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Caixia Guo, Ji Wang, Man Yang, Yang Li, Shuxiang Cui, Xianqing Zhou, Yanbo Li, Zhiwei Sun
Rapid development and deployment of engineered nanomaterials, such as amorphous silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) in various commercial and biomedical applications have raised concerns about their potential adverse health effects, especially their chronic effects which have not been well addressed. In this study, human lung epithelial cells, BEAS-2B were continuously exposed to amorphous SiNPs, 5 μg/mL for 40 passages. We demonstrated here that prolonged exposure of BEAS-2B cells to amorphous SiNPs induced malignant transformation as indicated by enhanced cellular proliferation, anchorage-independent cell growth, and increased cell migration...
November 22, 2017: Nanotoxicology
Qian Li, Ti Li, Chengmei Liu, Glen DeLoid, Georgios Pyrgiotakis, Philip Demokritou, Ruojie Zhang, Hang Xiao, David Julian McClements
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles are used in some food products to alter their optical properties, such as whiteness or brightness. These additives typically contain a population of TiO2 nanoparticles (d < 100 nm), which has led to concern about their potential toxicity. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of TiO2 particles on the gastrointestinal fate of oil-in-water emulsions using a simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT) that includes mouth, stomach, and small intestine phases...
November 21, 2017: Nanotoxicology
Nathalia Londono, Ariel R Donovan, Honglan Shi, Matthew Geisler, Yanna Liang
To investigate effects of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) at environmentally relevant concentrations to aquatic microbial communities, TiO2 at 700 µg/L and ZnO at 70 µg/L were spiked to river water samples either separately or combined. Compared to controls where no ENPs were added, the addition of TiO2 ENPs alone at the tested concentration had no statistically significant effect on both the bacterial and eukaryotic communities. The presence of added ENPs: ZnO or ZnO + TiO2 led to significant shift of the microbial community structure and genus distribution...
November 10, 2017: Nanotoxicology
Qilin Yu, Bing Zhang, Jianrong Li, Tingting Du, Xiao Yi, Mingchun Li, Wei Chen, Pedro J J Alvarez
Graphene oxide (GO)-based materials are increasingly being used in medical materials and consumer products. However, their sublethal effects on biological systems are poorly understood. Here, we report that GO (at 10 to 160 mg/L) induced significant inhibitory effects on the growth of different unicellular organisms, including eukaryotes (i.e. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans, and Komagataella pastoris) and prokaryotes (Pseudomonas fluorescens). Growth inhibition could not be explained by commonly reported cytotoxicity mechanisms such as plasma membrane damage or oxidative stress...
November 9, 2017: Nanotoxicology
Shuai Zhang, Rui Deng, Daohui Lin, Fengchang Wu
Engineered nanoparticles are increasingly discharged into the environment. After discharge, these nanoparticles can interact with co-existing organic contaminants, resulting in a phenomena referred to as 'joint toxicity'. This study evaluated joint toxicities of TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2NPs) with four different (atrazine, hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene, and 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl) organochlorine contaminants (OCs) toward algae (Chlorella pyrenoidosa). The potential mechanisms underlying the joint toxicity were discussed, including TiO2NPs-OC interactions, effects of TiO2NPs and OCs on biophysicochemical properties of algae and effects of TiO2NPs and OCs on each other's bioaccumulation in algae...
November 7, 2017: Nanotoxicology
Nadja R Brun, Margreet M T Beenakker, Ellard R Hunting, Dieter Ebert, Martina G Vijver
Nanoplastic debris is currently expected to be ubiquitously distributed in aquatic environments and an emerging environmental issue affecting organisms across trophic levels. While ingestion of particles receives most attention, other routes of uptake and cellular accumulation remain unexplored. Here, the planktonic filter feeder Daphnia magna was used to track routes of uptake and target tissues of polystyrene nanoparticles (PSNPs). A sublethal concentration of 5 mg L(-1) fluorescent PSNPs (25 nm) was used to monitor accumulation in adult animals as well as their embryos in the open brood pouch...
October 30, 2017: Nanotoxicology
Merryl N Black, Elenor F Henry, Olivia A Adams, J Craig F Bennett, Tyson James MacCormack
The bioavailability of engineered nanomaterials should be limited in marine environments, but uptake and toxicity has been noted in marine fish and invertebrates, albeit at exposure doses far exceeding predicted environmental levels. We examined the bioactivity of amine functionalized copper nanoparticles (nCu; 5-10 nm core diameter) to the euryhaline killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus, in fresh (FW) and brackish water (BW). Free copper dissolution was undetectable in either water type and nCu remained relatively well dispersed in BW, despite the high ionic strength...
October 30, 2017: Nanotoxicology
Bijay Kumar Poudel, Jae Hong Park, Jiseok Lim, Jeong Hoon Byeon
Labeling of aerosol particles with a radioactive, magnetic, or optical tracer has been employed to confirm particle localization in cell compartments, which has provided useful evidence for correlating toxic effects of inhaled particles. However, labeling requires several physicochemical steps to identify functionalities of the inner or outer surfaces of particles, and moreover, these steps can cause changes in size, surface charge, and bioactivity of the particles, resulting in misinterpretations regarding their toxic effects...
October 23, 2017: Nanotoxicology
Jian Wang, Aili Wang, Wen-Xiong Wang
Waterborne nanotoxicology of zinc oxide nanoparticles (nano-ZnOs) has been extensively studied over the past decade, whereas their potential dietary toxicity and applications were seldom investigated. In the present study, we systematically investigated both short-term bioavailability and chronic effects of nano-ZnOs to two marine fish (marine medaka Oryzias melastigma and red drum Sciaenops ocellatus). At normal supplementary level (80 mg Zn/kg), red drum (with a stomach) had similar assimilation efficiencies of nano-ZnOs and ZnCl2...
October 20, 2017: Nanotoxicology
Atsuto Onoda, Ken Takeda, Masakazu Umezawa
Early pregnant employees are potentially and unintendedly exposed to industrial chemicals including nanoparticles. Developmental toxicity of nanoparticle exposure has been concerned because exposure to fine particle including carbon black nanoparticle (CB-NP) during the brain developmental stage enhances the risk of brain disorders. Maternal CB-NP exposure dose-dependently induces astrogliosis, which is an abnormal increase in the reactive astrocytes with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and aquaporin-4 overexpression due to the destruction of nearby neurons and blood vessels...
October 19, 2017: Nanotoxicology
Sameera Nallanthighal, Cadia Chan, Thomas M Murray, Aaron P Mosier, Nathaniel C Cady, Ramune Reliene
Due to extensive use in consumer goods, it is important to understand the genotoxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and identify susceptible populations. 8-Oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (OGG1) excises 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2-deoxyguanine (8-oxoG), a pro-mutagenic lesion induced by oxidative stress. To understand whether defects in OGG1 is a possible genetic factor increasing an individual's susceptibly to AgNPs, we determined DNA damage, genome rearrangements, and expression of DNA repair genes in Ogg1-deficient and wild type mice exposed orally to 4 mg/kg of citrate-coated AgNPs over a period of 7 d...
October 19, 2017: Nanotoxicology
Xinan Wang, Yun Liu, Juan Wang, Yaguang Nie, Shaopeng Chen, Tom K Hei, Zhaoxiang Deng, Lijun Wu, Guoping Zhao, An Xu
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) have shown great adsorption capacity for arsenic (As); however, the potential impact of TiO2 NPs on the behavior and toxic responses of As remains largely unexplored. In the present study, we focused on the physicochemical interaction between TiO2 NPs and As(III) to clarify the underlying mechanisms involved in their synergistic genotoxic effect on mammalian cells. Our data showed that As(III) mainly interacted with TiO2 NPs by competitively occupying the sites of hydroxyl groups on the surface of TiO2 NP aggregates, resulting in more aggregation of TiO2 NPs...
October 18, 2017: Nanotoxicology
Julia Catalán, Helene Stockmann-Juvala, Hannu Norppa
Several approaches have recently been proposed for predicting the potential hazard and risk to human health of engineered nanomaterials (NMs). Here, we present a theoretical approach to assess the mutagenic potential of NMs, which could be incorporated into risk assessment tools. Following the weight of evidence approach recommended for chemicals, we describe criteria for evaluating and weighting existing literature information, based on current knowledge on the relevance and limitations of genotoxicity and mutagenicity assays used in testing NMs...
October 18, 2017: Nanotoxicology
Yun Chang, Kai Li, Yanlin Feng, Yan Cheng, Mei Zhang, Zuankai Wang, Zhijian Wu, Haiyuan Zhang
Developing catalytic and safe nanomaterials is very necessary for the reduction of potential risk to human health; however, this strategy has been found extremely challenging because the enhancement in catalytic activity of nanomaterials is inevitably accompanied with more potent cell injury. The relationship of physicochemical properties and biological responses in catalytic nanomaterials needs to be clarified at the nano-bio interface for achieving the safe application. Herein, high-energy crystallographic facets of palladium (Pd) nanocrystals that have been known to significantly contribute to the catalytic activity were introduced to attenuate the toxicity, and the underlying mechanism was unraveled...
October 5, 2017: Nanotoxicology
Wing-Lam Poon, Harri Alenius, Joseph Ndika, Vittorio Fortino, Vesa Kolhinen, Arūnas Meščeriakovas, Mingfu Wang, Dario Greco, Anna Lähde, Jorma Jokiniemi, Jetty Chung-Yung Lee, Hani El-Nezami, Piia Karisola
Nano-sized metal oxides are currently the most manufactured nanomaterials (NMs), and are increasingly used in consumer products. Recent exposure data reveal a genuine potential for adverse health outcomes for a vast array of NMs, however the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. To elucidate size-related molecular effects, differentiated THP-1 cells were exposed to nano-sized materials (n-TiO2, n-ZnO and n-Ag), or their bulk-sized (b-ZnO and b-TiO2) or ionic (i-Ag) counterparts, and genome-wide gene expression changes were studied at low-toxic concentrations (<15% cytotoxicity)...
September 29, 2017: Nanotoxicology
Carole Seidel, Anaïs Kirsch, Caroline Fontana, Athanase Visvikis, Aurélie Remy, Laurent Gaté, Christian Darne, Yves Guichard
The increasing use of nanomaterials in numerous domains has led to growing concern about their potential toxicological properties, and the potential risk to human health posed by silica nanoparticles remains under debate. Recent studies proposed that these particles could alter gene expression through the modulation of epigenetic marks, and the possible relationship between particle exposure and these mechanisms could represent a critical factor in carcinogenicity. In this study, using the Bhas 42 cell model, we compare the effects of exposure to two transforming particles, a pyrogenic amorphous silica nanoparticle NM-203 to those of the crystalline silica particle Min-U-Sil(®) 5...
September 28, 2017: Nanotoxicology
Cédric Pisani, Estelle Rascol, Christophe Dorandeu, Clarence Charnay, Yannick Guari, Joël Chopineau, Jean-Marie Devoisselle, Odette Prat
Magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles (M-MSNs) are a promising class of nanoparticles for drug delivery. However, a deep understanding of the toxicological mechanisms of action of these nanocarriers is essential, especially in the liver. The potential toxicity on HepaRG cells of pristine, pegylated (PEG), and lipid (DMPC) M-MSNs were compared. Based on MTT assay and real-time cell impedance, none of these NPs presented an extensive toxicity on hepatic cells. However, we observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) that the DMPC and pristine M-MSNs were greatly internalized...
September 22, 2017: Nanotoxicology
Riccardo Concu, Valeria V Kleandrova, Alejandro Speck-Planche, M Natália D S Cordeiro
Nanoparticles (NPs) are part of our daily life, having a wide range of applications in engineering, physics, chemistry, and biomedicine. However, there are serious concerns regarding the harmful effects that NPs can cause to the different biological systems and their ecosystems. Toxicity testing is an essential step for assessing the potential risks of the NPs, but the experimental assays are often very expensive and usually too slow to flag the number of NPs that may cause adverse effects. In silico models centered on quantitative structure-activity/toxicity relationships (QSAR/QSTR) are alternative tools that have become valuable supports to risk assessment, rationalizing the search for safer NPs...
September 22, 2017: Nanotoxicology
Marta I Sierra, Laura Rubio, Gustavo F Bayón, Isabel Cobo, Pablo Menendez, Paula Morales, Cristina Mangas, Rocio G Urdinguio, Virginia Lopez, Adolfo Valdes, Gerard Vales, Ricard Marcos, Ramon Torrecillas, Agustin F Fernández, Mario F Fraga
Humans are increasingly exposed to nanoparticles and, although many of their physiological effects have been described, the molecular mechanisms underlying them are still largely unknown. The present study aimed to determine the possible role of certain epigenetic mechanisms in the cellular response of human lung epithelial cells that are triggered by long-term exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2NPs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The results showed that exposure to TiO2NPs had only minor effects on genome-wide DNA methylation...
September 13, 2017: Nanotoxicology
Miguel A Bañares, Andrea Haase, Lang Tran, Vladimir Lobaskin, Günter Oberdörster, Robert Rallo, Jerzy Leszczynski, Peter Hoet, Rafi Korenstein, Barry Hardy, Tomasz Puzyn
A first European Conference on Computational Nanotoxicology, CompNanoTox, was held in November 2015 in Benahavís, Spain with the objectives to disseminate and integrate results from the European modeling and database projects (NanoPUZZLES, ModENPTox, PreNanoTox, MembraneNanoPart, MODERN, eNanoMapper and EU COST TD1204 MODENA) as well as to create synergies within the European NanoSafety Cluster. This conference was supported by the COST Action TD1204 MODENA on developing computational methods for toxicological risk assessment of engineered nanoparticles and provided a unique opportunity for cross fertilization among complementary disciplines...
September 8, 2017: Nanotoxicology
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