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Frontiers in Zoology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449866/correction-to-getting-fat-or-getting-help-how-female-mammals-cope-with-energetic-constraints-on-reproduction
#1
Sandra A Heldstab, Carel P van Schaik, Karin Isler
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/s12983-017-0214-0.].
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449865/correction-to-development-of-foraging-skills-in-two-orangutan-populations-needing-to-learn-or-needing-to-grow
#2
Caroline Schuppli, Sofia I F Forss, Ellen J M Meulman, Nicole Zweifel, Kevin C Lee, Evasari Rukmana, Erin R Vogel, Maria A van Noordwijk, Carel P van Schaik
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/s12983-016-0178-5.].
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434647/the-complex-simplicity-of-the-brittle-star-nervous-system
#3
Olga Zueva, Maleana Khoury, Thomas Heinzeller, Daria Mashanova, Vladimir Mashanov
Background: Brittle stars (Ophiuroidea, Echinodermata) have been increasingly used in studies of animal behavior, locomotion, regeneration, physiology, and bioluminescence. The success of these studies directly depends on good working knowledge of the ophiuroid nervous system. Results: Here, we describe the arm nervous system at different levels of organization, including the microanatomy of the radial nerve cord and peripheral nerves, ultrastructure of the neural tissue, and localization of different cell types using specific antibody markers...
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299039/developmental-biology-and-potential-use-of-alboglossiphonia-lata-annelida-hirudinea-as-an-evo-devo-model-organism
#4
Brenda Irene Medina Jiménez, Hee-Jin Kwak, Jong-Seok Park, Jung-Woong Kim, Sung-Jin Cho
Background: The need for the adaptation of species of annelids as "Evo-Devo" model organisms of the superphylum Lophotrochozoa to refine the understanding of the phylogenetic relationships between bilaterian organisms, has promoted an increase in the studies dealing with embryonic development among related species such as leeches from the Glossiphoniidae family. The present study aims to describe the embryogenesis of Alboglossiphonia lata (Oka, 1910), a freshwater glossiphoniid leech, chiefly distributed in East Asia, and validate standard molecular biology techniques to support the use of this species as an additional model for "Evo-Devo" studies...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299038/different-feeding-strategies-in-antarctic-scavenging-amphipods-and-their-implications-for-colonisation-success-in-times-of-retreating-glaciers
#5
Meike Anna Seefeldt, Gabriela Laura Campana, Dolores Deregibus, María Liliana Quartino, Doris Abele, Ralph Tollrian, Christoph Held
Background: Scavenger guilds are composed of a variety of species, co-existing in the same habitat and sharing the same niche in the food web. Niche partitioning among them can manifest in different feeding strategies, e.g. during carcass feeding. In the bentho-pelagic realm of the Southern Ocean, scavenging amphipods (Lysianassoidea) are ubiquitous and occupy a central role in decomposition processes. Here we address the question whether scavenging lysianassoid amphipods employ different feeding strategies during carcass feeding, and whether synergistic feeding activities may influence carcass decomposition...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299037/evolution-of-beak-morphology-in-the-ground-tit-revealed-by-comparative-transcriptomics
#6
Yalin Cheng, Bin Gao, Haitao Wang, Naijian Han, Shimiao Shao, Shaoyuan Wu, Gang Song, Yong E Zhang, Xiaojia Zhu, Xin Lu, Yanhua Qu, Fumin Lei
Background: Beak morphology exhibits considerable adaptive plasticity in birds, which results in highly varied or specialized forms in response to variations in ecology and life history. As the only parid species endemic to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the Ground Tit (Parus humilis) has evolved a distinctly long and curved beak from other parids. An integration of morphometrics, phylogenetics, transcriptomics and embryology allows us to address the evolutionary and developmental mechanisms of the adaptive beak structure observed in the Ground Tit...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299036/calls-during-agonistic-interactions-vary-with-arousal-and-raise-audience-attention-in-ravens
#7
Georgine Szipl, Eva Ringler, Michela Spreafico, Thomas Bugnyar
Background: Acoustic properties of vocalizations can vary with the internal state of the caller, and may serve as reliable indicators for a caller's emotional state, for example to prevent conflicts. Thus, individuals may associate distinct characteristics in acoustic signals of conspecifics with specific social contexts, and adjust their behaviour accordingly to prevent escalation of conflicts. Common ravens (Corvus corax) crowd-forage with individuals of different age classes, sex, and rank, assemble at feeding sites, and engage in agonistic interactions of varying intensity...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29270207/nest-site-preference-depends-on-the-relative-density-of-conspecifics-and-heterospecifics-in-wild-birds
#8
Jelmer M Samplonius, Iris M Kromhout Van Der Meer, Christiaan Both
Background: Social learning allows animals to eavesdrop on ecologically relevant knowledge of competitors in their environment. This is especially important when selecting a habitat if individuals have relatively little personal information on habitat quality. It is known that birds can use both conspecific and heterospecific information for social learning, but little is known about the relative importance of each information type. If provided with the choice between them, we expected that animals should copy the behaviour of conspecifics, as these confer the best information for that species...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29255477/unraveling-climate-influences-on-the-distribution-of-the-parapatric-newts-lissotriton-vulgaris-meridionalis-and-l-italicus
#9
Mattia Iannella, Francesco Cerasoli, Maurizio Biondi
Background: Climate is often considered as a key ecological factor limiting the capability of expansion of most species and the extent of suitable habitats. In this contribution, we implement Species Distribution Models (SDMs) to study two parapatric amphibians, Lissotriton vulgaris meridionalis and L. italicus, investigating if and how climate has influenced their present and past (Last Glacial Maximum and Holocene) distributions. A database of 901 GPS presence records was generated for the two newts...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225659/speed-dependent-phase-shifts-and-gait-changes-in-cockroaches-running-on-substrates-of-different-slipperiness
#10
Tom Weihmann, Pierre-Guillaume Brun, Emily Pycroft
Background: Many legged animals change gaits when increasing speed. In insects, only one gait change has been documented so far, from slow walking to fast running, which is characterised by an alternating tripod. Studies on some fast-running insects suggested a further gait change at higher running speeds. Apart from speed, insect gaits and leg co-ordination have been shown to be influenced by substrate properties, but the detailed effects of speed and substrate on gait changes are still unclear...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225658/intraspecific-eye-color-variability-in-birds-and-mammals-a-recent-evolutionary-event-exclusive-to-humans-and-domestic-animals
#11
Juan J Negro, M Carmen Blázquez, Ismael Galván
Background: Human populations and breeds of domestic animals are composed of individuals with a multiplicity of eye (= iris) colorations. Some wild birds and mammals may have intraspecific eye color variability, but this variation seems to be due to the developmental stage of the individual, its breeding status, and/or sexual dimorphism. In other words, eye colour tends to be a species-specific trait in wild animals, and the exceptions are species in which individuals of the same age group or gender all develop the same eye colour...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213295/trabecular-architecture-in-the-forelimb-epiphyses-of-extant-xenarthrans-mammalia
#12
Eli Amson, Patrick Arnold, Anneke H van Heteren, Aurore Canoville, John A Nyakatura
Background: Bone structure has a crucial role in the functional adaptations that allow vertebrates to conduct their diverse lifestyles. Much has been documented regarding the diaphyseal structure of long bones of tetrapods. However, the architecture of trabecular bone, which is for instance found within the epiphyses of long bones, and which has been shown experimentally to be extremely plastic, has received little attention in the context of lifestyle adaptations (virtually only in primates)...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201131/the-male-sexual-apparatus-in-the-order-scorpiones-arachnida-a-comparative-study-of-functional-morphology-as-a-tool-to-define-hypotheses-of-homology
#13
Lionel Monod, Lucie Cauwet, Edmundo González-Santillán, Siegfried Huber
Background: Insemination in scorpions is carried out by means of a partly sclerotized structure, the spermatophore, which is composed of two separate halves, the hemispermatophores. In most genera these reproductive structures can be used to differentiate species. However, many taxa such as the genus Euscorpius and the family Diplocentridae lack the morphological diversity observed in the copulatory organs of many other arthropods, rendering them useless for species level taxonomy. Such structural stasis, however, suggests that hemispermatophores have evolved relatively slowly and may thus provide a stronger phylogenetic signal for recognizing supra-generic ranks than previously thought...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142585/trade-offs-in-the-production-of-animal-vocal-sequences-insights-from-the-structure-of-wild-chimpanzee-pant-hoots
#14
Pawel Fedurek, Klaus Zuberbühler, Stuart Semple
Background: Vocal sequences - utterances consisting of calls produced in close succession - are common phenomena in animal communication. While many studies have explored the adaptive benefits of producing such sequences, very little is known about how the costs and constraints involved in their production affect their form. Here, we investigated this issue in the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) pant hoot, a long and structurally complex vocal sequence comprising four acoustically distinct phases - introduction, build-up, climax and let-down...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093740/differences-in-neurochemical-profiles-of-two-gadid-species-under-ocean-warming-and-acidification
#15
Matthias Schmidt, Heidrun Sigrid Windisch, Kai-Uwe Ludwichowski, Sean Lando Levin Seegert, Hans-Otto Pörtner, Daniela Storch, Christian Bock
Background: Exposure to future ocean acidification scenarios may alter the behaviour of marine teleosts through interference with neuroreceptor functioning. So far, most studies investigated effects of ocean acidification on the behaviour of fish, either isolated or in combination with environmental temperature. However, only few physiological studies on this issue were conducted despite the putative neurophysiological origin of the CO2-induced behavioural changes. Here, we present the metabolic consequences of long-term exposure to projected ocean acidification (396-548 μatm PCO2 under control and 915-1272 μatm under treatment conditions) and parallel warming in the brain of two related fish species, polar cod (Boreogadus saida, exposed to 0 °C, 3 °C, 6 °C and 8 °C) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua, exposed to 3 °C, 8 °C, 12 °C and 16 °C)...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075305/the-flipflop-orphan-genes-are-required-for-limb-bud-eversion-in-the-tribolium-embryo
#16
Susanne Thümecke, Anke Beermann, Martin Klingler, Reinhard Schröder
BACKGROUND: Unlike Drosophila but similar to other arthropod and vertebrate embryos, the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum develops everted limb buds during embryogenesis. However, the molecular processes directing the evagination of epithelia are only poorly understood. RESULTS: Here we show that the newly discovered genes Tc-flipflop1 and Tc-flipflop2 are involved in regulating the directional budding of appendages. RNAi-knockdown of Tc-flipflop results in a variety of phenotypic traits...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046707/comparative-cytogenetic-analysis-of-marine-palaemon-species-reveals-a-x1x1x2x2-x1x2y-sex-chromosome-system-in-palaemon-elegans
#17
Zeltia Torrecilla, Andrés Martínez-Lage, Alejandra Perina, Enrique González-Ortegón, Ana M González-Tizón
BACKGROUND: The maintenance of species and the promotion of speciation are closely related to chromosomal rearrangements throughout evolution. Decapoda represents the most species-rich order among crustaceans and, despite its ecological and economic importance, little is known about decapod karyology. We aim at cytogenetically characterizing two sympatric prawn species. RESULTS: Analysis of mitotic metaphases and meiotic diakinesis of the common prawn Palaemon serratus and the rockpool prawn P...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026428/evaluation-of-the-physiological-activity-of-venom-from-the-eurasian-water-shrew-neomys-fodiens
#18
Krzysztof Kowalski, Paweł Marciniak, Grzegorz Rosiński, Leszek Rychlik
BACKGROUND: Animal toxins can have medical and therapeutic applications. Principally, toxins produced by insects, arachnids, snakes and frogs have been characterized. Venomous mammals are rare, and their venoms have not been comprehensively investigated. Among shrews, only the venom of Blarina brevicauda has been analysed so far, and blarina toxin has been proven to be its main toxic component. It is assumed that Neomys fodiens employs its venom to hunt larger prey. However, the toxic profile, properties and mode of action of its venom are largely unknown...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018488/higher-resting-metabolic-rate-in-long-lived-breeding-ansell-s-mole-rats-fukomys-anselli
#19
Charlotte Katharina Maria Schielke, Hynek Burda, Yoshiyuki Henning, Jan Okrouhlík, Sabine Begall
BACKGROUND: Reproduction is an energetically expensive process that supposedly impairs somatic integrity in the long term, because resources are limited and have to be allocated between reproduction and somatic maintenance, as predicted by the life history trade-off model. The consequence of reduced investment in somatic maintenance is a gradual deterioration of function, i.e. senescence. However, this classical trade-off model gets challenged by an increasing number of contradicting studies...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943886/sleeping-site-ecology-but-not-sex-affect-ecto-and-hemoparasite-risk-in-sympatric-arboreal-primates-avahi-occidentalis-and-lepilemur-edwardsi
#20
May Hokan, Christina Strube, Ute Radespiel, Elke Zimmermann
BACKGROUND: A central question in evolutionary parasitology is to what extent ecology impacts patterns of parasitism in wild host populations. In this study, we aim to disentangle factors influencing the risk of parasite exposure by exploring the impact of sleeping site ecology on infection with ectoparasites and vector-borne hemoparasites in two sympatric primates endemic to Madagascar. Both species live in the same dry deciduous forest of northwestern Madagascar and cope with the same climatic constraints, they are arboreal, nocturnal, cat-sized and pair-living but differ prominently in sleeping site ecology...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
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