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Emerging Themes in Epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29270206/multiple-imputation-using-linked-proxy-outcome-data-resulted-in-important-bias-reduction-and-efficiency-gains-a-simulation-study
#1
R P Cornish, J Macleod, J R Carpenter, K Tilling
Background: When an outcome variable is missing not at random (MNAR: probability of missingness depends on outcome values), estimates of the effect of an exposure on this outcome are often biased. We investigated the extent of this bias and examined whether the bias can be reduced through incorporating proxy outcomes obtained through linkage to administrative data as auxiliary variables in multiple imputation (MI). Methods: Using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) we estimated the association between breastfeeding and IQ (continuous outcome), incorporating linked attainment data (proxies for IQ) as auxiliary variables in MI models...
2017: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201130/flexible-semiparametric-joint-modeling-an-application-to-estimate-individual-lung-function-decline-and-risk-of-pulmonary-exacerbations-in-cystic-fibrosis
#2
Dan Li, Ruth Keogh, John P Clancy, Rhonda D Szczesniak
Background: Epidemiologic surveillance of lung function is key to clinical care of individuals with cystic fibrosis, but lung function decline is nonlinear and often impacted by acute respiratory events known as pulmonary exacerbations. Statistical models are needed to simultaneously estimate lung function decline while providing risk estimates for the onset of pulmonary exacerbations, in order to identify relevant predictors of declining lung function and understand how these associations could be used to predict the onset of pulmonary exacerbations...
2017: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947911/spatial-analysis-of-cluster-randomised-trials-a-systematic-review-of-analysis-methods
#3
REVIEW
Christopher Jarvis, Gian Luca Di Tanna, Daniel Lewis, Neal Alexander, W John Edmunds
BACKGROUND: Cluster randomised trials (CRTs) often use geographical areas as the unit of randomisation, however explicit consideration of the location and spatial distribution of observations is rare. In many trials, the location of participants will have little importance, however in some, especially against infectious diseases, spillover effects due to participants being located close together may affect trial results. This review aims to identify spatial analysis methods used in CRTs and improve understanding of the impact of spatial effects on trial results...
2017: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943885/decision-trees-in-epidemiological-research
#4
Ashwini Venkatasubramaniam, Julian Wolfson, Nathan Mitchell, Timothy Barnes, Meghan JaKa, Simone French
BACKGROUND: In many studies, it is of interest to identify population subgroups that are relatively homogeneous with respect to an outcome. The nature of these subgroups can provide insight into effect mechanisms and suggest targets for tailored interventions. However, identifying relevant subgroups can be challenging with standard statistical methods. MAIN TEXT: We review the literature on decision trees, a family of techniques for partitioning the population, on the basis of covariates, into distinct subgroups who share similar values of an outcome variable...
2017: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936226/challenges-in-modeling-complexity-of-neglected-tropical-diseases-a-review-of-dynamics-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-resource-limited-settings
#5
REVIEW
Swati DebRoy, Olivia Prosper, Austin Mishoe, Anuj Mubayi
OBJECTIVES: Neglected tropical diseases (NTD), account for a large proportion of the global disease burden, and their control faces several challenges including diminishing human and financial resources for those distressed from such diseases. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), the second-largest parasitic killer (after malaria) and an NTD affects poor populations and causes considerable cost to the affected individuals. Mathematical models can serve as a critical and cost-effective tool for understanding VL dynamics, however, complex array of socio-economic factors affecting its dynamics need to be identified and appropriately incorporated within a dynamical modeling framework...
2017: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912825/randomised-and-non-randomised-studies-to-estimate-the-effect-of-community-level-public-health-interventions-definitions-and-methodological-considerations
#6
Wolf-Peter Schmidt
BACKGROUND: The preferred method to evaluate public health interventions delivered at the level of whole communities is the cluster randomised trial (CRT). The practical limitations of CRTs and the need for alternative methods continue to be debated. There is no consensus on how to classify study designs to evaluate interventions, and how different design features are related to the strength of evidence. ANALYSIS: This article proposes that most study designs for the evaluation of cluster-level interventions fall into four broad categories: the CRT, the non-randomised cluster trial (NCT), the controlled before-and-after study (CBA), and the before-and-after study without control (BA)...
2017: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852415/model-checking-in-multiple-imputation-an-overview-and-case-study
#7
Cattram D Nguyen, John B Carlin, Katherine J Lee
BACKGROUND: Multiple imputation has become very popular as a general-purpose method for handling missing data. The validity of multiple-imputation-based analyses relies on the use of an appropriate model to impute the missing values. Despite the widespread use of multiple imputation, there are few guidelines available for checking imputation models. ANALYSIS: In this paper, we provide an overview of currently available methods for checking imputation models. These include graphical checks and numerical summaries, as well as simulation-based methods such as posterior predictive checking...
2017: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596797/causality-in-cancer-research-a-journey-through-models-in-molecular-epidemiology-and-their-philosophical-interpretation
#8
Paolo Vineis, Phyllis Illari, Federica Russo
In the last decades, Systems Biology (including cancer research) has been driven by technology, statistical modelling and bioinformatics. In this paper we try to bring biological and philosophical thinking back. We thus aim at making different traditions of thought compatible: (a) causality in epidemiology and in philosophical theorizing-notably, the "sufficient-component-cause framework" and the "mark transmission" approach; (b) new acquisitions about disease pathogenesis, e.g. the "branched model" in cancer, and the role of biomarkers in this process; (c) the burgeoning of omics research, with a large number of "signals" and of associations that need to be interpreted...
2017: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592984/on-hazard-ratio-estimators-by-proportional-hazards-models-in-matched-pair-cohort-studies
#9
Tomohiro Shinozaki, Mohammad Ali Mansournia, Yutaka Matsuyama
BACKGROUND: In matched-pair cohort studies with censored events, the hazard ratio (HR) may be of main interest. However, it is lesser known in epidemiologic literature that the partial maximum likelihood estimator of a common HR conditional on matched pairs is written in a simple form, namely, the ratio of the numbers of two pair-types. Moreover, because HR is a noncollapsible measure and its constancy across matched pairs is a restrictive assumption, marginal HR as "average" HR may be targeted more than conditional HR in analysis...
2017: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465710/do-children-with-neurological-disabilities-use-more-inpatient-resources-an-observational-study
#10
Jin-Xi Yuan, Marian McGowan, Irene Hadjikoumi, Buddhi Pant
BACKGROUND: Advances in healthcare have improved the survival of children with neurological disabilities (ND). Studies in the US have shown that children with ND use a substantial proportion of resources in children's hospitals, however, little research has been conducted in the UK. We aimed to test the hypothesis that children with neurological disabilities use more inpatient resources than children without neurological disabilities, and to quantify any significant differences in resource use...
2017: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344629/comparison-of-response-patterns-in-different-survey-designs-a-longitudinal-panel-with-mixed-mode-and-online-only-design
#11
Nicole Rübsamen, Manas K Akmatov, Stefanie Castell, André Karch, Rafael T Mikolajczyk
BACKGROUND: Increasing availability of the Internet allows using only online data collection for more epidemiological studies. We compare response patterns in a population-based health survey using two survey designs: mixed-mode (choice between paper-and-pencil and online questionnaires) and online-only design (without choice). METHODS: We used data from a longitudinal panel, the Hygiene and Behaviour Infectious Diseases Study (HaBIDS), conducted in 2014/2015 in four regions in Lower Saxony, Germany...
2017: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261312/estimating-the-prevalence-of-dementia-using-multiple-linked-administrative-health-records-and-capture-recapture-methodology
#12
Michael Waller, Gita D Mishra, Annette J Dobson
BACKGROUND: Obtaining population-level estimates of the incidence and prevalence of dementia is challenging due to under-diagnosis and under-reporting. We investigated the feasibility of using multiple linked datasets and capture-recapture techniques to estimate rates of dementia among women in Australia. METHODS: This work is based on the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. A random sample of 12,432 women born in 1921-1926 was recruited in 1996. Over 16 years of follow-up records of dementia were obtained from five sources: three-yearly self-reported surveys; clinical assessments for aged care assistance; death certificates; pharmaceutical prescriptions filled; and, in three Australian States only, hospital in-patient records...
2017: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203262/participatory-epidemiology-the-contribution-of-participatory-research-to-epidemiology
#13
REVIEW
Mario Bach, Susanne Jordan, Susanne Hartung, Claudia Santos-Hövener, Michael T Wright
BACKGROUND: Epidemiology has contributed in many ways to identifying various risk factors for disease and to promoting population health. However, there is a continuing debate about the ability of epidemiology not only to describe, but also to provide results which can be better translated into public health practice. It has been proposed that participatory research approaches be applied to epidemiology as a way to bridge this gap between description and action. A systematic account of what constitutes participatory epidemiology practice has, however, been lacking...
2017: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184234/exploring-diurnal-variation-using-piecewise-linear-splines-an-example-using-blood-pressure
#14
Jamie M Madden, Xia Li, Patricia M Kearney, Kate Tilling, Anthony P Fitzgerald
BACKGROUND: There are many examples of physiological processes that follow a circadian cycle and researchers are interested in alternative methods to illustrate and quantify this diurnal variation. Circadian blood pressure (BP) deserves additional attention given uncertainty relating to the prognostic significance of BP variability in relation to cardiovascular disease. However, the majority of studies exploring variability in ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) collapse the data into single readings ignoring the temporal nature of the data...
2017: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980596/parameters-associated-with-design-effect-of-child-anthropometry-indicators-in-small-scale-field-surveys
#15
Erin N Hulland, Curtis J Blanton, Eva Z Leidman, Oleg O Bilukha
BACKGROUND: Cluster surveys provide rapid but representative estimates of key nutrition indicators in humanitarian crises. For these surveys, an accurate estimate of the design effect is critical to calculate a sample size that achieves adequate precision with the minimum number of sampling units. This paper describes the variability in design effect for three key nutrition indicators measured in small-scale surveys and models the association of design effect with parameters hypothesized to explain this variability...
2016: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891162/nutrition-surveillance-using-a-small-open-cohort-experience-from-burkina-faso
#16
Mathias Altmann, Christophe Fermanian, Boshen Jiao, Chiara Altare, Martin Loada, Mark Myatt
BACKGROUND: Nutritional surveillance remains generally weak and early warning systems are needed in areas with high burden of acute under-nutrition. In order to enhance insight into nutritional surveillance, a community-based sentinel sites approach, known as the Listening Posts (LP) Project, was piloted in Burkina Faso by Action Contre la Faim (ACF). This paper presents ACF's experience with the LP approach and investigates potential selection and observational biases. METHODS: Six primary sampling units (PSUs) were selected in each livelihood zone using the centric systematic area sampling methodology...
2016: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800007/comparison-of-dementia-recorded-in-routinely-collected-hospital-admission-data-in-england-with-dementia-recorded-in-primary-care
#17
Anna Brown, Oksana Kirichek, Angela Balkwill, Gillian Reeves, Valerie Beral, Cathie Sudlow, John Gallacher, Jane Green
BACKGROUND: Electronic linkage of UK cohorts to routinely collected National Health Service (NHS) records provides virtually complete follow-up for cause-specific hospital admissions and deaths. The reliability of dementia diagnoses recorded in NHS hospital data is not well documented. METHODS: For a sample of Million Women Study participants in England we compared dementia recorded in routinely collected NHS hospital data (Hospital Episode Statistics: HES) with dementia recorded in two separate sources of primary care information: a primary care database [Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), n = 340] and a survey of study participants' General Practitioners (GPs, n = 244)...
2016: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777600/effects-of-recall-time-on-cause-of-death-findings-using-verbal-autopsy-empirical-evidence-from-rural-south-africa
#18
Laith Hussain-Alkhateeb, Max Petzold, Mark Collinson, Stephen Tollman, Kathleen Kahn, Peter Byass
BACKGROUND: Verbal autopsy (VA) is a widely used technique for assigning causes to non-medically certified deaths using information gathered from a close caregiver. Both operational and cultural factors may cause delays in follow-up of deaths. The resulting time lag-from death to VA interview-can influence ways in which terminal events are remembered, and thus affect cause-of-death assignment. This study investigates the impact of recall period on causes of death determined by VA. METHODS: A total of 10,882 deaths from the Agincourt Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) with complete VAs, including recall period, were incorporated in this study...
2016: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27307784/assessing-delivery-practices-of-mothers-over-time-and-over-space-in-uganda-2003-2012
#19
Daniel A Sprague, Caroline Jeffery, Nadine Crossland, Thomas House, Gareth O Roberts, William Vargas, Joseph Ouma, Stephen K Lwanga, Joseph J Valadez
BACKGROUND: It is well known that safe delivery in a health facility reduces the risks of maternal and infant mortality resulting from perinatal complications. What is less understood are the factors associated with safe delivery practices. We investigate factors influencing health facility delivery practices while adjusting for multiple other factors simultaneously, spatial heterogeneity, and trends over time. METHODS: We fitted a logistic regression model to Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) data from Uganda in a framework that considered individual-level covariates, geographical features, and variations over five time points...
2016: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27279891/a-distributional-approach-to-obtain-adjusted-comparisons-of-proportions-of-a-population-at-risk
#20
Odile Sauzet, Jürgen Breckenkamp, Theda Borde, Silke Brenne, Matthias David, Oliver Razum, Janet L Peacock
BACKGROUND: Dichotomisation of continuous data has statistical drawbacks such as loss of power but may be useful in epidemiological research to define high risk individuals. METHODS: We extend a methodology for the presentation of comparison of proportions derived from a comparison of means for a continuous outcome to reflect the relationship between a continuous outcome and covariates in a linear (mixed) model without losing statistical power. The so called "distributional method" is described and using perinatal data for illustration, results from the distributional method are compared to those of logistic regression and to quantile regression for three different outcomes...
2016: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology
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