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Lluis Pascual, Cristal Cerqueira-Coutinho, Alba García-Fernández, Beatriz de Luis, Emerson Soares Bernardes, Marta Souza Albernaz, Sotiris Missailidis, Ramón Martínez-Máñez, Ralph Santos-Oliveira, Mar Orzaez, Félix Sancenón
Mucin 1 (MUC1) is a cell surface protein overexpressed in breast cancer. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) loaded with safranin O, functionalized with aminopropyl groups and gated with the negatively charged MUC1 aptamer have been prepared (S1-apMUC1) for specific targeting and cargo release in tumoral versus non-tumoral cells. Confocal microscopy studies showed that the S1-apMUC1 nanoparticles were internalized in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells that overexpress MUC1 receptor with subsequent pore opening and cargo release...
August 24, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Chuanxu Yang, Hieu Vu-Quang, Dina Michelle Unnerup Husum, Stine Julie Tingskov, Mads Sloth Vinding, Thomas Nielsen, Ping Song, Niels Chr Nielsen, Rikke Nørregaard, Jørgen Kjems
In this work, a theranostic nanoparticle was developed for multimodal imaging and siRNA delivery. The core of the nanoparticles (NP) was formed by encapsulation of superparamagnetic iron oxides and indocyanine green in a PLGA matrix to serve as a multimodal probe for near-infrared (NIFR) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The surface of the particle was coated with polyethylenimine (PEI) for siRNA delivery. Macrophages efficiently took up the nanoparticles and emitted strong NIFR and MR contrast. When transfected with siRNA targeting the pro-inflammatory enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), significant down-regulation of COX-2 was achieved in activated macrophages...
August 22, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
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