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Virology Journal

Mariana Kikuti, Laura B Tauro, Patrícia S S Moreira, Gúbio S Campos, Igor A D Paploski, Scott C Weaver, Mitermayer G Reis, Uriel Kitron, Guilherme S Ribeiro
BACKGROUND: Serologic detection of Zika virus (ZIKV) infections is challenging because of antigenic similarities among flaviviruses. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of commercial ZIKV IgM and IgG enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) kits. METHODS: We used sera from febrile patients with RT-PCR-confirmed ZIKV infection to determine sensitivity and sera from RT-PCR-confirmed dengue cases and blood donors, both of which were collected before ZIKV epidemics in Brazil (2009-2011 and 2013, respectively) to determine specificity...
July 13, 2018: Virology Journal
Shrikant Dasharath Warkad, Satish Balasaheb Nimse, Keum-Soo Song, Wasun Chantratita, Viroj Pongthanapisith, Laxman Uddhav Nawale, Taisun Kim
BACKGROUND: A treatment of HCV infection depends on the genotype and sub-genotype. Therefore, accurate HCV genotyping is critical for selecting the appropriate treatment regimen. METHOD: This study included 280 plasma samples to evaluate the performance of 6 HCV Genotyping 9G test. The performance of 6 HCV Genotyping 9G test for accurate detection of HCV 1a, 1b, 2, 3, 4, and 6 genotypes was evaluated by comparing it with LiPA 2.0 assay and sequencing. RESULTS: 6 HCV Genotyping 9G test and LiPA 2...
July 11, 2018: Virology Journal
Karol Stasiak, Magdalena Dunowska, Jerzy Rola
BACKGROUND: Equid herpesviruses (EHVs) are widespread in equine populations worldwide. While the infection with equine α-herpesviruses (EHV-1 and EHV-4) has been linked to several clinical outcomes, the pathogenic potential for equine γ-herpesviruses (EHV-2 and EHV-5) is still unclear. The objective of the current study was to determine the prevalence of infection with EHVs among Polish horses, to investigate factors associated with EHV infections among horses sampled, and to determine genetic variability within Polish EHV-2 isolates...
July 11, 2018: Virology Journal
Gentu Wu, Guixian Zheng, Qiao Hu, Mingge Ma, Mingjun Li, Xianchao Sun, Fei Yan, Ling Qing
BACKGROUND: Rice stripe virus (RSV) belongs to the genus Tenuivirus. It is transmitted by small brown planthoppers in a persistent and circulative-propagative manner and causes rice stripe disease (RSD). The NS3 protein of RSV, encoded by the viral strand of RNA3, is a viral suppressor of RNA silencing (VSR). NS3 plays a significant role in viral infection, and NS3-transgenic plants manifest resistance to the virus. METHODS: The stability and availability of NS3 produced by transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana was investigated by northern blot analysis...
June 25, 2018: Virology Journal
Flora Hoarau, Gildas Le Minter, Léa Joffrin, M Corrie Schoeman, Erwan Lagadec, Beza Ramasindrazana, Andréa Dos Santos, Steven M Goodman, Eduardo S Gudo, Patrick Mavingui, Camille Lebarbenchon
Astroviruses (AstVs) are responsible for infection of a large diversity of mammalian and avian species, including bats, aquatic birds, livestock and humans. We investigated AstVs circulation in bats in Mozambique and Mayotte, a small island in the Comoros Archipelago located between east Africa and Madagascar. Biological material was collected from 338 bats and tested for the presence of the AstV RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase gene with a pan-AstV semi-nested polymerase chain reaction assay. None of the 79 samples obtained from Mayotte bats (Pteropus seychellensis comorensis and Chaerephon pusillus) tested positive; however, 20...
June 20, 2018: Virology Journal
Liangliang Nan, Yunchao Liu, Pengchao Ji, Hua Feng, Chen Chen, Juan Wang, Dongmin Liu, Yinglei Cui, Yanwei Wang, Yafei Li, Enmin Zhou, Gaiping Zhang
Canine parvovirus (CPV) has been considered to be an important pathogen, which can cause acute infectious disease in canids. Although current vaccines are effective in preventing CPV infection, safety problems still remain unsolved. In this study, a subunit vaccine against CPV based on virus-like particles (VLPs) with good safety and immunogenicity is reported. Soluble CPV VP2 protein was produced by co-expression of chaperone trigger factor (Tf16) in Escherichia coli (E.coli), and assembled into CPV VLPs which could be affected by NaCl and pH...
June 19, 2018: Virology Journal
Lu Xia, Yunhan Yang, Jialu Wang, Yuchao Jing, Qian Yang
BACKGROUND: Pig diarrhea causes high mortality and large economic losses in the swine industry. Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) causes pig diarrhea, with 100% mortality in piglets less than 2 weeks old. No investigation has yet been made of the small intestine of piglets that survived infection by TGEV. METHODS: In this study, we evaluated the impact of TGEV infection on the small intestine of recovered pigs. RESULTS: Histological analyses showed that TGEV infection led to villi atrophy, and reduced villous height and crypt depth...
June 19, 2018: Virology Journal
Bin Zhu, Zhenni Zhu, Junzhong Wang, Shunmei Huang, Fanghui Li, Lu Wang, Yanan Liu, Qi Yan, Shunchang Zhou, Mengji Lu, Dongliang Yang, Baoju Wang
BACKGROUND: Chinese woodchucks (M. himalayana) were recently found to be susceptible to woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) infection. In this study, we aimed to determine the susceptibility to WHV infection of M. himalayana from different areas and their association with the animal genetic background exemplified by cytochrome B and MHC-DRB molecules. METHODS: Animals from four different areas in Qinghai province were inoculated with WHV59 strains. The virological markers including WHV surface antigen (WHsAg), WHV core antibody (WHcAb), and WHV DNA in serum were measured by ELISA and Real-time PCR, respectively...
June 18, 2018: Virology Journal
Maxine Zylberberg, Caroline Van Hemert, Colleen M Handel, Joseph L DeRisi
BACKGROUND: Avian keratin disorder (AKD) is an epizootic of debilitating beak deformities, first documented in black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) in Alaska during the late 1990s. Similar deformities have now been recorded in dozens of species of birds across multiple continents. Despite this, the etiology of AKD has remained elusive, making it difficult to assess the impacts of this disease on wild populations. We previously identified an association between infection with a novel picornavirus, Poecivirus, and AKD in a small cohort of black-capped chickadees...
June 15, 2018: Virology Journal
Amélie D Zaza, Cécile H Herbreteau, Christophe N Peyrefitte
BACKGROUND: Machupo virus (MACV) is a member of the Mammarenavirus genus, Arenaviridae family and is the etiologic agent of Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, which causes small outbreaks or sporadic cases. Several other arenaviruses in South America Junín virus (JUNV) in Argentina, Guanarito in Venezuela, Sabiá in Brazil and Chapare in Bolivia, also are responsible for human hemorrhagic fevers. Among these arenaviruses, JUNV caused thousands of human cases until 1991, when the live attenuated Candid #1 vaccine, was used...
June 7, 2018: Virology Journal
Arnaud G L'Huillier, Alireza Eshaghi, C Sarai Racey, Katherene Ogbulafor, Ernesto Lombos, Rachel R Higgins, David C Alexander, Erik Kristjanson, Jocelyn Maregmen, Jonathan B Gubbay, Tony Mazzulli
BACKGROUND: In September 2009, a mumps outbreak originated in New York and spread to Northeastern USA and Canada. This study compares the performance of different diagnostic testing methods used in Ontario and describes molecular characteristics of the outbreak strain. METHODS: Between September 2009 and February 2010, specimens from suspect cases were submitted to Public Health Ontario Laboratory for mumps serology, culture and/or real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) testing...
June 5, 2018: Virology Journal
Shibo Li, Yang Li, Qiujing Wang, Xuewen Yu, Miaomiao Liu, Haibo Xie, Liyong Qian, Ling Ye, Zhejuan Yang, Jianjing Zhang, Huimin Zhu, Wenhong Zhang
BACKGROUND: Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease caused by SFTS bunyavirus (SFTSV), a tick borne bunyavirus. However, Immunohistochemistry of SFTS patients are not well studied. METHODS: We obtained multiple of tissues from a fatal case with SFTS, including blood, lungs, kidneys, heart, and spleen. The blood samples were used to isolate the causative agent for detection of viral RNA and further expression of recombinant viral protein as primary antibody...
May 30, 2018: Virology Journal
Elena A Tyschik, Anastasiya S Rasskazova, Anna V Degtyareva, Denis V Rebrikov, Gennady T Sukhikh
BACKGROUND: Torque teno virus is a small chronically persisting circular negative ssDNA virus reaching near 100% prevalence. It is reported to be a marker for immune function in immunocompromised patients. The possibility of vertical maternal-fetal transmission remains controversial but incidence rate of TTV DNA in children increased with age. TTV dynamics well studied for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation as a predictor of post-transplant complications but there is no viral proliferation kinetics data for other patient groups or healthy individuals...
May 30, 2018: Virology Journal
Wenbo Long, Zixi Yang, Xiabin Li, Ming Chen, Jie Liu, Yuanxue Zhang, Xingwang Sun
BACKGROUND: Currently, the role of human papillomavirus (HPV)-58 in southwestern China has been unexplored. Although there is some controversy, it is proposed that the viral load of HPV correlates with the severity of intraepithelial lesions. METHODS: We identified 7747 patients from south Sichuan and adjacent regions who were diagnosed with HPV between 2013 and 2017. The HR-HPV subtype distribution was analyzed and the patient's viral loads were quantified using real-time RT-PCR...
May 25, 2018: Virology Journal
Qi Chen, Leyi Wang, Ying Zheng, Jianqiang Zhang, Baoqing Guo, Kyoung-Jin Yoon, Phillip C Gauger, Karen M Harmon, Rodger G Main, Ganwu Li
BACKGROUND: Emergence and re-emergence of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) in North America, Asia and Europe has caused severe economic loss to the global swine industry. However, the virome of PEDV infected pigs and its effect on disease severity remains unknown. The advancements of sequencing technology have made it possible to characterize the entire microbiome of different body sites for any host. METHODS: The objective of this study was to characterize the RNA virome in PEDV-positive pigs using the hypothesis-free metagenomics approach based on next-generation sequencing...
May 25, 2018: Virology Journal
Hao Wang, Weisha Liu, Meng Sun, Dubo Chen, Lingbing Zeng, Liqun Lu, Jing Xie
BACKGROUND: Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) hemorrhagic disease is caused by an acute infection with grass carp reovirus (GCRV). The frequent outbreaks of this disease have suppressed development of the grass carp farming industry. GCRV104, the representative strain of genotype III grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) reovirus, belongs to the Spinareovirinae subfamily and serves as a model for studying the strain of GCRV which encodes an outer-fiber protein. There is no commercially available vaccine for this genotype of GCRV...
May 24, 2018: Virology Journal
Ying Wei, Xiaoyu Han, Zhenyue Wang, Qinsheng Gu, Honglian Li, Linlin Chen, Bingjian Sun, Yan Shi
BACKGROUND: Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus (CCYV), a bipartite crinivirus, causes chlorotic leaf spots and yellowing symptoms on cucurbit leaves. We previously developed an infectious clone of CCYV. Limited work has been conducted on the construction of a crinivirus green fluorescence protein (GFP) expression vector to date. FINDING: We constructed a CCYV GFP expression vector using the "add a gene" strategy based on CCYV RNA2 cDNA constrcut. Three resultant clones, pCCYVGFPSGC , pCCYVGFPCGC , and pCCYVGFPCGS, were constructed with different promoters used to initiate GFP and CP expression...
May 24, 2018: Virology Journal
Xiang Yong Oong, Jack Bee Chook, Kim Tien Ng, Wei Zhen Chow, Kok Gan Chan, Nik Sherina Hanafi, Yong Kek Pang, Yoke Fun Chan, Adeeba Kamarulzaman, Kok Keng Tee
BACKGROUND: Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is established as one of the causative agents of respiratory tract infections. To date, there are limited reports that describe the effect of HMPV genotypes and/or viral load on disease pathogenesis in adults. This study aims to determine the role of HMPV genetic diversity and nasopharyngeal viral load on symptom severity in outpatient adults with acute respiratory tract infections. METHODS: Severity of common cold symptoms of patients from a teaching hospital was assessed by a four-category scale and summed to obtain the total symptom severity score (TSSS)...
May 23, 2018: Virology Journal
Mwathi Jane Wamaitha, Deepti Nigam, Solomon Maina, Francesca Stomeo, Anne Wangai, Joyce Njoki Njuguna, Timothy A Holton, Bramwel W Wanjala, Mark Wamalwa, Tanui Lucas, Appolinaire Djikeng, Hernan Garcia-Ruiz
BACKGROUND: Maize lethal necrosis is caused by a synergistic co-infection of Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) and a specific member of the Potyviridae, such as Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) or Johnson grass mosaic virus (JGMV). Typical maize lethal necrosis symptoms include severe yellowing and leaf drying from the edges. In Kenya, we detected plants showing typical and atypical symptoms. Both groups of plants often tested negative for SCMV by ELISA...
May 23, 2018: Virology Journal
Haiyan Yan, Huiqiang Wang, Linlin Ma, Xueping Ma, Jinqiu Yin, Shuo Wu, Hua Huang, Yuhuan Li
BACKGROUND: Artemisia scoparia Waldst and Kit is a famous traditional Chinese medicine widely distributed in Xinjiang, China. Flavonoids extracted from it exhibits inhibitory activities against several influenza virus strains. Despite this fact, the antiviral properties of CST, one of such flavonoids, against the influenza virus has not been reported. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the anti-influenza virus efficacy and antiviral mechanism of CST. METHODS: The inhibitory activity of CST against influenza viruses was assessed by using viral titers and performing Western blot, qRT-PCR, and immunofluorescence assays in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells and a human monocytic cell line (THP-1)...
May 21, 2018: Virology Journal
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