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Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine

Forrest M Kievit, Kui Wang, Tatsuya Ozawa, Aria W Tarudji, John R Silber, Eric C Holland, Richard G Ellenbogen, Miqin Zhang
Glioblastoma (GBM) remains incurable, and recurrent tumors that rarely respond to standard-of-care radiation and chemo-therapies. Therefore, strategies that enhance the effects of these therapies should provide significant benefits to GBM patients. We have developed a nanoparticle delivery vehicle that can stably bind and protect nucleic acids for specific delivery into brain tumor cells. These nanoparticles can deliver therapeutic siRNAs to sensitize GBM cells to radiotherapy and improve GBM treatment via systemic administration...
June 11, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Yuan Yuan, Yugen Zhang
Cicada wing surfaces are covered with dense patterns of nano-pillar structure that prevent bacterial growth by rupturing adhered microbial cells. To mimic the natural nano-pillar structure, we developed a general and simple method to grow metal organic framework (MOF) nano-dagger arrays on a wide range of surfaces. These nano-daggers possess high bactericidal activity, with log reduction >7 for Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. It was hypothesized that the positively-charged ZIF-L nano-dagger surfaces enhance bacterial cell adhesion, facilitating selective and efficient bacteria killing by the rigid and sharp nano-dagger tips...
June 11, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Elsa D Silva, Pedro S Babo, Raquel Costa-Almeida, Rui M A Domingues, Bárbara B Mendes, Elvira Paz, Paulo Freitas, Márcia T Rodrigues, Pedro L Granja, Manuela E Gomes
Photocrosslinkable magnetic hydrogels are attracting great interest for tissue engineering strategies due to their versatility and multifunctionality, including their remote controllability ex vivo, thus enabling engineering complex tissue interfaces. This study reports the development of a photocrosslinkable magnetic responsive hydrogel made of methacrylated chondroitin sulfate (MA-CS) enriched with platelet lysate (PL) with tunable features, envisioning their application in tendon-to-bone interface. MA-CS coated iron-based magnetic nanoparticles were incorporated to provide magnetic responsiveness to the hydrogel...
June 11, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Yong Gao, Christopher Hernandez, Hai-Xia Yuan, Jacob Lilly, Pavan Kota, Haoyan Zhou, Hanping Wu, Agata A Exner
Ultrasound is frequently utilized in diagnosis of gynecologic malignancies such as ovarian cancer. Because epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is often characterized by overexpression of cancer antigen 125 (CA-125), ultrasound contrast agents able to target this molecular signature could be a promising complementary strategy. In this work, we demonstrate application of CA-125-targeted echogenic lipid and surfactant-stabilized nanobubbles imaged with standard clinical contrast harmonic ultrasound for imaging of CA-125 positive OVCAR-3 tumors in mice...
June 9, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Paulina Sokołowska, Kamila Białkowska, Małgorzata Siatkowska, Marcin Rosowski, Magdalena Kucińska, Piotr Komorowski, Krzysztof Makowski, Bogdan Walkowiak
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) constitutes a distinctive and tightly regulated interface between the brain and the peripheral circulation. The objective of studies was to compare responses of human endothelial cells representing the model of blood vessels - EA.hy926 and HUVEC cells and the model of the brain endothelial barrier - HBEC5i cells to silver nanoparticles (SNPs). A contact of SNPs with endothelial cells resulted in a formation of SNPs agglomerates. Consequently, the SNPs uptake by endothelial cells affected cell viability and membrane integrity however observed responses were different...
June 7, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Shahnaz Qadri, Yousef Haik, Eric Mensah-Brown, Ghada Bashir, Maria J Fernandez-Cabezudo, Basel K Al-Ramadi
Treatment of osteomyelitis by conventional antibiotics has proven to be challenging due to limited accessibility to this unique location. Inorganic routes against bacterial infection have been reported for external and topical applications, however in vivo application of these antimicrobials has not been fully explored. Targeted delivery of metallic nanoparticles with inherent antimicrobial activity represents an alternative means of overcoming the challenges posed by multidrug-resistant bacteria and may potentially reduce overall morbidity...
June 7, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
T Bastogne
Pharmaceutical Quality-by-Design is a risk-based approach of drug development relying on the understanding of both the product and the process. This state of the art analyzes 24 studies published during the last ten years. A risk modeling of the nanomaterial formulation and manufacturing is firstly presented. After a brief history of the QbD approach, its basic components are recalled in a second part. The most critical material attributes, process parameters, quality variables and measurement technologies are reviewed...
June 1, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Kai Schulze, Thomas Ebensen, Lorne A Babiuk, Volker Gerdts, Carlos A Guzman
The most promising strategy to sustainably prevent infectious diseases is vaccination. However, emerging as well as re-emerging diseases still constitute a considerable threat. Furthermore, lack of compliance and logistic constrains often result in the failure of vaccination campaigns. To overcome these hurdles, novel vaccination strategies need to be developed, which fulfill maximal safety requirements, show maximal efficiency and are easy to administer. Mucosal vaccines constitute promising non-invasive approaches able to match these demands...
June 1, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Hoda Elkhenany, Shawn Bourdo, Silke Hecht, Robert Donnell, David Gerard, Ramadan Abdelwahed, Andersen Lafont, Karrer Alghazali, Fumiya Watanabe, Alexandru S Biris, David Anderson, Madhu Dhar
The potential of graphene-based nanoparticles (GNPs) has recently gained significant attention in biomedicine, especially in tissue engineering. In this study, we investigated the osteoinductive and osteoconductive effects of low oxygen content graphene (LOG) nanoparticles on adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro and in vivo. We showed that adult goat MSCs were viable in the presence of 0.1 mg/mL LOG and retained their stem cell properties. A 3D scaffold made from agarose was used to encapsulate MSCs and LOG nanoparticles...
June 1, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Qing Hu, Bomei Ding, Xiuyun Yan, Liyuan Peng, Jia Duan, Shu Yang, Lifang Cheng, Dawei Chen
Partly PEGylated polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer was used as the nanocarrier for the cytoplasmic delivery of kartogenin (KGN) to induce chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Here, KGN was conjugated to the surface of PAMAM and the end group of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to obtain PEG-PAMAM-KGN (PPK) and KGN-PEG-PAMAM (KPP) conjugate, respectively. The effects of PPK and KPP on the in vitro chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs were evaluated. KPP induced higher expression of chondrogenic markers than PPK and free KGN...
June 1, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Marlene Pedersen Elnegaard, Markus List, Helle Christiansen, Steffen Schmidt, Jan Mollenhauer, Ines Block
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Pengxuan Zhao, Shuangping Wu, Yao Cheng, Jia You, Yan Chen, Minsi Li, Chuanchuan He, Xiaojuan Zhang, Tan Yang, Yao Lu, Robert J Lee, Xingxing He, Guangya Xiang
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a prevalent and lethal disease that is characterized by drug resistance. Doxorubicin (DOX) is a widely used chemotherapeutic drug and miR-375 has been shown to be a tumor suppressor in HCC. Here, we reported that miR-375 and DOX co-loaded into lipid-coated calcium carbonate nanoparticles (LCC-DOX/miR-375 NPs), enhanced the anti-tumor effects through combination therapy, and were highly effective in reversing drug resistance in HCC. LCC-DOX/miR-375 NPs were prepared by a reverse microemulsions method...
June 1, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Kasey Catt, Huaxiu Li, Victor Hoang, Roland Beard, X Tracy Cui
Magnesium's complete in vivo degradation is appealing for medical implant applications. Rapid corrosion and hydrogen bubble generation along with inflammatory host tissue response have limited its clinical use. Here we electropolymerized a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and graphene Oxide (GO) film directly on Mg surface. GO acted as nano-drug carrier to carry anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone (Dex). PEDOT/GO/Dex coatings improved Mg corrosion resistance and decreased the rate of hydrogen production...
May 29, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Lauren M Cross, Kunal Shah, Sowmiya Palani, Charles W Peak, Akhilesh K Gaharwar
Two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials are emerging class of materials with unique physical and chemical properties due to high surface area and disc-like shape. Recently, these 2D nanomaterials are investigated for a range of biomedical applications including tissue engineering, therapeutic delivery and bioimaging, due to their ability to physically reinforce polymeric networks. Here, we present a facile fabrication of a gradient scaffold with two natural polymers (gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) and methacrylated kappa carrageenan (MκCA)) reinforced with 2D nanosilicates to mimic the native tissue interface...
May 26, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Shige Wang, Fei Hu, Jingchao Li, Shuping Zhang, Mingwu Shen, Mingxian Huang, Xiangyang Shi
The clinical translation potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in regenerative medicine has been greatly exploited. With the merits of high surface area to volume ratio, facile control of components, well retained topography, and the capacity to mimic the native extracellular matrix (ECM), nanofibers have received a great deal of attention as bone tissue engineering scaffolds. Electrospinning has been considered as an efficient approach for scale-up fabricating of nanofibrous materials. Electrospun nanofibers are capable of stimulating cell-matrix interaction to form a cell niche, directing cellular behavior, and promoting the MSCs adhesion and proliferation...
May 26, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Helena Tomás, Carla S Alves, João Rodrigues
Laponite® is a synthetic smectite clay that already has many important technological applications, which go beyond the conventional uses of clays in pharmaceutics and cosmetics. In biomedical applications, particularly in nanomedicine, this material holds great potential. Laponite® is a 2-dimensional (2D) nanomaterial composed of disk-shaped nanoscale crystals that have a high aspect ratio. These disks can strongly interact with many types of chemical entities (from small molecules or ions, to natural or synthetic polymers, to different inorganic nanoparticles) and are also easily functionalized and readily degraded in the physiological environment giving rise to non-toxic and even bioactive products...
May 26, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Mengxin Zhang, Xiaoyun Liu, Jie Huang, Lina Wang, He Shen, Yu Luo, Zhenjun Li, Hailu Zhang, Zongwu Deng, Zhijun Zhang
Herein, we report on development of a two-dimensional nanomaterial graphene oxide (GO)-based T1 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent (CA) for in vitro and in vivo labeling of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). The CA was synthesized by PEGylation of ultrasmall GO, followed by conjugation with a chelating agent DOTA and then gadolinium(III) to form GO-DOTA-Gd complexes. Thus-prepared GO-DOTA-Gd complexes exhibited significantly improved T1 relaxivity, and the r1 value was 14.2 mM(-1)s(-1) at 11...
May 26, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Hannah Donnelly, Matthew J Dalby, Manuel Salmeron-Sanchez, Paula E Sweeten
Regulation of cell behavior in response to nanoscale features has been the focus of much research in recent years and the successful generation of nanoscale features capable of mimicking the natural nanoscale interface has been of great interest in the field of biomaterials research. In this review, we discuss relevant nanofabrication techniques and how they are combined with bioengineering applications to mimic the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) and create valuable nanoscale interfaces.
May 26, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Giada Graziana Genchi, Edoardo Sinibaldi, Luca Ceseracciu, Massimiliano Labardi, Attilio Marino, Sergio Marras, Giorgio De Simoni, Virgilio Mattoli, Gianni Ciofani
Piezoelectric films of poly(vinylidenedifluoride-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) and of P(VDF-TrFE)/boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) were prepared by cast-annealing and used for SaOS-2 osteoblast-like cell culture. Films were characterized in terms of surface and bulk features, and composite films demonstrated enhanced piezoresponse compared to plain polymeric films (d31 increased by ~80%). Osteogenic differentiation was evaluated in terms of calcium deposition, collagen I secretion, and transcriptional levels of marker genes (Alpl, Col1a1, Ibsp, and Sparc) in cells exposed or not to ultrasounds (US); finally, a numerical model suggested that the induced voltage (~20-60 mV) is suitable for cell stimulation...
May 26, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Ozlem Erol, Idil Uyan, Meryem Hatip, Canelif Yilmaz, Ayse B Tekinay, Mustafa O Guler
One-dimensional (1D) carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and the two-dimensional (2D) graphene represent the most widely studied allotropes of carbon. Due to their unique structural, electrical, mechanical and optical properties, 1D and 2D carbon nanostructures are considered to be leading candidates for numerous applications in biomedical fields, including tissue engineering, drug delivery, bioimaging and biosensors. The biocompatibility and toxicity issues associated with these nanostructures have been a critical impediment for their use in biomedical applications...
May 26, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
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