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Virology Journal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506240/inhibitors-compounds-of-the-flavivirus-replication-process
#1
REVIEW
Leidy L García, Leonardo Padilla, Jhon C Castaño
Flaviviruses are small viruses with single-stranded RNA, which include the yellow fever virus, dengue virus, West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, and Zika virus; and are causal agents of the most important emerging diseases that have no available treatment to date. In recent years, the strategy has focused on the development of replication inhibitors of these viruses designed to act mainly by affecting the activity of enzyme proteins, such as NS3 and NS5, which perform important functions in the viral replication process...
May 15, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494793/real-time-pcr-assays-for-hepatitis-b-virus-dna-quantification-may-require-two-different-targets
#2
Chao Liu, Le Chang, Tingting Jia, Fei Guo, Lu Zhang, Huimin Ji, Junpeng Zhao, Lunan Wang
BACKGROUND: Quantification Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA plays a critical role in the management of chronic HBV infections. However, HBV is a DNA virus with high levels of genetic variation, and drug-resistant mutations have emerged with the use of antiviral drugs. If a mutation caused a sequence mismatched in the primer or probe of a commercial DNA quantification kit, this would lead to an underestimation of the viral load of the sample. The aim of this study was to determine whether commercial kits, which use only one pair of primers and a single probe, accurately quantify the HBV DNA levels and to develop an improved duplex real-time PCR assay...
May 12, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486945/transcription-profiles-of-the-responses-of-chicken-bursae-of-fabricius-to-ibdv-in-different-timing-phases
#3
Changbo Ou, Qiuxia Wang, Yanhong Zhang, Weili Kong, Shouping Zhang, Yan Yu, Jinyou Ma, Xingyou Liu, Xianghui Kong
BACKGROUND: Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) infection causes immunosuppression in chickens and increases their susceptibility to secondary infections. To explore the interaction between host and IBDV, RNA-Seq was applied to analyse the transcriptional profiles of the responses of chickens' bursas of Fabricius in the early stage of IBDV infection. RESULTS: The results displayed that a total of 15546 genes were identified in the chicken bursa libraries. Among the annotated genes, there were 2006 and 4668 differentially expressed genes in the infection group compared with the mock group on day 1 and day 3 post inoculation (1 and 3 dpi), respectively...
May 10, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482844/transplacental-transmission-of-torque-teno-virus
#4
Elena A Tyschik, Sophia M Shcherbakova, Ruslan R Ibragimov, Denis V Rebrikov
BACKGROUND: TTV has been detected in almost every human tissue type or body fluid reaching near 100% prevalence. Several studies report mother-to-child postnatal transmission of TTV in infancy but the risk of transplacental transmission of TTV is still unclear. METHODS: The blood and plasma collected postpartum from 100 mother-child pairs were analyzed using TTV-specific qPCR. Samples were collected from the peripheral vein of the mother and the umbilical cord. RESULTS: Eighty four percent of pregnant women were TTV positive (median titers: 8 × 10(4) copies/mL; range: 10(3) - 3 × 10(7))...
May 8, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468686/cucumber-mosaic-virus-and-its-2b-protein-alter-emission-of-host-volatile-organic-compounds-but-not-aphid-vector-settling-in-tobacco
#5
Trisna Tungadi, Simon C Groen, Alex M Murphy, Adrienne E Pate, Javaid Iqbal, Toby J A Bruce, Nik J Cunniffe, John P Carr
BACKGROUND: Aphids, including the generalist herbivore Myzus persicae, transmit cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). CMV (strain Fny) infection affects M. persicae feeding behavior and performance on tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), Arabidopsis thaliana and cucurbits in varying ways. In Arabidopsis and cucurbits, CMV decreases host quality and inhibits prolonged feeding by aphids, which may enhance virus transmission rates. CMV-infected cucurbits also emit deceptive, aphid-attracting volatiles, which may favor virus acquisition...
May 3, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468626/development-of-a-simplified-rt-pcr-without-rna-isolation-for-rapid-detection-of-rna-viruses-in-a-single-small-brown-planthopper-laodelphax-striatellus-fall%C3%A3-n
#6
Qiufang Xu, Haoqiu Liu, Pingping Yuan, Xiaoxia Zhang, Qingqing Chen, Xuanli Jiang, Yijun Zhou
BACKGROUND: The small brown planthopper (SBPH) is an important pest of cereal crops and acts as a transmission vector for multiple RNA viruses. Rapid diagnosis of virus in the vector is crucial for efficient forecast and control of viral disease. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is a rapid, sensitive and reliable method for virus detection. The traditional RT-PCR contains a RNA isolation step and is widely used for virus detection in insect. However, using the traditional RT-PCR for detecting RNA virus in individual SBPHs becomes challenging because of the expensive reagents and laborious procedure associated with RNA isolation when processing a large number of samples...
May 3, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464951/hepatitis-c-virus-management-potential-impact-of-nanotechnology
#7
REVIEW
Mostafa H Elberry, Noureldien H E Darwish, Shaker A Mousa
Around 170-200 million individuals have hepatitis C virus (HCV), which represents ~ 3% of the world population, including ~ 3-5 million people in the USA. According to the WHO regional office in the Middle East, Egypt has the highest prevalence in the world, with 7% prevalence in adults. There had been no effective vaccine for HCV; a combination of PEG-Interferon and ribavirin for at least 48 weeks was the standard therapy, but it failed in more than 40% of the patients and has a high cost and serious side effects...
May 2, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464897/pathogenesis-of-virulent-and-attenuated-foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-in-cattle
#8
Jonathan Arzt, Juan M Pacheco, Carolina Stenfeldt, Luis L Rodriguez
BACKGROUND: Understanding the mechanisms of attenuation and virulence of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in the natural host species is critical for development of next-generation countermeasures such as live-attenuated vaccines. Functional genomics analyses of FMDV have identified few virulence factors of which the leader proteinase (Lpro) is the most thoroughly investigated. Previous work from our laboratory has characterized host factors in cattle inoculated with virulent FMDV and attenuated mutant strains with transposon insertions within Lpro...
May 2, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454574/erratum-to-detection-of-a-novel-circovirus-pcv3-in-pigs-with-cardiac-and-multi-systemic-inflammation
#9
Tung Gia Phan, Federico Giannitti, Stephanie Rossow, Douglas Marthaler, Todd P Knutson, Linlin Li, Xutao Deng, Talita Resende, Fabio Vannucci, Eric Delwart
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 28, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438210/specific-and-quantitative-detection-of-human-polyomaviruses-bkpyv-and-jcpyv-in-the-healthy-pakistani-population
#10
Iqra Hussain, Fareeda Tasneem, Muhammed Umer, Ayesha Pervaiz, Muslim Raza, Muhammad Imran Arshad, Naveed Shahzad
BACKGROUND: The BK Polyomavirus (BKPyV) and JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) infections are widespread in human population and have been associated with severe kidney and brain disorders, respectively. The viruses remain latent primarily in reno-urinary tract, reactivating only in case of a compromised immune system. The seroepidemiology and molecular prevalence of BKPyV and JCPyV have been widely studied both in healthy and immunocompromised patients worldwide. However, data regarding the prevalence of these viruses in the immunocompetent or apparently healthy Pakistani population is lacking...
April 24, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431572/hepatitis-c-virus-ns4b-protein-induces-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-by-upregulation-of-snail
#11
Bicheng Hu, Shenggao Xie, Yuqian Hu, Wen Chen, Xiaofan Chen, Yi Zheng, Xinxing Wu
BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is an important cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key process associated with tumor metastasis and poor prognosis. HCV infection, HCV core and NS5A protein could induce EMT process, but the role of NS4B on EMT remains poorly understood. METHODS: We overexpressed HCV NS4B protein in HepG2 cells or Huh7.5.1 cells infected by HCVcc, the E-cadherin expression, N-cadherin expression and the EMT-associated transcriptional factor Snail were determined...
April 21, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431571/unique-lcr-variations-among-lineages-of-hpv16-18-and-45-isolates-from-women-with-normal-cervical-cytology-in-ghana
#12
Adolf K Awua, Richard M K Adanu, Edwin K Wiredu, Edwin A Afari, Vanessa A Zubuch, Richard H Asmah, Alberto Severini
BACKGROUND: In addition to being useful for classification, sequence variations of human Papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes have been implicated in differential oncogenic potential and a differential association with the different histological forms of invasive cervical cancer. These associations have also been indicated for HPV genotype lineages and sub-lineages. In order to better understand the potential implications of lineage variation in the occurrence of cervical cancers in Ghana, we studied the lineages of the three most prevalent HPV genotypes among women with normal cytology as baseline to further studies...
April 21, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431558/epidemiology-and-genotype-distribution-of-human-papillomavirus-hpv-in-southwest-china-a-cross-sectional-five-years-study-in-non-vaccinated-women
#13
Yishu Tang, Lan Zheng, Shuangshuang Yang, Bing Li, Huiting Su, Li-Ping Zhang
BACKGROUND: Large-size data on type-specific HPV prevalence in Southwest China are required to estimate the cervical cancer burden in the country and to prepare for HPV-based cervical screening program and further HPV vaccination of China. This HPV study is a pooled analysis of data from five years in Chongqing of China, which is cross-sectional in design using data collecting. RESULTS: The positivity of HPV was 26.2% (10542/40311), single type was 25.7% (10360/40311), multiple type was 8...
April 21, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420392/tissue-tropisms-infection-kinetics-histologic-lesions-and-antibody-response-of-the-mr766-strain-of-zika-virus-in-a-murine-model
#14
Anna B Kawiecki, E Handly Mayton, M Fausta Dutuze, Brad A Goupil, Ingeborg M Langohr, Fabio Del Piero, Rebecca C Christofferson
BACKGROUND: The appearance of severe Zika virus (ZIKV) disease in the most recent outbreak has prompted researchers to respond through the development of tools to quickly characterize transmission and pathology. We describe here another such tool, a mouse model of ZIKV infection and pathogenesis using the MR766 strain of virus that adds to the growing body of knowledge regarding ZIKV kinetics in small animal models. METHODS: We infected mice with the MR766 strain of ZIKV to determine infection kinetics via serum viremia...
April 18, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420390/a-novel-viewrna-in-situ-hybridization-method-for-the-detection-of-the-dynamic-distribution-of-classical-swine-fever-virus-rna-in-pk15-cells
#15
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Qianyi Zhang, Lu Xu, Yujie Zhang, Tuanjie Wang, Xingqi Zou, Yuanyuan Zhu, Yan Zhao, Cui Li, Kai Chen, Yongfang Sun, Junxiang Sun, Qizu Zhao, Qin Wang
BACKGROUND: Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious fatal infectious disease caused by classical swine fever virus (CSFV). A better understanding of CSFV replication is important for the study of pathogenic mechanism of CSF. With the development of novel RNA in situ Hybridization method, quantitatively localization and visualization of the virus RNA molecular in cultured cell or tissue section becomes very important tool to address these pivotal pathogenic questions. In this study, we established ViewRNA ISH method to reveal the dynamic distribution of CSFV RNA in PK15 cells...
April 18, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410597/the-role-of-nuclear-localization-signal-in-parvovirus-life-cycle
#16
REVIEW
Peng Liu, Shun Chen, Mingshu Wang, Anchun Cheng
Parvoviruses are small, non-enveloped viruses with an approximately 5.0 kb, single-stranded DNA genome. Usually, the parvovirus capsid gene contains one or more nuclear localization signals (NLSs), which are required for guiding the virus particle into the nucleus through the nuclear pore. However, several classical NLSs (cNLSs) and non-classical NLSs (ncNLSs) have been identified in non-structural genes, and the ncNLSs can also target non-structural proteins into the nucleus. In this review, we have summarized recent research findings on parvovirus NLSs...
April 14, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410592/study-of-sv40-large-t-antigen-nucleotide-specificity-for-dna-unwinding
#17
Damian Wang, Ana Lucia Álvarez-Cabrera, Xiaojiang S Chen
BACKGROUND: Simian Virus 40 (SV40) Large Tumor Antigen (LT) is an essential enzyme that plays a vital role in viral DNA replication in mammalian cells. As a replicative helicase and initiator, LT assembles as a double-hexamer at the SV40 origin to initiate genomic replication. In this process, LT converts the chemical energy from ATP binding and hydrolysis into the mechanical work required for unwinding replication forks. It has been demonstrated that even though LT primarily utilizes ATP to unwind DNA, other NTPs can also support low DNA helicase activity...
April 14, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407817/preliminary-study-of-the-ul55-gene-based-on-infectious-chinese-virulent-duck-enteritis-virus-bacterial-artificial-chromosome-clone
#18
Ying Wu, Yangguang Li, Mingshu Wang, Kunfeng Sun, Renyong Jia, Shun Chen, Dekang Zhu, Mafeng Liu, Qiao Yang, Xinxin Zhao, Xiaoyue Chen, Anchun Cheng
BACKGROUND: Lethal Duck Enteritis Virus (DEV) infection can cause high morbidity and mortality of many species of waterfowl within the order Anseriformes. However, little is known about the function of viral genes including the conserved UL55 gene among alpha herpes virus due to the obstacles in maintenance and manipulation of DEV genome in host cells. METHODS: In this paper, we constructed an infectious bacteria artificial chromosome (BAC) clone of the lethal clinical isolate duck enteritis virus Chinese virulent strain (DEV CHv) by inserting a transfer vector containing BAC mini-F sequence and selection marker EGFP into UL23 gene using homologous recombination...
April 13, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407787/glucose-regulated-protein-78-demonstrates-antiviral-effects-but-is-more-suitable-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-prevention-in-hepatitis-b
#19
Nai Q Zheng, Zi H Zheng, Hai X Xu, Ming X Huang, Xiao M Peng
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the leading cause of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in Asia and Africa. Existing antivirals cannot cure HBV or eliminate risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) can inhibit HBV replication, but promote virion secretion and hepatocellular cancer cell invasion. For these reasons, the overall effect of GRP78 on HBV production and whether to utilize the HBV replication-inhibitory effect of GRP78 up-regulation or the hepatocellular cancer cell invasion-inhibitory effect of its down-regulation were further investigated in order to improve the efficacy of current antiviral therapy...
April 13, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403874/intranasal-immunization-of-pigs-with-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-like-particles-plus-2-3-cgamp-vaccigrade%C3%A2-adjuvant-exacerbates-viremia-after-virus-challenge
#20
Alexandria Van Noort, April Nelsen, Angela E Pillatzki, Diego G Diel, Feng Li, Eric Nelson, Xiuqing Wang
BACKGROUND: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes reproductive failure in pregnant sows and acute respiratory disease in young pigs. It is a leading infectious agent of swine respiratory complex, which has significant negative economic impact on the swine industry. Commercial markets currently offer both live attenuated and killed vaccines; however, increasing controversy exists about their efficacy providing complete protection. Virus-like particles (VLPs) possess many desirable features of a potent vaccine candidate and have been proven to be highly immunogenic and protective against virus infections...
April 12, 2017: Virology Journal
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