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Journal of Inflammation

Wei Chen, Xiaojie Liu, Shandong Ye
BACKGROUND: Metformin has been used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes by suppressing hepatic gluconeogenesis. It has been shown that the subclinical inflammatory responses play important roles in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. In the present study, we determined the effects of metformin on the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (i.e., IL-6, TNF-α, and MCP-1) and anti-inflammatory mediator IL-10 in blood and urine of patients with type 2 diabetes. There were 210 patients with type 2 diabetes, which were randomized into metformin (n = 112) and non-metformin (gliclazide, acarbose, and repaglinide, n = 98) groups...
2016: Journal of Inflammation
G Meneses, M Bautista, A Florentino, G Díaz, G Acero, H Besedovsky, D Meneses, A Fleury, A Del Rey, G Gevorkian, G Fragoso, E Sciutto
BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammation (NI) is a key feature in the pathogenesis and progression of infectious and non-infectious neuropathologies, and its amelioration usually improves the patient outcome. Peripheral inflammation may promote NI through microglia and astrocytes activation, an increased expression of inflammatory mediators and vascular permeability that may lead to neurodegeneration. Several anti-inflammatory strategies have been proposed to control peripheral inflammation. Among them, electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve (VNS) recently emerged as an alternative to effectively attenuate peripheral inflammation in a variety of pathological conditions with few side effects...
2016: Journal of Inflammation
Hamdi Elmoselhi, Holly Mansell, Mahmoud Soliman, Ahmed Shoker
BACKGROUND: Chemokine ligands (CCLs) play a pivotal role in tissue injury before and after kidney transplantation. Meanwhile, transplantation improves patient's survival and diminishes morbidity. It is hypothesized, then, that kidney transplantation diminishes pre-transplant (pre-TX) levels of circulating inflammatory CCLs. This retrospective study compared circulating levels and profiles of CCLs before transplantation (pre-TX) and after transplantation (post-TX). METHODS: Nineteen CCLs (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 11, 13, 15, 17, 21, 24, 26, 27, CXCL 5, 8, 10, 12 and 13) were measured in 47 stable post-TX recipients, and their stored pre-TX plasma was analyzed by multiplexed fluorescent bead-based immunoassay...
2016: Journal of Inflammation
Christoph Bauer, Eugenia Niculescu-Morzsa, Vivek Jeyakumar, Daniela Kern, Stephan S Späth, Stefan Nehrer
BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) is described by an imbalance between anabolic and catabolic processes in the affected joint. This dysregulation of metabolism affects not only chondrocytes within cartilage tissue but also the cells of the synovial membrane across the border of the joint. An important factor in OA is the low viscosity of the synovial fluid. High-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid (HA) can be used to increase the viscosity and also reduce inflammatory processes. The purpose was to establish an in vitro inflammation model and to evaluate the effects of high-molecular-weight HA in a co-cultivation inflammation model of osteoarthritic chondrocytes and M1 macrophages...
2016: Journal of Inflammation
Andreas Hillenbrand, Pengfei Xu, Shaoxia Zhou, Annette Blatz, Manfred Weiss, Sebastian Hafner, Doris Henne-Bruns, Uwe Knippschild
BACKGROUND: Adipokines have a wide range of effects and are linked to sepsis and septic shock. The aim of the present study was to describe the changes in adipokine levels in septic patients in relation to patients' preseptic adipokine levels. Furthermore, we examined adipokines as prognostic markers. METHODS: Fourteen consecutive critically ill patients meeting the clinical criteria for severe sepsis or septic shock 3 days up to 1 month after major visceral surgery were enrolled prospectively...
2016: Journal of Inflammation
Frank J Brand, Mahtab Forouzandeh, Harmanpreet Kaur, Francesco Travascio, Juan Pablo de Rivero Vaccari
BACKGROUND: Interleukin (IL)-1β is involved in the pathology of intervertebral disc degeneration. Under normal conditions, IL-1β is present in cells in an inactive form (pro-IL-1β). However, under pathological conditions, pro-IL-1β is turned into its active form (IL-1β) by the inflammasome, a multi-protein complex of the innate immune response that activates caspase-1. Under conditions of degeneration, the disc experiences an environment of increased acidification. However, the implications of acidification on the innate immune response remain poorly explored...
2016: Journal of Inflammation
Stephanie L Wyler, Shawna L D'Ingillo, Cheri L Lamb, Kristen A Mitchell
BACKGROUND: Liver regeneration following 70 % partial hepatectomy (PH) requires the coordinated expression of soluble mediators produced by macrophages. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a potent stimulus of monocyte recruitment and macrophage activation. The goal of this study was to determine how MCP-1 contributes to liver regeneration. METHODS: PH was performed on anesthetized C57Bl/6 (wild type) and MCP-1 knockout mice, and macrophage-produced cytokines and hepatocyte proliferation were measured...
2016: Journal of Inflammation
Julia Naidenow, Igor Hrgovic, Monika Doll, Tsige Hailemariam-Jahn, Victoria Lang, Johannes Kleemann, Stefan Kippenberger, Roland Kaufmann, Nadja Zöller, Markus Meissner
BACKGROUND: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors that are implicated in the regulation of lipid and glucose homeostasis. PPAR agonists have been shown to control inflammatory processes, in part by inhibiting the expression of distinct proinflammatory genes such as vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), IL-8, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). ICAM-1 is an important endothelial membrane receptor that facilitates the transmigration of leukocytes across the endothelium...
2016: Journal of Inflammation
Donatella Poletti, Valeria Iannini, Paolo Casolari, Marco Contoli, Alberto Papi, Paul Kirkham, Trevor T Hansel, Kian Fan Chung, Peter J Barnes, Antonio Pastore, Stefano Pelucchi, Ian M Adcock, Gaetano Caramori
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of non-allergic rhinitis (NAR) is still largely unknown. Furthermore, it is unclear whether there is a correlation between the effect of nasal glucocorticoids on nasal inflammation and on nasal symptoms and quality of life. METHODS: In this pilot study we recruited 12 healthy subjects and 24 patients with recently diagnosed persistent NAR [12 untreated and 12 under regular treatment with nasal fluticasone furoate (two sprays of 27.5 μg each in each nostril once daily, total daily dose = 110 μg) for at least 20 days]...
2016: Journal of Inflammation
Frank Spillmann, Bart De Geest, Ilayaraja Muthuramu, Ruhul Amin, Kapka Miteva, Burkert Pieske, Carsten Tschöpe, Sophie Van Linthout
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with vascular inflammation, fibrosis and reduced high-density lipoproteins (HDL)-cholesterol. We aimed to investigate whether adenoviral gene transfer with human apolipoprotein (apo) A-I (Ad.A-I), the main apo of HDL, could exert immunomodulatory effects and counteract vascular inflammation and fibrosis in ob/ob mice. METHODS: Ad.A-I transfer was performed in 8 weeks (w) old ob/ob mice, which were sacrificed 7 w later. The aorta was excised for mRNA analysis and the spleen for splenocyte isolation for subsequent flow cytometry and co-culture with murine fibroblasts...
2016: Journal of Inflammation
Jonathan Wong, Nathan Davies, Hasan Jeraj, Enric Vilar, Adie Viljoen, Ken Farrington
BACKGROUND: Endotoxemia is commonly reported in patients receiving haemodialysis and implicated in the pathogenesis of systemic inflammation. The Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay is the most commonly used blood endotoxin detection assay. Two kinetic variations of the assay are commercially available - the turbidimetric and chromogenic assay, it is unknown which assay is superior for endotoxin detection in uremic patients. Selection of the optimum LAL technique for endotoxin detection in haemodialysis patients is important to further understanding of the sequela of endotoxemia and development of endotoxin-lowering strategies in this population...
2016: Journal of Inflammation
Willem J du Plessis, Alana Keyser, Gerhard Walzl, André G Loxton
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) remains an unresolved threat resulting in great annual loss of life. The role of B cells during the protective immunity to Mtb is still unclear. B cells have been described as effector cells in addition to their role as antibody producing cells during disease. Here we aim to identify and characterize the frequency of peripheral B-cell subpopulations during active Tuberculosis and over treatment response. Analysis were done for both class switched (CS) and non-class switched (NCS) phenotypes...
2016: Journal of Inflammation
Min-Yeong Woo, Su Jin Yun, Okki Cho, Kyongmin Kim, Eun-So Lee, Sun Park
BACKGROUND: Behcet's disease (BD) is characterized by systemic recurrent inflammation with increased production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). To gain insight into the underlying mechanisms of this disease, the expression levels of distinct microRNAs in PBMCs of BD patients were determined and their association with TNF-α and IL-6 production was evaluated. FINDINGS: The expression levels of microRNAs, miR-638 and miR-4488, were reduced in patients with stable BD in comparison with healthy controls...
2016: Journal of Inflammation
Regina M Krohn, Sean A Parsons, Jakub Fichna, Kamala D Patel, Robin M Yates, Keith A Sharkey, Martin A Storr
BACKGROUND: Non-psychotropic atypical cannabinoids have therapeutic potential in a variety of inflammatory conditions including those of the gastrointestinal tract. Here we examined the effects of the atypical cannabinoid abnormal cannabidiol (Abn-CBD) on wound healing, inflammatory cell recruitment and colitis in mice. METHODS: Colitis was induced in CD1 mice by a single intrarectal administration of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS, 4 mg/100 μl in 30 % ethanol) and Abn-CBD and/or the antagonists O-1918 (Abd-CBD), AM251 (CB1 receptor) and AM630 (CB2 receptor), were administered intraperitoneally (all 5 mg/kg, twice daily for 3 days)...
2016: Journal of Inflammation
Niklas Palmqvist, Max Siller, Cecilia Klint, Anders Sjödin
BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by highly pruritic eczematous lesions that are commonly treated with topical corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors. Side-effects and safety concerns associated with these agents restrict their use, and new, safe treatment options are therefore needed. Recent reports suggest that serotonin, i.e. 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and the 5-HT2 receptor family may contribute to inflammation and pruritus in the skin...
2016: Journal of Inflammation
Shulin Xiang, Yi Zeng, Bin Xiong, Yueqiu Qin, Xia Huang, Yujie Jiang, Weigui Luo, Suren R Sooranna, Liao Pinhu
BACKGROUND: Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is involved in pulmonary vascular remodeling. The aim of this study was to investigate the biochemical interactions between PPAR-γ, TGF-β1 and ET-1 in vitro. METHODS: A549 cells were pre-treated with S2505 (10 μM), S2871 (10 μM) with/without SB203580 (10 μM) for 60 min following 2 h treatment with 10 ng/mL TGF-β1. A549 cells were also transfected with positive or negative PPAR-γ plasmids for comparison. RT-PCR, ELISA, western blotting and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) were used to measure the relevant expression of mRNA, protein, mediators of pathways and nuclear factor translocation...
2016: Journal of Inflammation
Han-Tan Chai, Hon-Kan Yip, Cheuk-Kwan Sun, Shu-Yuan Hsu, Steve Leu
BACKGROUND: Erythropoietin (EPO) has been demonstrated to enhance recovery in ischemic organs through enhancing angiogenesis. In this study, we used an experimental critical limb ischemia (CLI) rat model to reveal the underlying mechanisms and directly examine the benefits of the anti-apoptotic capacity of EPO in the acute phase of limb ischemia and following blood flow recovery. METHODS: To determine the role of the JAK2/STAT pathway in EPO-enhanced recovery after CLI, male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 8 for each group) were divided into group 1 (normal control), group 2 (CLI treated with normal saline), group 3 (CLI treated with EPO), group 4 (CLI treated with AG490, a JAK2 inhibitor), and group 5 (CLI treated with EPO and AG490)...
2016: Journal of Inflammation
Xuan Li, Guoxiong Xu, Tiankui Qiao, Sujuan Yuan, Xibing Zhuang, Jihong Zhang, Hui Bin Sun
BACKGROUND: Cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) oligodeoxyribonucleotides (ODNs) are synthetic DNA fragments containing unmethylated cytosine-guanine motifs with potential immune modulatory effects and have recently been suggested to enhance sensitivity to traditional therapies in lung cancer. This study aimed to examine the effects of CpG ODN1826 on transforming growth factor-beta 1(TGF-β1) and radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice. METHODS: The radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis mouse model was established by a single dose of 20 Gy, 6 MV X-rays exposure to the left lung...
2016: Journal of Inflammation
Torsten Lowin, Georg Pongratz, Rainer H Straub
BACKGROUND: In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), synovial fibroblasts (SF) secrete large amounts of IL-6, IL-8 and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) which are crucial for cartilage destruction. RASFs are sensitive to the action of cannabinoids and they not only express cannabinoid receptors type I and II (CB1 and CB2) but also transient receptor potential channels type vanilloid (TRPV1) and ankyrin (TRPA1). The synthetic cannabinoid WIN55,212-2 mesylate (WIN) demonstrated strong anti-inflammatory effects in monocytes and synovial fibroblasts only in high concentrations in a non-cannabinoid receptor dependent manner...
2016: Journal of Inflammation
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