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Molecular Nutrition & Food Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334590/highly-dispersible-and-bioavailable-curcumin-but-not-native-curcumin-induces-brown-like-adipocyte-formation-in-mice
#1
Sho Nishikawa, Misa Kamiya, Hiroki Aoyama, Mami Nomura, Takuma Hyodo, Aoi Ozeki, Hyunjin Lee, Tsukasa Takahashi, Atsushi Imaizumi, Takanori Tsuda
SCOPE: The induction of brown-like adipocytes in white adipose tissue (WAT) is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity and metabolic disorders via the ability of these cells to release excess energy as heat in association with uncoupling protein 1. Some experimental trials suggest that curcumin (a yellow pigment from turmeric) has a suppressive effect on the accumulation of body fat. However, there is little evidence to show that curcumin induces the formation of brown-like adipocytes and the molecular mechanisms involved remain elusive...
January 15, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333697/lactic-acid-bacteria-may-impact-intestinal-barrier-function-by-modulating-goblet-cells
#2
Chengcheng Ren, Jelleke Dokter-Fokkens, Susana Figueroa Lozano, Qiuxiang Zhang, Bart J de Haan, Hao Zhang, Marijke M Faas, Paul de Vos
SCOPE: Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are recognized to promote gastrointestinal health by mechanisms that are not fully understood. LABs might modulate the mucus and thereby enhance intestinal barrier function. Herein, we investigated effects of different LAB strains and species on goblet cell genes involved in mucus synthesis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Gene expression profiles of goblet cell-associated products (mucin MUC2, trefoil factor 3, resistin-like molecule β, carbohydrate sulfotransferase 5, and galactose-3-O-sulfotransferase 2) induced by LAB or their derived conditioned medium in human goblet cell line LS174T were studied...
January 15, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331105/dietary-factors-modulate-colonic-tumorigenesis-through-the-interaction-of-gut-microbiota-and-host-chloride-channels
#3
Yong Zhang, Chao Kang, Xiao-Lan Wang, Min Zhou, Meng-Ting Chen, Xiao-Hui Zhu, Kai Liu, Bin Wang, Qian-Yong Zhang, Jun-Dong Zhu, Man-Tian Mi
SCOPE: In recent decades, the association between diet, gut microbiota and the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) has been established. Gut microbiota and associated metabolites, such as bile acids and butyrate, are now known to play a key role in CRC development. The aim of this study was to identify the progression to CRC is influenced by cholic acid, sodium butyrate, a high-fat diet or different dose of dihydromyricetin (DMY) interacted with gut microbiota. METHODS AND RESULTS: An AOM/DSS (azoxymethan/dextran sodium sulfate) model was established to study the gut microbiota compsition before and after tumor formation during colitis-induced tumorigenesis...
January 13, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323774/obesity-impairs-oligopeptide-amino-acid-induced-ghrelin-release-and-smooth-muscle-contractions-in-the-human-proximal-stomach
#4
L Vancleef, T Thijs, F Baert, L J Ceulemans, E Canovai, Q Wang, S Steensels, A Segers, R Farré, J Pirenne, M Lannoo, J Tack, I Depoortere
SCOPE: The satiation properties of proteins involve effects on gut peptide release and gastrointestinal motility which may be altered during obesity. This study compared the in vitro response and role of amino acid (AA) taste receptors (TASR) in the effect of AAs and a casein hydrolysate on ghrelin release and smooth muscle (SM) contractions in the proximal gut of lean and obese patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Basal ghrelin release, measured from mucosal segments, was maximal in the fundus and decreased distally...
January 11, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322620/rice-protein-matrix-enhances-circulating-levels-of-xanthohumol-following-acute-oral-intake-of-spent-hops-in-humans
#5
Annalouise O'Connor, Veera Konda, Ralph L Reed, J Mark Christensen, Jan F Stevens, Nikhat Contractor
SCOPE: Xanthohumol (XN), a prenylated flavonoid found in hops, exhibits anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. However, poor bioavailability may limit therapeutic applications. As food components are known to modulate polyphenol absorption, the objective was to determine whether a protein matrix could enhance the bioavailability of XN post oral consumption in humans. METHODS AND RESULTS: This was a randomized, double-blind, cross-over study in healthy participants (n = 6) evaluating XN and its major metabolites [isoxanthohumol (IX), 6- and 8-prenylnaringenin (6-PN, 8-PN)] for 6 hours following consumption of 12...
January 11, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322691/raspberry-supplementation-improves-insulin-signaling-and-promotes-brown-like-adipocyte-development-in-white-adipose-tissue-of-obese-mice
#6
Tong Xing, Yifei Kang, Xinglian Xu, Bo Wang, Min Du, Mei-Jun Zhu
SCOPE: Excessive lipid accumulation in white adipose tissue (WAT) leads to chronic inflammation and metabolic dysfunction. Raspberry (RB) contains high amount of polyphenolics and dietary fibers. The objective of the study is to evaluate effects of RB supplementation on WAT morphology, inflammation and insulin signaling in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice, and further explore the underlying mechanisms. METHODS AND RESULTS: C57BL/6J mice were fed with a control diet or a HFD supplemented with 0 or 5% freeze dried RB for 12 weeks...
January 10, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314619/naringin-protects-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-against-oxidative-stress-induced-apoptosis-by-inhibiting-both-intrinsic-and-extrinsic-pathways-in-insulin-deficient-diabetic-mice
#7
Ye Jin Lim, Jung Ho Kim, Jeong Hoon Pan, Jae Kyeom Kim, Tae-Sik Park, Young Jun Kim, Jin Hyup Lee, Jun Ho Kim
SCOPE: Oxidative stress has been suggested to play a central role in the pathogenesis of diabetes, as well as other metabolic disorders. Naringin, a major flavanone glycoside in citrus species, has been shown to display strong antioxidant potential in in vitro and in vivo models of oxidative stress; however, the underlying protective mechanisms in diabetes are unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: To study the protective effects and molecular mechanisms of naringin in preventing islet dysfunction and diabetes, we examined glucose homeostasis, β-cell apoptosis, and inflammatory response in insulin-deficient diabetic mice exposed to acute oxidative stress with streptozotocin (STZ)...
January 4, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29292863/extracellular-vesicles-from-hypoxic-adipocytes-and-obese-subjects-reduce-insulin-stimulated-glucose-uptake
#8
Justyna Mleczko, Francisco J Ortega, Juan Manuel Falcon-Perez, Martin Wabitsch, Jose Manuel Fernandez-Real, Silvia Mora
SCOPE: We investigated the effects of extracellular vesicles (EVs) obtained from in vitro adipocyte cell models and from obese subjects on glucose transport and insulin responsiveness. METHODS AND RESULTS: EVs were isolated from the culture supernatant of adipocytes cultured under normoxia, hypoxia (1% oxygen) or exposed to macrophage conditioned media (15%v/v). EVs were isolated from the plasma of lean individuals and subjects with obesity. Cultured adipocytes were incubated with EVs and activation of insulin signalling cascades and insulin-stimulated glucose transport were measured...
January 2, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288567/isothiocyanates-and-xenobiotic-detoxification
#9
REVIEW
Ahmad Faizal Abdull Razis, Nattaya Konsue, Costas Ioannides
The potential of isothiocyanates to antagonise the carcinogenicity of structurally-diverse chemicals has been established in animals. A feasible mechanism of action involves protecting DNA by reducing the availability of the genotoxic metabolites of chemical carcinogens by either inhibiting their generation and/or stimulating their detoxification. In vivo as well as in vitro studies conducted in rat/human primary hepatocytes and precision-cut tissue slices have revealed that isothiocyanates can impair cytochrome P450 activity, including the CYP1 family which is the most active in the bioactivation of carcinogens, by virtue of being mechanism-based inactivators...
December 30, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281178/a-novel-anti-hypertensive-peptide-identified-in-thermolysin-digested-rice-bran
#10
Naohisa Shobako, Yutaro Ogawa, Atsushi Ishikado, Kayo Harada, Etsuko Kobayashi, Hirohisa Suido, Takeshi Kusakari, Mariko Maeda, Makoto Suwa, Motonobu Matsumoto, Ryuhei Kanamoto, Kousaku Ohinata
SCOPE: Hypertension is a risk factor for arteriosclerosis. In this study, we investigated the anti-hypertensive effect of protease-digested rice bran in a spontaneously hypertension rat (SHR) model. We also purified a novel anti-hypertensive peptide from the digest. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thermolysin-digested rice bran (TRB) was administered to SHRs for 4 weeks, and systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured weekly using the tail-cuff method. TRB showed an anti-hypertensive effect in a dose-dependent manner...
December 27, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278300/bioavailable-blueberry-derived-phenolic-acids-at-physiological-concentrations-enhance-nrf2-regulated-antioxidant-responses-in-human-vascular-endothelial-cells
#11
Jeffry S Tang, Margreet C M Vissers, Robert F Anderson, Sreevalsan Sreebhavan, Stephanie M Bozonet, Arjan Scheepens, Laurence D Melton
SCOPE: Blueberry consumption is believed to confer a cardiovascular health advantage, but the active compounds and effects require characterization. This study aimed to identify the polyphenol metabolites in plasma after blueberry juice intake and determine their bioactivity on endothelial cells. METHODS AND RESULTS: Three healthy individuals were recruited to obtain profiles of bioavailable plasma polyphenol metabolites following intake of blueberry juice. Of 33 phenolic compounds screened, 12 aglycone phenolic acids were detected and their maximum plasma concentrations and circulation time determined...
December 26, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278298/egg-white-ovotransferrin-derived-ace-inhibitory-peptide-ameliorates-angiotensin-ii-stimulated-insulin-resistance-in-skeletal-muscle-cells
#12
Myoungjin Son, Catherine B Chan, Jianping Wu
SCOPE: The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a major contributor to the development of insulin resistance and its related complications. Egg white ovotransferrin-derived tripeptides, IRW, IQW, or LKP were previously identified as the inhibitors of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), a key enzyme in the RAS. This study aimed at determining whether these peptides are effective in improving insulin resistance, and their mechanisms of action, in a rat derived skeletal muscle cell line (L6 cells)...
December 26, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278293/green-tea-polyphenol-egcg-alleviates-metabolic-abnormality-and-fatty-liver-by-decreasing-bile-acid-and-lipid-absorption-in-mice
#13
Jinbao Huang, Simin Feng, Anna Liu, Zhuqing Dai, Hong Wang, Kenneth Reuhl, Wenyun Lu, Chung S Yang
SCOPE: The tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has been shown to ameliorate metabolic abnormalities and fatty liver. The present study investigated the mechanisms of actions of EGCG on bile acid homeostasis and lipid metabolism. METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a low-fat diet, a high-fat western-style diet or a high-fat western-style diet containing 0.32% EGCG. The effects of the treatments on biochemical parameters, gene expression and lipidomics were analyzed...
December 26, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277983/thymoquinone-can-improve-neuronal-survival-and-promote-neurogenesis-in-rat-hippocampal-neurons
#14
Merve Beker, Tuğçe Dallı, Birsen Elibol
SCOPE: Thymoquinone (TQ) has been used as a potential therapeutic for diseases such as cancer, and diabetes. Herein, we aimed to investigate the effect of TQ on behavioral and molecular parameters in healthy rat hippocampus. METHODS: TQ (20 mg/kg/day) was administered intragastrically for 15 days to adult rats. After the behavioral tests, the hippocampal tissues were investigated in histological and molecular level. RESULTS: In both DG and CA1, TQ significantly increased the number of hippocampal neurons...
December 26, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277971/intake-of-fish-oil-specifically-modulates-colonic-muc2-expression-in-middle-aged-rats-by-suppressing-the-glycosylation-process
#15
Yafang Ma, Guanghong Zhou, Yingqiu Li, Yingying Zhu, Xiaobo Yu, Fan Zhao, He Li, Xinglian Xu, Chunbao Li
SCOPE: Dietary fats have been shown to affect gut microbiota composition and aging gene expression of middle-aged rats at a normal dose, but little is known about such an effect on gut barrier. In this study, the changes in colonic Muc2 expression were investigated and the underlying mechanism was also proposed. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty-six middle-aged Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of diets containing soybean oil, lard or fish oil (4%). The rats were fed for 5 weeks and then goblet cells, Muc2 expression and inflammatory cytokines in the colon were measured...
December 26, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29272068/camelina-sativa-oil-but-not-fatty-fish-or-lean-fish-improved-serum-lipid-profile-in-subjects-with-impaired-glucose-metabolism-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Ursula S Schwab, Maria A Lankinen, Vanessa D de Mello, Suvi M Manninen, Sudhir Kurl, Kari J Pulkki, David E Laaksonen, Arja T Erkkilä
SCOPE: The aim of the study was to examine whether lean fish (LF), fatty fish (FF) and camelina sativa oil (CSO), a plant-based source of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), differ in their metabolic effects in subjects with impaired glucose metabolism. METHODS AND RESULTS: Altogether 79 volunteers with impaired fasting glucose, BMI 25-36 kg/m2 , age 43-72 years, participated in a 12-week randomized controlled trial with four parallel groups, i.e. the FF (4 fish meals/week), LF (4 fish meals/week), CSO (10 g/day ALA) and control (limited intakes of fish and source of ALA) groups...
December 22, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29272066/the-hypotriglyceridemic-effect-of-sciadonic-acid-is-mediated-by-the-inhibition-of-%C3%AE-9-desaturase-expression-and-activity
#17
Frédérique Pédrono, Nathalie Boulier-Monthéan, Françoise Boissel, Jordane Ossemond, Françoise Lohézic-Le Dévéhat
SCOPE: Sciadonic acid (Scia; 20:3Δ5,11,14) is a distinctive fatty acid (FA) with a polymethylene-interrupted double bond at C5. It is specifically found in seeds from gymnosperms such as pine nuts. Published papers describe a decrease in liver and plasma triacylglycerols in rats fed with this nutriment. The present study sought to identify the action mechanism of Scia on triacylglycerol synthesis. In this way, its nutritional effect on FA metabolism involving the Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase 1 (SCD1) was investigated...
December 22, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29266852/mediterranean-tomato-based-sofrito-sauce-improves-fibroblast-growth-factor-21-fgf21-signaling-in-white-adipose-tissue-of-obese-zucker-rats
#18
Viviana Sandoval, Rosalía Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Úrsula Martínez-Garza, Cristina Rosell-Cardona, Rosa Lamuela-Raventós, Pedro F Marrero, Diego Haro, Joana Relat
SCOPE: Obesity is a fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21)-resistant state. Since FGF21 production and signaling are regulated by some bioactive dietary compounds, we analyzed the impact of Mediterranean tomato-based sofrito sauce on: i) the FGF21 expression and signaling in visceral white adipose tissue (vWAT), and ii) the insulin sensitivity of obese Zucker rats (OZR). METHODS AND RESULTS: OZR were fed with a sofrito-supplemented diet or control diet. Insulin sensitivity and FGF21 signaling were determined...
December 21, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29266790/quercetin-attenuates-ethanol-induced-iron-uptake-and-myocardial-injury-by-regulating-the-angiotensin-ii-l-type-calcium-channel
#19
Xiaoping Guo, Man Chen, Hongmei Zeng, Peiyi Liu, Xinghong Zhu, Feng Zhou, Jingjing Liu, Jun Zhang, Zhuangzhuang Dong, Yuhan Tang, Chao Gao, Ping Yao
SCOPE: Increased iron deposition in the myocardium in alcoholics may lead to increased risk of cardiac dysfunction. Quercetin has been demonstrated to quench production of intracellular free iron-induced ∙OH, but the effect of quercetin in ethanol-induced cardiac damage remains unclear. This study was to explore whether quercetin attenuates ethanol-induced iron uptake and myocardial injury by regulating Ang II-LTCC. METHODS AND RESULTS: Adult male C57BL/6J mice were isocalorically pair-fed either a regular or ethanol-containing Lieber De Carli liquid diets supplemented with either quercetin (100 mg/kg...
December 21, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29266773/bioavailability-of-glucoraphanin-and-sulforaphane-from-high-glucoraphanin-broccoli
#20
Tharsini Sivapalan, Antonietta Melchini, Shikha Saha, Paul W Needs, Maria H Traka, Henri Tapp, Jack R Dainty, Richard F Mithen
SCOPE: Broccoli accumulates 4-methylsulphinylbutyl glucosinolate (glucoraphanin) which is hydrolyzed to the isothiocyanate sulforaphane. Through the introgression of novel alleles of the Myb28 transcription factor from Brassica villosa, broccoli genotypes have been developed that have enhanced levels of glucoraphanin. This study sought to quantify the exposure of human tissues to glucoraphanin and sulforaphane following consumption of broccoli with contrasting Myb28 genotypes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ten participants were recruited into a three-phase, double-blinded, randomized crossover trial (NCT02300324), with each phase comprising consumption of 300 ml of a soup made from broccoli of one of three Myb28 genotypes (Myb28B/B , Myb28B/V , Myb28V/V )...
December 21, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
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