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Stefan Siegrist, Emre Cörek, Pascal Detampel, Jenny Sandström, Peter Wick, Jörg Huwyler
The increasing nanomedicine usage has raised concerns about their possible impact on human health. Present evaluation strategies for nanomaterials rely on a case-by-case hazard assessment. They take into account material properties, biological interactions, and toxicological responses. Authorities have also emphasized that exposure route and intended use should be considered in the safety assessment of nanotherapeutics. In contrast to an individual assessment of nanomaterial hazards, we propose in the present work a novel and unique evaluation strategy designed to uncover potential adverse effects of such materials...
September 5, 2018: Nanotoxicology
Antreas Afantitis, Georgia Melagraki, Andreas Tsoumanis, Eugenia Valsami-Jones, Iseult Lynch
The increasing use of nanoparticles (NPs) in a wide range of consumer and industrial applications has necessitated significant effort to address the challenge of characterizing and quantifying the underlying nanostructure - biological response relationships to ensure that these novel materials can be exploited responsibly and safely. Such efforts demand reliable experimental data not only in terms of the biological dose-response, but also regarding the physicochemical properties of the NPs and their interaction with the biological environment...
September 5, 2018: Nanotoxicology
L Lamon, K Aschberger, D Asturiol, A Richarz, A Worth
The use of non-testing strategies like read-across in the hazard assessment of chemicals and nanomaterials (NMs) is deemed essential to perform the safety assessment of all NMs in due time and at lower costs. The identification of physicochemical (PC) properties affecting the hazard potential of NMs is crucial, as it could enable to predict impacts from similar NMs and outcomes of similar assays, reducing the need for experimental (and in particular animal) testing. This manuscript presents a review of approaches and available case studies on the grouping of NMs to read-across hazard endpoints...
September 5, 2018: Nanotoxicology
Xingkai Che, Ruirui Ding, Yuting Li, Zishan Zhang, Huiyuan Gao, Wei Wang
Little is known regarding the detailed mechanism of CuO NPs' toxicity to microalgal primary metabolism pathway. Photosynthesis and respiration are the most important primary metabolism and the main sources of production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), but the effect of CuO NPs on both of them has not been systematically studied to date. Our research demonstrated that long-term treatment with CuO NPs significantly inhibited activities of photosynthesis and respiration in microalgae, and the photosynthesis was more sensitive to the toxicity of CuO NPs than respiration...
September 5, 2018: Nanotoxicology
Michaela Liegertová, Dominika Wrobel, Regina Herma, Monika Müllerová, Lucie Červenková Šťastná, Petra Cuřínová, Tomáš Strašák, Marek Malý, Jan Čermák, Jiří Smejkal, Marcel Štofik, Jan Maly
Glycodendrimers (Glyco-DDMs) represent a rapidly growing class of nanoparticles with promising properties for biomedical applications but concerns regarding the impact on human health and environment are still justified. Here we report, for the first time, the comparative study of in vivo developmental toxicity of carbosilane Glyco-DDMs and their cytotoxicity in vitro. Carbosilane Glyco-DDMs (generation 1-3) containing 4, 8, and 16 β-d-glucopyranosyl units at the periphery (DDM1 Glu, DDM2 Glu, and DDM3 Glu) were synthesized and characterized by 1 H, 13 C and 29 Si NMR, mass spectrometry, dynamic light scattering, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and computer modeling...
September 5, 2018: Nanotoxicology
A Mech, K Rasmussen, P Jantunen, L Aicher, M Alessandrelli, U Bernauer, E A J Bleeker, J Bouillard, P Di Prospero Fanghella, R Draisci, M Dusinska, G Encheva, G Flament, A Haase, Y Handzhiyski, F Herzberg, J Huwyler, N R Jacobsen, V Jeliazkov, N Jeliazkova, P Nymark, R Grafström, A G Oomen, M L Polci, C Riebeling, J Sandström, B Shivachev, S Stateva, S Tanasescu, R Tsekovska, H Wallin, M F Wilks, S Zellmer, M D Apostolova
This paper presents a comprehensive review of European Union (EU) legislation addressing the safety of chemical substances, and possibilities within each piece of legislation for applying grouping and read-across approaches for the assessment of nanomaterials (NMs). Hence, this review considers both the overarching regulation of chemical substances under REACH (Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 on registration, evaluation, authorization, and restriction of chemicals) and CLP (Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 on classification, labeling and packaging of substances and mixtures) and the sector-specific pieces of legislation for cosmetic, plant protection and biocidal products, and legislation addressing food, novel food, and food contact materials...
September 5, 2018: Nanotoxicology
Marta d'Amora, Domenico Cassano, Salvador Pocoví-Martínez, Silvia Giordani, Valerio Voliani
Passion fruit-like nano-architectures (NAs) are all-in-one platforms of increasing interest for the translation of metal nanoparticles into clinics. NAs are nature-inspired disassembling inorganic theranostics, which jointly combine most of the appealing behaviors of noble metal nanoparticles with their potential organism excretion. Despite their unique and promising properties, NAs in vivo interactions and potential adverse effects have not yet been investigated. In this study, we employ zebrafish (Danio Rerio) to assess the development toxicity of NAs as well as their uptake and bioaccumulation at different stages of growth...
August 22, 2018: Nanotoxicology
Karin Mattsson, Ruben Aguilar, Oscar Torstensson, Diana Perry, Katja Bernfur, Sara Linse, Lars-Anders Hansson, Karin S Åkerfeldt, Tommy Cedervall
The use of manufactured nanomaterials is rapidly increasing, while our understanding of the consequences of releasing these materials into the environment is still limited and many questions remain, for example, how do nanoparticles affect living organisms in the wild? How do organisms adapt and protect themselves from exposure to foreign materials? How does the environment affect the performance of nanoparticles, including their surface properties? In an effort to address these crucial questions, our main aim has been to probe the effects of aquatic organisms on nanoparticle aggregation...
July 27, 2018: Nanotoxicology
Seta Noventa, Christian Hacker, Ana Correia, Claudia Drago, Tamara Galloway
The biological fate of nanoparticles (NPs) taken up by organisms from their environment is a crucial issue for assessing ecological hazard. Despite its importance, it has scarcely been addressed due to the technical difficulties of doing so in whole organism in vivo studies. Here, by using transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (TEM-EDS), we describe the key aspects that characterize the interaction between an aquatic organism of global ecological and economic importance, the early larval stage of the Japanese oyster (Crassostrea gigas), and model gold NPs dispersed in their environment...
July 11, 2018: Nanotoxicology
Eşref Demir, Ricard Marcos
Boron and boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) are increasingly used in different industrial fields and, potentially, in some biomedical areas. As occurs with other nanomaterials (NMs), to increase our knowledge on their potential health hazards is a priority. Although in vitro approaches are a routine in getting biological information on the biological effects of NMs, the use of simple in vivo model organisms is receiving an increased interest. In this context, Drosophila melanogaster is widely used as a eukaryotic model for the study of the potential harmful effects associated with various agents, including NMs...
June 28, 2018: Nanotoxicology
L F Marques-Santos, G Grassi, E Bergami, C Faleri, T Balbi, A Salis, G Damonte, L Canesi, I Corsi
In order to assess the impact of nanoplastics on marine species, polystyrene nanoparticles (PS NPs) have been largely used as model particles. Here we studied the effects of 50 nm amino-modified PS-NH2 on Mediterranean sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus immune system cells (coelomocytes) in the presence of celomic fluid (CF) and at different NP concentrations (1, 5, 10, and 25 μg mL-1 ) and experimental conditions (absence or presence of EDTA). PS-NH2 acquired a protein corona once incubated with CF, dominated by the toposome precursor protein (TPP)...
June 27, 2018: Nanotoxicology
Renata Rank Miranda, Vladimir Gorshkov, Barbara Korzeniowska, Stefan J Kempf, Francisco Filipak Neto, Frank Kjeldsen
Although multiple studies have reported the toxicological effects and underlying mechanisms of toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) in a variety of organisms, the interactions of AgNP with environmental contaminants such as cadmium are poorly understood. We used biochemical assays and mass spectrometry-based proteomics to assess the cellular and molecular effects induced by a co-exposure of HepG2 cells to AgNP and cadmium. Cell viability and energy homeostasis were slightly affected after a 4-h exposure to AgNP, cadmium, or a combination of the two; these endpoints were substantially altered after a 24-h co-exposure to AgNP and cadmium, while exposure to one of the two contaminants led only to minor changes...
September 2018: Nanotoxicology
Vera L Maria, David Licha, Christina Ranninger, Janeck J Scott-Fordsmand, Christian G Huber, Mónica J B Amorim
The stress metabolome provides a thorough insight into the signals and hence mechanisms of response of organisms. This is an excellent tool to advance the understanding of interactions, especially for substances like nanomaterials (NMs), for which there is an urgent need for alternative methods for hazard assessment. The metabolome of Enchytraeus crypticus was studied for the first time. The case study, CuO NM (and CuCl2 ) covered exposure along a time frame [0-7-14 days (d)] and two reproduction effect concentrations (EC10 and EC50)...
September 2018: Nanotoxicology
Danail Hristozov, Lisa Pizzol, Gianpietro Basei, Alex Zabeo, Aiga Mackevica, Steffen Foss Hansen, Ilse Gosens, Flemming R Cassee, Wim de Jong, Antti Joonas Koivisto, Nicole Neubauer, Araceli Sanchez Jimenez, Elena Semenzin, Vrishali Subramanian, Wouter Fransman, Keld Alstrup Jensen, Wendel Wohlleben, Vicki Stone, Antonio Marcomini
The use of nano-scale copper oxide (CuO) and basic copper carbonate (Cu2 (OH)2 CO3 ) in both ionic and micronized wood preservatives has raised concerns about the potential of these substances to cause adverse humans health effects. To address these concerns, we performed quantitative (probabilistic) human health risk assessment (HHRA) along the lifecycles of these formulations used in antibacterial and antifungal wood coatings and impregnations by means of the EU FP7 SUN project's Decision Support System (SUNDS, www...
September 2018: Nanotoxicology
Marit Ilves, Sara Vilske, Kukka Aimonen, Hanna K Lindberg, Saila Pesonen, Irene Wedin, Markus Nuopponen, Esa Vanhala, Casper Højgaard, Jakob R Winther, Martin Willemoës, Ulla Vogel, Henrik Wolff, Hannu Norppa, Kai Savolainen, Harri Alenius
Nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) is a renewable nanomaterial that has beneficial uses in various applications such as packaging materials and paper. Like carbon nanotubes (CNT), NFCs have high aspect ratio and favorable mechanical properties. The aspect ratio also rises a concern whether NFC could pose a health risk and induce pathologies, similar to those triggered by multi-walled CNT. In this study, we explored the immunomodulatory properties of four NFCs in vitro and in vivo, and compared the results with data on bulk-sized cellulose fibrils and rigid multi-walled CNT (rCNT)...
September 2018: Nanotoxicology
Youngju Han, Dong-Keon Lee, Sung-Hyun Kim, Seonghan Lee, Soyeon Jeon, Wan-Seob Cho
Due to the exponential increase in the development and utilization of rare earth oxide nanoparticles (REO NPs) in various fields, the possibility of exposure in humans by inhalation has increased. However, there are little information about hazards of REO NPs and its mechanisms of toxicity. In this study, we evaluated the acute pulmonary inflammation using 10 REO NPs (Dy2 O3 , Er2 O3 , Eu2 O3 , Gd2 O3 La2 O3 , Nd2 O3 , Pr6 O11 , Sm2 O3 , Tb4 O7 , and Y2 O3 ) and four well-known toxic particles (CuO, NiO, ZnO, and DQ12)...
September 2018: Nanotoxicology
Ruhung Wang, Michael Lee, Karina Kinghorn, Tyler Hughes, Ishwar Chuckaree, Rishabh Lohray, Erik Chow, Paul Pantano, Rockford Draper
To understand the influence of carboxylation on the interaction of carbon nanotubes with cells, the amount of pristine multi-walled carbon nanotubes (P-MWNTs) or carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (C-MWNTs) coated with Pluronic® F-108 that were accumulated by macrophages was measured by quantifying CNTs extracted from cells. Mouse RAW 264.7 macrophages and differentiated human THP-1 (dTHP-1) macrophages accumulated 80-100 times more C-MWNTs than P-MWNTs during a 24-h exposure at 37 °C. The accumulation of C-MWNTs by RAW 264...
September 2018: Nanotoxicology
Seraina Beyeler, Savvina Chortarea, Barbara Rothen-Rutishauser, Alke Petri-Fink, Peter Wick, Stefan A Tschanz, Christophe von Garnier, Fabian Blank
The risks of occupational exposure during handling of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have received limited attention to date, in particular for potentially susceptible individuals with highly prevalent chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this in vitro study, we simulated acute inhalation of MWCNTs employing an air-liquid interface cell exposure (ALICE) system: primary human bronchial epithelial cells from COPD patients and healthy donors (controls), cultured at the air-liquid interface (ALI) were exposed to MWCNTs...
September 2018: Nanotoxicology
Margriet Vdz Park, Julia Catalán, Natalia Ferraz, Joan Cabellos, Ralph Vanhauten, Socorro Vázquez-Campos, Gemma Janer
Within the EU FP-7 GUIDEnano project, a methodology was developed to systematically quantify the similarity between a nanomaterial (NM) that has been tested in toxicity studies and the NM for which risk needs to be evaluated, for the purpose of extrapolating toxicity data between the two materials. The methodology is a first attempt to use current knowledge on NM property-hazard relationships to develop a series of pragmatic and systematic rules for assessing NM similarity. Moreover, the methodology takes into account the practical feasibility, in that it is based on generally available NM characterization information...
September 2018: Nanotoxicology
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August 2018: Nanotoxicology
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