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Virology Journal

Angel Y S Chen, Shizu Watanabe, Raymond Yokomi, James C K Ng
BACKGROUND: The non-translated regions at the genome ends of RNA viruses serve diverse functions and can exhibit various levels of nucleotide (nt) heterogeneity. However, the extent of nt heterogeneity at the extreme termini of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) genomes has not been comprehensively documented. This study aimed to characterize two widely prevalent CTV genotypes, T36-CA and T30-CA, from California that have not been sequenced or analyzed substantially. The information obtained will be used in our ongoing effort to construct the infectious complementary (c) DNA clones of these viruses...
September 15, 2018: Virology Journal
Jingyu Tang, Zhuangli Bi, Mingyang Ding, Dongdong Yin, Jie Zhu, Li Zhang, Qiuhong Miao, Yingqi Zhu, Guijun Wang, Guangqing Liu
BACKGROUD: Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV), a pathogenic flavivirus, emerged in China since 2010 and causing huge economic loss in the Chinese poultry industry. Although several vaccines have been reported to control DTMUV disease, few effective vaccines are available and new outbreaks were continuously reported. Thus, it is urgently to develop a new effective vaccine for prevention of this disease. METHODS: In this study, a suicidal DNA vaccine based on a Semliki Forest virus (SFV) replicon and DTMUV E glycoprotein gene was constructed and the efficacy of this new vaccine was assessed according to humoral and cell-mediated immune responses as well as protection against the DTMUV challenge in ducklings...
September 14, 2018: Virology Journal
Aoran Luo, Xiaoyan Jiang, Hong Ren
BACKGROUND: Currently, there is no consensus on the efficacy and safety of lamivudine (LAM) plus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) combination therapy versus lamivudine monotherapy in HBV/HIV coinfected patients. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was performed in English and Chinese databases. Both relevant dichotomous and continuous variables were extracted, and the combined outcomes were expressed as a risk ratio (RR) or a standard mean difference (SMD)...
September 10, 2018: Virology Journal
Xuefeng Zhang, Jing Wang, Jing Lu, Rongrong Li, Shuli Zhao
Ad-HBV is a product (T101) aiming to treat chronic HBV firstly developed by Transgene S.A., France then by Transgene Tasly (Tianjin) Biopharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Tianjin, China in China.
September 3, 2018: Virology Journal
Ke Li, Gentu Wu, Mingjun Li, Mingge Ma, Jiang Du, Miao Sun, Xianchao Sun, Ling Qing
BACKGROUND: Tobacco curly shoot virus (TbCSV) is a monopartite begomovirus associated with betasatellite (Tobacco curly shoot betasatellite, TbCSB), which causes serious leaf curl disease on tomato and tobacco in China. It is interesting that TbCSV induced severe upward leaf curling in Nicotiana benthamiana, but in the presence of TbCSB, symptoms changed to be downward leaf curling. However, the mechanism of interactions between viral pathogenicity, host defense, viral-betasatellite interactions and virus-host interactions remains unclear...
September 3, 2018: Virology Journal
Hitomi Kinoshita, Kazuo Nakamichi, Chang-Kweng Lim, Mutsuyo Takayama-Ito, Lixin Wang, Itoe Iizuka, Ichiro Kurane, Masayuki Saijo
BACKGROUND: JC polyomavirus (JCV) is the causative agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system in immunosuppressed patients. PML usually has a poor prognosis. Detection and quantification of the JCV genome in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is an efficacious tool for the diagnosis and management of PML, for which proper therapeutic interventions are required. METHODS: A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was applied for the quantitative detection of JCV...
August 31, 2018: Virology Journal
Manasi Tamhankar, Dawn M Gerhardt, Richard S Bennett, Nicole Murphy, Peter B Jahrling, Jean L Patterson
BACKGROUND: Currently, no FDA-approved vaccines or treatments are available for Ebola virus disease (EVD), and therapy remains largely supportive. Ebola virus (EBOV) has broad tissue tropism and can infect a variety of cells including epithelial cells. Epithelial cells differ from most other cell types by their polarized phenotype and barrier function. In polarized cells, the apical and basolateral membrane domains are demarcated by tight junctions, and specialized sorting machinery, which results in a difference in composition between the two membrane domains...
August 31, 2018: Virology Journal
Sara Shakir, Muhammad Shah Nawaz-Ul-Rehman, Muhammad Mubin, Zulfiqar Ali
BACKGROUND: Geminiviruses cause major losses to several economically important crops. Pedilanthus leaf curl virus (PeLCV) is a pathogenic geminivirus that appeared in the last decade and is continuously increasing its host range in Pakistan and India. This study reports the identification and characterization of PeLCV-Petunia from ornamental plants in Pakistan, as well as geographical, phylogenetic, and recombination analysis. METHODS: Viral genomes and associated satellites were amplified, cloned, and sequenced from Petunia atkinsiana plants showing typical geminivirus infection symptoms...
August 31, 2018: Virology Journal
Lang Gong, Ying Lin, Jianru Qin, Qianniu Li, Chunyi Xue, Yongchang Cao
BACKGROUND: Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is emerging as a pathogenic coronavirus that causes a huge economic burden to the swine industry. Interaction of the viral spike (S) surface glycoprotein with the host cell receptor is recognized as the first step of infection and is the main determinant of virus tropism. The mechanisms by which neutralizing antibodies inhibit PEDV have not been defined. Isolating PEDV neutralizing antibodies are crucial to identifying the receptor-binding domains of the viral spike and elucidating the mechanism of protection against PEDV infection...
August 30, 2018: Virology Journal
Tingting Feng, Lei Deng, Xiaochuan Lu, Wen Pan, Qihan Wu, Jianfeng Dai
BACKGROUND: Viral infection activates innate immune pathways and interferons (IFNs) play a pivotal role in the outcome of a viral infection. Ubiquitin modifications of host and viral proteins significantly influence the progress of virus infection. Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2s (UBE2) have the capacity to determine ubiquitin chain topology and emerge as key mediators of chain assembly. METHODS: In this study, we screened the functions of 34 E2 genes using an RNAi library during Dengue virus (DENV) infection...
August 29, 2018: Virology Journal
Xiaomin Zhang, Yalan Huang, Miao Wang, Fan Yang, Chunli Wu, Dana Huang, Linghong Xiong, Chengsong Wan, Jinquan Cheng, Renli Zhang
BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus within the family Togaviridae, which has attracted global attention due to its recent re-emergence. In one of our previous studies, we successfully isolated two CHIKV virus strains, SZ1050 and SZ1239, from the serum samples of two imported patients in 2010 and 2012, respectively. However, the differences in their genome characters and cell tropisms remain undefined. METHODS: We extracted the RNA of two CHIKV isolates and performed PCR to determine the sequence of the whole viral genomes...
August 20, 2018: Virology Journal
Zhaoping Zeng, Jiandong Shi, Xiaofang Guo, Ling Mo, Ningzhu Hu, Jing Sun, Meini Wu, Hongning Zhou, Yunzhang Hu
BACKGROUND: Dengue is the most common mosquito-borne infection worldwide and a serious threat to global public health. Sporadic dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2) imported cases from Myanmar have been documented almost every year in Yunnan Province of China since 2005. However, the complete genome sequences of DENV-2 isolates imported from Myanmar are not available. METHODS: The full-length genome of the DENV-2 strain (YNPE2), isolated from an imported case from Myanmar in 2013, was identified by the next-generation sequencing...
August 20, 2018: Virology Journal
Sonia Menon, Rodolfo Rossi, Mbabazi Kariisa, Steven Callens
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have established human papillomavirus (HPV) infection as the central cause of invasive cervical cancer (ICC) and its precursor lesions. HIV is associated with a higher prevalence and persistence of a broader range of high-risk HPV genotypes, which in turn results in a higher risk of cervical disease. Recent WHO HPV vaccination schedule recommendations, along with the roll out of HAART at an earlier CD4 count within the female HIV-infected population, may have programmatic implications for sub Saharan Africa...
August 16, 2018: Virology Journal
Esperance Munganyinka, Paolo Margaria, Samar Sheat, Elijah M Ateka, Fred Tairo, Joseph Ndunguru, Stephan Winter
BACKGROUND: Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) has a viral aetiology and is caused by viruses belonging to the genus Ipomovirus (family Potyviridae), Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV). Molecular and serological methods are available for detection, discrimination and quantification of cassava brown streak viruses (CBSVs) in infected plants. However, precise determination of the viral RNA localization in infected host tissues is still not possible pending appropriate methods...
August 14, 2018: Virology Journal
Lihua Wang, Hui Luo, Wangcheng Hu, Yuekun Yang, Ni Hong, Guoping Wang, Aiming Wang, Liping Wang
BACKGROUND: Pear ring rot, caused by Botryosphaeria species, is responsible for substantial economic losses by causing severe recession of pear tree growth in China. Mycovirus-mediated hypovirulence in plant pathogenic fungi is a crucial biological method to control fungal diseases. METHODS: We conducted a large-scale and comprehensive transcriptome analysis to identify mRNA in B. dothidea in response to mycovirus. De novo sequencing technology from four constructed libraries of LW-C (Botryosphaeria dothidea chrysovirus 1, BdCV1), LW-P (Botryosphaeria dothidea partitivirus 1, BdPV1), LW-CP (LW-1 strain infection with BdCV1 and BdPV1), and Mock (free virus) was used to investigate and compare gene expression changes in B...
August 13, 2018: Virology Journal
Huogen Xiao, Mehdi Shabanian, Clayton Moore, Caihong Li, Baozhong Meng
BACKGROUND: In recent years, the Ontario grape and wine industry has experienced outbreaks of viral diseases across the province. Little is known about the prevalence of viruses and viral diseases in Ontario. Since 2015, we have conducted large-scale surveys for major viruses in commercial wine grapes in order to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the prevalence and severity of viral diseases in Ontario. METHODS: A total of 657 composite leaf samples representing 3285 vines collected from 137 vine blocks of 33 vineyards from three appellations: Niagara Peninsula, Lake Erie North Shore and Prince Edward County...
August 13, 2018: Virology Journal
Ju Kim, Ye Lin Yang, Sun-Hee Jang, Yong-Suk Jang
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are primarily known for their innate immune defense against invading microorganisms, including viruses. In addition, recent research has suggested their modulatory activity in immune induction. Given that most subunit vaccines require an adjuvant to achieve effective immune induction through the activation of innate immunity, AMPs are plausible candidate molecules for stimulating not only innate immune but also adaptive immune responses. RESULTS: In this study, we investigated the ability of human β-defensin (HBD) 2 to promote antiviral immunity in vitro and in vivo using a receptor-binding domain (RBD) of Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) spike protein (S RBD) as a model antigen (Ag)...
August 8, 2018: Virology Journal
Shushuai Yi, Jiangting Niu, Hualei Wang, Guoying Dong, Yanli Zhao, Hao Dong, Yanbing Guo, Kai Wang, Guixue Hu
BACKGROUND: Bocaviruses have been reported to cause respiratory tract infection and gastroenteritis in most animal species. In cats, different genotype bocaviruses have been identified in USA, Japan, Hong Kong and Portugal. However, the clear relationship between the clinical symptoms and FBoV infection is unknown, and the prevalence of FBoV and the distribution of FBoV genotypes in China are still unclear. RESULTS: In this study, 197 fecal samples from cats with diarrhea (n = 105) and normal cats (n = 92) were collected in different regions between January 2016 and November 2017 and investigated using PCR targeting different FBoV genotypes...
August 8, 2018: Virology Journal
Leyun Xie, Bing Zhang, Jieying Zhou, Han Huang, Saizhen Zeng, Qin Liu, Zhiping Xie, Hanchun Gao, Zhaojun Duan, Lili Zhong
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is a serious public health issue and is concerned around the world. This study is to investigate the association between viral load in children with human adenovirus (HAdV) pneumonia and disease severity. METHODS: A total of 1313 cases of children hospitalized in Hunan Provincial People's Hospital due to community acquired pneumonia (CAP) from April 2011 to May 2014 were enrolled in this study. Samples of nasopharyngeal aspirate were collected for the cohort...
August 7, 2018: Virology Journal
Haichang Yin, Lili Zhao, Yiping Wang, Siqi Li, Hong Huo, Hongyan Chen
BACKGROUND: The results of our previous study showed that impaired cellular energy metabolism contributes to duck enteritis virus-induced autophagy via the 5`-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/tuberous sclerosis complex 2/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway in duck embryo fibroblast (DEF) cells. However, it remains unknown whether any other underlying mechanisms of AMPK activation are involved in autophagy induction. METHODS: The activity of CaMKKβ and AMPK in DEF cells infected with DEV were evaluated...
August 6, 2018: Virology Journal
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