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Virology Journal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330505/mosquito-borne-inkoo-virus-in-northern-sweden-isolation-and-whole-genome-sequencing
#1
Olivia Wesula Lwande, Göran Bucht, Clas Ahlm, Kristoffer Ahlm, Jonas Näslund, Magnus Evander
BACKGROUND: Inkoo virus (INKV) is a less known mosquito-borne virus belonging to Bunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus, California serogroup. Studies indicate that INKV infection is mainly asymptomatic, but can cause mild encephalitis in humans. In northern Europe, the sero-prevalence against INKV is high, 41% in Sweden and 51% in Finland. Previously, INKV RNA has been detected in adult Aedes (Ae.) communis, Ae. hexodontus and Ae. punctor mosquitoes and Ae. communis larvae, but there are still gaps of knowledge regarding mosquito vectors and genetic diversity...
March 23, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327168/identification-of-two-novel-reassortant-avian-influenza-a-h5n6-viruses-in-whooper-swans-in-korea-2016
#2
Jipseol Jeong, Chanjin Woo, Hon S Ip, Injung An, Youngsik Kim, Kwanghee Lee, Seong-Deok Jo, Kidong Son, Saemi Lee, Jae-Ku Oem, Seung-Jun Wang, Yongkwan Kim, Jeonghwa Shin, Jonathan Sleeman, Weonhwa Jheong
BACKGROUND: On November 20, 2016 two novel strains of H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIVs) were isolated from three whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus) at Gangjin Bay in South Jeolla province, South Korea. Identification of HPAIVs in wild birds is significant as there is a potential risk of transmission of these viruses to poultry and humans. RESULTS: Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Gangjin H5N6 viruses classified into Asian H5 clade 2.3.4.4 lineage and were distinguishable from H5N8 and H5N1 HPAIVs previously isolated in Korea...
March 21, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320411/human-rotavirus-strains-circulating-in-venezuela-after-vaccine-introduction-predominance-of-g2p-4-and-reemergence-of-g1p-8
#3
Esmeralda Vizzi, Oscar A Piñeros, M Daniela Oropeza, Laura Naranjo, José A Suárez, Rixio Fernández, José L Zambrano, Argelia Celis, Ferdinando Liprandi
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus (RV) is the most common cause of severe childhood diarrhea worldwide. Despite Venezuela was among the first developing countries to introduce RV vaccines into their national immunization schedules, RV is still contributing to the burden of diarrhea. Concerns exist about the selective pressure that RV vaccines could exert on the predominant types and/or emergence of new strains. RESULTS: To assess the impact of RV vaccines on the genotype distribution 1 year after the vaccination was implemented, a total of 912 fecal specimens, collected from children with acute gastroenteritis in Caracas from February 2007 to April 2008, were screened, of which 169 (18...
March 21, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320407/association-between-sensitivity-of-viral-thymidine-kinase-associated-acyclovir-resistant-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-and-virulence
#4
Natsumi Omura, Hikaru Fujii, Tomoki Yoshikawa, Souichi Yamada, Shizuko Harada, Takuya Inagaki, Miho Shibamura, Haruko Takeyama, Masayuki Saijo
BACKGROUND: Acyclovir (ACV)-resistant (ACVr) herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infections are concern in immunocompromised patients. Most clinical ACVr HSV-1 isolates have mutations in the viral thymidine kinase (vTK) genes. The vTK-associated ACVr HSV-1 shows reduced virulence, but the association between the level of resistance and the virulence of the vTK-associated ACVr HSV-1 is still unclear. METHODS: The virulence in mice of 5 vTK-associated ACVr HSV-1 clones with a variety of ACV sensitivities, when inoculated through intracerebral and corneal routes, was evaluated in comparison with ACV-sensitive (ACVs) parent HSV-1 TAS...
March 21, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302145/genomic-organization-and-recombination-analysis-of-a-porcine-sapovirus-identified-from-a-piglet-with-diarrhea-in-china
#5
Jingjiao Li, Quan Shen, Wen Zhang, Tingting Zhao, Yi Li, Jing Jiang, Xiangqian Yu, Zhibo Guo, Li Cui, Xiuguo Hua
BACKGROUND: Sapovirus (SaV), a member of the family Caliciviridae, is an etiologic agent of gastroenteritis in humans and pigs. To date, both intra- and inter-genogroup recombinant strains have been reported in many countries except for China. Here, we report an intra-genogroup recombination of porcine SaV identified from a piglet with diarrhea of China. METHODS: A fecal sample from a 15-day-old piglet with diarrhea was collected from Shanghai, China. Common agents of gastroenteritis including porcine circovirus type 2, porcine rotavirus, porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus, porcine SaV, porcine norovirus, and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus were detected by RT-PCR or PCR method...
March 16, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302119/efficacy-of-an-inactivated-bivalent-vaccine-against-the-prevalent-strains-of-newcastle-disease-and-h9n2-avian-influenza
#6
Jing Zhao, Huiming Yang, Hongjun Xu, Zengbin Ma, Guozhong Zhang
BACKGROUND: Newcastle disease (ND) and avian influenza subtype H9N2 (H9N2 AI) are two of the most important diseases of poultry, causing severe economic losses in the global poultry industry. Vaccination is an effective way to prevent and control the spread of ND virus (NDV) and H9N2 AI virus (AIV), but the antigenic differences between the current circulating strains and the vaccine strains might account for recent ND and H9N2 AI outbreaks in vaccinated poultry flocks. METHODS: We developed an inactivated bivalent H9N2 and NDV vaccine based on the current prevalent strains of H9N2 AIV and NDV in China and evaluated its efficacy in chickens in this study...
March 16, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298229/a-novel-benzo-heterocyclic-amine-derivative-n30-inhibits-influenza-virus-replication-by-depression-of-inosine-5-monophospate-dehydrogenase-activity
#7
Jin Hu, Linlin Ma, Huiqiang Wang, Haiyan Yan, Dajun Zhang, Zhuorong Li, Jiandong Jiang, Yuhuan Li
BACKGROUD: Influenza virus is still a huge threat to the world-wide public health. Host inosine-5'- monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) involved in the synthesis of guanine nucleotides, is known to be a potential target to inhibit the replication of viruses. Herein, we evaluated antiviral activity of a benzo-heterocyclic amine derivative N30, which was designed to inhibit IMPDH. RESULTS: The results demonstrated that N30 inhibited the replication of H1N1, H3N2, influenza B viruses, including oseltamivir and amantadine resistant strains in vitro...
March 15, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292308/surveillance-of-avian-influenza-viruses-in-south-korea-between-2012-and-2014
#8
Eun-Kyoung Lee, Hyun-Mi Kang, Byung-Min Song, Yu-Na Lee, Gyeong-Beum Heo, Hee-Soo Lee, Youn-Jeong Lee, Jae-Hong Kim
BACKGROUND: National surveillance of avian influenza virus (AIV) in South Korea has been annually conducted for the early detection of AIV and responses to the introduction of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus. In this study, we report on a nationwide surveillance study of AIV in domestic poultry and wild birds in South Korea between 2012 and 2014. METHODS: During the surveillance programs between 2012 and 2014, 141,560 samples were collected. Of these, 102,199 were from poultry farms, 8215 were from LBMs, and 31,146 were from wild bird habitats...
March 14, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288679/muscovy-duck-reovirus-%C3%AF-ns-protein-triggers-autophagy-enhancing-virus-replication
#9
Yijian Wu, Longping Cui, Erpeng Zhu, Wuduo Zhou, Quanxi Wang, Xiaoping Wu, Baocheng Wu, Yifan Huang, Hung-Jen Liu
BACKGROUND: Muscovy duck reovirus (MDRV) causes high morbidity and mortality in Muscovy ducklings at 10 days old and can persist in an infected flock until the ducklings of 6 weeks old. It shares common physicochemical properties with avian reovirus (ARV) and differs in coding assignment and pathogenicity. The ARV p17 protein has been shown to trigger autophagy via activation multiple signaling pathways, which benefits virus replication. Since MDRV lacks the p17 protein, whether and how MDRV induces autophagy remains unknown...
March 14, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288662/a-mutant-tat-protein-inhibits-infection-of-human-cells-by-strains-from-diverse-hiv-1-subtypes
#10
Lina Rustanti, Hongping Jin, Mary Lor, Min Hsuan Lin, Daniel J Rawle, David Harrich
BACKGROUND: Nullbasic is a mutant HIV-1 Tat protein that inhibits HIV-1 replication via three independent mechanisms that disrupts 1) reverse transcription of the viral RNA genome into a DNA copy, 2) HIV-1 Rev protein function required for viral mRNA transport from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and 3) HIV-1 mRNA transcription by RNA Polymerase II. The Nullbasic protein is derived from the subtype B strain HIV-1BH10 and has only been tested against other HIV-1 subtype B strains. However, subtype B strains only account for ~10% of HIV-1 infections globally and HIV-1 Tat sequences vary between subtypes especially for subtype C, which is responsible for ~50% HIV-1 infection worldwide...
March 14, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283042/erratum-to-characterization-and-pathogenesis-of-aerosolized-eastern-equine-encephalitis-in-the-common-marmoset-callithrix-jacchus
#11
Aimee I Porter, Rebecca A Erwin-Cohen, Nancy Twenhafel, Taylor Chance, Steven B Yee, Steven J Kern, David Norwood, Laurie J Hartman, Michael D Parker, Pamela J Glass, Luis DaSilva
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 10, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279212/rna-extraction-method-is-crucial-for-human-papillomavirus-e6-e7-oncogenes-detection
#12
Nerea Fontecha, Maria Carmen Nieto, Daniel Andía, Ramón Cisterna, Miren Basaras
BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing plays a main role in the management of cervical cancer, however to improve the specificity in cervical screening, there is a need to develop and validate different approaches that can identify women at risk for progressive disease. Nowadays, mRNA expression of viral E6 and E7 HPV oncogenes stands up as a potential biomarker to improve cervical screening. We aimed to validate a method for RNA extraction, detect HPV mRNA expression and, assess the relationship between E6/E7 mRNA expression and pathology of patients' lesions and progression...
March 9, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274240/effect-of-48-week-pegylated-interferon-%C3%AE-2a-or-nucleos-t-ide-analogue-therapy-on-renal-function-in-chinese-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b
#13
Ye Zhang, Wei-Lu Zhang, Xiao-Wen Pang, Lin-Xu Wang, Xin Wei, Chang-Xing Huang, Xue-Fan Bai, Shuai Han, Lin-Na Liu, Jian-Qi Lian
BACKGROUND: Controversy remains as to whether antiviral agents contribute to renal dysfunction in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Thus, the aim of study was to analyze the changes in renal function of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients in response to anti-HBV therapy and the association with treatments. METHOD: We performed a retrospective observational cohort study to investigate factors associated with renal function in 249 Chinese CHB patients who were treated with pegylated interferon α-2a (PEG-IFN-α-2a) or nucleos(t)ide analogues for 48 weeks...
March 9, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274236/isolation-and-genetic-characterization-of-a-novel-2-2-1-2a-h5n1-virus-from-a-vaccinated-meat-turkeys-flock-in-egypt
#14
Ahmed H Salaheldin, Jutta Veits, Hatem S Abd El-Hamid, Timm C Harder, Davud Devrishov, Thomas C Mettenleiter, Hafez M Hafez, Elsayed M Abdelwhab
BACKGROUND: Vaccination of poultry to control highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 is used in several countries. HPAIV H5N1 of clade 2.2.1 which is endemic in Egypt has diversified into two genetic clades. Clade 2.2.1.1 represents antigenic drift variants in vaccinated commercial poultry while clade 2.2.1.2 variants are detected in humans and backyard poultry. Little is known about H5N1 infection in vaccinated turkeys under field conditions. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we describe an HPAI H5N1 outbreak in a vaccinated meat-turkey flock in Egypt...
March 9, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270156/a-rapid-virus-induced-gene-silencing-vigs-method-for-assessing-resistance-and-susceptibility-to-cassava-mosaic-disease
#15
Getu Beyene, Raj Deepika Chauhan, Nigel J Taylor
BACKGROUND: Cassava mosaic disease (CMD) is a major constraint to cassava production in sub-Saharan Africa. Under field conditions, evaluation for resistance to CMD takes 12-18 months, often conducted across multiple years and locations under pressure from whitefly-mediated transmission. Under greenhouse or laboratory settings, evaluation for resistance or susceptibility to CMD involves transmission of the causal viruses from an infected source to healthy plants through grafting, or by using Agrobacterium-mediated or biolistic delivery of infectious clones...
March 7, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264674/epstein-barr-virus-and-cytomegalovirus-infections-and-their-clinical-relevance-in-egyptian-leukemic-pediatric-patients
#16
Samah Aly Loutfy, Maha A Abo-Shadi, Mohamed Fawzy, Mohamed El-Wakil, Shimaa A Metwally, Manar M Moneer, Nasra F Abdel Fattah, Sara Kassem, Ahmed Elgebaly
BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections are environmental risk factors affecting the outcome of cancer due to an impairment in the cell-mediated immunity. Therefore, this study aimed to detect the frequency of EBV and CMV DNA and their association with clinical characteristics and outcome of pediatric leukemic patients. METHODS: Samples of 50 immunocompromised pediatric leukemic patients and 30 apparently healthy children were subjected to the amplification of EBV DNA by one version of PCR targeting the Bam H1 W region of the genomic region of EBV, and the amplification of CMV DNA by targeting the CMV UL97 genomic region by a second round PCR...
March 6, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259172/transcriptional-profiling-of-host-cell-responses-to-encephalomyocarditis-virus-emcv
#17
Jia Wei, Haixia Zhang, Xiangrong Li, Qiongyi Li, Zhongren Ma, Jialin Bai, Zilin Qiao, Ruofei Feng
BACKGROUD: Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) has been discovered on pig farms worldwide and can cause myocarditis in piglets and reproductive failure in sows. However, little is known about the host transcriptional responses to infection and host-pathogen interactions. METHODS: In this study, transcription profiling was performed by Illumina RNA-Sequencing (RNA-seq) to identify EMCV induced differentially expressed genes in BHK-21 cells at serial time points (12, 24, and 30 h post infection (hpi)), using mock infected cells as control...
March 4, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253901/the-intranasal-adjuvant-endocine%C3%A2-enhances-both-systemic-and-mucosal-immune-responses-in-aged-mice-immunized-with-influenza-antigen
#18
Tina Falkeborn, Jorma Hinkula, Marie Olliver, Alf Lindberg, Anna-Karin Maltais
Despite availability of annual influenza vaccines, influenza causes significant morbidity and mortality in the elderly. This is at least in part a result of immunosenescence; the age-dependent decrease in immunological competence that results in greater susceptibility to infections and reduced responses to vaccination. To improve protective immune responses in this age group, new vaccines strategies, such as the use of adjuvants, are needed. Here, we evaluated the mucosal vaccine adjuvant Endocine™, formulated with split influenza antigen and administered intranasally in aged (20-month old) mice...
March 3, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253898/assessment-of-contemporary-genetic-diversity-and-inter-taxa-inter-region-exchange-of-avian-paramyxovirus-serotype-1-in-wild-birds-sampled-in-north-america
#19
Andrew M Ramey, Iryna V Goraichuk, Joseph T Hicks, Kiril M Dimitrov, Rebecca L Poulson, David E Stallknecht, Justin Bahl, Claudio L Afonso
BACKGROUND: Avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV-1) viruses are globally distributed, infect wild, peridomestic, and domestic birds, and sometimes lead to outbreaks of disease. Thus, the maintenance, evolution, and spread of APMV-1 viruses are relevant to avian health. METHODS: In this study we sequenced the fusion gene from 58 APMV-1 isolates recovered from thirteen species of wild birds sampled throughout the USA during 2007-2014. We analyzed sequence information with previously reported data in order to assess contemporary genetic diversity and inter-taxa/inter-region exchange of APMV-1 in wild birds sampled in North America...
March 3, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241767/multiple-sclerosis-an-example-of-pathogenic-viral-interaction
#20
REVIEW
Walter Fierz
A hypothesis is formulated on viral interaction between HHV-6A and EBV as a pathogenic mechanism in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Evidence of molecular and genetic mechanisms suggests a link between HHV-6A infection and EBV activation in the brain of MS patients leading to intrathecal B-cell transformation. Consequent T-cell immune response against the EBV-infected cells is postulated as a pathogenic basis for inflammatory lesion formation in the brain of susceptible individuals. A further link between HHV-6A and EBV involves their induction of expression of the human endogenous retrovirus HERV-K18-encoded superantigen...
February 28, 2017: Virology Journal
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