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Molecular Nutrition & Food Research

Alexia F P Lépine, Roderick H J de Hilster, Hans Leemhuis, Lizette Oudhuis, Piet L Buwalda, Paul de Vos
SCOPE: Resistant starches (RSs) are classically considered to elicit health benefits through fermentation. However, it was recently shown that RSs can also support health by direct immune interactions. We therefore hypothesized that the structural traits of RSs might impact the health benefits associated with their consumption. METHODS AND RESULTS: Effects of crystallinity, molecular weight, and chain length distribution of RSs were determined on immune Toll-like receptors (TLRs), dendritic cells (DCs), and T-cell cytokines production...
November 9, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Nattayaporn Apaijai, Apiwan Arinno, Siripong Palee, Wasana Pratchayasakul, Sasiwan Kerdphoo, Thidarat Jaiwongkam, Titikorn Chunchai, Siriporn C Chattipakorn, Nipon Chattipakorn
SCOPE: We hypothesized that high-saturated fat high-sugar diet (HFHS) causes worse cardiometabolic dysfunction than high-saturated fat diet (HFD) due to severe mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in obese-insulin resistant rats. METHODS AND RESULTS: Rats were divided into 3 groups to receive normal diet (ND) or HFD, or HFHS for 24 weeks. Cardiometabolic parameters were determined at baseline and every 4 weeks until the end of the feeding protocol...
November 9, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Marcella E O'Reilly, Sarina Kajani, Jessica C Ralston, Yvonne M Lenighan, Helen M Roche, Fiona C McGillicuddy
BACKGROUND: Cholesterol retention within plasma membranes of macrophages is associated with increased inflammatory signalling. Cholesterol efflux via the transporters ABCA1, ABCG1 and SR-BI to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles is a critical mechanism to maintain cellular cholesterol homeostasis. Little is known about the impact of the obese microenvironment on cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) of macrophages. In this study we evaluated CEC of obese-derived primary adipose-tissue macrophages (ATM) and modelled the in vivo microenvironment in vitro to determine mechanisms underlying modulated CEC...
November 9, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Kyoko Shimazu, Satoshi Fukumitsu, Tomoko Ishijima, Tsudoi Toyoda, Yuji Nakai, Keiko Abe, Kazuhiko Aida, Shinji Okada, Akihiro Hino
SCOPE: Our previous study demonstrated that intake of olive pomace extract containing maslinic acid (MA), a triterpene, effectively prevents and alleviates arthritis in animals and humans. Here, we elucidated the molecular mechanisms involved in the anti-arthritis effect of MA by determining gene expression changes induced by olive-derived MA intake in collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA) mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mice were divided into the untreated (CT), CAIA (CA), and CAIA administered MA (CA + MA) groups...
November 8, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Dushani L Palliyaguru, Sonia R Salvatore, Francisco J Schopfer, Xuemei Cheng, Jingyang Zhou, Thomas W Kensler, Stacy G Wendell
SCOPE: Cruciferous vegetable consumption is associated with favorable health outcomes. Bioactive compounds arising in these, especially isothiocyanates, exert effects that contribute to prevention of disease, in large part through attenuation of inflammation and oxidative stress. However, much about isothiocyanate metabolites and their role as biomarkers of crucifer intake remain unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: We tested the utility and limitations of 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (TTCA) as a urinary biomarker of broccoli beverage intake in a randomized crossover clinical trial where 50 participants consumed either a glucoraphanin-rich (GRR) or sulforaphane-rich (SFR) beverage...
November 8, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Daniel Leclerc, Karen E Christensen, Olivia Cauvi, Ethan Yang, Frédéric Fournelle, Renata H Bahous, Olga V Malysheva, Liyuan Deng, Qing Wu, Zili Zhou, Gao Zu-Hua, Pierre Chaurand, Marie A Caudill, Rima Rozen
SCOPE: Dietary and genetic folate disturbances can lead to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). A common variant in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR 677C→T) causes mild MTHFR deficiency with lower 5-methyltetrahydrofolate for methylation reactions. Our goal was to determine whether mild murine MTHFR deficiency contributes to NAFLD-related effects. METHODS AND RESULTS: Wild-type and Mthfr+/- mice, a model for the human variant, were fed control (CD) or high-fat (HFAT) diets for 8 weeks...
November 8, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Richard You Wu, Bo Li, Yuhki Koike, Pekka Määttänen, Hiromu Miyake, Marissa Cadete, Kathene C Johnson-Henry, Steven R Botts, Carol Lee, Thomas R Abrahamsson, Eva Landberg, Agostino Pierro, Philip M Sherman
SCOPE: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a leading cause of morbidity and death in preterm infants, occurring more often in formula-fed than breastfed infants. Studies in both rats and humans show that human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) lower the incidence of NEC, but the mechanism underlying such protection is currently unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: Here by extracting HMOs from pooled human breastmilk, we investigated the impact of HMOs on the intestinal mucin levels in a murine model of NEC...
November 8, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Juan Cunarro, Xabier Buque, Sabela Casado, Javier Lugilde, Anxo Vidal, Alfonso Mora, Guadalupe Sabio, Rubén Nogueiras, Patricia Aspichueta, Carlos Diéguez, Sulay Tovar
SCOPE: Tumour suppressors play multiple biological roles. p107, a pocket protein member of the retinoblastoma susceptibility protein (Rb) family, plays an important role in the cell cycle and cellular adipocyte differentiation. Nonetheless, the mechanism by which it influences whole body energy homeostasis is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied the phenotype of p107 knockout (KO) mixed-background C57BL6/129 mice phenotype by focusing on the involvement of white and brown adipose tissue (WAT and BAT) in energy metabolism...
November 1, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Esther T Callcott, Christopher L Blanchard, Prakash Oli, Abishek B Santhakumar
SCOPE: Endothelial dysfunction pathogenesis is significantly associated with increased oxidative stress (OS) and inflammation. Rice-derived phenolic compounds have been demonstrated to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential. This study aimed to determine if phenolic extracts (PE) from pigmented rice varieties (Purple, Yunlu29 - red and Reiziq - brown) at varying concentrations modulate biomarkers of OS and inflammation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells under induced OS conditions...
November 1, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Thomas Van Hecke, Jo De Vrieze, Nico Boon, Winnok H De Vos, Els Vossen, Stefaan De Smet
SCOPE: High consumption of red meat and sucrose increases the epidemiological risk for chronic diseases. Mechanistic hypotheses include alterations in oxidative status, gut microbial composition, fat deposition and low-grade inflammation. METHODS AND RESULTS: For two weeks, 40 rats consumed a diet high in white or red meat (chicken-based or beef-based cooked mince respectively), and containing corn starch or sucrose in a 2 × 2 factorial design. Lard was mixed with lean chicken or beef to obtain comparable dietary fatty acid profiles...
October 31, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Jastin Link, Cosima Thon, Denny Schanze, Ruta Steponaitiene, Juozas Kupcinskas, Martin Zenker, Ali Canbay, Peter Malfertheiner, Alexander Link
SCOPE: Diet is amongst the most crucial factors contributing to the multistep process of carcinogenesis. The role of exogenous microRNAs (miRNAs) is still debatable. In this proof-of-principle work, we studied the presence of miRNAs in a variety of foods, its stability to processing, detectability in GI mucosa and feces and examined the effect of short-term diet on human- or plant-derived miRNAs in feces and blood. METHODS AND RESULTS: Animal- and plant-miRNAs were detected in all foods irrespectively to processing...
October 31, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Qiqi Zhang, Hongmei Xie, Daiwen Chen, Bing Yu, Zhiqing Huang, Ping Zheng, Xiangbing Mao, Jie Yu, Yuheng Luo, Junqiu Luo, Jun He
SCOPE: Daidzein, a natural isoflavone with oestrogen-like activity, has been implicated in the regulation of reproductive performance in mammals. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved. Here, we explored the effects and potential mechanisms of daidzein supplementation on foetal growth in rats. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty-six pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to receive either an AIN-93M diet or an AIN-93M diet supplemented with 50 mg/kg daidzein...
October 26, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Ming-Yao Gu, Yoon Sun Chun, Ryu Shi Yong, Hyun Ok Yang
SCOPE: In our previous study, Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch extract (GUE) inhibited Aβ secretion by inhibiting β-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) transcription, and the active compounds semilicoisoflavone B (SB) and licoflavonol (LF) inhibited Aβ secretion. SB corresponded to the same mechanism as GUE, but LF had a different mechanism. In this study, we aimed to investigate the mechanism underlying inhibition of Aβ by LF. METHODS AND RESULTS: The effects of LF on Aβ, sAPPα and sAPPβ secretion were evaluated by ELISA, and the effect of LF on BACE1 expression was detected by western blotting...
October 26, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Jieun Lee, Ja-Young Jang, Min-Sung Kwon, Seul Ki Lim, Namhee Kim, Jihyun Lee, Hyo Kyeong Park, Misun Yun, Mi-Young Shin, Hee Eun Jo, Young Joon Oh, Byung Hee Ryu, Mi Yeon Ko, Wooha Joo, Hak-Jong Choi
SCOPE: The gut microbiota has been linked to diet-induced obesity, and microorganisms that influence obesity have important health implications. In this study, the anti-obesity effects of two Lactobacillus plantarum strains (DSR M2 and DSR 920) isolated from kimchi were investigated. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mice were fed a normal or high-fat diet with or without DSR M2 and DSR 920 (DSR, 1 × 109 CFU/day) for 12 weeks. DSR improved the obesity state, as evidenced by the (i) suppressed obesity-related markers, e...
October 26, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Si-Hui Huang, Man Xu, Hai-Ming Wu, Chun-Xia Wan, Hui-Bo Wang, Qing-Qing Wu, Hai-Han Liao, Wei Deng, Qi-Zhu Tang
SCOPE: Isoquercitrin (IQC) has been reported to play a protective role in many pathological conditions. Here, we investigated the effects of IQC on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cardiac dysfunction, exploring its potential molecular mechanisms. METHODS AND RESULTS: C57BL/6 mice or H9c2 cardiomyoblasts were subjected to LPS challenge for 12 hours. Pretreatment with IQC attenuated LPS-induced cardiac dysfunction. IQC remarkably reduced LPS-mediated inflammatory responses by inhibiting the mRNA levels of TNFα, IL6 and MCP1 as well as the protein levels of p-IKKβ, p-IκBα and p-p65 in vivo and in vitro...
October 25, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Miguel Aganzo, María-Teresa Montojo, María-Carmen López de Las Hazas, Asunción Martínez-Descals, Marta Ricote-Vila, Raúl Sanz, Irene González-Peralta, Roberto Martín-Hernández, Olaya de Dios, Carmen Garcés, Alba Galdón, Óscar Lorenzo, Cristina Tomás-Zapico, Alberto Dávalos, Clotilde Vázquez, Nieves González
SCOPE: Huntington disease (HD) is a rare progressive neurodegenerative disorder of genetic origin, with no definitive treatment. Unintentional weight loss (UWL) is a clinical feature of symptomatic HD-subjects. To prevent UWL, a customized HD-diet was designed and its impact on plasma miRNA HD-footprint and neurological parameters was examined. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eleven participants were included -BMI≤18 kg/m2 or UWL of 5% in 6 months or 10% in a year-. Diet design was based on nutritional surveys and interviews to participants and caregivers and on published literature review...
October 25, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Feng Wang, Hangju Zhu, Mingyuan Hu, Jing Wang, Hui Xia, Xian Yang, Ligang Yang, Guiju Sun
SCOPE: The aim of this study was to examine whether perilla oil supplementation would improve glucolipid metabolism and modulate gut microbiota in diabetic KKAy mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: The successfully established diabetic KKAy mice were randomized into 4 groups: diabetic model (DM), low-dose perilla oil (LPO), middle-dose perilla oil (MPO), and high-dose perilla oil (HPO). C57BL/6J mice were fed chow diet as normal control (NC). At the end of 12 weeks, mice were euthanized and glucolipid indications were analyzed...
October 25, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Mensiena B G Kiewiet, Renske Dekkers, Martine P van Gool, Laurien H Ulfman, Andre Groeneveld, Marijke M Faas, Pau de Vos
SCOPE: Wheat hydrolysates are used in medical nutrition to provide undernourished patients a readily digestible protein source, for instance to recover from chemotherapy-induced intestinal mucosal inflammation. Since many hydrolysates of different sources can modulate the immune system, likely via Toll-like receptors (TLRs), it is hypothesized that also wheat hydrolysates might interact with TLR signaling, which could be a way to prevent intestinal inflammation and damage. METHODS AND RESULTS: The capacity of three wheat hydrolysates to modulate immunity by interfering with TLR signaling is determined...
October 24, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Xian Wu, Mingyue Song, Xiaokun Cai, Catherine Neto, Anuradha Tata, Yanhui Han, Qi Wang, Zhonghai Tang, Hang Xiao
SCOPE: There are growing interests in using whole food-based approach to prevent chronic diseases due to potential synergistic interactions among different bioactive components within the whole foods. North American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon), a polyphenol-rich fruit, has been shown to exert multiple beneficial health effects. METHODS AND RESULTS: For the first time, we determined the protective effects of whole cranberry powder (WCP) against colitis-associated mouse colon tumorigenesis induced by azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)...
October 24, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Chanachai Sae-Lee, Sarah Corsi, Timothy M Barrow, Gunter G C Kuhnle, Valentina Bollati, John C Mathers, Hyang-Min Byun
SCOPE: Alterations in DNA methylation patterns are correlated with aging, environmental exposures, and disease pathophysiology; the possibility of reverting or preventing these processes through dietary intervention is gaining momentum. In particular, methyl donors that provide S-adenosyl-methionine for one-carbon metabolism and polyphenols such as flavanols that inhibit the activity of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) can be key modifiers of epigenetic patterns. METHODS AND RESULTS: DNA methylation patterns are assessed in publicly available Illumina Infinium 450K methylation datasets from intervention studies with either folic acid + vitamin B12 (GSE74548) or monomeric and oligomeric flavanols (MOF) (GSE54690) in 44 and 13 participants, respectively...
October 22, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
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