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Virology Journal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052506/the-proposed-new-species-cacao-red-vein-virus-and-three-previously-recognized-badnavirus-species-are-associated-with-cacao-swollen-shoot-disease
#1
Nomatter Chingandu, Koffie Kouakou, Romain Aka, George Ameyaw, Osman A Gutierrez, Hans-Werner Herrmann, Judith K Brown
BACKGROUND: Cacao swollen shoot virus (CSSV), Cacao swollen shoot CD virus (CSSCDV), and Cacao swollen shoot Togo A virus (CSSTAV) cause cacao swollen shoot disease (CSSD) in West Africa. During 2000-2003, leaf and shoot-swelling symptoms and rapid tree death were observed in cacao in Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana. Molecular tests showed positive infection in only ~50-60% of symptomatic trees, suggesting the possible emergence of an unknown badnavirus. METHODS: The DNA virome was determined from symptomatic cacao samples using Illumina-Hi Seq, and sequence accuracy was verified by Sanger sequencing...
October 19, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041944/differential-expression-of-porcine-micrornas-in-african-swine-fever-virus-infected-pigs-a-proof-of-concept-study
#2
Fernando Núñez-Hernández, Lester Josué Pérez, Marta Muñoz, Gonzalo Vera, Francesc Accensi, Armand Sánchez, Fernando Rodríguez, José I Núñez
BACKGROUND: African swine fever (ASF) is a re-expanding devastating viral disease currently threatening the pig industry worldwide. MicroRNAs are a class of 17-25 nucleotide non- coding RNAs that have been shown to have critical functions in a wide variety of biological processes, such as cell differentiation, cell cycle regulation, carcinogenesis, apoptosis, regulation of immunity as well as in viral infections by cleavage or translational repression of mRNAs. Nevertheless, there is no information about miRNA expression in an ASFV infection...
October 17, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029641/sequence-specific-detection-of-different-strains-of-lcmv-in-a-single-sample-using-tentacle-probes
#3
Lina S Franco, Susan A Holechek, Michael R Caplan, Joseph N Blattman
BACKGROUND: Virus infections often result in quasispecies of viral strains that can have dramatic impacts on disease outcomes. However, sequencing of viruses to determine strain composition is time consuming and often cost-prohibitive. Rapid, cost-effective methods are needed for accurate measurement of virus diversity to understand virus evolution and can be useful for experimental systems. METHODS: We have developed a novel molecular method for sequence-specific detection of RNA virus genetic variants called Tentacle Probes...
October 13, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029634/is-mmtv-associated-with-human-breast-cancer-maybe-but-probably-not
#4
Raisa Perzova, Lynn Abbott, Patricia Benz, Steve Landas, Seema Khan, Jordan Glaser, Coleen K Cunningham, Bernard Poiesz
BACKGROUND: Conflicting results regarding the association of MMTV with human breast cancer have been reported. Published sequence data have indicated unique MMTV strains in some human samples. However, concerns regarding contamination as a cause of false positive results have persisted. METHODS: We performed PCR assays for MMTV on human breast cancer cell lines and fresh frozen and formalin fixed normal and malignant human breast epithelial samples. Assays were also performed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells from volunteer blood donors and subjects at risk for human retroviral infections...
October 13, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017599/detection-and-phylogenetic-analyses-of-spike-genes-in-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-strains-circulating-in-china-in-2016-2017
#5
Qiaoling Zhang, Xinsheng Liu, Yuzhen Fang, Peng Zhou, Yonglu Wang, Yongguang Zhang
BACKGROUND: Large-scale outbreaks of porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) have re-emerged in China in recent years. However, little is known about the genetic diversity and molecular epidemiology of field strains of PED virus (PEDV) in China in 2016-2017. To address this issue, in this study, 116 diarrhea samples were collected from pig farms in 6 Chinese provinces in 2016-2017 and were detected using PCR for main porcine enteric pathogens, including PEDV, porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) and porcine kobuvirus (PKV)...
October 10, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017555/hospital-visiting-pregnant-women-signal-an-increased-spread-of-hepatitis-c-infection-in-khyber-pakhtunkhwa-region-of-pakistan
#6
Zobia Afsheen, Bashir Ahmad, Shumaila Bashir
BACKGROUND: Seroprevalence of hepatitis C in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan was determined by screening blood samples of expectant mothers seeking antenatal care in gynecological units of district hospitals. The rationale behind this cohort study was that the availability of free-of-cost antenatal care in district hospitals brings expectant mothers from a broader geographical range in each district and thus provides a large sample-size of healthy pregnant women of known medical history for Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) surveillance...
October 10, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985762/a-study-of-epstein-barr-virus-infection-in-the-chinese-tree-shrew-tupaia-belangeri-chinensis
#7
Zhi Wang, Xiang Yi, Long Du, Hong Wang, Jie Tang, Menglin Wang, Chenglin Qi, Heng Li, Yongjing Lai, Wei Xia, Anzhou Tang
BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is closely associated with many human diseases, including a variety of deadly human malignant tumours. However, due to the lack of ideal animal models,the biological characteristics of EBV, particularly its function in tumourigenesis, have not been determined. Chinese tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis), which are similar to primates, have been used to establish a variety of animal models and have recently received much attention. Here, we established tree shrews as a model for EBV infection by intravenous injection...
October 6, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985745/mucus-and-mucins-do-they-have-a-role-in-the-inhibition-of-the-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#8
REVIEW
Anwar Suleman Mall, Habtom Habte, Yolanda Mthembu, Julia Peacocke, Corena de Beer
BACKGROUND: Mucins are large O-linked glycosylated proteins which give mucus their gel-forming properties. There are indications that mucus and mucins in saliva, breast milk and in the cervical plug inhibit the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) in an in vitro assay. Crude mucus gels form continuous layers on the epithelial surfaces of the major internal tracts of the body and protect these epithelial surfaces against aggressive luminal factors such as hydrochloric acid and pepsin proteolysis in the stomach lumen, the movement of hard faecal pellets in the colon at high pressure, the effects of shear against the vaginal epithelium during intercourse and the presence of foreign substances in the respiratory airways...
October 6, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978346/genetic-analysis-of-porcine-circovirus-type-2-from-pigs-affected-with-pmws-in-chile-reveals-intergenotypic-recombination
#9
Victor Neira, Natalia Ramos, Rodrigo Tapia, Juan Arbiza, Andrónico Neira-Carrillo, Manuel Quezada, Álvaro Ruiz, Sergio A Bucarey
BACKGROUND: Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is a very small, non-enveloped and icosahedral virus, with circular single stranded DNA genome. This virus is the most ubiquitous and persistent pathogen currently affecting the swine industry worldwide. PCV2 has been implicated as the major causative agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), a disease which is characterized by severe immunosuppressive effects in the porcine host. Worldwide PCV2 isolates have been classified into four different genotypes, PCV2a, PCV2b, PCV2c and PCVd...
October 4, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974241/recombinant-newcastle-disease-virus-rl-rvg-enhances-the-apoptosis-and-inhibits-the-migration-of-a549-lung-adenocarcinoma-cells-via-regulating-alpha-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-in-vitro
#10
Yulan Yan, Chunxiang Su, Min Hang, Hua Huang, Yinghai Zhao, Xiaomei Shao, Xuefeng Bu
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study were to investigate the possible pro-apoptotic mechanisms of the recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain rL-RVG, which expresses the rabies virus glycoprotein, in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells via the regulation of alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7 nAChRs) and to analyze the relationships between α7 nAChR expression in lung cancer and the clinical pathological features. METHODS: α7 nAChR expression in A549, LΑ795, and small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) cells, among others, was detected using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)...
October 3, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969658/characterization-and-epitope-mapping-of-dengue-virus-type-1-specific-monoclonal-antibodies
#11
Wen-Hung Chen, Feng-Pai Chou, Yu-Kuo Wang, Sheng-Cih Huang, Chuan-Hung Cheng, Tung-Kung Wu
BACKGROUND: Dengue virus (DV) infection causes a spectrum of clinical diseases ranging from dengue fever to a life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever. Four distinct serotypes (DV1-4), which have similar genome sequences and envelope protein (E protein) antigenic properties, were divided. Among these 4 serotypes, DV1 usually causes predominant infections and fast diagnosis and effective treatments are urgently required to prevent further hospitalization and casualties. METHODS: To develop antibodies specifically targeting and neutralizing DV1, we immunized mice with UV-inactivated DV1 viral particles and recombinant DV1 E protein from residue 1 to 395 (E395), and then generated 12 anti-E monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) as the candidates for a series of characterized assays such as ELISA, dot blot, immunofluorescence assay, western blot, and foci forming analyses...
October 2, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969654/viral-metagenomics-of-aphids-present-in-bean-and-maize-plots-on-mixed-use-farms-in-kenya-reveals-the-presence-of-three-dicistroviruses-including-a-novel-big-sioux-river-virus-like-dicistrovirus
#12
Francis O Wamonje, George N Michuki, Luke A Braidwood, Joyce N Njuguna, J Musembi Mutuku, Appolinaire Djikeng, Jagger J W Harvey, John P Carr
BACKGROUND: Aphids are major vectors of plant viruses. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) are important crops that are vulnerable to aphid herbivory and aphid-transmitted viruses. In East and Central Africa, common bean is frequently intercropped by smallholder farmers to provide fixed nitrogen for cultivation of starch crops such as maize. We used a PCR-based technique to identify aphids prevalent in smallholder bean farms and next generation sequencing shotgun metagenomics to examine the diversity of viruses present in aphids and in maize leaf samples...
October 2, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962633/identification-of-a-novel-linear-b-cell-epitope-using-a-monoclonal-antibody-against-the-carboxy-terminus-of-the-canine-distemper-virus-nucleoprotein-and-sequence-analysis-of-the-identified-epitope-in-different-cdv-isolates
#13
Li Yi, Zhigang Cao, Mingwei Tong, Yuening Cheng, Yong Yang, Shuang Li, Jianke Wang, Peng Lin, Yaru Sun, Miao Zhang, Shipeng Cheng
BACKGROUND: The Nucleoprotein (NP) is the most abundant and highly immunogenic protein in canine distemper virus (CDV), playing an important role in CDV viral replication and assembly. RESULTS: In this study, a specific monoclonal antibody, named C8, was produced against the NP protein C terminal (amino acids 401-523). A linear N protein epitope was identified by subjecting a series of partially overlapping synthesized peptides to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis...
September 29, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962631/phylogenetic-antigenic-and-biological-characterization-of-pigeon-paramyxovirus-type-1-circulating-in-china
#14
Xusheng Qiu, Chunchun Meng, Yuan Zhan, Shengqing Yu, Shichao Li, Tingting Ren, Weifeng Yuan, Shuqin Xu, Yingjie Sun, Lei Tan, Cuiping Song, Ying Liao, Zhuang Ding, Xiufan Liu, Chan Ding
BACKGROUND: For many years, ND has been one of the most important infectious pigeon diseases in China. In recent years, a high mortality has been observed in ND-infected pigeons in China. Mortality is from 40% to 80% or 100% in some cases. METHODS: The full-length genomes of four pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (PPMV-1) strains, which were isolated from infected pigeons in China in 2012 and 2013, were sequenced and analyzed to determine the phylogenetic characteristics of PPMV-1 circulating in pigeons of China in recent years...
September 29, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946881/two-mutations-in-the-hr2-region-of-newcastle-disease-virus-fusion-protein-with-a-cleavage-motif-rrqrrl-are-critical-for-fusogenic-activity
#15
Yanhong Wang, Youkun Bi, Wanqi Yu, Ning Wei, Wenbin Wang, Qiaolin Wei, Xinglong Wang, Shuxia Zhang, Zengqi Yang, Sa Xiao
BACKGROUND: Newcastle disease virus (NDV) causes severe diseases in avian species. Its fusion protein cleavage site (Fcs) is a major contributor to virulence and membrane fusion. Previous studies showed that a change from phenylalanine (F) to lysine (L) at position 117 of the virulent strain fusion protein, which has the polybasic amino acid Fcs motif "(112)RRQKR↓F(117)", blocked syncytium formation. However, we observed that F proteins of the virulent strain F48E9 and avirulent strain LaSota substituted with an identical cleavage motif, "(112)RRQRR↓L(117)", induced extensive and slight syncytium formation, respectively...
September 25, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938887/development-of-molecular-confirmation-tools-for-swift-and-easy-rabies-diagnostics
#16
Kore Schlottau, Conrad M Freuling, Thomas Müller, Martin Beer, Bernd Hoffmann
BACKGROUND: As rabies still represents a major public threat with tens of thousands of deaths per year, particularly in developing countries, adequate surveillance based on rapid and reliable rabies diagnosis for both humans and animals is essential. Rabies diagnosis relies on highly sensitive and specific laboratory tests for detection of viral antigens. Among those tests, at present the immunofluorescence antibody test is the "gold standard test" for rabies diagnosis, followed by virus isolation in either mice or cell culture...
September 22, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931412/molecular-characterization-of-the-duck-enteritis-virus-us10-protein
#17
Daixi Zhang, Maoyin Lai, Anchun Cheng, Mingshu Wang, Ying Wu, Qiao Yang, Mafeng Liu, Dekang Zhu, Renyong Jia, Shun Chen, Kunfeng Sun, Xinxin Zhao, Xiaoyue Chen
BACKGROUND: There is little information regarding the duck enteritis virus (DEV) US10 gene and its molecular characterization. METHODS: Duck enteritis virus US10 was amplified and cloned into the recombinant vector pET32a(+). The recombinant US10 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 cells and used to immunize rabbits for the preparation of polyclonal antibodies. The harvested rabbit antiserum against DEV US10 was detected and analyzed by agar immunodiffusion...
September 20, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927425/erratum-to-metabolomics-of-rhabdomyosarcoma-cell-during-echovirus-30-infection
#18
Sarika Tiwari, Tapan N Dhole
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 19, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923111/a-novel-coltivirus-related-virus-isolated-from-free-tailed-bats-from-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire-is-able-to-infect-human-cells-in-vitro
#19
Sabrina Weiss, Piotr Wojtek Dabrowski, Andreas Kurth, Siv Aina J Leendertz, Fabian H Leendertz
BACKGROUND: Zoonotic transmission events play a major role in the emergence of novel diseases. While such events are virtually impossible to predict, wildlife screening for potential emerging pathogens can be a first step. Driven by recent disease epidemics like severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and Ebola, bats have gained special interest as reservoirs of emerging viruses. METHODS: As part of a bigger study investigating pathogens in African bats we screened animals for the presence of known and unknown viruses...
September 18, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923071/characteristics-of-influenza-h13n8-subtype-virus-firstly-isolated-from-qinghai-lake-region-china
#20
Jie Dong, Hong Bo, Ye Zhang, Libo Dong, Shumei Zou, Weijuan Huang, Jia Liu, Dayan Wang, Yuelong Shu
BACKGROUND: Since the highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza caused thousands of deaths of wild bird in this area in 2005, Qinghai Lake in China has become a hot spot for study of the influence of avian influenza to migratory wild birds. However, the ecology and evolution of low pathogenic avian influenza virus in this region are limited. This project-based avian influenza surveillance in Qinghai lake region was initiated in year 2012. METHOD: Samples of wild bird feces and lake surface water were collected in Qinghai Lake in year 2012...
September 18, 2017: Virology Journal
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