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Virology Journal

Xiaowen Lv, Huanru Wang, Airong Su, Shijie Xu, Ying Chu
BACKGROUND: The pattern recognition receptors (PPRs) are the earliest phase of the host defense against pathogens in genital epithelium, and toll-like receptors (TLRs) are best characterized PPRs mediating innate immune responses. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), a member of herpesviridae family, causes one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infection in the world. In this paper, we described that HSV-2 infection would induce activator protein 1 (AP-1) via TLR4-MyD88/TRIF pathway in human genital epithelial cell...
November 12, 2018: Virology Journal
Joachim Denner
BACKGROUND: Xenotransplantation using pig cells, tissues and organs may help to overcome the shortage of human tissues and organs for the treatment of tissue and organ failure. Progress in the prevention of immunological rejection using genetically modified pigs and new, more effective, immunosuppression regimens will allow clinical application of xenotransplantation in near future. However, xenotransplantation may be associated with the transmission of potentially zoonotic porcine microorganisms...
November 8, 2018: Virology Journal
Guoyao Ma, Lin Chen, Jing Luo, Bo Wang, Chengmin Wang, Meng Li, Chengmei Huang, Juan Du, Jiajun Ma, Yungfu Chang, Hongxuan He
Influenza A virus (IAV) is an important pathogen that poses a severe threat to the health of humans. Nucleoprotein (NP) of IAV plays crucial roles in the viral life cycle by interacting with various cellular factors. Histone Acetyl Transferase TIP60 is a key target of several viral proteins during infection, including HIV-1 Tat, HPV E6, HTLV-1 p30II and HCMV UL27 proteins. However, Whether the interaction between the IAV NP and TIP60, and the role of TIP60 in IAV life cycle are largely unknown. Here, we showed that IAV infection up-regulated TIP60 protein and RNA expression...
November 8, 2018: Virology Journal
Yifeng Chen, Zhibang Zhang, Jie Li, Yueyi Gao, Lei Zhou, Xinna Ge, Jun Han, Xin Guo, Hanchun Yang
BACKGROUND: Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea (PED) is an acute and highly contagious enteric disease caused by PED virus (PEDV), characterized by vomitting, watery diarrhea and fatal dehydration with high mortality in sucking piglets of one week of age. Although PEDV induced cell apoptosis has been established in vitro and in vivo, the functional protein that contributes to this event remains unclear. METHODS: The activation or cleavage of main apoptosis-associated molecular such as AIFM1, caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9 and PARP in PEDV infected host cells were analyzed by western blotting...
November 7, 2018: Virology Journal
Linlin Song, Ximeng Han, Cunyu Jia, Xin Zhang, Yunjie Jiao, Taofeng Du, Shuqi Xiao, Julian A Hiscox, En-Min Zhou, Yang Mu
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus(PRRSV) is an important immunosuppressive virus which can suppresses infected cells proliferation. In this work, we examined PRRSV ability to manipulate cell cycle progression of MARC-145 cells and explored the potential molecular mechanisms. The results showed that PRRSV infection imposed a growth-inhibitory effect on MARC-145 cells by inducing cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase. This arrest was due to the significant decrease of Cdc2-cyclinB1 complex activity in PRRSV-infected cells and the activity reduction was a result of Cdc2 Tyr15 phosphorylation and the accumulation of Cdc2 and cyclinB1 in the nucleus...
November 6, 2018: Virology Journal
Shuangshuang Chen, Nannan Yu, Shaohuan Yang, Baoping Zhong, Hanhong Lan
BACKGROUND: Viral disease has become the most severe constraint for the cultivation and production of Passiflora edulis in China. The infection of Telosma mosaic virus (TeMV), a potyvirus, and its effects on the phytochemical components of P. edulis remain largely unknown in China. METHODS: P. edulis plants showing distorted leaves and severe mosaic skin on green fruit were identified with TeMV infection through traditional transmission electron microscopy, RT-PCR and modern small RNA sequencing (sRNA-seq) platform...
November 1, 2018: Virology Journal
Zhi-Shan Feng, Li Zhao, Ji Wang, Fang-Zhou Qiu, Meng-Chuan Zhao, Le Wang, Su-Xia Duan, Rui-Qing Zhang, Chen Chen, Ju-Ju Qi, Tao Fan, Gui-Xia Li, Xue-Jun Ma
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human Rhinovirus (HRV) and human Metapneumo Virus (HMPV) are important viral pathogens causing acute respiratory tract infections in the hospitalized patients. Sensitive and accurate detection of RSV, HRV and HMPV is necessary for clinical diagnosis and treatment. RESULTS: A locked nucleic acid (LNA)-based multiplex closed one-tube nested real-time RT-PCR (mOTNRT-PCR) assay was developed for simultaneous detection of RSV, HRV and HMPV...
October 30, 2018: Virology Journal
Ajmal Akbari, Davy Vanden Broeck, Ina Benoy, Elizaveta Padalko, Johannes Bogers, Marc Arbyn
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer screening with assays detecting DNA of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) types is more effective than cytology-based screening. This study completes the diagnostic accuracy assessment conducted previously within the framework of VALGENT-2 (Validation of HPV genotyping Tests) and aims to determine whether the reproducibility of Xpert HPV is in line with international validation criteria. METHODS: Validation of new hrHPV DNA assays requires demonstration of good reproducibility and non-inferior clinical accuracy for cervical precancer compared to a standard comparator assay...
October 29, 2018: Virology Journal
Aneta Pluta, Marzena Rola-Łuszczak, Renée N Douville, Jacek Kuźmak
BACKGROUND: Limited data are available on the incidence of variations in nucleotide sequences of long terminal repeat (LTR) regions of Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV). Consequently, the possible impact of SNPs on BLV LTR function are poorly elucidated. Thus, a detailed and representative study of full-length LTR sequences obtained from sixty-four BLV isolates from different geographical regions of Poland, Moldova, Croatia, Ukraine and Russia were analyzed for their genetic variability. METHODS: Overlap extension PCR, sequencing and Bayesian phylogenetic reconstruction of LTR sequences were performed...
October 25, 2018: Virology Journal
Haibo Wu, Fan Yang, Fumin Liu, Rufeng Lu, Xiuming Peng, Bin Chen, Hangping Yao, Nanping Wu
BACKGROUND: The H6N1 subtype of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) can infect people with an influenza-like illness; the H6N1 viruses possess the ability for zoonotic transmission from avians into mammals, and possibly pose a threat to human health. METHODS: In 2017, live poultry markets (LPMs) in Zhejiang Province were surveyed for AIVs. To better understand the genetic relationships between these strains from Eastern China and other AIVs, all gene segments of these strains were sequenced and compared with sequences available in GenBank...
October 24, 2018: Virology Journal
Pengfei Li, Xiangle Zhang, Weijun Cao, Fan Yang, Xiaoli Du, Zhengwang Shi, Miaotao Zhang, Xiangtao Liu, Zixiang Zhu, Haixue Zheng
BACKGROUND: Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) is a key cytosolic receptor of the innate immune system. Seneca valley virus (SVV) is a newly emerging RNA virus that infects pigs causing significant economic losses in pig industry. RIG-I plays different roles during different viruses infections. The role of RIG-I in SVV-infected cells remains unknown. Understanding of the role of RIG-I during SVV infection will help to clarify the infection process of SVV in the infected cells. METHODS: In this study, we generated a RIG-I knockout (KO) porcine kidney PK-15 cell line using the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein-9 nuclease (Cas9) genome editing tool...
October 23, 2018: Virology Journal
Bo Wang, Olusola Anuoluwapo Akanbi, Dominik Harms, Olufisayo Adesina, Folakemi Abiodun Osundare, Dhamari Naidoo, Isabel Deveaux, Opeayo Ogundiran, Uzoma Ugochukwu, Nwando Mba, Chikwe Ihekweazu, C-Thomas Bock
BACKGROUND: In 2017 the Nigerian Ministry of Health notified the World Health Organization (WHO) of an outbreak of hepatitis E located in the north-east region of the country with 146 cases with 2 deaths. The analysis of the hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotypes responsible for the outbreak revealed the predominance of HEV genotypes 1 (HEV-1) and 2 (HEV-2). Molecular data of HEV-2 genomes are limited; therefore we characterized a HEV-2 strain of the outbreak in more detail. FINDING: The full-length genome sequence of an HEV-2 strain (NG/17-0500) from the outbreak was amplified using newly designed consensus primers...
October 23, 2018: Virology Journal
Li-Li Pang, Meng-Xuan Wang, Xiao-Man Sun, Yue Yuan, Yu Qing, Yan Xin, Jia-Yan Zhang, Dan-di Li, Zhao-Jun Duan
BACKGROUND: Rotaviruses (RVs) are a major cause of acute children gastroenteritis. The rotavirus P [10] belongs to P[I] genogroup of group A rotaviruses that mainly infect animals, while the rotavirus P [10] was mainly identified from human infection. The rotavirus P [10] is an unusual genotype and the recognition pattern of cellular receptors remains unclear. METHODS: We expressed and purified the RV P [10] VP8* protein and investigated the saliva and oligosaccharide binding profiles of the protein...
October 19, 2018: Virology Journal
Sarika Tiwari, Tapan N Dhole
BACKGROUND: The Enterovirus (EV) surveillance system is inadequate in densely populated cities in India. EV can be shed in feces for several weeks; these viruses are not easily inactivated and may persist in sewage for long periods. Surveillance and epidemiological study of EV-related disease is necessary. METHODS: In this study, we compare the EV found in sewage with clinically isolated samples. Tissue culture was used for isolation of the virus and serotype confirmed by enterovirus neutralization tests...
October 16, 2018: Virology Journal
Miaomiao Zhang, Zhuotao Fu, Jiantao Chen, Boqiang Zhu, Ye Cheng, Linchun Fu
BACKGROUND: Abnormally increased immune activation is one of the main pathological features of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). This study aimed to determine whether long-term nonprogression (LTNP) suppresses the upregulation of immune activation and to elucidate the mechanisms whereby the LTNP state is maintained. METHODS: For this study we selected 4 rhesus macaques(RMs) infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) that were long-term nonprogressors (LTNP); for comparison we chose 4 healthy RMs that were seronegative for SIV (hereafter referred to as the Control group), and 4 progressing infection (Progressive group) SIV RMs...
October 16, 2018: Virology Journal
Hatairat Lerdsamran, Jarunee Prasertsopon, Anek Mungaomklang, Chompunuch Klinmalai, Pirom Noisumdaeng, Kantima Sangsiriwut, Boonrat Tassaneetrithep, Ratigorn Guntapong, Sopon Iamsirithaworn, Pilaipan Puthavathana
BACKGROUND: Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is endemic among population of young children in Thailand. The disease is mostly caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16). METHODS: This study conducted serosurveillance for neutralizing (NT) antibodies to EV71 subgenotypes B5 and C4a, and to CA16 subgenotypes B1a and B1b, in 579 subjects of various ages using a microneutralization assay in human rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells. These test viruses were the major circulating subgenotypes associated with HFMD in Thailand during the study period...
October 16, 2018: Virology Journal
Dora Sviben, Dubravko Forcic, Beata Halassy, Günter Allmaier, Martina Marchetti-Deschmann, Marija Brgles
BACKGROUND: Measles (MEV) and mumps virus (MUV) are enveloped, non-segmented, negative single stranded RNA viruses of the family Paramyxoviridae, and are the cause of measles and mumps, respectively, both preventable by vaccination. Aside from proteins coded by the viral genome, viruses are considered to contain host cell proteins (HCPs). The presence of extracellular vesicles (ECVs), which are often co-purified with viruses due to their similarity in size, density and composition, also contributes to HCPs detected in virus preparations, and this has often been neglected...
October 16, 2018: Virology Journal
Charlotte Pronier, Sarrah Boukthir, Laura Courtellemont, Gisèle Lagathu, Anne Maillard, Vincent Thibault
BACKGROUND: Recent systems for Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1) viral load (VL) monitoring allow one-by-one analysis and fast turn-around-time for results. VL measurement on two rapid recently commercialized systems, GeneXpert (Cepheid) and Veris (Beckman Coulter) was compared to classical methods. METHODS: Plasma specimen from HIV-1 (group M) positive patients (n = 129) initially quantified with Abbott RealTime HIV-1 and Generic HIV-VL Biocentric assays were retrospectively tested with GeneXpert and Veris...
October 11, 2018: Virology Journal
Lívia Sacchetto, Danielle Alves Gomes Zauli, Galileu Barbosa Costa, Sarah Anne J Guagliardo, Luige Biciati Alvim, Feliciana Lage de Oliveira Marinho, Jônatas Santos Abrahão, Giliane de Souza Trindade, Erna Geessien Kroon, Elvis Cristian Cueva Mateo, Betânia Paiva Drumond
BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) became a global human health concern owing to its rapid spread worldwide and its association with congenital and neurological disorders. The current epidemiological profile of arboviruses in Brazil is characterized by widespread co-circulation of Dengue virus, Chikungunya virus, and ZIKV throughout the country. These viruses cause acute diseases frequently with overlapping symptoms, which could result in an inaccurate diagnosis based solely on clinical and epidemiological grounds...
October 11, 2018: Virology Journal
Hitomi Kinoshita, Kazuo Nakamichi, Chang-Kweng Lim, Mutsuyo Takayama-Ito, Lixin Wang, Itoe Iizuka, Ichiro Kurane, Masayuki Saijo
In the original publication of article [1], '20 × 101 copies', which is in the sentence 'As seen in Fig. 4, the sensitivity of the specimens containing equal to or more than 20 × 101 copies in 2 μL of extracted DNA (equivalent to ≥3.0 × 103 copies/mL CSF) was 100% (29/29)' changes to '2.0 × 101 copies' in results section. The publisher apologizes to the readers and authors for the inconvenience.
October 8, 2018: Virology Journal
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