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Frontiers in Zoology

Jan Buellesbach, Sebastian G Vetter, Thomas Schmitt
Background: Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC) have been documented to play crucial roles as species- and sex-specific cues in the chemical communication systems of a wide variety of insects. However, whether they are sufficient by themselves as the sole cue triggering sexual behavior as well as preference of con- over heterospecific mating partners is rarely assessed. We conducted behavioral assays in three representative species of parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to determine their reliance on CHC as species-specific sexual signaling cues...
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
Elise Marie Jerschabek Laetz, Heike Wägele
Background: Despite widespread interest in solar-powered sea slugs (Sacoglossa: Gastropoda), relatively little is know about how they actually perform functional kleptoplasty. Sister-taxa Elysia timida and E. cornigera provide an ideal model system for investigating this phenomenon, since they feed on the same algal genus and only E. timida is capable of long-term kleptoplasty. Recent research has explored factors regarding functional kleptoplasty in E. timida , including their starvation longevity, digestive activity, autophagal response and photosynthetic efficiency under two different temperature conditions (18 °C and 21 °C)...
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
Dominik Kusy, Michal Motyka, Carmelo Andujar, Matej Bocek, Michal Masek, Katerina Sklenarova, Filip Kokas, Milada Bocakova, Alfried P Vogler, Ladislav Bocak
Background: Rhinorhipidae Lawrence, 1988 is an enigmatic beetle family represented by a single species, Rhinorhipus tamborinensis Lawrence, 1988, from Australia, with poorly established affinities near the superfamily Elateroidea (click beetles, soldier beetles and fireflies) or the more inclusive series (infraorder) Elateriformia. Its evolutionary position may inform the basal relationships of the suborder Polyphaga, the largest clade of Coleoptera. Results: We analyzed four densely sampled DNA datasets of major coleopteran lineages for mitogenomes, rRNA genes and single copy nuclear genes...
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
M Benjamin Barth, Katja Buchwalder, Akito Y Kawahara, Xin Zhou, Shanlin Liu, Nicolas Krezdorn, Björn Rotter, Ralf Horres, Anna K Hundsdoerfer
Background: The European spurge hawkmoth, Hyles euphorbiae (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae), has been intensively studied as a model organism for insect chemical ecology, cold hardiness and evolution of species delineation. To understand species isolation mechanisms at a molecular level, this study aims at determining genetic factors underlying two adaptive ecological trait candidates, phorbol ester (TPA) detoxification and seasonal cold acclimation. Method: A draft transcriptome of H...
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
Beniamino Tuliozi, Gerardo Fracasso, Herbert Hoi, Matteo Griggio
Background: Exploratory behaviour is one of the best-investigated behavioural traits. However, little is known about how differences in familiarity, i.e. in the knowledge and previous experience with a companion can influence the exploration of a novel environment. However, to our knowledge, such a critical feature of the social environment has never been the target of a study relating it to exploratory behaviour in birds. Here we examined if familiarity with a conspecific could affect behavioural responses of individuals confronted with a novel environment...
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
Miriam Linnenbrink, Meike Teschke, Inka Montero, Marie Vallier, Diethard Tautz
Background: The MHC class I and II loci mediate the adaptive immune response and belong to the most polymorphic loci in vertebrate genomes. In fact, the number of different alleles in a given species is often so large that it remains a challenge to provide an evolutionary model that can fully account for this. Results: We provide here a general survey of MHC allele numbers in house mouse populations and two sub-species ( M. m. domesticus and M. m. musculus ) for H2 class I D and K, as well as class II A and E loci...
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
Klaus Fischer, Isabell Karl, Ian A N Dublon, Tobias Kehl
We summarise our work on male mating behaviour in the tropical butterfly Bicyclus anynana , responding to the commentary provided by Nieberding and Holveck. We acknowledge that our laboratory studies are not free of shortcomings and potential caveats, though we attempted to address or highlight these within each paper. The concerns raised seem to stem mainly from different notions with respect to the proximate basis of old male mating advantage, and specifically the relative importance of male behaviour versus pheromone blend...
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
Caroline Marie Nieberding, Marie-Jeanne Holveck
Over the last years, several studies suggested that male courtship activity is more important than female preference for male secondary sexual traits in determining male mating success in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana. We use Kehl et al. (Front Zool 12, 2015)'s study and related publications, to highlight three methodological and conceptual aspects of laboratory experiments that distort the social environment compared to natural conditions. We argue that such experimental biases prevent the expression of female mate choice and artificially inflate the role of male activity in determining mating success...
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
Laura Heck, Laura A B Wilson, Allowen Evin, Madlen Stange, Marcelo R Sánchez-Villagra
Background: In horses, the morphological changes induced by the process of domestication are reportedly less pronounced than in other species, such as dogs or pigs - although the horses' disparity has rarely been empirically tested. We investigated shape differences and modularity of domesticated horses, Przewalski's horses, donkeys and zebras. Mandibular and tooth shape have been shown to be valuable features for differentiating wild and domesticated forms in some mammals. Results: Both mandible and teeth, show a pattern of shape space occupation analogous to that of the cranium, with domesticated horses occupying a similar extension in shape space to that of wild equids...
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
Susanne Sangenstedt, Carsten Szardenings, Norbert Sachser, Sylvia Kaiser
Background: The social environment that mothers experience during pregnancy and lactation has a strong effect on the developing offspring. Whether offspring can be adaptively shaped to match an environment that is similar to the maternal one is still a major question in research. Our previous work in wild cavies showed that females whose mothers lived in a stable social environment with few social challenges during pregnancy and lactation (SE-daughters) developed different behavioral phenotypes than females whose mothers lived in an unstable social environment with frequent social challenges during pregnancy and lactation (UE-daughters)...
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
Przemysław Gorzelak, Aurélie Dery, Philippe Dubois, Jarosław Stolarski
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/s12983-017-0227-8.].
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
Morgane Papin, Julian Pichenot, François Guérold, Estelle Germain
Background: The grey wolf ( Canis lupus ) is naturally recolonizing its former habitats in Europe where it was extirpated during the previous two centuries. The management of this protected species is often controversial and its monitoring is a challenge for conservation purposes. However, this elusive carnivore can disperse over long distances in various natural contexts, making its monitoring difficult. Moreover, methods used for collecting signs of presence are usually time-consuming and/or costly...
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
Olga V Yurchenko, Olga I Skiteva, Elena E Voronezhskaya, Vyacheslav A Dyachuk
Background: Bivalves comprise a large, highly diverse taxon of invertebrate species. Developmental studies of neurogenesis among species of Bivalvia are limited. Due to a lack of neurogenesis information, it is difficult to infer a ground pattern for Bivalvia. To provide more comprehensive morphogenetic data on bivalve molluscs and relationships among molluscan clades, we investigated neurogenesis in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas , from the appearance of the first sensory cells to the formation of the larval ganglionic nervous system by co-immunocytochemistry of the neuronal markers FMRFamide or 5-HT and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT)...
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
Dariusz Jakubas, Lech M Iliszko, Hallvard Strøm, Halfdan H Helgason, Lech Stempniewicz
Background: Foraging strategies of seabird species often vary considerably between and within individuals. This variability is influenced by a multitude of factors including age, sex, stage of annual life cycle, reproductive status, individual specialization and environmental conditions. Results: Using GPS-loggers, we investigated factors affecting foraging flight characteristics (total duration, maximal range, total distance covered) of great skuas Stercorarius skua of known sex breeding on Bjørnøya, Svalbard, the largest colony in the Barents Sea region...
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
Christoph von Beeren, Adrian Brückner, Munetoshi Maruyama, Griffin Burke, Jana Wieschollek, Daniel J C Kronauer
Host-symbiont interactions are embedded in ecological communities and range from unspecific to highly specific relationships. Army ants and their arthropod guests represent a fascinating example of species-rich host-symbiont associations where host specificity ranges across the entire generalist - specialist continuum. In the present study, we compared the behavioral and chemical integration mechanisms of two extremes of the generalist - specialist continuum: generalist ant-predators in the genus Tetradonia (Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae: Athetini), and specialist ant-mimics in the genera Ecitomorpha and Ecitophya (Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae: Ecitocharini)...
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
Lars Dietz, Jana S Dömel, Florian Leese, Tobias Lehmann, Roland R Melzer
Sea spiders (Pycnogonida) are a widespread and phylogenetically important group of marine arthropods. However, their biology remains understudied, and detailed information about their feeding ecology is difficult to find. Observations on pycnogonid feeding are scattered in the literature, often in older sources written in various languages, and have never been comprehensively summarized. Here we provide an overview of all information on feeding in pycnogonids that we have been able to find and review what is known on feeding specializations and preferences in the various pycnogonid taxa...
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
Markus Boeckle, Georgine Szipl, Thomas Bugnyar
Background: Acoustic parameters of animal signals have been shown to correlate with various phenotypic characteristics of the sender. These acoustic characteristics can be learned and categorized and thus are a basis for perceivers' recognition abilities. One of the most demanding capacities is individual recognition, achievable only after repeated interactions with the same individual. Still, class-level recognition might be potentially important to perceivers who have not previously encountered callers but can classify unknown individuals according to the already learned categories...
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
Xiao Guo, Huifen Guo, Lei Zhao, Yao-Hua Zhang, Jian-Xu Zhang
Background: In rats, urine-borne male pheromones comprise organic volatile compounds and major urinary proteins (MUPs). A number of volatile pheromones have been reported, but no MUP pheromones have been identified in rat urine. Results: We used sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), isoelectric focusing electrophoresis (IEF), nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-MS/MS) after in gel digestion of the proteins and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT - PCR) and showed that the levels of two MUPs, odorant - binding protein 3 (OBP3) (i...
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
Nicola Harrison, Anna K Lindholm, Akos Dobay, Olivia Halloran, Andri Manser, Barbara König
Abstract: <AbstractText Label="Background" NlmCategory="UNASSIGNED">Communal nursing in house mice is an example of cooperation where females pool litters in the same nest and indiscriminately nurse own and other offspring despite potential exploitation. The direct fitness benefits associated with communal nursing shown in laboratory studies suggest it to be a selected component of female house mice reproductive behaviour. However, past studies on communal nursing in free-living populations have debated whether it is a consequence of sharing the same nest or an active choice...
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
Sandra A Heldstab, Carel P van Schaik, Karin Isler
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/s12983-017-0214-0.].
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
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