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Laura Vila, Laura Rubio, Balasubramanyam Annangi, Alba García-Rodríguez, Ricard Marcos, Alba Hernández
The variability observed in nanoparticle (NP) dispersions can affect the reliability of the results obtained in short-term tests, and mainly in long-term experiments. In addition, obtaining a good dispersion is time-consuming and acts as a bottleneck in the development of high-throughput screening methodologies. The freezing of different aliquots from a stock dispersion would overcome such limitations, but no studies have explored the impact of freezing thawing the samples on the physico-chemical and biological properties of the nanomaterial (NM)...
December 1, 2016: Nanotoxicology
Nivedita Chatterjee, Young-Ho Kim, Jisu Yang, Carlos P Roca, Sang Woo Joo, Jinhee Choi
The potential hazards of graphene nanomaterials were investigated by exposing the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The underlying mechanisms of the nano-bio interaction were addressed with an integrated systems toxicology approach using global transcriptomics, network-based pathway analysis, and experimental validation of the in-silico-derived hypotheses. Graphene oxide was found to reduce the worms' reproductive health to a greater degree than rGO, but it did not affect survival (24 h endpoint)...
November 30, 2016: Nanotoxicology
Raluca Mihalache, Jos Verbeek, Halshka Graczyk, Vladimir Murashov, Pieter van Broekhuizen
BACKGROUND: The toxicological properties of manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs) can be different from their bulk-material and uncertainty remains about the adverse health effects they may have on humans. Proposals for OELs have been put forward which can be useful for risk management and workers' protection. We performed a systematic review of proposals for OELs for MNMs to better understand the extent of such proposals, as well as their derivation methods. METHODS: We searched PubMed and Embase with an extensive search string and also assessed the references in the included studies...
November 29, 2016: Nanotoxicology
Kyoungju Choi, Jim E Riviere, Nancy A Monteiro-Riviere
Protein corona formation over gold nanoparticles (AuNP) can modulate cellular responses by altering AuNP physicochemical properties. The liver plays an essential role in metabolism, detoxification and elimination of xenobiotics and drugs as well as circulating NP clearance. We investigated human hepatic uptake of 40 and 80nm AuNP with branched polyethylenimine (BPEI), lipoic acid (LA) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) coatings as well as human plasma protein (HP) and human serum albumin (HSA) coronas. AuNP-mediated cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen/reactive nitrogen species (ROS/RNS), and CYP activity in human hepatocytes as well as molecular mechanisms with 40nm bare and HP BPEI-AuNP were investigated...
November 25, 2016: Nanotoxicology
Daniela Pelclova, Vladimir Zdimal, Petr Kacer, Nadezda Zikova, Martin Komarc, Zdenka Fenclova, Stepanka Vlckova, Jaroslav Schwarz, Otakar Makeš, Kamila Syslova, Tomas Navratil, Francesco Turci, Ingrid Corazzari, Sergey Zakharov, Dhimiter Bello
Nanoscale titanium dioxide (nanoTiO2) is a commercially important nanomaterial. Animal studies have documented lung injury and inflammation, oxidative stress, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Yet human health data are scarce and quantitative risk assessments and biomonitoring of exposure are lacking. NanoTiO2 is classified by IARC as a group 2B, possible human carcinogen. In our earlier studies we documented an increase in markers of inflammation, as well as DNA and protein oxidative damage, in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) of workers exposed nanoTiO2...
November 18, 2016: Nanotoxicology
Jie Dong, Qiang Ma
Pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) may cause fibrosing lesions in animal lungs, raising health concerns about such exposure in humans. The mechanisms underlying fibrosis development remain unclear, but they are believed to involve the dysfunction of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts. Using a mouse model of MWCNT exposure, we found that the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (Timp1) gene was rapidly and highly induced in the lungs by MWCNTs in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Concomitantly, a pronounced elevation of secreted TIMP1 was observed in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum...
November 17, 2016: Nanotoxicology
Nikita Basant, Shikha Gupta
Biomedical applications of nanoparticles (NPs) are largely dependent on their cellular uptake potential that enables them to reach the specific targets in the body. Experimental determination of cellular uptake of diverse functionalized NPs in different human cell types is tedious, expensive and time intensive, hence compelling for alternative methods. We developed QSAR models for predicting uptake of functionalized NPs in multiple cell types in accordance with the OECD guidelines. The decision treeboost QSAR models precisely predicted uptake of 104 NPs in five different cell types yielding high R(2) between experimental and model predicted values in the respective training (>0...
November 4, 2016: Nanotoxicology
Matteo Minghetti, Kristin Schirmer
To understand conditions affecting bioavailability and toxicity of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles (cit-AgNP) and dissolved silver at the luminal enterocyte interface, we exposed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) gut cells (RTgutGC) in media of contrasting composition: two amino acid-containing media, one of which was supplemented with proteins, as can be expected during digestion; and two protein and amino acid-free media contrasting low and high chloride content, as can be expected in the lumen of fish adapting to freshwater or seawater, respectively...
October 21, 2016: Nanotoxicology
Mirlande Présumé, Angélique Simon-Deckers, Céline Tomkiewicz-Raulet, Béatrice Le Grand, Jeanne Tran Van Nhieu, Gregory Beaune, Olivier Duruphty, Jean Doucet, Xavier Coumoul, Jean-Claude Pairon, Jorge Boczkowski, Sophie Lanone, Pascal Andujar
In spite of the great promises that the development of nanotechnologies can offer, concerns regarding potential adverse health effects of occupational exposure to nanoparticle (NP) is raised. We recently identified metal oxide NP in lung tissue sections of welders, located inside macrophages infiltrated in fibrous regions. This suggests a role of these NP in the lung alterations observed in welders. We therefore designed a study aimed to investigate the pulmonary effects, in mice, of repeated exposure to NP administered at occupationally relevant doses...
October 18, 2016: Nanotoxicology
Minne B Heringa, Liesbeth Geraets, Jan C H van Eijkeren, Rob J Vandebriel, Wim H de Jong, Agnes G Oomen
Titanium dioxide white pigment consists of particles of various sizes, from which a fraction is in the nano range (<100 nm). It is applied in food as additive E 171 as well as in other products, such as food supplements and toothpaste. Here, we assessed whether a human health risk can be expected from oral ingestion of these titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs), based on currently available information. Human health risks were assessed using two different approaches: Approach 1, based on intake, i...
October 11, 2016: Nanotoxicology
Carlotta Bianco, Maaike J Visser, Olivier A Pluut, Vesna Svetličić, Galja Pletikapić, Ivone Jakasa, Christoph Riethmuller, Gianpiero Adami, Francesca Larese Filon, Diane Schwegler-Berry, Aleksandr B Stefaniak, Sanja Kezic
Silver is increasingly being used in garments to exploit its antibacterial properties. Information on the presence of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in garments and their in vivo penetration across healthy and impaired skin from use is limited. We investigated the presence of AgNPs in a silver containing garment and in the stratum corneum (SC) of healthy subjects (CTRLs) and individuals with atopic dermatitis (AD). Seven CTRLs and seven AD patients wore a silver sleeve (13% Ag w/w) 8 h/day for five days on a forearm and a placebo sleeve on the other forearm...
October 5, 2016: Nanotoxicology
Amy M Holmes, Julian Lim, Hauke Studier, Michael S Roberts
The use of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) within the healthcare sector and consumer products is rapidly increasing. There are now a range of diverse-shaped Ag NPs that are commercially available and many of the products containing nanosilver are topically applied to human skin. Currently, there is limited data on the extent to which the antimicrobial efficacy and cytotoxicity of Ag NPs is related to their shape and how the shape of the Ag NPs affects their distribution in both intact and burn wounded human skin after topical application...
October 5, 2016: Nanotoxicology
Brian C Sayers, Dori R Germolec, Nigel J Walker, Kelly A Shipkowski, Matthew D Stout, Mark F Cesta, Joseph H Roycroft, Kimber L White, Gregory L Baker, Jeffrey A Dill, Matthew J Smith
C60 fullerene (C60), or buckminsterfullerene, is a spherical arrangement of 60 carbon atoms, having a diameter of approximately 1 nm, and is produced naturally as a by-product of combustion. Due to its small size, C60 has attracted much attention for use in a variety of applications; however, insufficient information is available regarding its toxicological effects. The effects on respiratory toxicity and immunotoxicity of C60 aggregates (50 nm [nano-C60] and 1 μm [micro-C60] diameter) were examined in B6C3F1/N mice and Wistar Han rats after nose-only inhalation for 13 weeks...
September 30, 2016: Nanotoxicology
Kateryna Loza, Isabell Föhring, Jürgen Bünger, Götz A Westphal, Manfred Köller, Matthias Epple, Christina Sengstock
The inhalation of particles and their exposure to the bronchi and alveoli constitute a major public health risk. Chemical as well as particle-related properties are important factors for the biological response but are difficult to separate from each other. Barium sulfate is a completely inert chemical compound, therefore it is ideally suited to separate these two factors. The biological response of rat alveolar macrophages (NR8383) was analyzed after exposure to barium sulfate particles with three different diameters (40 nm, 270 nm, and 1...
September 27, 2016: Nanotoxicology
Yunli Zhao, Lingtong Zhi, Qiuli Wu, Yonglin Yu, Qiqing Sun, Dayong Wang
Biological barrier plays a crucial role for organisms against the possible toxicity from engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). Graphene oxide (GO) has been proven to cause potential toxicity on organisms. However, the molecular mechanisms for intestinal barrier of animals against GO toxicity are largely unclear. Using in vivo assay system of Caenorhabditis elegans, we found that mutation of genes encoding core p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway caused susceptible property to GO toxicity and enhanced translocation of GO into the body of nematodes...
September 27, 2016: Nanotoxicology
Kerstin Hund-Rinke, Anders Baun, Denisa Cupi, Teresa F Fernandes, Richard Handy, John H Kinross, José M Navas, Willie Peijnenburg, Karsten Schlich, Benjamin J Shaw, Janeck J Scott-Fordsmand
Regulatory ecotoxicity testing of chemicals is of societal importance and a large effort is undertaken at the OECD to ensure that OECD test guidelines (TGs) for nanomaterials (NMs) are available. Significant progress to support the adaptation of selected TGs to NMs was achieved in the context of the project MARINA ( ) funded within the 7th European Framework Program. Eight OECD TGs were adapted based on the testing of at least one ion-releasing NM (Ag) and two inert NMs (TiO2). With the materials applied, two main variants of NMs (ion releasing vs...
September 20, 2016: Nanotoxicology
Cathy Rompelberg, Minne B Heringa, Gerda van Donkersgoed, José Drijvers, Agnes Roos, Susanne Westenbrink, Ruud Peters, Greet van Bemmel, Walter Brand, Agnes G Oomen
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is commonly applied to enhance the white colour and brightness of food products. TiO2 is also used as white pigment in other products such as toothpaste. A small fraction of the pigment is known to be present as nanoparticles (NPs). Recent studies with TiO2 NPs indicate that these particles can have toxic effects. In this paper, we aimed to estimate the oral intake of TiO2 and its NPs from food, food supplements and toothpaste in the Dutch population aged 2 to over 70 years by combining data on food consumption and supplement intake with concentrations of Ti and TiO2 NPs in food products and supplements...
September 13, 2016: Nanotoxicology
Jiyoung Jeong, Seonghan Lee, Sung-Hyun Kim, Youngju Han, Dong-Keon Lee, Jun-Young Yang, Jayoung Jeong, Changhyun Roh, Yun Suk Huh, Wan-Seob Cho
Although surface area metric was suggested as an appropriate dose metric for acute lung inflammation of NPs, it might not be effective for fast-dissolving NPs because they lose their reactive surface when dissolved in the phagolysosomes. Herein, we evaluated the dose metric for fast-dissolving NPs using a rat intratracheal instillation model. A panel of fast-dissolving NPs (CoO, CuO and ZnO) and their constituent metal ions (CoCl2, CuCl2 and ZnCl2) were compiled and each compound was intratracheally instilled into the lungs of female Wistar rats at the same molar concentrations in the NP doses (40, 100 and 400 μg/rat)...
September 9, 2016: Nanotoxicology
Jason H Fine, Genevieve S Bondy, Laurie Coady, Bevan Pearce, Nikia Ross, Azam F Tayabali, Sabina Halappanavar, Don Caldwell, Ivan Curran, David E Lefebvre
Humans could become exposed to carbon black nanoparticles (CBNPs) in consumer products or an occupational setting. In rodent models, acute respiratory, subcutaneous, and direct immune cell exposure to CBNPs has been shown to enhance allergic sensitization to co-administered ovalbumin (OVA) protein from chicken egg. However, little is known about the effects of ingested CBNPs on immunological responses and oral tolerance to food antigens. We hypothesized that ingestion of CBNPs would enhance the development of food allergy to OVA...
September 9, 2016: Nanotoxicology
Yan Wang, Lei Deng, Alejandro Caballero-Guzman, Bernd Nowack
Nano iron oxide particles are beneficial to our daily lives through their use in paints, construction materials, biomedical imaging and other industrial fields. However, little is known about the possible risks associated with the current exposure level of engineered nano iron oxides (nano-FeOX) to organisms in the environment. The goal of this study was to predict the release of nano-FeOX to the environment and assess their risks for surface waters in the EU and Switzerland. The material flows of nano-FeOX to technical compartments (waste incineration and waste water treatment plants) and to the environment were calculated with a probabilistic modeling approach...
December 2016: Nanotoxicology
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