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Frontiers in Zoology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904644/ambient-temperature-affects-postnatal-litter-size-reduction-in-golden-hamsters
#1
Sarah A Ohrnberger, Raquel Monclús, Heiko G Rödel, Teresa G Valencak
BACKGROUND: To better understand how different ambient temperatures during lactation affect survival of young, we studied patterns of losses of pups in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) at different ambient temperatures in the laboratory, mimicking temperature conditions in natural habitats. Golden hamsters produce large litters of more than 10 young but are also known to wean fewer pups at the end of lactation than they give birth to. We wanted to know whether temperature affects litter size reductions and whether the underlying causes of pup loss were related to maternal food (gross energy) intake and reproductive performance, such as litter growth...
2016: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891163/the-visual-system-of-harvestmen-opiliones-arachnida-chelicerata-a-re-examination
#2
Tobias Lehmann, Eva Lodde-Bensch, Roland R Melzer, Martina Metz
BACKGROUND: The visual systems in chelicerates are poorly understood, even though they show strong variation in eye and visual neuropil architecture, thus may provide valuable insights for the understanding of chelicerate phylogeny and eye evolution. Comparable morphological characters are desperately sought for reconstructions of the phylogeny of Chelicerata, especially with respect to Arachnida. So far, reliable data exist only for Pycnogonida, Xiphosura, Scorpiones, and Araneae. The few earlier studies of the organisation of the visual system in harvestmen are contradictory concerning the number, morphology, and position of the visual neuropils...
2016: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833644/comparison-of-neuromuscular-development-in-two-dinophilid-species-annelida-suggests-progenetic-origin-of-dinophilus-gyrociliatus
#3
Alexandra Kerbl, Elizaveta G Fofanova, Tatiana D Mayorova, Elena E Voronezhskaya, Katrine Worsaae
BACKGROUND: Several independent meiofaunal lineages are suggested to have originated through progenesis, however, morphological support for this heterochronous process is still lacking. Progenesis is defined as an arrest of somatic development (synchronously in various organ systems) due to early maturation, resulting in adults resembling larvae or juveniles of the ancestors. Accordingly, we established a detailed neuromuscular developmental atlas of two closely related Dinophilidae using immunohistochemistry and CLSM...
2016: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777601/energy-state-affects-exploratory-behavior-of-tree-sparrows-in-a-group-context-under-differential-food-patch-distributions
#4
Ya-Fu Lee, Yen-Min Kuo, Wen-Chen Chu
BACKGROUND: When facing a novel situation, animals can retreat or leave to avoid risks, but will miss potential resources and opportunities. Alternatively they may reduce environmental uncertainty by exploration, while risking no energy rewards and exposure to hazards, and use the information retrieved for subsequent decision making. When exploring, however, animals may adopt different tactics according to individual states. RESULTS: We tested that energy states will affect exploratory behavior by experimenting with wild-caught untrained Eurasian tree sparrows (Passer montanus) in fasted or fed states exploring in a novel space with hidden food supply in different patch distribution patterns...
2016: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766111/plumage-quality-mediates-a-life-history-trade-off-in-a-migratory-bird
#5
Patrycja Podlaszczuk, Maciej Kamiński, Radosław Włodarczyk, Krzysztof Kaczmarek, Tomasz Janiszewski, Piotr Minias
BACKGROUND: Moult is one of the most costly activities in the annual cycle of birds and most avian species separate moult from other energy-demanding activities, such as migration. To this end, young birds tend to undergo the first post-juvenile moult before the onset of migration, but in some species the time window for the pre-migratory feather replacement is too narrow. We hypothesized that in such species an increased investment in the structural quality of juvenile feathers may allow to retain juvenile plumage throughout the entire migratory period and delay moult until arriving at wintering grounds, thus avoiding a moult-migration overlap...
2016: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766110/odonata-dragonflies-and-damselflies-as-a-bridge-between-ecology-and-evolutionary-genomics
#6
Seth Bybee, Alex Córdoba-Aguilar, M Catherine Duryea, Ryo Futahashi, Bengt Hansson, M Olalla Lorenzo-Carballa, Ruud Schilder, Robby Stoks, Anton Suvorov, Erik I Svensson, Janne Swaegers, Yuma Takahashi, Phillip C Watts, Maren Wellenreuther
Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) present an unparalleled insect model to integrate evolutionary genomics with ecology for the study of insect evolution. Key features of Odonata include their ancient phylogenetic position, extensive phenotypic and ecological diversity, several unique evolutionary innovations, ease of study in the wild and usefulness as bioindicators for freshwater ecosystems worldwide. In this review, we synthesize studies on the evolution, ecology and physiology of odonates, highlighting those areas where the integration of ecology with genomics would yield significant insights into the evolutionary processes that would not be gained easily by working on other animal groups...
2016: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708681/comparative-localization-of-serotonin-like-immunoreactive-cells-in-thaliacea-informs-tunicate-phylogeny
#7
Alberto Valero-Gracia, Rita Marino, Fabio Crocetta, Valeria Nittoli, Stefano Tiozzo, Paolo Sordino
BACKGROUND: Thaliaceans is one of the understudied classes of the phylum Tunicata. In particular, their phylogenetic relationships remain an issue of debate. The overall pattern of serotonin (5-HT) distribution is an excellent biochemical trait to interpret internal relationships at order level. In the experiments reported here we compared serotonin-like immunoreactivity at different life cycle stages of two salpid, one doliolid, and one pyrosomatid species. This multi-species comparison provides new neuroanatomical data for better resolving the phylogeny of the class Thaliacea...
2016: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708680/the-cephalopod-arm-crown-appendage-formation-and-differentiation-in-the-hawaiian-bobtail-squid-euprymna-scolopes
#8
Marie-Therese Nödl, Alexandra Kerbl, Manfred G Walzl, Gerd B Müller, Heinz Gert de Couet
BACKGROUND: Cephalopods are a highly derived class of molluscs that adapted their body plan to a more active and predatory lifestyle. One intriguing adaptation is the modification of the ventral foot to form a bilaterally symmetric arm crown, which constitutes a true morphological novelty in evolution. In addition, this structure shows many diversifications within the class of cephalopods and therefore offers an interesting opportunity to study the molecular underpinnings of the emergence of phenotypic novelties and their diversification...
2016: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708679/development-of-foraging-skills-in-two-orangutan-populations-needing-to-learn-or-needing-to-grow
#9
Caroline Schuppli, Sofia I F Forss, Ellen J M Meulman, Nicole Zweifel, Kevin C Lee, Evasari Rukmana, Erin R Vogel, Maria A van Noordwijk, Carel P van Schaik
BACKGROUND: Orangutans have one of the slowest-paced life histories of all mammals. Whereas life-history theory suggests that the time to reach adulthood is constrained by the time needed to reach adult body size, the needing-to-learn hypothesis instead suggests that it is limited by the time needed to acquire adult-level skills. To test between these two hypotheses, we compared the development of foraging skills and growth trajectories of immature wild orangutans in two populations: at Tuanan (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii), Borneo, and Suaq Balimbing (Pongo abelii), Sumatra...
2016: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660641/the-bear-circadian-clock-doesn-t-sleep-during-winter-dormancy
#10
Heiko T Jansen, Tanya Leise, Gordon Stenhouse, Karine Pigeon, Wayne Kasworm, Justin Teisberg, Thomas Radandt, Robert Dallmann, Steven Brown, Charles T Robbins
BACKGROUND: Most biological functions are synchronized to the environmental light:dark cycle via a circadian timekeeping system. Bears exhibit shallow torpor combined with metabolic suppression during winter dormancy. We sought to confirm that free-running circadian rhythms of body temperature (Tb) and activity were expressed in torpid grizzly (brown) bears and that they were functionally responsive to environmental light. We also measured activity and ambient light exposures in denning wild bears to determine if rhythms were evident and what the photic conditions of their natural dens were...
2016: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605999/crown-of-thorns-starfish-have-true-image-forming-vision
#11
Ronald Petie, Anders Garm, Michael R Hall
BACKGROUND: Photoreceptors have evolved numerous times giving organisms the ability to detect light and respond to specific visual stimuli. Studies into the visual abilities of the Asteroidea (Echinodermata) have recently shown that species within this class have a more developed visual sense than previously thought and it has been demonstrated that starfish use visual information for orientation within their habitat. Whereas image forming eyes have been suggested for starfish, direct experimental proof of true spatial vision has not yet been obtained...
2016: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570534/contextual-flexibility-in-the-vocal-repertoire-of-an-amazon-parrot
#12
Adolfo Christian Montes-Medina, Alejandro Salinas-Melgoza, Katherine Renton
BACKGROUND: Understanding the role of avian vocal communication in social organisation requires knowledge of the vocal repertoire used to convey information. Parrots use acoustic signals in a variety of social contexts, but no studies have evaluated cross-functional use of acoustic signals by parrots, or whether these conform to signal design rules for different behavioural contexts. We statistically characterised the vocal repertoire of 61 free-living Lilac-crowned Amazons (Amazona finschi) in nine behavioural contexts (nesting, threat, alarm, foraging, perched, take-off, flight, landing, and food soliciting)...
2016: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563341/resolving-the-evolution-of-the-mammalian-middle-ear-using-bayesian-inference
#13
Héctor E Ramírez-Chaves, Vera Weisbecker, Stephen Wroe, Matthew J Phillips
BACKGROUND: The minute, finely-tuned ear ossicles of mammals arose through a spectacular evolutionary transformation from their origins as a load-bearing jaw joint. This involved detachment from the postdentary trough of the mandible, and final separation from the dentary through resorption of Meckel's cartilage. Recent parsimony analyses of modern and fossil mammals imply up to seven independent postdentary trough losses or even reversals, which is unexpected given the complexity of these transformations...
2016: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27559356/artificial-selection-reveals-the-energetic-expense-of-producing-larger-eggs
#14
Joel L Pick, Pascale Hutter, Christina Ebneter, Ann-Kathrin Ziegler, Marta Giordano, Barbara Tschirren
BACKGROUND: The amount of resources provided by the mother before birth has important and long-lasting effects on offspring fitness. Despite this, there is a large amount of variation in maternal investment seen in natural populations. Life-history theory predicts that this variation is maintained through a trade-off between the benefits of high maternal investment for the offspring and the costs of high investment for the mother. However, the proximate mechanisms underlying these costs of reproduction are not well understood...
2016: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27555876/stable-isotope-signatures-reflect-dietary-diversity-in-european-forest-moths
#15
Marc-Oliver Adams, Carlo Lutz Seifert, Lisamarie Lehner, Christine Truxa, Wolfgang Wanek, Konrad Fiedler
BACKGROUND: Information on larval diet of many holometabolous insects remains incomplete. Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stable isotope analysis in adult wing tissue can provide an efficient tool to infer such trophic relationships. The present study examines whether moth feeding guild affiliations taken from literature are reflected in isotopic signatures. RESULTS: Non-metric multidimensional scaling and permutational analysis of variance indicate that centroids of dietary groups differ significantly...
2016: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27525030/unique-wing-scale-photonics-of-male-rajah-brooke-s-birdwing-butterflies
#16
Bodo D Wilts, Marco A Giraldo, Doekele G Stavenga
BACKGROUND: Ultrastructures in butterfly wing scales can take many shapes, resulting in the often striking coloration of many butterflies due to interference of light. The plethora of coloration mechanisms is dazzling, but often only single mechanisms are described for specific animals. RESULTS: We have here investigated the male Rajah Brooke's birdwing, Trogonoptera brookiana, a large butterfly from Malaysia, which is marked by striking, colorful wing patterns...
2016: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27525029/formation-of-the-germ-disc-in-spider-embryos-by-a-condensation-like-mechanism
#17
Matthias Pechmann
BACKGROUND: Determination of the embryonic body axes is a crucial developmental process in all animals. The establishment of the embryonic axes of spiders has been best studied in the common-house-spider Parasteatoda tepidariorum. Here, anteroposterior (AP) polarity arises during germ disc formation; the centre of the germ-disc marks the future posterior pole, and the rim of the disc the future anterior pole of the spider embryo. The centre of the germ disc is also needed for the formation of the cumulus, a group of migratory cells needed to establish dorsoventral (DV) polarity...
2016: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27507999/passive-acoustic-monitoring-reveals-group-ranging-and-territory-use-a-case-study-of-wild-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes
#18
Ammie K Kalan, Alex K Piel, Roger Mundry, Roman M Wittig, Christophe Boesch, Hjalmar S Kühl
BACKGROUND: Assessing the range and territories of wild mammals traditionally requires years of data collection and often involves directly following individuals or using tracking devices. Indirect and non-invasive methods of monitoring wildlife have therefore emerged as attractive alternatives due to their ability to collect data at large spatiotemporal scales using standardized remote sensing technologies. Here, we investigate the use of two novel passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) systems used to capture long-distance sounds produced by the same species, wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), living in two different habitats: forest (Taï, Côte d'Ivoire) and savanna-woodland (Issa valley, Tanzania)...
2016: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27437025/evolution-of-the-ungulate-dewlap-thermoregulation-rather-than-sexual-selection-or-predator-deterrence
#19
Jakob Bro-Jørgensen
BACKGROUND: Dewlaps are iconic features of several ungulate species and, although a role in signalling has been postulated, their function remains largely unexplored. We recently failed to find any age-independent link between dewlap size and social status in the common eland (Tragelaphus oryx), pointing to the possibility that sexual selection may not be the primary cause of dewlap evolution in ungulates. Here I use a two-pronged approach to test hypotheses on the function of ungulate dewlaps: an interspecific comparative analysis of bovids and deer, and an intraspecific study of eland antelopes in the wild...
2016: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27418939/allometric-scaling-of-the-elevation-of-maternal-energy-intake-during-lactation
#20
Frédéric Douhard, Jean-François Lemaître, Wendy M Rauw, Nicolas C Friggens
BACKGROUND: In most mammals, lactating mothers dramatically increase their food intake after parturition and reach a peak intake rate after a certain time while their offspring continue to grow. A common view, perpetuated by the metabolic theory of ecology, is that the allometric scaling of maternal metabolic rate with body mass limits the changes in energy intake and expenditure. Therefore these potential effects of metabolic scaling should be reflected in the elevation of maternal energy intake during lactation...
2016: Frontiers in Zoology
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