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Virology Journal

Angelos Hatzakis, Helen Papachristou, Sangeetha J Nair, Jacqueline Fortunko, Tracy Foote, HeeCheol Kim, Tashi L Peling, Andrew J Worlock
BACKGROUND: Quantitation of HIV-RNA is critically important for diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, monitoring and assessment of infectivity in HIV-1 infection. The objective of this study was to assess performance characteristics of the Aptima HIV-1 Quant Dx assay (Aptima), a new transcription mediated amplification (TMA), fully integrated and automated assay from Hologic Inc., San Diego, CA, USA. The analytical sensitivity, analytical specificity, precision and detection of HIV-1 subtypes were tested based on commercially available international standards or panels...
October 21, 2016: Virology Journal
Tshifhiwa Magoro, George Gachara, Lufuno Mavhandu, Emmaculate Lum, Helen K Kimbi, Roland N Ndip, Pascal Bessong
BACKGROUND: HBV and HIV share similar transmission routes. Concurrent infection with the two viruses usually results in more severe and progressive liver disease, and a higher incidence of cirrhosis, liver cancer and mortality. Further, this co-infection may lead to cross-resistance between HIV and HBV drugs and increased liver injury, either due to direct hepatotoxicity or drug-related immune-reconstitution hepatitis. These challenges necessitate continuous surveillance for HBV among HIV infected individuals to guide patient management...
October 21, 2016: Virology Journal
Zhujun Ao, Rong Zhu, Xiaoli Tan, Lisa Liu, Liyu Chen, Shuiping Liu, XiaoJian Yao
BACKGROUND: HIV-1 latency is a major obstacle for HIV-1 eradication. Extensive efforts are being directed toward the reactivation of latent HIV reservoirs with the aim of eliminating latently infected cells via the host immune system and/or virus-mediated cell lysis. RESULTS: We screened over 1,500 small molecules and kinase inhibitors and found that a small molecule, PKC412 (midostaurin, a broad-spectrum kinase inhibitor), can stimulate viral transcription and expression from the HIV-1 latently infected ACH2 cell line and primary resting CD4+ T cells...
October 21, 2016: Virology Journal
Melanie Ott, Débora Marques, Christina Funk, Susanne M Bailer
BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1), a member of the alphaherpesvirinae, can cause recurrent facial lesions and encephalitis. Two membrane envelopment processes, one at the inner nuclear membrane and a second at cytoplasmic membranes are crucial for a productive viral infection. Depending on the subfamily, herpesviruses encode more than 11 different transmembrane proteins including members of the tail-anchored protein family. HSV1 encodes three tail-anchored proteins pUL34, pUL56 and pUS9 characterized by a single hydrophobic region positioned at their C-terminal end that needs to be released from the ribosome prior to posttranslational membrane insertion...
October 20, 2016: Virology Journal
Dongsheng Jia, Yu Han, Xiang Sun, Zhenzhen Wang, Zhenguo Du, Qian Chen, Taiyun Wei
BACKGROUND: Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) and Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) are two closely related fijiviruses transmitted by the small brown planthopper (SBPH) and white-backed planthopper (WBPH), respectively. SRBSDV has a latent period 4 days shorter than that of RBSDV, implying a more efficient spread in insect vector. Currently, the mechanisms underlying this higher efficiency are poorly understood. However, our recent studies have implicated a role of virus induced tubular structures in the dissemination of fijiiruses within their insect vectors...
October 19, 2016: Virology Journal
Suhong Qian, Wenchun Fan, Ping Qian, Huanchun Chen, Xiangmin Li
BACKGROUND: Seneca valley virus (SVV), a member of the Picornaviridae family, is a small non-enveloped RNA virus, that is linked to porcine idiopathic vesicular disease (PIVD). SVV infection in swine results in vesicular disease and epidemic transient neonatal losses (ETNL). The first case of SVV infection was reported in Guangdong, South China in 2015. RESULTS: We isolated and characterized an SVV HB-CH-2016 strain from vesicular lesion tissue specimens from piglets with PIVD in Hubei, Central China...
October 19, 2016: Virology Journal
Zhonglan Wu, Lijia Cui, Weiming Zhao, Dongzhi Yang, Hui Chen, Ruiqing Wang, Xuemin Wang, Linqi Zhang, Tianhua He
BACKGROUND: Current prevalence and genotype distribution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remain unknown in Ningxia, northwest China. METHODS: From June to December 2013, 13,022 individuals were screened in Ningxia HIV/AIDS Sentinel Surveillance System, with their demographic features collected and serum samples tested for HCV antibody. Sero-positive drug users were further subjected to sequencing of NS5B and Core regions of HCV. RESULTS: The anti-HCV prevalence was 0...
October 18, 2016: Virology Journal
Outi Heikkilä, Pirjo Merilahti, Marika Hakanen, Eveliina Karelehto, Jonna Alanko, Maria Sukki, Saija Kiljunen, Petri Susi
BACKGROUND: Coxsackievirus A9 (CV-A9) is a pathogenic enterovirus type within the family Picornaviridae. CV-A9 infects A549 human epithelial lung carcinoma cells by attaching to the αVβ6 integrin receptor through a highly conserved Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif, which is located at the exposed carboxy-terminus of the capsid protein VP1 detected in all studied clinical isolates. However, genetically-modified CV-A9 that lacks the RGD motif (CV-A9-RGDdel) has been shown to be infectious in some cell lines but not in A549, suggesting that RGD-mediated integrin binding is not always essential for efficient entry of CV-A9...
October 18, 2016: Virology Journal
M L Mzingwane, C T Tiemessen, K L Richter, S H Mayaphi, G Hunt, S M Bowyer
BACKGROUND: Although the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV positive individuals has proved to be effective in suppressing the virus to below detection limits of commonly used assays, virological failure associated with drug resistance is still a major challenge in some settings. The prevalence and effect of pre-treatment resistance associated variants on virological outcomes may also be underestimated because of reliance on conventional population sequencing data which excludes minority species...
October 12, 2016: Virology Journal
Yan Yang, Aiping Ju, Xiaofen Xu, Xinyu Cao, Ying Tao
Human cosavirus (HCoSV) is a genus recently identified in the family Picornaviridae, which contains important pathogens to human health. Here, a novel type of HCoSV strain, cosavirus-zj-1 (GenBank no. KX545380), was identified in the fecal sample of a child with nonpolio acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in China. Phylogenetic and sequence analyses suggested that this virus strain belonged to a new genotype in HCoSV B species. Our data show that surveillance of HCoSV is necessary for detecting viral agents in children with AFP, despite being the low detection rate...
October 12, 2016: Virology Journal
Haibin Jin, Xiaoming Guo
BACKGROUND: Viral myocarditis, which is often caused by coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), is a serious clinical disorder characterized by excessive myocardial inflammation. Valproic acid (VPA) is described as a histone deacetylase inhibitor that has anti-inflammatory effects in several inflammatory diseases. However, the role and the detailed mechanism of VPA in viral myocarditis remain unclear. METHODS: Experimental CVB3-induced myocarditis was induced in mice by intraperitoneally (i...
October 10, 2016: Virology Journal
Zuyi Chen, Yaling Jing, Qiang Wen, Xianping Ding, Shun Zhang, Tao Wang, Yiwen Zhang, Jianhui Zhang
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is associated with infection by certain subtypes of human papillomavirus (HPV). The L1 protein comprising HPV vaccine formulations elicits high-titre neutralizing antibodies and confers protection against specific HPV subtypes. HPV L2 protein is an attractive candidate for cross-protective vaccines. HPV-33 and HPV-58 are very prevalent among Chinese women. METHODS: To study the gene intratypic variations and polymorphisms of HPV-33 and HPV-58 L1/L2 in Sichuan China, HPV-33 and HPV-58 L1 and L2 genes were sequenced and compared with other genes submitted to GenBank...
October 7, 2016: Virology Journal
Mingfeng Feng, Hanping Zhang, Yuan Pan, Yahui Hu, Jing Chen, Dengpan Zuo, Tong Jiang
BACKGROUND: Strawberry vein banding virus (SVBV) is a double-stranded DNA plant virus, which has been found in North America, Australia, Brazil, Japan, Europe and several provinces of China. Infected strawberry plants exhibit mild vein-banding symptoms and chlorosis along the veins. It is one of the most economically important diseases in Asiatic, European and North American strawberry-growing areas. FINDINGS: The complete genome of an SVBV Chinese isolate (SVBV-CN) was isolated and cloned from a naturally infected strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa cv...
October 6, 2016: Virology Journal
Juan Liu, XueJiao Zhang, YueKun Yang, Ni Hong, GuoPing Wang, Aiming Wang, LiPing Wang
BACKGROUND: Heat treatment (known as thermotherapy) together with in vitro culture of shoot meristem tips is a commonly used technology to obtain virus-free germplasm for the effective control of virus diseases in fruit trees. RNA silencing as an antiviral defense mechanism has been implicated in this process. To understand if high temperature-mediated acceleration of the host antiviral gene silencing system in the meristem tip facilitates virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNA) accumulation to reduce the viral RNA titer in the fruit tree meristem tip cells, we used the Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV)-Pyrus pyrifolia pathosystem to explore the possible roles of vsiRNA in thermotherapy...
October 6, 2016: Virology Journal
Rupsa Basu, Ebenezer Tumban
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that is transmitted through the bite of Aedes spp mosquitoes and less predominantly, through sexual intercourse. Prior to 2007, ZIKV was associated with only sporadic human infections with minimal or no clinical manifestations. Recently the virus has caused disease outbreaks from the Pacific Islands, the Americas, and off the coast of West Africa with approximately 1.62 million people suspected to be infected in more than 60 countries around the globe. The recent ZIKV outbreaks have been associated with guillain-barré syndrome, congenital syndrome (microcephaly, congenital central nervous system anomalies), miscarriages, and even death...
October 6, 2016: Virology Journal
Aileen E O'Hearn, Matthew A Voorhees, David P Fetterer, Nadia Wauquier, Moinya R Coomber, James Bangura, Joseph N Fair, Jean-Paul Gonzalez, Randal J Schoepp
BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan Africa is home to a variety of pathogens, but disease surveillance and the healthcare infrastructure necessary for proper management and control are severely limited. Lassa virus, the cause of Lassa fever, a severe hemorrhagic fever in humans is endemic in West Africa. In Sierra Leone at the Kenema Government Hospital Lassa Diagnostic Laboratory, up to 70 % of acute patient samples suspected of Lassa fever test negative for Lassa virus infection. This large amount of acute undiagnosed febrile illness can be attributed in part to an array of hemorrhagic fever and arthropod-borne viruses causing disease that goes undetected and untreated...
October 3, 2016: Virology Journal
Jiansheng Liu, Haihao Zhang, Yilin Zhao, Longhui Xia, Chen Guo, Huai Yang, Na Luo, Zhanlong He, Shaohui Ma
BACKGROUND: Four vaccine-related polioviruses (VRPV) were isolated from aseptic encephalitis cases in Yunnan, China in 2010. The genomic sequences of these VRPVs were investigated to gain a better understanding of their molecular characteristics. METHODS: Molecular typing was performed by amplification and sequencing of the VP1 region. The genomic sequences of the four VRPV3 strains were compared to vaccine strain and wild strain sequences to study genetic drift and recombination...
September 27, 2016: Virology Journal
Shadi Shahriari, James Gordon, Reena Ghildyal
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the major pathogens responsible for lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in young children, the elderly, and the immunosuppressed. Currently, there are no antiviral drugs or vaccines available that effectively target RSV infections, proving a significant challenge in regards to prevention and treatment. An in-depth understanding of the host-virus interactions that underlie assembly and budding would inform new targets for antiviral development.Current research suggests that the polymerised form of actin, the filamentous or F-actin, plays a role in RSV assembly and budding...
September 26, 2016: Virology Journal
Lisa Henß, Simon Beck, Tatjana Weidner, Nadine Biedenkopf, Katja Sliva, Christopher Weber, Stephan Becker, Barbara S Schnierle
BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes high fever, rash, and recurrent arthritis in humans. It has efficiently adapted to Aedes albopictus, which also inhabits temperate regions and currently causes large outbreaks in the Caribbean and Latin America. Ebola virus (EBOV) is a member of the filovirus family. It causes the Ebola virus disease (EDV), formerly known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever in humans and has a mortality rate of up to 70 %. The last outbreak in Western Africa was the largest in history and has caused approximately 25,000 cases and 10,000 deaths...
August 31, 2016: Virology Journal
Shu-Yun Chiang, Hung-Yi Wu, Ming-Tang Chiou, Min-Chen Chang, Chao-Nan Lin
BACKGROUND: Taiwan has been considered free from canine parvovirus type 2c (CPV-2c) based on the last report of canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) surveillance. However, since January 2015, the first report of CPV-2c in a puppy has occurred in Taiwan. There is currently limited information about the CPV-2c variant in Taiwan. In the present study, we characterized the previously unidentified CPV-2c variant and investigated the distribution of CPV-2 variants in Taiwan. METHODS: During January 2014 to April 2016, fecal or rectal swab samples from 99 dogs with suspected CPV-2 infection in Taiwan were collected...
2016: Virology Journal
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