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Frontiers in Zoology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203263/perception-of-emotional-valence-in-horse-whinnies
#1
Elodie F Briefer, Roi Mandel, Anne-Laure Maigrot, Sabrina Briefer Freymond, Iris Bachmann, Edna Hillmann
BACKGROUND: Non-human animals often produce different types of vocalisations in negative and positive contexts (i.e. different valence), similar to humans, in which crying is associated with negative emotions and laughter is associated with positive ones. However, some types of vocalisations (e.g. contact calls, human speech) can be produced in both negative and positive contexts, and changes in valence are only accompanied by slight structural differences. Although such acoustically graded signals associated with opposite valence have been highlighted in some species, it is not known if conspecifics discriminate them, and if contagion of emotional valence occurs as a result...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194219/development-of-a-lecithotrophic-pilidium-larva-illustrates-convergent-evolution-of-trochophore-like-morphology
#2
Marie K Hunt, Svetlana A Maslakova
BACKGROUND: The pilidium larva is an idiosyncrasy defining one clade of marine invertebrates, the Pilidiophora (Nemertea, Spiralia). Uniquely, in pilidial development, the juvenile worm forms from a series of isolated rudiments called imaginal discs, then erupts through and devours the larval body during catastrophic metamorphosis. A typical pilidium is planktotrophic and looks like a hat with earflaps, but pilidial diversity is much broader and includes several types of non-feeding pilidia...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191025/from-egg-to-no-body-an-overview-and-revision-of-developmental-pathways-in-the-ancient-arthropod-lineage-pycnogonida
#3
REVIEW
Georg Brenneis, Ekaterina V Bogomolova, Claudia P Arango, Franz Krapp
BACKGROUND: Arthropod diversity is unparalleled in the animal kingdom. The study of ontogeny is pivotal to understand which developmental processes underlie the incredible morphological disparity of arthropods and thus to eventually unravel evolutionary transformations leading to their success. Work on laboratory model organisms has yielded in-depth data on numerous developmental mechanisms in arthropods. Yet, although the range of studied taxa has increased noticeably since the advent of comparative evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo), several smaller groups remain understudied...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149319/effects-of-the-social-environment-during-adolescence-on-the-development-of-social-behaviour-hormones-and-morphology-in-male-zebra-finches-taeniopygia-guttata
#4
Stefanie Bölting, Nikolaus von Engelhardt
BACKGROUND: Individual differences in behaviour are widespread in the animal kingdom and often influenced by the size or composition of the social group during early development. In many vertebrates the effects of social interactions early in life on adult behaviour are mediated by changes in maturation and physiology. Specifically, increases in androgens and glucocorticoids in response to social stimulation seem to play a prominent role in shaping behaviour during development. In addition to the prenatal and early postnatal phase, adolescence has more recently been identified as an important period during which adult behaviour and physiology are shaped by the social environment, which so far has been studied mostly in mammals...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115976/photosynthate-accumulation-in-solar-powered-sea-slugs-starving-slugs-survive-due-to-accumulated-starch-reserves
#5
Elise M J Laetz, Victoria C Moris, Leif Moritz, André N Haubrich, Heike Wägele
BACKGROUND: Solar-powered sea slugs are famed for their ability to survive starvation due to incorporated algal chloroplasts. It is well established that algal-derived carbon can be traced in numerous slug-derived compounds, showing that slugs utilize the photosynthates produced by incorporated plastids. Recently, a new hypothesis suggests that the photosynthates produced are not continuously made available to the slug. Instead, at least some of the plastid's photosynthetic products are stored in the plastid itself and only later become available to the slug...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115975/the-importance-of-the-altricial-precocial-spectrum-for-social-complexity-in-mammals-and-birds-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Isabella B R Scheiber, Brigitte M Weiß, Sjouke A Kingma, Jan Komdeur
Various types of long-term stable relationships that individuals uphold, including cooperation and competition between group members, define social complexity in vertebrates. Numerous life history, physiological and cognitive traits have been shown to affect, or to be affected by, such social relationships. As such, differences in developmental modes, i.e. the 'altricial-precocial' spectrum, may play an important role in understanding the interspecific variation in occurrence of social interactions, but to what extent this is the case is unclear because the role of the developmental mode has not been studied directly in across-species studies of sociality...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101122/start-early-does-social-instability-during-the-pre-and-early-postnatal-development-prepare-male-wild-cavies-for-social-challenge-later-in-life
#7
Katja Siegeler, Lars Lewejohann, Klaus Failing, Norbert Sachser, Sylvia Kaiser
BACKGROUND: The social environment the mother experiences during pregnancy and lactation can powerfully influence the offspring's behavioural profile. Our previous studies in wild cavies show that two different social environments during pregnancy and lactation bring about different behavioural strategies of male offspring later in life: An unstable social environment leads to a behavioural camouflage strategy, hypothesised to be beneficial at times of socially challenging situations...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101121/embryology-of-the-vno-and-associated-structures-in-the-grass-snake-natrix-natrix-squamata-naticinae-a-3d-perspective
#8
Paweł Kaczmarek, Mateusz Hermyt, Weronika Rupik
BACKGROUND: Snakes are considered to be vomerolfaction specialists. They are members of one of the most diverse groups of vertebrates, Squamata. The vomeronasal organ and the associated structures (such as the lacrimal duct, choanal groove, lamina transversalis anterior and cupola Jacobsoni) of adult lizards and snakes have received much anatomical, histological, physiological and behavioural attention. However, only limited embryological investigation into these structures, constrained to some anatomical or cellular studies and brief surveys, has been carried out thus far...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018475/concordant-morphological-and-molecular-clines-in-a-contact-zone-of-the-common-and-spined-toad-bufo-bufo-and-b-spinosus-in-the-northwest-of-france
#9
Jan W Arntzen, Tania Trujillo, Roland Butôt, Klaas Vrieling, Onno Schaap, Jorge Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, Iñigo Martínez-Solano
BACKGROUND: Hybrid zones are regions where individuals of two species meet and produce hybrid progeny, and are often regarded as natural laboratories to understand the process of species formation. Two microevolutionary processes can take place in hybrid zones, with opposing effects on population differentiation. Hybridization tends to produce genetic homogenization, reducing species differences, whereas the presence of mechanisms of reproductive isolation result in barriers to gene flow, maintaining or increasing differences between taxa...
2016: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904644/ambient-temperature-affects-postnatal-litter-size-reduction-in-golden-hamsters
#10
Sarah A Ohrnberger, Raquel Monclús, Heiko G Rödel, Teresa G Valencak
BACKGROUND: To better understand how different ambient temperatures during lactation affect survival of young, we studied patterns of losses of pups in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) at different ambient temperatures in the laboratory, mimicking temperature conditions in natural habitats. Golden hamsters produce large litters of more than 10 young but are also known to wean fewer pups at the end of lactation than they give birth to. We wanted to know whether temperature affects litter size reductions and whether the underlying causes of pup loss were related to maternal food (gross energy) intake and reproductive performance, such as litter growth...
2016: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891163/the-visual-system-of-harvestmen-opiliones-arachnida-chelicerata-a-re-examination
#11
Tobias Lehmann, Eva Lodde-Bensch, Roland R Melzer, Martina Metz
BACKGROUND: The visual systems in chelicerates are poorly understood, even though they show strong variation in eye and visual neuropil architecture, thus may provide valuable insights for the understanding of chelicerate phylogeny and eye evolution. Comparable morphological characters are desperately sought for reconstructions of the phylogeny of Chelicerata, especially with respect to Arachnida. So far, reliable data exist only for Pycnogonida, Xiphosura, Scorpiones, and Araneae. The few earlier studies of the organisation of the visual system in harvestmen are contradictory concerning the number, morphology, and position of the visual neuropils...
2016: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833644/comparison-of-neuromuscular-development-in-two-dinophilid-species-annelida-suggests-progenetic-origin-of-dinophilus-gyrociliatus
#12
Alexandra Kerbl, Elizaveta G Fofanova, Tatiana D Mayorova, Elena E Voronezhskaya, Katrine Worsaae
BACKGROUND: Several independent meiofaunal lineages are suggested to have originated through progenesis, however, morphological support for this heterochronous process is still lacking. Progenesis is defined as an arrest of somatic development (synchronously in various organ systems) due to early maturation, resulting in adults resembling larvae or juveniles of the ancestors. Accordingly, we established a detailed neuromuscular developmental atlas of two closely related Dinophilidae using immunohistochemistry and CLSM...
2016: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777601/energy-state-affects-exploratory-behavior-of-tree-sparrows-in-a-group-context-under-differential-food-patch-distributions
#13
Ya-Fu Lee, Yen-Min Kuo, Wen-Chen Chu
BACKGROUND: When facing a novel situation, animals can retreat or leave to avoid risks, but will miss potential resources and opportunities. Alternatively they may reduce environmental uncertainty by exploration, while risking no energy rewards and exposure to hazards, and use the information retrieved for subsequent decision making. When exploring, however, animals may adopt different tactics according to individual states. RESULTS: We tested that energy states will affect exploratory behavior by experimenting with wild-caught untrained Eurasian tree sparrows (Passer montanus) in fasted or fed states exploring in a novel space with hidden food supply in different patch distribution patterns...
2016: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766111/plumage-quality-mediates-a-life-history-trade-off-in-a-migratory-bird
#14
Patrycja Podlaszczuk, Maciej Kamiński, Radosław Włodarczyk, Krzysztof Kaczmarek, Tomasz Janiszewski, Piotr Minias
BACKGROUND: Moult is one of the most costly activities in the annual cycle of birds and most avian species separate moult from other energy-demanding activities, such as migration. To this end, young birds tend to undergo the first post-juvenile moult before the onset of migration, but in some species the time window for the pre-migratory feather replacement is too narrow. We hypothesized that in such species an increased investment in the structural quality of juvenile feathers may allow to retain juvenile plumage throughout the entire migratory period and delay moult until arriving at wintering grounds, thus avoiding a moult-migration overlap...
2016: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766110/odonata-dragonflies-and-damselflies-as-a-bridge-between-ecology-and-evolutionary-genomics
#15
Seth Bybee, Alex Córdoba-Aguilar, M Catherine Duryea, Ryo Futahashi, Bengt Hansson, M Olalla Lorenzo-Carballa, Ruud Schilder, Robby Stoks, Anton Suvorov, Erik I Svensson, Janne Swaegers, Yuma Takahashi, Phillip C Watts, Maren Wellenreuther
Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) present an unparalleled insect model to integrate evolutionary genomics with ecology for the study of insect evolution. Key features of Odonata include their ancient phylogenetic position, extensive phenotypic and ecological diversity, several unique evolutionary innovations, ease of study in the wild and usefulness as bioindicators for freshwater ecosystems worldwide. In this review, we synthesize studies on the evolution, ecology and physiology of odonates, highlighting those areas where the integration of ecology with genomics would yield significant insights into the evolutionary processes that would not be gained easily by working on other animal groups...
2016: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708681/comparative-localization-of-serotonin-like-immunoreactive-cells-in-thaliacea-informs-tunicate-phylogeny
#16
Alberto Valero-Gracia, Rita Marino, Fabio Crocetta, Valeria Nittoli, Stefano Tiozzo, Paolo Sordino
BACKGROUND: Thaliaceans is one of the understudied classes of the phylum Tunicata. In particular, their phylogenetic relationships remain an issue of debate. The overall pattern of serotonin (5-HT) distribution is an excellent biochemical trait to interpret internal relationships at order level. In the experiments reported here we compared serotonin-like immunoreactivity at different life cycle stages of two salpid, one doliolid, and one pyrosomatid species. This multi-species comparison provides new neuroanatomical data for better resolving the phylogeny of the class Thaliacea...
2016: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708680/the-cephalopod-arm-crown-appendage-formation-and-differentiation-in-the-hawaiian-bobtail-squid-euprymna-scolopes
#17
Marie-Therese Nödl, Alexandra Kerbl, Manfred G Walzl, Gerd B Müller, Heinz Gert de Couet
BACKGROUND: Cephalopods are a highly derived class of molluscs that adapted their body plan to a more active and predatory lifestyle. One intriguing adaptation is the modification of the ventral foot to form a bilaterally symmetric arm crown, which constitutes a true morphological novelty in evolution. In addition, this structure shows many diversifications within the class of cephalopods and therefore offers an interesting opportunity to study the molecular underpinnings of the emergence of phenotypic novelties and their diversification...
2016: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708679/development-of-foraging-skills-in-two-orangutan-populations-needing-to-learn-or-needing-to-grow
#18
Caroline Schuppli, Sofia I F Forss, Ellen J M Meulman, Nicole Zweifel, Kevin C Lee, Evasari Rukmana, Erin R Vogel, Maria A van Noordwijk, Carel P van Schaik
BACKGROUND: Orangutans have one of the slowest-paced life histories of all mammals. Whereas life-history theory suggests that the time to reach adulthood is constrained by the time needed to reach adult body size, the needing-to-learn hypothesis instead suggests that it is limited by the time needed to acquire adult-level skills. To test between these two hypotheses, we compared the development of foraging skills and growth trajectories of immature wild orangutans in two populations: at Tuanan (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii), Borneo, and Suaq Balimbing (Pongo abelii), Sumatra...
2016: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660641/the-bear-circadian-clock-doesn-t-sleep-during-winter-dormancy
#19
Heiko T Jansen, Tanya Leise, Gordon Stenhouse, Karine Pigeon, Wayne Kasworm, Justin Teisberg, Thomas Radandt, Robert Dallmann, Steven Brown, Charles T Robbins
BACKGROUND: Most biological functions are synchronized to the environmental light:dark cycle via a circadian timekeeping system. Bears exhibit shallow torpor combined with metabolic suppression during winter dormancy. We sought to confirm that free-running circadian rhythms of body temperature (Tb) and activity were expressed in torpid grizzly (brown) bears and that they were functionally responsive to environmental light. We also measured activity and ambient light exposures in denning wild bears to determine if rhythms were evident and what the photic conditions of their natural dens were...
2016: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605999/crown-of-thorns-starfish-have-true-image-forming-vision
#20
Ronald Petie, Anders Garm, Michael R Hall
BACKGROUND: Photoreceptors have evolved numerous times giving organisms the ability to detect light and respond to specific visual stimuli. Studies into the visual abilities of the Asteroidea (Echinodermata) have recently shown that species within this class have a more developed visual sense than previously thought and it has been demonstrated that starfish use visual information for orientation within their habitat. Whereas image forming eyes have been suggested for starfish, direct experimental proof of true spatial vision has not yet been obtained...
2016: Frontiers in Zoology
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