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Molecular Nutrition & Food Research

Cheng Bao, Pavel Kramata, Hong Jin Lee, Nanjoo Suh
The aberrant Hedgehog (Hh) signaling induced by mutations or overexpression of the signaling mediators has been implicated in cancer, associated with processes including inflammation, tumor cell growth, invasion and metastasis, as well as cancer stemness. Small molecules targeting the regulatory components of the Hh signaling pathway, especially Smoothened (Smo), have been developed for the treatment of cancer. However, acquired resistance to a Smo inhibitor vismodegib observed in clinical trials suggests that other Hh signaling components need to be explored as potential anticancer targets...
November 21, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Yixuan Xia, Hai-Tao Xiao, Kanglun Liu, Hong-Jie Zhang, Siu Wai Tsang
SCOPE: Resveratrol is generally considered beneficial to health-span and longevity since this dietary stilbenoid has been scrutinized for its activating property on the "rescue gene" sirtuin-1 that promotes cellular survival under stress. In addition to its antiaging property, our previous in vitro studies revealed that resveratrol notably inhibited the production of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs), the classic effector cells against pancreatic injury...
November 16, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Ming-Yao Gu, Yoon Sun Chun, Dong Zhao, Ryu Shi Yong, Hyun Ok Yang
SCOPE: Glycyrrhiza uralensis extract (GUE) has been reported to improve amyloid beta (Aβ) induced cognitive deficits in mice. However, the mechanisms underlying this effect and the components involved have not been previously explored. Extracellular Aβ plaques are one of the major pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, decreasing Aβ levels is one strategy for preventing the etiology of AD. This study aimed to test the effect of GUE and semilicoisoflavone B (SB) on Aβ secretion and investigate the mechanism underlying this effect...
November 16, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Rima Obeid, Christiane Schön, Manfred Wilhelm, Rajiv P Shrestha, Stefan Pilz, Klaus Pietrzik
SCOPE: We modelled red blood cell (RBC)-folate response to supplementation and developed personalized folate supplementation concepts. METHODS AND RESULTS: The changes of RBC-folate were modelled in a time- (4 or 8 weeks) and dose- (400 μg/d or 800 μg/d folate) dependent manner. Post-supplementation RBC-folate levels were predicted from folate-loading capacities [ = measured RBC-folate - (baseline RBC-folate * RBC-survival)]. The prediction equations were validated in 119 participants...
November 15, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
José Manuel Quesada-Gómez, Raquel Santiago-Mora, Mario Durán-Prado, Gabriel Dorado, Gema Pereira-Caro, José Manuel Moreno-Rojas, Antonio Casado-Díaz
SCOPE: β-Cryptoxanthin is an abundant carotenoid in fruits and vegetables that can be quantified in human blood-serum. Yet, contrary to other carotenoids, its effects on endothelial cells and angiogenesis remain unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Human umbilical-vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were treated with 0.01, 0.1 or 1 μM of β-cryptoxanthin. Antioxidant activity was determined by its free radical scavenging and oxygen-radical absorbance capacity (ABTS and ORAC assays)...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Zengliang Jiang, Minjie Zhao, Hui Zhang, Yang Li, Mengyun Liu, Fengqin Feng
SCOPE: Glycerol monolaurate (GML) was widely consumed worldwide in food industry, and considered as safe, yet for chronic diseases, supporting scientific data remain sparse. This study was to investigate whether dietary GML induces metabolic syndrome, gut microbiota dysbiosis and systemic low-grade inflammation. METHODS AND RESULTS: GML-induced occurrence of metabolic syndrome, gut microbiota alterations and systemic low-grade inflammation were investigated. Our results demonstrated that GML induced metabolic syndrome by significantly increasing the body weight, weight gain, food intake, body fat, fat droplet size and percentage of epididymal fat, serum triglycerides (TG), LDL and atherogenic index, and decreasing the body muscle ratio, liver weight and HDL, compared to the CON group...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Ruth Hornedo Ortega, Grégory Da Costa, Ana Belén Cerezo, Ana Mª Troncoso, Tristan Richard, Mª Carmen García Parrilla
SCOPE: Amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) is the main component of senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The inhibition of Aβ assembly, the destabilisation of Aβ aggregates and the decrease of its cytotoxicity for the prevention of neuronal death are considered neuroprotective effects. In this work, the protective effects against Aβ aggregation and cytotoxicity of eight indolic compounds: tryptophan (Tryp), tryptamine (Trpa), serotonin (Ser), tryptophol (Phol), N-acetylserotonin (Nser), 3-indoleacetic acid (3IA), tryptophan ethyl ester (Tee) and melatonin (Mel) was evaluated...
November 12, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Susanne Andres, Sophie Pevny, Rainer Ziegenhagen, Nadiya Bakhiya, Bernd Schäfer, Karen Ildico Hirsch-Ernst, Alfonso Lampen
The flavonoid quercetin is frequently found in low amounts as a secondary plant metabolite in fruits and vegetables. Isolated quercetin is also marketed as a dietary supplement, mostly as the free quercetin aglycone, and frequently in daily doses of up to 1000 mg per day exceeding usual dietary intake levels. The present review is dedicated to safety aspects of isolated quercetin used as single compound in dietary supplements. Among the numerous published human intervention studies, adverse effects following supplemental quercetin intake have been rarely reported and any such effects were mild in nature...
November 11, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Michael T Empl, Hong Cai, Shan Wang, Johannes Junginger, Tina Kostka, Marion Hewicker-Trautwein, Karen Brown, Andreas J Gescher, Pablo Steinberg
SCOPE: Evidence suggests that the dietary consumption of plant extracts containing polyphenols might help prevent the onset of cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. In the present study, the chemopreventive and antiproliferative efficacy of a grapevine shoot extract (Vineatrol(®) 30) containing resveratrol and resveratrol oligomers was investigated in vivo and in vitro. METHODS AND RESULTS: The in vivo study was performed using Apc(Min) mice on a high-fat diet, which represents a model of human adenomatous polyposis, while the potential of the extract as well as some of its isolated constituents to inhibit intestinal adenoma cell proliferation in vitro was investigated using APC10...
November 10, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Simone G J van Breda, Theo M C M de Kok
There is ample scientific evidence suggesting that the health benefits of eating the right amounts of a variety of vegetables and fruit are the consequence of the combined action of different phytochemicals. The present review provides an update of the scientific literature on additive and synergistic effects of mixtures of phytochemicals. Most research has been carried out in in vitro systems in which synergistic or additive effects have been established on the level of cell proliferation, apoptosis, antioxidant capacity, and tumor incidence, accompanied by changes in gene and protein expression in relevant pathways underlying molecular mechanisms of disease prevention...
November 6, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Francisca Palomares, Francisca Gomez, Gador Bogas, Campo Paloma, James Richard Perkins, A Diaz-Perales, Maria José Rodriguez, Ana Prieto, Domingo Barber, María José Torres, Cristobalina Mayorga
SCOPE: Sublingual immunotherapy using peach extract enriched in Pru p 3 (Pru p 3-enriched-SLIT) brings a new perspective to treating patients with allergy to lipid transfer proteins. We evaluated the immunological changes induced by Pru p 3-enriched-SLIT during one year. METHODS AND RESULTS: Three groups were included: peach allergic patients who received Pru p 3-enriched-SLIT, peach allergic untreated patients and controls. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained before treatment and different time-points...
November 3, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Clara Heneghan, Mairead Kiely, Jacqueline Lyons, Alice Lucey
SCOPE: Epidemiological evidence, animal and in vitro studies suggest that berry consumption may ameliorate markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate findings from berry-based randomised controlled trials (RCTs) to establish the effects of berry consumption on markers of cardiovascular and metabolic health. METHODS AND RESULTS: PubMed and Web of Science were searched for RCTs investigating berry consumption on CVD risk outcomes in adults...
November 3, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
José María Moreno-Navarrete, Matteo Serino, Vincent Blasco-Baque, Vincent Azalbert, Richard H Barton, Marina Cardellini, Jèssica Latorre, Francisco Ortega, Mònica Sabater-Masdeu, Rémy Burcelin, Marc-Emmanuel Dumas, Wifredo Ricart, Massimo Federici, José Manuel Fernández-Real
SCOPE: To examine the potential relationship among gene expression markers of adipose tissue browning, gut microbiota and insulin sensitivity in humans. METHODS AND RESULTS: Gut microbiota composition and gene markers of browning were analysed in subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral (VAT) adipose tissue from morbidly obese subjects (n = 34). Plasma acetate was measured through (1) H NMR and insulin sensitivity using euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. Subjects with insulin resistance showed an increase in the relative abundance (RA) of the phyla Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria while RA of Firmicutes was decreased...
November 3, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Nicholas T Au, Tove Ryman, Allan E Rettie, Scarlett E Hopkins, Bert B Boyer, Jynene Black, Jacques Philip, Joseph Yracheta, Alison E Fohner, Morayma Reyes, Timothy A Thornton, Melissa A Austin, Kenneth E Thummel
SCOPE: We investigated the relationship between dietary vitamin K and plasma PIVKA-II concentration, a biomarker of hepatic vitamin K status, in a Yup'ik study population in southwestern Alaska. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 659 male and female, self-reported Yup'ik people, ≥ 14 years of age, were enrolled. Blood was collected for genotyping and plasma PIVKA-II biomarker analysis. A Yup'ik-specific dietary food frequency questionnaire was used to assess vitamin K intake...
November 2, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Colleen Fogarty Draper, Irene Vassallo, Alessandro Di Cara, Cristiana Milone, Ornella Comminetti, Irina Monnard, Jean-Philippe Godin, Max Scherer, MingMing Su, Wei Jia, Seu-Ping Guiraud, Fabienne Praplan, Laurence Guignard, Corinne Ammon Zufferey, Maya Shevlyakova, Nashmil Emami, Sofia Moco, Maurice Beaumont, Jim Kaput, Francois-Pierre Martin
SCOPE: Research is limited on diet challenges to improve health. A short-term, vegan protein diet regimen nutritionally balanced in macronutrient composition compared to an omnivorous diet was hypothesized to improve metabolic measurements of blood sugar regulation, blood lipids, and amino acid metabolism. METHODS AND RESULTS: This randomized, cross-over, controlled vegan verses animal diet challenge was conducted on 21 (11 female,10 male) healthy participants. Fasting plasma was measured during a 3-day diet intervention for clinical biochemistry and metabonomics...
October 31, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Nicola P Bondonno, Catherine P Bondonno, Lauren C Blekkenhorst, Michael J Considine, Ghassan Maghzal, Roland Stocker, Richard J Woodman, Natalie C Ward, Jonathan M Hodgson, Kevin D Croft
SCOPE: The cardioprotective effects of apples are primarily attributed to flavonoids, found predominantly in the skin. This study aimed to determine if acute and/or chronic (4 weeks) ingestion of flavonoid-rich apples improves endothelial function, blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness in individuals at risk for CVD. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this randomised, controlled cross-over trial, acute and 4 week intake of apple with skin (high flavonoid apple, HFA) was compared to intake of apple flesh only (low flavonoid apple, LFA) in 30 participants...
October 30, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Yingjia Chen, Nikolay M Filipov, Tai L Guo
SCOPE: Well-controlled glycation (generally limited to the early stages) has been proposed as a strategy to improve the physiochemical properties of dietary proteins, but the functional studies of glycation products were mostly on advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) rather than early glycation products (EGPs). Since cytokines are important modulators of various biological processes, this study aimed to determine whether EGPs and AGEs affected immune homeostasis differentially and did so through modulating macrophage-derived factors...
October 30, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
José María Moreno-Navarrete, Amaia Rodríguez, Sara Becerril, Víctor Valentí, Javier Salvador, Gema Frühbeck, José Manuel Fernández-Real
SCOPE: To investigate intestinal markers of iron absorption in morbidly obese subjects according to glucose tolerance. METHODS AND RESULTS: Gene expression of both non-heme [SLC40A1 (ferroportin), SLC11A2] and heme iron [SLC46A1 (HCP1), HMOX1] transporters were analysed in 38 small intestine tissue samples [11 with normal glucose tolerance, 14 with glucose intolerance (GI) and 13 with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2D)]. SLC40A1 (r = 0.43, p = 0.008) and SLC11A2 (r = 0...
October 29, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Mingrui Xiong, Yun Huang, Yajing Liu, Mi Huang, Guanjun Song, Qian Ming, Xinhua Ma, Jie Yang, Shihao Deng, Yanzhang Wen, Jinhua Shen, Qing-Hua Liu, Ping Zhao, Xinzhou Yang
SCOPE: The number of people with diabetes is increasing rapidly in the world. In the present study, the hypoglycemic activity and potential mechanism of ergosterol (ERG), a phytosterol derived from the edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus were investigated in vitro and in vivo. METHODS AND RESULTS: ERG was isolated from Pleurotus ostreatus and identified by NMR spectra. The effects of ERG on the glucose uptake, glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation, GLUT4 expression, and the phosphorylation of AMPK, Akt and PKC in L6 cells were evaluated...
October 28, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Sandra Silva, Mar Garcia-Aloy, Maria Eduardo Figueira, Emilie Combet, William Mullen, Maria Rosário Bronze
SCOPE: Phenolic compounds are minor components of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). Secoiridoids are the major components contributing to the phenolic content of EVOO. {Silva, 2015 #95}Information is lacking regarding their potential as biomarkers for EVOO intake. METHODS AND RESULTS: Healthy volunteers (n = 9) ingested 50 mL of EVOO in a single dose containing 322 mg/kg total phenolic content (caffeic acid equivalents) and 6 mg/20g hydroxytyrosol and its derivatives...
October 25, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
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