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Virology Journal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912769/three-novel-bacteriophages-isolated-from-the-east-african-rift-valley-soda-lakes
#1
Leonardo Joaquim van Zyl, Shonisani Nemavhulani, James Cass, Donald Arthur Cowan, Marla Trindade
BACKGROUND: Soda lakes are unique environments in terms of their physical characteristics and the biology they harbour. Although well studied with respect to their microbial composition, their viral compositions have not, and consequently few bacteriophages that infect bacteria from haloalkaline environments have been described. METHODS: Bacteria were isolated from sediment samples of lakes Magadi and Shala. Three phages were isolated on two different Bacillus species and one Paracoccus species using agar overlays...
December 3, 2016: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912771/a-dna-vaccine-encoding-the-viral-hemorrhagic-septicemia-virus-genotype-ivb-glycoprotein-confers-protection-in-muskellunge-esox-masquinongy-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-brown-trout-salmo-trutta-and-lake-trout-salvelinus-namaycush
#2
Isaac F Standish, Elena V Millard, Travis O Brenden, Mohamed Faisal
BACKGROUND: The viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is one of the most serious fish pathogens. In 2003, a novel sublineage (genotype IVb) of this deadly virus emerged in the Great Lakes basin causing serious fish kills. We have previously demonstrated that a DNA plasmid (pcDNA), containing a cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter and the viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) genotype IVb glycoprotein (G) gene insert (designated pVHSivb-G) confers moderate protection in muskellunge (Esox masquinongy), a highly susceptible species upon challenge...
December 2, 2016: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912765/rna-seq-based-digital-gene-expression-analysis-reveals-modification-of-host-defense-responses-by-rice-stripe-virus-during-disease-symptom-development-in-arabidopsis
#3
Feng Sun, Peng Fang, Juan Li, Linlin Du, Ying Lan, Tong Zhou, Yongjian Fan, Wenbiao Shen, Yijun Zhou
BACKGROUND: Virus infection induces and suppresses host gene expression on a global level. Rice stripe virus (RSV) is the type species of the genus Tenuivirus and infects rice and Arabidopsis plants. Microarray-based and next generation sequencing-based transcriptomic approaches have been used to study rice-RSV interactions. However, our knowledge of the response of Arabidopsis plants to RSV infection is limited, and it requires further investigation to determine the similarities (or differences) in virus-host interactions between monocot and dicot hosts infected with RSV...
December 2, 2016: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906039/peering-below-the-diffraction-limit-robust-and-specific-sorting-of-viruses-with-flow-cytometry
#4
Shea T Lance, David J Sukovich, Kenneth M Stedman, Adam R Abate
BACKGROUND: Viruses are incredibly diverse organisms and impact all forms of life on Earth; however, individual virions are challenging to study due to their small size and mass, precluding almost all direct imaging or molecular analysis. Moreover, like microbes, the overwhelming majority of viruses cannot be cultured, impeding isolation, replication, and study of interesting new species. Here, we introduce PCR-activated virus sorting, a method to isolate specific viruses from a heterogeneous population...
December 1, 2016: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903274/breadth-and-magnitude-of-antigen-specific-antibody-responses-in-the-control-of-plasma-viremia-in-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-macaques
#5
Bapi Pahar, Carys S Kenway-Lynch, Preston Marx, Sudesh K Srivastav, Celia LaBranche, David C Montefiori, Arpita Das
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests an unexpected potential for non-neutralizing antibodies to prevent HIV infection. Consequently, identification of functional linear B-cell epitopes for HIV are important for developing preventative and therapeutic strategies. We therefore explored the role of antigen-specific immune responses in controlling plasma viremia in SIV infected rhesus macaques. METHODS: Thirteen rhesus macaques were inoculated either intravaginally or intrarectally with SIVMAC251...
December 1, 2016: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903277/sequence-diversity-of-dengue-virus-type-2-in-brain-and-thymus-of-infected-interferon-receptor-ko-mice-implications-for-dengue-virulence
#6
Priya Dhole, Emi E Nakayama, Akatsuki Saito, Kriengsak Limkittikul, Supranee Phanthanawiboon, Tatsuo Shioda, Takeshi Kurosu
BACKGROUND: We previously reported that a clinical isolate of dengue virus (DENV) is capable of causing acute-phase systemic infection in mice harboring knockouts of the genes encoding type-I and -II interferon IFN receptors (IFN-α/β/γR KO mice); in contrast, other virulent DENV isolates exhibited slow disease progression in this mice, yielding lethal infection around 20 days post-infection (p.i.). In the present study, we sought to clarify the dynamics of slow disease progression by examining disease progression of a type-2 DENV clinical isolate (DV2P04/08) in mice...
November 30, 2016: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899161/multiple-molecular-detection-of-respiratory-viruses-and-associated-signs-of-airway-inflammation-in-racehorses
#7
Nadia Doubli-Bounoua, Eric A Richard, Albertine Léon, Pierre-Hugues Pitel, Stéphane Pronost, Guillaume Fortier
BACKGROUND: The potential involvement of viruses in inflammatory airway disease (IAD) was previously investigated through either serology or PCR from nasopharyngeal swabs (NS). The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence and incidence of viral genome detection by qPCR in the equine airways, and their association with respiratory clinical signs. METHODS: Both NS and tracheal washes (TW) were collected monthly on 52 Standardbred racehorses at training, over 27 consecutive months (581 samples)...
November 29, 2016: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899121/meta-analysis-of-the-clinical-and-laboratory-parameters-of-sfts-patients-in-china
#8
Miao-Miao Liu, Xiao-Ying Lei, Xue-Jie Yu
BACKGROUND: Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging hemorrhagic fever in East Asia, which is caused by a novel bunyavirus-SFTSV. Many studies have reported the clinical characters of SFTS patients, but the reports were not consistent and a systematic summary of clinical manifestations and laboratory parameters are not available. METHOD: A comprehensive literature research of Web of Science, PubMed, Wan Fang Data, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases was conducted on articles which have described the clinical characters of SFTS patients...
November 29, 2016: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894314/self-assembly-of-hexahistidine-tagged-tobacco-etch-virus-capsid-protein-into-microfilaments-that-induce-igg2-specific-response-against-a-soluble-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-chimeric-protein
#9
Carlos Alberto Manuel-Cabrera, Alba Adriana Vallejo-Cardona, Eduardo Padilla-Camberos, Rodolfo Hernández-Gutiérrez, Sara Elisa Herrera-Rodríguez, Abel Gutiérrez-Ortega
BACKGROUND: Assembly of recombinant capsid proteins into virus-like particles (VLPs) still represents an interesting challenge in virus-based nanotechnologies. The structure of VLPs has gained importance for the development and design of new adjuvants and antigen carriers. The potential of Tobacco etch virus capsid protein (TEV CP) as adjuvant has not been evaluated to date. FINDINGS: Two constructs for TEV CP expression in Escherichia coli were generated: a wild-type version (TEV-CP) and a C-terminal hexahistidine (His)-tagged version (His-TEV-CP)...
November 29, 2016: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894355/generation-of-mabs-to-foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-serotype-a-and-application-in-a-competitive-elisa-for-serodiagnosis
#10
Ming Yang, Wanhong Xu, Hilary Bittner, Jacquelyn Horsington, Wilna Vosloo, Melissa Goolia, Diana Lusansky, Charles Nfon
BACKGROUND: Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an economically devastating disease that severely limits international trade of animals. Of the seven FMD virus (FMDV) serotypes, serotype A is one of the most widespread cross the world. Currently antibodies to FMDV are detected in animals using the virus neutralization test (VNT) and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The VNT is laborious, time-consuming and reliant on live virus and cell cultures, while ELISA has the advantage of using inactivated antigens and often provides more reproducible results...
November 28, 2016: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894321/encephalomyocarditis-virus-infection-in-macaca-sylvanus-and-hystrix-cristata-from-an-italian-rescue-centre-for-wild-and-exotic-animals
#11
Giusy Cardeti, Valeria Mariano, Claudia Eleni, Marco Aloisi, Goffredo Grifoni, Stefania Sittinieri, Giampiero Dante, Valeria Antognetti, Efrem Alessandro Foglia, Antonella Cersini, Alberigo Nardi
BACKGROUND: The Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) is a small, non enveloped, positive sense single-stranded RNA virus in the genus Cardiovirus, family Picornaviridae, with two known serotypes. It is spread worldwide and infects a huge range of vertebrate hosts with zoonotic potential for humans. The pig is the mammal most likely to be impacted on with the disease, but EMCV occurrence has also been reported in non-human primates and in a variety of domestic, captive and wild animals. Until now, human cases have been very rare and the risk appears to be almost negligible in spite of human susceptibility to the infection...
November 28, 2016: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894305/identification-of-molecular-determinants-of-cell-culture-growth-characteristics-of-enterovirus-71
#12
Pinn Tsin Isabel Yee, Kuan Onn Tan, Iekhsan Othman, Chit Laa Poh
BACKGROUND: Hand, foot and mouth disease is caused by Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) and Coxsackieviruses. EV-A71 infection is associated with high fever, rashes and ulcers but more severe symptoms such as cardiopulmonary failure and death have been reported. The lack of vaccines highlighted the urgency of developing preventive agents against EV-A71. The molecular determinants of virulent phenotypes of EV-A71 is unclear. It remains to be investigated if specific molecular determinants would affect the cell culture growth characteristics of the EV-A71 fatal strain in Rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells...
November 28, 2016: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887630/immunohistochemical-insights-into-saffold-virus-infection-of-the-brain-of-juvenile-ag129-mice
#13
Shawn Zheng Kai Tan, Mookkan Prabakaran
BACKGROUND: Saffold Virus (SAFV) is a human cardiovirus that is suspected of causing infection of the central nervous system (CNS) in children. While recent animal studies have started to elucidate the pathogenesis of SAFV, very little is known about the mechanisms behind it. METHOD: In this study, we attempted to elucidate some of the mechanisms of the pathogenesis of SAFV in the brain of a juvenile mouse model by using immunohistochemical methods. RESULTS: We first showed that SAFV is able to infect both neuronal and glial cells in the brain of 2 week-old AG129 mice...
November 25, 2016: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887624/detection-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-in-central-china-based-on-the-orf3-gene-and-the-s1-gene
#14
Yunfang Su, Yunchao Liu, Yumei Chen, Baolei Zhao, Pengchao Ji, Guangxu Xing, Dawei Jiang, Chang Liu, Yapeng Song, Guoqiang Wang, Dongliang Li, Ruiguang Deng, Gaiping Zhang
BACKGROUND: Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) has increased in severity in China since 2010. To investigate further the infectivity, genetic diversity and molecular epidemiology of its causative agent, the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), we assessed 129 clinical samples, which were the intestinal tissue of piglets with severe diarrhea, from 17 cities in central China. Both the spike (S) glycoprotein (S1, 1-789 amino acids (aa)) and the full-length ORF3 gene of 21 representative field strains from 21 farms in 11 cities were sequenced and analysed...
November 25, 2016: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884154/isolation-and-characterization-of-adenoviruses-infecting-endangered-golden-snub-nosed-monkeys-rhinopithecus-roxellana
#15
Bing Tan, Li-Jun Wu, Xing-Lou Yang, Bei Li, Wei Zhang, Yong-Song Lei, Yong Li, Guo-Xiang Yang, Jing Chen, Guang Chen, Han-Zhong Wang, Zheng-Li Shi
BACKGROUND: Adenoviruses are important pathogens with the potential for interspecies transmission between humans and non-human primates. Although many adenoviruses have been identified in monkeys, the knowledge of these viruses from the Colobinae members is quite limited. FINDINGS: We conducted a surveillance of viral infection in endangered golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in the subfamily Colobinae in China, and found that 5.1% of sampled individuals were positive for adenovirus...
November 25, 2016: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876078/simultaneous-detection-and-differentiation-of-three-genotypes-of-brassica-yellows-virus-by-multiplex-reverse-transcription-polymerase-chain-reaction
#16
Xiaoyan Zhang, Yanmei Peng, Ying Wang, Zongying Zhang, Dawei Li, Jialin Yu, Chenggui Han
BACKGROUND: Brassica yellows virus (BrYV), proposed to be a new polerovirus species, three distinct genotypes (BrYV-A, BrYV-B and BrYV-C) have been described. This study was to develop a simple, rapid, sensitive, cost-effective method for simultaneous detection and differentiation of three genotypes of BrYV. RESULTS: In this study, a multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (mRT-PCR) was developed for simultaneous detection and differentiation of the three genotypes of BrYV...
November 22, 2016: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863502/annexin-a2-antibodies-but-not-inhibitors-of-the-annexin-a2-heterotetramer-impair-productive-hiv-1-infection-of-macrophages-in-vitro
#17
Andrew W Woodham, Adriana M Sanna, Julia R Taylor, Joseph G Skeate, Diane M Da Silva, Lodewijk V Dekker, W Martin Kast
During sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), macrophages are initial targets for HIV infection. Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) has been shown to protect against HIV infection of macrophages through interactions with annexin A2 (A2), which is found on the macrophage cell surface as a heterotetramer (A2t) consisting of A2 and S100A10. Therefore, we investigated potential protein-protein interactions between A2 and HIV-1 gp120 through a series of co-immunoprecipitation assays and a single molecule pulldown (SiMPull) technique...
November 18, 2016: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863494/molecular-epidemiology-of-hydropericardium-syndrome-outbreak-associated-serotype-4-fowl-adenovirus-isolates-in-central-china
#18
Teng Zhang, Qianyue Jin, Peiyang Ding, Yinbiao Wang, Yongxiao Chai, Yafei Li, Xiao Liu, Jun Luo, Gaiping Zhang
In several parts of China, there have been a large number of hydropericardium syndrome (HPS) outbreaks caused by serotype 4 fowl adenovirus (FAdV-4) in broiler chickens since 2015. These outbreak-associated FAdV-4 strains were distinct from previous circulating strains which did not lead to severe HPS outbreaks. To better understand the molecular epidemiology of the currently circulating FAdV strains for effective diagnosis and treatment of HPS, we isolated 12 HPS outbreak-associated FAdV-4 strains from different regions in central China and investigated their molecular characteristics by performing phylogenetic analyses based on the hexon genes...
November 18, 2016: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855715/erratum-to-antiviral-activity-of-lactobacillus-reuteri-protectis-against-coxsackievirus-a-and-enterovirus-71-infection-in-human-skeletal-muscle-and-colon-cell-lines
#19
Lei Yin Emily Ang, Horng Khit Issac Too, Eng Lee Tan, Tak-Kwong Vincent Chow, Lynette Pei-Chi Shek, Elizabeth Huiwen Tham, Sylvie Alonso
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2016: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842600/immunogenicity-of-porcine-circovirus-type-2-nucleic-acid-vaccine-containing-cpg-motif-for-mice
#20
Jun Li, Jiang Yu, Shaojian Xu, Jianli Shi, Shengnan Xu, Xiaoyan Wu, Fang Fu, Zhe Peng, Lingling Zhang, Shuxuan Zheng, Xiaoyuan Yuan, Xiaoyan Cong, Wenbo Sun, Kaihui Cheng, Yijun Du, Jiaqiang Wu, Jinbao Wang
BACKGROUND: This study aimed at reseaching the immune effect of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) DNA vaccine containing CpG motif on mice. METHODS: A total of 40 6-week-old female BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups which were immunized by 18CpG-pVAX1-ORF2, pVAX1-ORF2, pVAX1 and PBS, respectively, and immunized again 2 weeks later. All mice were challenged with 0.2 mL PCV2 cells virulent strain SD (10(6.0) TCID50/mL) after 4 weeks. Average daily gain, blood antibody levels, microscopic changes and viremia were detected to estimate the effect of DNA vaccine...
November 14, 2016: Virology Journal
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