journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Frontiers in Zoology

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883887/indices-of-immune-function-used-by-ecologists-are-mostly-unaffected-by-repeated-freeze-thaw-cycles-and-methodological-deviations
#1
Arne Hegemann, Sara Pardal, Kevin D Matson
BACKGROUND: Over the past couple of decades, measuring immunological parameters has become widespread in studies of ecology and evolution. A combination of different immunological indices is useful for quantifying different parts of the immune system and comprehensively assessing immune function. Running multiple immune assays usually requires samples to be repeatedly thawed and re-frozen. There is some evidence that repeated freezing and thawing can affect assay results, but this has never been comprehensively studied in some common ecological immunology assays...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855950/sea-urchin-growth-dynamics-at-microstructural-length-scale-revealed-by-mn-labeling-and-cathodoluminescence-imaging
#2
Przemysław Gorzelak, Aurélie Dery, Philippe Dubois, Jarosław Stolarski
BACKGROUND: Fluorochrome staining is among the most widely used techniques to study growth dynamics of echinoderms. However, it fails to detect fine-scale increments because produced marks are commonly diffusely distributed within the skeleton. In this paper we investigated the potential of trace element (manganese) labeling and subsequent cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging in fine-scale growth studies of echinoderms. RESULTS: Three species of sea urchins (Paracentrotus lividus, Echinometra sp...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28785294/comparative-genomics-analyses-of-alpha-keratins-reveal-insights-into-evolutionary-adaptation-of-marine-mammals
#3
Xiaohui Sun, Zepeng Zhang, Yingying Sun, Jing Li, Shixia Xu, Guang Yang
BACKGROUND: Diversity of hair in marine mammals was suggested as an evolutionary innovation to adapt aquatic environment, yet its genetic basis remained poorly explored. We scanned α-keratin genes, one major structural components of hair, in 16 genomes of mammalian species, including seven cetaceans, two pinnipeds, polar bear, manatee and five terrestrial species. RESULTS: Extensive gene loss and high pseudogenization rate of α-keratin genes were identified in cetaceans when compared to terrestrial artiodactylans (average number of α-keratins 37...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769991/modelling-the-range-expansion-of-the-tiger-mosquito-in-a-mediterranean-island-accounting-for-imperfect-detection
#4
Giacomo Tavecchia, Miguel-Angel Miranda, David Borrás, Mikel Bengoa, Carlos Barceló, Claudia Paredes-Esquivel, Carl Schwarz
BACKGROUNDS: Aedes albopictus (Diptera; Culicidae) is a highly invasive mosquito species and a competent vector of several arboviral diseases that have spread rapidly throughout the world. Prevalence and patterns of dispersal of the mosquito are of central importance for an effective control of the species. We used site-occupancy models accounting for false negative detections to estimate the prevalence, the turnover, the movement pattern and the growth rate in the number of sites occupied by the mosquito in 17 localities throughout Mallorca Island...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747988/no-speed-dating-please-patterns-of-social-preference-in-male-and-female-house-mice
#5
Miriam Linnenbrink, Sophie von Merten
BACKGROUND: In many animal species, interactions between individuals of different sex often occur in the context of courtship and mating. During these interactions, a specific mating partner can be chosen. By discriminating potential mates according to specific characteristics, individuals can increase their evolutionary fitness in terms of reproduction and offspring survival. In this study, we monitored the partner preference behaviour of female and male wild house mice (Mus musculus domesticus) from populations in Germany (G) and France (F) in a controlled cage setup for 5 days and six nights...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747987/experimental-determination-of-three-dimensional-cervical-joint-mobility-in-the-avian-neck
#6
Robert E Kambic, Andrew A Biewener, Stephanie E Pierce
BACKGROUND: Birds have highly mobile necks, but neither the details of how they realize complex poses nor the evolution of this complex musculoskeletal system is well-understood. Most previous work on avian neck function has focused on dorsoventral flexion, with few studies quantifying lateroflexion or axial rotation. Such data are critical for understanding joint function, as musculoskeletal movements incorporate motion around multiple degrees of freedom simultaneously. Here we use biplanar X-rays on wild turkeys to quantify three-dimensional cervical joint range of motion in an avian neck to determine patterns of mobility along the cranial-caudal axis...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717381/patterns-and-dynamics-of-neutral-lipid-fatty-acids-in-ants-implications-for-ecological-studies
#7
Félix B Rosumek, Adrian Brückner, Nico Blüthgen, Florian Menzel, Michael Heethoff
BACKGROUND: Trophic interactions are a fundamental aspect of ecosystem functioning, but often difficult to observe directly. Several indirect techniques, such as fatty acid analysis, were developed to assess these interactions. Fatty acid profiles may indicate dietary differences, while individual fatty acids can be used as biomarkers. Ants are among the most important terrestrial animal groups, but little is known about their lipid metabolism, and no study so far used fatty acids to study their trophic ecology...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702067/quantifying-phenotype-environment-matching-in-the-protected-kerry-spotted-slug-mollusca-gastropoda-using-digital-photography-exposure-to-uv-radiation-determines-cryptic-colour-morphs
#8
Aidan O'Hanlon, Kristina Feeney, Peter Dockery, Michael J Gormally
BACKGROUND: Animal colours and patterns commonly play a role in reducing detection by predators, social signalling or increasing survival in response to some other environmental pressure. Different colour morphs can evolve within populations exposed to different levels of predation or environmental stress and in some cases can arise within the lifetime of an individual as the result of phenotypic plasticity. Skin pigmentation is variable for many terrestrial slugs (Mollusca: Gastropoda), both between and within species...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694839/gene-expression-profiling-of-whole-blood-cells-supports-a-more-efficient-mitochondrial-respiration-in-hypoxia-challenged-gilthead-sea-bream-sparus-aurata
#9
Juan Antonio Martos-Sitcha, Azucena Bermejo-Nogales, Josep Alvar Calduch-Giner, Jaume Pérez-Sánchez
BACKGROUND: Acclimation to abiotic challenges, including decreases in O2 availability, requires physiological and anatomical phenotyping to accommodate the organism to the environmental conditions. The retention of a nucleus and functional mitochondria in mature fish red blood cells makes blood a promising tissue to analyse the transcriptome and metabolic responses of hypoxia-challenged fish in an integrative and non-invasive manner. METHODS: Juvenile gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) were reared at 20-21 °C under normoxic conditions (> 85% O2 saturation) followed by exposure to a gradual decrease in water O2 concentration to 3...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694838/how-animals-distribute-themselves-in-space-variable-energy-landscapes
#10
Juan F Masello, Akiko Kato, Julia Sommerfeld, Thomas Mattern, Petra Quillfeldt
BACKGROUND: Foraging efficiency determines whether animals will be able to raise healthy broods, maintain their own condition, avoid predators and ultimately increase their fitness. Using accelerometers and GPS loggers, features of the habitat and the way animals deal with variable conditions can be translated into energetic costs of movement, which, in turn, can be translated to energy landscapes.We investigated energy landscapes in Gentoo Penguins Pygoscelis papua from two colonies at New Island, Falkland/Malvinas Islands...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680452/vertical-leaping-mechanics-of-the-lesser-egyptian-jerboa-reveal-specialization-for-maneuverability-rather-than-elastic-energy-storage
#11
Talia Y Moore, Alberto M Rivera, Andrew A Biewener
BACKGROUND: Numerous historical descriptions of the Lesser Egyptian jerboa, Jaculus jaculus, a small bipedal mammal with elongate hindlimbs, make special note of their extraordinary leaping ability. We observed jerboa locomotion in a laboratory setting and performed inverse dynamics analysis to understand how this small rodent generates such impressive leaps. We combined kinematic data from video, kinetic data from a force platform, and morphometric data from dissections to calculate the relative contributions of each hindlimb muscle and tendon to the total movement...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649268/muscle-development-in-the-shark-scyliorhinus-canicula-implications-for-the-evolution-of-the-gnathostome-head-and-paired-appendage-musculature
#12
Janine M Ziermann, Renata Freitas, Rui Diogo
BACKGROUND: The origin of jawed vertebrates was marked by profound reconfigurations of the skeleton and muscles of the head and by the acquisition of two sets of paired appendages. Extant cartilaginous fish retained numerous plesiomorphic characters of jawed vertebrates, which include several aspects of their musculature. Therefore, myogenic studies on sharks are essential in yielding clues on the developmental processes involved in the origin of the muscular anatomy. RESULTS: Here we provide a detailed description of the development of specific muscular units integrating the cephalic and appendicular musculature of the shark model, Scyliorhinus canicula...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649267/evidence-for-a-postreproductive-phase-in-female-false-killer-whales-pseudorca-crassidens
#13
Theoni Photopoulou, Ines M Ferreira, Peter B Best, Toshio Kasuya, Helene Marsh
BACKGROUND: A substantial period of life after reproduction ends, known as postreproductive lifespan (PRLS), is at odds with classical life history theory and its causes and mechanisms have puzzled evolutionary biologists for decades. Prolonged PRLS has been confirmed in only two non-human mammals, both odontocete cetaceans in the family Delphinidae. We investigate the evidence for PRLS in a third species, the false killer whale, Pseudorca crassidens, using a quantitative measure of PRLS and morphological evidence from reproductive tissues...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616058/getting-fat-or-getting-help-how-female-mammals-cope-with-energetic-constraints-on-reproduction
#14
Sandra A Heldstab, Carel P van Schaik, Karin Isler
BACKGROUND: Fat deposits enable a female mammal to bear the energy costs of offspring production and thus greatly influence her reproductive success. However, increasing locomotor costs and reduced agility counterbalance the fitness benefits of storing body fat. In species where costs of reproduction are distributed over other individuals such as fathers or non-breeding group members, reproductive females might therefore benefit from storing less energy in the form of body fat. RESULTS: Using a phylogenetic comparative approach on a sample of 87 mammalian species, and controlling for possible confounding variables, we found that reproductive females of species with allomaternal care exhibit reduced annual variation in body mass (estimated as CV body mass), which is a good proxy for the tendency to store body fat...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559918/geographical-and-temporal-variation-in-environmental-conditions-affects-nestling-growth-but-not-immune-function-in-a-year-round-breeding-equatorial-lark
#15
Henry K Ndithia, Samuel N Bakari, Kevin D Matson, Muchane Muchai, B Irene Tieleman
BACKGROUND: Variation in growth and immune function within and among populations is often associated with specific environmental conditions. We compared growth and immune function in nestlings of year-round breeding equatorial Red-capped Lark Calandrella cinerea from South Kinangop, North Kinangop and Kedong (Kenya), three locations that are geographically close but climatically distinct. In addition, we studied growth and immune function of lark nestlings as a function of year-round variation in breeding intensity and rain within one location...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559917/development-of-the-nervous-system-in-platynereis-dumerilii-nereididae-annelida
#16
Viktor V Starunov, Elena E Voronezhskaya, Leonid P Nezlin
BACKGROUND: The structure and development of the nervous system in Lophotrochozoa has long been recognized as one of the most important subjects for phylogenetic and evolutionary discussion. Many recent papers have presented comprehensive data on the structure and development of catecholaminergic, serotonergic and FMRFamidergic parts of the nervous system. However, relatively few papers contain detailed descriptions of the nervous system in Annelida, one of the largest taxa of Lophotrochozoa...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533810/tc003132-is-essential-for-the-follicle-stem-cell-lineage-in-telotrophic-tribolium-oogenesis
#17
Matthias Teuscher, Nadi Ströhlein, Markus Birkenbach, Dorothea Schultheis, Michael Schoppmeier
BACKGROUND: Stem cells are undifferentiated cells with a potential for self-renewal, which are essential to support normal development and homeostasis. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying adult stem cell biology and organ evolution, we use the telotrophic ovary of the beetle Tribolium. To this end, we participated in a large-scale RNAi screen in the red flour beetle Tribolium, which identified functions in embryonic and postembryonic development for more than half of the Tribolium genes...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503187/worker-reproduction-of-the-invasive-yellow-crazy-ant-anoplolepis-gracilipes
#18
Ching-Chen Lee, Hirotaka Nakao, Shu-Ping Tseng, Hung-Wei Hsu, Gwo-Li Lin, Jia-Wei Tay, Johan Billen, Fuminori Ito, Chow-Yang Lee, Chung-Chi Lin, Chin-Cheng Scotty Yang
BACKGROUND: Reproductive division of labor is one of the key features of social insects. Queens are adapted for reproduction while workers are adapted for foraging and colony maintenance. In many species, however, workers retain functional ovaries and can lay unfertilized male eggs or trophic eggs. Here we report for the first time on the occurrence of physogastric workers and apparent worker reproduction in the invasive yellow crazy ant Anoplolepis gracilipes (Fr. Smith). We further examined the reproductive potential and nutritional role of physogastric workers through multidisciplinary approaches including morphological characterization, laboratory manipulation, genetic analysis and behavioral observation...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491118/the-head-morphology-of-pyrrhosoma-nymphula-larvae-odonata-zygoptera-focusing-on-functional-aspects-of-the-mouthparts
#19
Sebastian Büsse, Thomas Hörnschemeyer, Stanislav N Gorb
BACKGROUND: The understanding of concerted movements and its underlying biomechanics is often complex and elusive. Functional principles and hypothetical functions of these complex movements can provide a solid basis for biomechanical experiments and modelling. Here a description of the cephalic anatomy of Pyrrhosoma nymphula (Zygoptera, Coenagrionidae) focusing on functional aspects of the mouthparts using micro computed tomography (μCT) is presented. RESULTS: We compared six different instars of the damselfly P...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428805/edible-dormice-glis-glis-avoid-areas-with-a-high-density-of-their-preferred-food-plant-the-european-beech
#20
Jessica S Cornils, Franz Hoelzl, Birgit Rotter, Claudia Bieber, Thomas Ruf
BACKGROUND: Numerous species, especially among rodents, are strongly affected by the availability of pulsed resources. The intermittent production of large seed crops in northern hemisphere tree species (e.g., beech Fagus spec.,oak Quercus spec., pine trees Pinus spec.) are prime examples of these resource pulses. Adult edible dormice are highly dependent on high energy seeds to maximize their reproductive output. For juvenile dormice the energy rich food is important to grow and fatten in a very short time period prior to hibernation...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
journal
journal
40831
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"