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Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine

Annika Frede, Bernhard Neuhaus, Torben Knuschke, Munisch Wadwa, Sebastian Kollenda, Robert Klopfleisch, Wiebke Hansen, Jan Buer, Dunja Bruder, Matthias Epple, Astrid M Westendorf
The local interference of cytokine signaling mediated by siRNA-loaded nanoparticles might be a promising new therapeutic approach to dampen inflammation during pulmonary diseases. For the local therapeutic treatment of pulmonary inflammation, we produced multi-shell nanoparticles consisting of a calcium phosphate core, coated with siRNAs directed against pro-inflammatory mediators, encapsulated into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), and coated with a final outer layer of polyethylenimine. Nasal instillation of nanoparticles loaded with a mixture of siRNAs directed against different cytokines to mice suffering from TH1 cell-mediated lung inflammation, or of siRNA directed against NS-1 in an influenza infection model led to a significant reduction of target gene expression which was accompanied by distinct amelioration of lung inflammation in both models...
August 8, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Dharman Govindaraj, Mariappan Rajan, Murugan A Munusamy, Abdullah A Alarfaj, Kishor Kumar Sadasivuni, S Suresh Kumar
Minerals substituted apatite (M-HA) nanoparticles were prepared by the precipitation of minerals and phosphate reactants in choline chloride-Thiourea (ChCl-TU) deep eutectic solvent (DESs) as a facile and green way approach. After preparation of nanoparticles (F-M-HA (F=Fresh solvent)), the DESs was recovered productively and reprocess for the preparation of R-M-HA nanoparticles (R=Recycle solvent).The functional groups, phase, surface texture and the elemental composition of the M-HA nanoparticles were evaluated by advance characterization methods...
August 8, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Yuyu Yao, Bing Li, Fu Cong, Gaojun Teng, Genshan Ma, Naifeng Liu
This study explored connective tissue growth factor (CTGF)-targeted ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxides (USPIOs) for noninvasive MRI of CTGF within carotid atherosclerotic lesions in apoE-deficient (apoE(-/-)) mice. Anti-CTGF polyclonal and nonspecific IgG antibodies were conjugated to polyethylene glycol-coated USPIOs, and apoE(-/-) carotid partial ligation-model mice were imaged via MRI before and after contrast administration. ApoE(-/-) mice were treated with CTGF-neutralizing antibodies for 3weeks...
August 3, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Anne-Sophie Wozny, Marie-Thérèse Aloy, Gersende Alphonse, Nicolas Magné, Marc Janier, Olivier Tillement, François Lux, Michael Beuve, Claire Rodriguez-Lafrasse
Hadrontherapy presents the major advantage of improving tumor sterilization while sparing surrounding healthy tissues because of the particular ballistic (Bragg peak) of carbon ions. However, its efficacy is still limited in the most resistant cancers, such as grade III-IV head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), in which the association of carbon ions with gadolinium-based nanoparticles (AGuIX®) could be used as a Trojan horse. We report for the first time the radioenhancing effect of AGuIX® when combined with carbon ion irradiation in human tumor cells...
August 2, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Yuhua Ma, Haisheng He, Fei Xia, Yingxia Li, Yan Lu, Daofeng Chen, Jianping Qi, Yi Lu, Wei Zhang, Wei Wu
Lipid-drug conjugates (LDCs) of a poorly soluble and poorly permeable drug silybin (SB) and lipids with different chain lengths (6C, 12C, 18C) are synthesized and formulated into solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs). The in vivo fate of LDCs as well as SLNs is investigated by tracking either SB or LDCs or SLNs. LDCs are prone to be hydrolyzed by lipases either in simulated gastrointestinal media or in Caco-2 cell lines in a lipid chain length-dependent mode. The oral bioavailability of SB is enhanced by 5-7-fold in comparison with a fast-release formulation...
August 1, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Mostafa Saeedi, Omid Vahidi, Vahabodin Goodarzi, Mohammad Reza Saeb, Leila Izadi, Masoud Mozafari
Distribution patterns/performance of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) was visualized by computer simulation and experimental validation on agarose gel tissue-mimicking phantom (AGTMP) models. The geometry of a complex three-dimensional mathematical phantom model of a cancer tumor was examined by tomography imaging. The capability of mathematical model to predict distribution patterns/performance in AGTMP model was captured. The temperature profile vs. hyperthermia duration was obtained by solving bio-heat equations for four different MNPs distribution patterns and correlated with cell death rate...
July 29, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Manfred F Maitz, Claudia Sperling, Thidarat Wongpinyochit, Manuela Herklotz, Carsten Werner, F Philipp Seib
Many nanoparticles are designed for use as potential nanomedicines for parenteral administration. However, emerging evidence suggests that hemocompatibility is important, but is highly particle- and test-bed dependent. Thus, knowledge of bulk material properties does not predict the hemocompatibility of uncharacterized nanoparticles, including silk nanoparticles. This study compares the hemocompatibility of silk versus silica nanoparticles, using whole human blood under quasi-static and flow conditions. Substantial hemocompatibility differences are noted for some nanoparticles in quasi-static versus dynamic studies; i...
July 27, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Chunmeng Sun, Yang Ding, Li Zhou, Di Shi, Linlin Sun, Thomas J Webster, Yan Shen
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) maintains the integrity and homeostasis of the central nervous system (CNS) yet represents an intimidating hurdle for efficient drug delivery to brain tumors. This up-to-date review summarizes strategies that have been employed to cross the BBB with a focus on non-invasive nanoparticles that could pass the BBB after systemic administration. Recent advances in liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, micelles, and inorganic nanoparticles are scrutinized mechanistically with an emphasis on design principles...
July 27, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Ivan Guryanov, Sabrina Cipriani, Stefano Fiorucci, Natalia Zashikhina, Silvia Marchianò, Paolo Scarpelli, Viktor Korzhikov-Vlakh, Ekaterina Popova, Evgenia Korzhikova-Vlakh, Barbara Biondi, Fernando Formaggio, Tatiana Tennikova
A creation of nanotraps that could selectively recognize the chemotactic mediators of leukocyte adhesion and eliminate them from the bloodstream and tissue intercellular matrix is a promising approach for the treatment of various inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. We designed nanotraps as artificial decoy receptors based on poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanoparticles covered by heparin and bearing on the surface two fragments of CCR5 receptor (N-terminal domain, Nt, and second extracellular loop, ECL2), responsible for chemokine binding...
July 26, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Rehana Afrin, Masakazu Saito, Takahiro Watanabe-Nakayama, Atsushi Ikai
We report a nano-technological method of creating a micrometer sized hole on the live cell membrane using atomic force microscope (AFM) and its resealing process at the single cellular level as a model of molecular level wound healing. First, the cell membrane was fluorescently labeled with Kusabira Orange (KO) which was tagged to a lipophilic membrane-sorting peptide. Then a glass bead glued on an AFM cantilever and modified with phospholipase A2 was made to contact the cell membrane. A small dark hole (4-14 μm(2) in area) was created on the otherwise fluorescent cell surface often being accompanied by bleb formation...
July 26, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Manuel Alejandro Ramirez-Lee, Ricardo Espinosa-Tanguma, Rebeca Mejía-Elizondo, Alejandra Medina-Hernández, Gabriel Alejandro Martinez-Castañon, Carmen Gonzalez
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are promising antibacterial nanomaterials for diagnostic and treatment of diabetes. However, toxicity and adverse cardiac responses induced by AgNPs related to nitric oxide (NO) and oxidative stress (OS) are described. Moreover, little is known about the diabetes influence upon AgNPs-toxicity. The aim of this work was to evaluate cardiovascular function in response to AgNPs through measuring perfusion pressure (PP) and left ventricle pressure (LVP), using perfused hearts from streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats and identify the role of NO and OS...
July 26, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
E Berrocoso, R Rey-Brea, M Fernández-Arévalo, J A Micó, Lucía Martín-Banderas
Neuropathic pain, resistant to opiates and other drugs, is a chronic/persistent state with a complex treatment and often poor efficacy. In this scenario, cannabinoids are increasingly regarded as a genuine alternative. In this paper, and in an experimental animal model of neuropathic pain, we studied the efficacy of three kinds of PLGA nanoparticles containing synthetic cannabinoid CB13: (i) plain nanoparticles (PLGA); (ii) particles coated with PEG chains (PLGA+PEG) and (iii) particles possessing hydrophilic surfaces obtained by covalently binding PEG chains (PLGA-PEG)...
July 26, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Tiziano Sanvito, Paolo Bigini, Maria V Cavanna, Fabio Fiordaliso, Martina B Violatto, Laura Talamini, Mario Salmona, Paolo Milani, Marco A C Potenza
Here we report the quantitative in situ characterization of size distribution evolution of polymeric nanoparticles incubated in murine serum, filtered and unfiltered murine blood. We used an analytical optical approach, named Single Particle Extinction and Scattering (SPES), which relies on the measurements of two independent parameters of single particles. SPES is based on a robust self-reference interference optical scheme which allows a rejection of the spurious signals coming from the background caused by the medium...
July 26, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Hongwang Wang, Asanka S Yapa, Nilusha L Kariyawasam, Tej B Shrestha, Sebastian O Wendel, Jing Yu, Marla Pyle, Matthew T Basel, Aruni P Malalasekera, Yubisela Toledo, Raquel Ortega, Prem S Thapa, Hongzhou Huang, Susan X Sun, Paul E Smith, Deryl L Troyer, Stefan H Bossmann
A novel type of supramolecular aggregate, named a "nanosponge" was synthesized through the interaction of novel supramolecular building blocks with trigonal geometry. The cholesterol-(K/D)nDEVDGC)3-trimaleimide unit consists of a trigonal maleimide linker to which homopeptides (either K or D) of variable lengths (n=5, 10, 15, 20) and a consensus sequence for executioner caspases (DEVDGC) are added via Michael addition. Upon mixing in aqueous buffer cholesterol-(K)nDEVDGC)3-trimaleimides and a 1:1 mixture of cholesterol-(K/D)nDEVDGC)3-trimaleimides form stable nanosponges, whereas cholesterol-(D)nDEVDGC)3-trimaleimide is unable to form supramolecular aggregates with itself...
July 25, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Reena Rodriguez, Kentaro Yoshimura, Yo Shibata, Yoichi Miyamoto, Reina Tanaka, Risa Uyama, Kiyohito Sasa, Dai Suzuki, Takashi Miyazaki, Ryutaro Kamijo
Although empirical findings have indicated increase in bone fracture risk in type 2 diabetes patients, that has yet to be proven by results obtained at the material level. Here, we report evidence showing nanoscale time-dependent deformation/recovery of in vitro calcified nodules mimicking bone turnover in type 2 diabetes in respect to methylglyoxal (MG)-induced glycation. Nanoindentation test results revealed that calcified nodules cultured with MG did not show adequate dimensional recovery, despite a large creep rate during constant load indentation testing...
July 25, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Siva Sai Krishna Dasa, Ryo Suzuki, Emily Mugler, Lanlin Chen, Rasmus Jansson-Löfmark, Erik Michaëlsson, Lennart Lindfors, Alexander L Klibanov, Brent A French, Kimberly A Kelly
Liposome-based drug formulations represent an exciting avenue of research as they increase efficacy to toxicity ratios. Current formulations rely on passive accumulation to the disease site where drug is taken up by the cells. Ligand mediated targeting increases the net accumulation of liposomes, however, an unexplored benefit is to potentially refine pharmacodynamics (PD) of a drug specifically to different cell types within diseased tissue. As a model system, we engineered cardiomyocyte- (I-1) and endothelial-targeted (B-40) liposomes to carry a VEGFR2 inhibitor (PTK787), and examined the effect of cell type-specific delivery on both pharmacokinetics (PK) and PD...
July 25, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Min Ju Kim, Shafiq Ur Rehman, Faiz Ul Amin, Myeong Ok Kim
Amyloid-beta (Aβ1-42) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) are the main hallmarks considered to be associated with neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recently, nanoparticle-based targeted drug delivery approaches have been found to be a useful tool in the neurotherapeutics field. Therefore, we examined and compared the neuroprotective effect of anthocyanins alone and anthocyanin-loaded poly (ethylene glycol)-gold nanoparticles (PEG-AuNPs) in Aβ1-42-injected mouse and in vitro models of AD...
July 20, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Liteng Lin, Mingyue Cai, Shaohui Deng, Wensou Huang, Jingjun Huang, Xinghua Huang, Mingsheng Huang, Yong Wang, Xintao Shuai, Kangshun Zhu
Portal hypertension (PH), a leading cause of mortality in cirrhosis, lacks effective clinical therapeutic strategies. The increased thromboxane A2 (TXA2), derived primarily from the upregulation of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) in cirrhotic liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs), is responsible for hepatic endothelial dysfunction and PH. Thus, blocking the COX-1 pathway in cirrhotic LSECs may benefit the treatment of PH. In this study, hyaluronate-graft-polyethylenimine (HA-PEI) was synthesized for the targeted delivery of COX-1 siRNA to LSECs...
July 13, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Xia Dong, Zhiting Sun, Xiaoxiao Wang, Xigang Leng
Chemotherapy and photothermal therapy can be efficiently integrated to achieve enhanced antitumor efficacy by using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) which are super in delivering drug and converting near infrared radiation (NIR) into heat. We previously developed an innovative TAT-chitosan functionalized MWCNTs (MWCNTs/TC) based drug delivery system for doxorubicin (DOX) and preliminarily investigated its release profile and antitumor effect. In the present study, the application potential of MWCNTs/DOX/TC in chemo-photothermal combination therapy was further explored...
July 13, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Breanne Mordorski, Caroline Barcelos Costa-Orlandi, Ludmila M Baltazar, Leandro J Carreño, Angelo Landriscina, Jamie Rosen, Mahantesh Navati, Maria Jose Soares Mendes-Giannini, Joel M Friedman, Joshua D Nosanchuk, Adam J Friedman
Systemic therapies are preferred for treating dermal dermatophytosis due to inadequate penetration of topical agents. However, systemic antifungals are associated with off-target effects and limited tissue penetration, and antimicrobial resistance is a growing concern. To address this, we investigated topical nitric oxide-releasing nanoparticles (NO-np), which have been used against superficial fungal infections and bacterial abscesses. In addition to enhanced penetration and permeation conferred by nanoparticles, nitric oxide, a broad-spectrum multi-mechanistic antimicrobial agent, offers decreased likelihood of resistance development...
July 13, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
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