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Nutrition & Metabolism

Emily Urry, Alexander Jetter, Hans-Peter Landolt
BACKGROUND: Coffee consumption is a known inducer of cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) enzyme activity. We recently observed that a group of type-2 diabetes patients consumed more caffeine (coffee) on a daily basis than non-type-2 diabetes controls. Here, we investigated whether type-2 diabetes cases may metabolize caffeine faster than non-type-2 diabetes controls. METHODS: To estimate CYP1A2 enzyme activity, an established marker of caffeine metabolism, we quantified the paraxanthine/caffeine concentration ratio in saliva in 57 type-2 diabetes and 146 non-type-2 diabetes participants in a case-control field study...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
Sok Kuan Wong, Kok-Yong Chin, Farihah Hj Suhaimi, Ahmad Fairus, Soelaiman Ima-Nirwana
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) consists of several medical conditions that collectively predict the risk for cardiovascular disease better than the sum of individual conditions. The risk of developing MetS in human depends on synergy of both genetic and environmental factors. Being a multifactorial condition with alarming rate of prevalence nowadays, establishment of appropriate experimental animal models mimicking the disease state in humans is crucial in order to solve the difficulties in evaluating the pathophysiology of MetS in human...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
Stuart M Phillips
Protein supplementation during resistance exercise training augments hypertrophic gains. Protein ingestion and the resultant hyperaminoacidemia provides the building blocks (indispensable amino acids - IAA) for, and also triggers an increase in, muscle protein synthesis (MPS), suppression of muscle protein breakdown (MPB), and net positive protein balance (i.e., MPS > MPB). The key amino acid triggering the rise in MPS is leucine, which stimulates the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex-1, a key signalling protein, and triggers a rise in MPS...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
Haiyan Zhang, Wen-Jun Shen, Yihang Li, Alex Bittner, Stefanie Bittner, Juveria Tabassum, Yuan F Cortez, Fredric B Kraemer, Salman Azhar
Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), the main metabolite of Creosote Bush, has been shown to have profound effects on the core components of metabolic syndrome, including lowering of blood glucose, free fatty acids and triglyceride levels, attenuating elevated blood pressure in several rodent models of dyslipidemia, and improving body weight, insulin resistance, diabetes and hypertension. In the present study, a high-fructose diet fed rat model of hypertriglyceridemia, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis was employed to investigate the global transcriptional changes in the lipid metabolizing pathways in three insulin sensitive tissues: liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in response to chronic dietary administration of NDGA...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
C E Geisler, C Hepler, M R Higgins, B J Renquist
BACKGROUND: The increased incidence of obesity and associated metabolic diseases has driven research focused on genetically or pharmacologically alleviating metabolic dysfunction. These studies employ a range of fasting-refeeding models including 4-24 h fasts, "overnight" fasts, or meal feeding. Still, we lack literature that describes the physiologically relevant adaptations that accompany changes in the duration of fasting and re-feeding. Since the liver is central to whole body metabolic homeostasis, we investigated the timing of the fast-induced shift toward glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, and ketogenesis and the meal-induced switch toward glycogenesis and away from ketogenesis...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
Jocelyn L Tan-Shalaby, Jennifer Carrick, Krystal Edinger, Dana Genovese, Andrew D Liman, Vida A Passero, Rashmikant B Shah
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/s12986-016-0113-y.].
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
Beatriz P Costa, Paulo Martins, Carla Veríssimo, Marta Simões, Marisa Tomé, Manuela Grazina, Jorge Pimentel, Francisco Castro-Sousa
BACKGROUND: Arginine is an amino acid determinant in the metabolic, immune and reparative responses to severe trauma. The present study aims to determine argininemia and plasma arginine bioavailability (PAB) in critical trauma patients and to analyze its correlation with prognosis. METHODS: A prospective study of 23 critical trauma patients was undertaken. Aminoacidemias were determined, by ion exchange chromatography, at admission and in the first and third days and compared with those of 11 healthy individuals...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
Jing Cen, Ernest Sargsyan, Peter Bergsten
BACKGROUND: Free fatty acids (FFAs) acutely stimulate insulin secretion from pancreatic islets. Conflicting results have been presented regarding this effect at non-stimulatory glucose concentration, however. The aim of our study was to investigate how long-chain FFAs affect insulin secretion from isolated human pancreatic islets in the presence of physiologically fasting glucose concentrations and to explore the contribution of mitochondria to the effects on secretion. METHODS: Insulin secretion from human pancreatic islets was measured from short-term static incubation or perfusion system at fasting glucose concentration (5...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
Len H Storlien, Yan Y Lam, Ben J Wu, Linda C Tapsell, Arthur B Jenkins
BACKGROUND: Dietary n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have an impact on insulin secretion and sensitivity but whether and how these may be related to maternal glucose homeostasis during pregnancy is unclear. METHODS: Female Wistar rats (240-250 g) were assigned to laboratory CHOW or high fat diets rich in either n-6 (safflower oil; n-6 group) or n-6 + n-3 (safflower oil + fish oil; n-3 group) PUFAs. After 10 days half of the animals in each diet group were inseminated and confirmed pregnant...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
Maria Kulecka, Agnieszka Paziewska, Natalia Zeber-Lubecka, Filip Ambrozkiewicz, Michal Kopczynski, Urszula Kuklinska, Kazimiera Pysniak, Marta Gajewska, Michal Mikula, Jerzy Ostrowski
BACKGROUND: Transplanting a fecal sample from lean, healthy donors to obese recipients has been shown to improve metabolic syndrome symptoms. We therefore examined the gut microbiota in mice after administering a long-term, high-fat diet (HFD) supplemented with feces from lean mice through the fecal-oral route. METHODS: C57BL6/W mice were allowed to adapt to a non-specific pathogen free (SFP) environment for 2 weeks before being divided into three groups of 16 animals...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
Lin Xu, Li Wang, JianHua Wang, ZhiQiang Zhu, Ge Chang, Ying Guo, XinLi Tian, Bo Niu
BACKGROUND: Folate deficiency is closely related to the development of neural tube defects (NTDs). However, the exact mechanism is not completely understood. This study aims to induce murine NTDs by inhibiting one of the folate metabolic pathways, de novo purine synthesis and preliminarily investigate the potential mechanisms. The key enzyme, glycinamide ribonucleotide formyl transferase (GARFT) was inhibited by a specific inhibitor, lometrexol (DDATHF) in the pregnant mice. METHODS: Pregnant mice were intraperitoneally injected with various doses of DDATHF on gestational day 7...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
Kemoy Harris, Neeraj Desai, Madhu Gupta, Xiangying Xue, Prodyot K Chatterjee, Burton Rochelson, Christine N Metz
BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity may program the fetus and increase the susceptibility of the offspring to adult diseases. Metformin crosses the placenta and has been associated with decreased inflammation and reversal of fatty liver in obese leptin-deficient mice. We investigated the effects of metformin on maternal and fetal lipid metabolism and hepatic inflammation using a rat model of diet-induced obesity during pregnancy. METHODS: Female Wistar rats (6-7 weeks old) were fed normal or high calorie diets for 5 weeks...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
Lora J Rogers, Alexei G Basnakian, Mohammed S Orloff, Baitang Ning, Aiwei Yao-Borengasser, Vinay Raj, Susan Kadlubar
BACKGROUND: 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo(4,5-b)pyridine (PhIP), a heterocyclic aromatic amine (HCA) formed in meat that is cooked at high temperatures and then ingested, can potentially be retained in human adipose tissues. METHODS: To determine if PhIP is bioactive in the adipocyte, we exposed a human adipocyte cell line,HepG2 and Caco-2 cells to low dose PhIP. Uptake and retention of PhIP was determined and cytotoxicity was assessed by the TUNEL assay. Relative expression of PhIP-activating genes (CYP1A1, CYP1A2, SULT1A1 and UGT1A1) was determined by RT-PCR and global expression changes were also examined...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
Amal Mohamed Ahmed, Maha Abdel Ghany, Gehan Lotfy Abdel Hakeem, Aya Kamal, Rania Khattab, Asmaa Abdalla, Laila El Morsi Abou El Fotoh, Abdel Azeem El Mazary, Madiha Abdalla Sayed, Ashraf Mohamed Abdel Fadil
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the health problems with great burden on the liver that may end with liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this work was to assess serum vitamin D level in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease children. METHODS: This cross sectional case control study involved 47 patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease selected while recruiting the pediatric hepatology clinics. Their ages ranged from 5-15 years and were compared with 23 healthy age and sex matched children...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
Jocelyn L Tan-Shalaby, Jennifer Carrick, Krystal Edinger, Dana Genovese, Andrew D Liman, Vida A Passero, Rashmikant B Shah
BACKGROUND: Dysfunctional mitochondrial processes limit malignant cells ability to use energy from fatty acids and ketones. Animal studies using ketogenic diets for cancer show encouraging results. We tested the diet's safety and feasibility in cancer patients across a broad variety of solid tumors. METHODS: We recruited 17 advanced cancer patients who were not on chemotherapy. They consumed 20 to 40 g of carbohydrates daily with evaluations performed weekly until week 4, then every 4 weeks until 16 weeks...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
David Højland Ipsen, Pernille Tveden-Nyborg, Bidda Rolin, Günaj Rakipovski, Maria Beck, Line Winther Mortensen, Lasse Færk, Peter Mikael Helweg Heegaard, Peter Møller, Jens Lykkesfeldt
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and dyslipidemia are closely related. Diet plays an important role in the progression of these diseases, but the role of specific dietary components is not completely understood. Therefore, we investigated the role of dietary sucrose and fat/cholesterol on the development of dyslipidemia and NAFLD. METHODS: Seventy female guinea pigs were block-randomized (based on weight) into five groups and fed a normal chow diet (control: 4 % fat), a very high-sucrose diet (vHS: 4 % fat, 25 % sucrose), a high-fat diet (HF: 20 % fat, 0...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
Shahida A Khan, Ghazi Damanhouri, Ashraf Ali, Sarah A Khan, Aziz Khan, Ahmed Bakillah, Samy Marouf, Ghazi Al Harbi, Saeed H Halawani, Ahmad Makki
Nutritional research in sickle cell disease has been the focus in recent times owing to not only specific nutritional deficiencies, but also the improvements associated with less painful episodes. Though hydroxyurea remains the drug of choice, certain adverse health effects on long term supplementation makes room for researches of different compounds. Macro and micro nutrient deficiencies, along with vitamins, play an important role in not only meeting the calorific needs, but also reducing clinical complications and growth abnormalities...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
Xunxian Liu, Zemin Yao
Loss of cellular response to hormonal regulation in maintaining metabolic homeostasis is common in the process of aging. Chronic over-nutrition may render cells insensitive to such a hormonal regulation owing to overstimulation of certain signaling pathways, thus accelerating aging and causing diseases. The glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) plays a pivotal role in relaying various extracellular and intracellular regulatory signals critical to cell growth, survival, regeneration, or death. The main signaling pathway regulating GSK3 activity through serine-phosphorylation is the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1)/Akt relay that catalyzes serine-phosphorylation and thus inactivation of GSK3...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
Zeina Soayfane, François Tercé, Michela Cantiello, Horst Robenek, Michel Nauze, Valérie Bézirard, Sophie Allart, Bruno Payré, Florence Capilla, Christel Cartier, Christine Peres, Talal Al Saati, Vassilia Théodorou, David W Nelson, Chi-Liang Eric Yen, Xavier Collet, Christine Coméra
BACKGROUND: Intestinal absorption of dietary lipids involves their hydrolysis in the lumen of proximal intestine as well as uptake, intracellular transport and re-assembly of hydrolyzed lipids in enterocytes, leading to the formation and secretion of the lipoproteins chylomicrons and HDL. In this study, we examined the potential involvement of cytosolic lipid droplets (CLD) whose function in the process of lipid absorption is poorly understood. METHODS: Intestinal lipid absorption was studied in mouse after gavage...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
Frank Quentin Nuttall, Rami Mahmoud Almokayyad, Mary Carol Gannon
BACKGROUND: We recently have reported the 24-hour glucose, insulin and glucagon responses to a 72-hour fast compared to a 72-hour macronutrient-sufficient, carbohydrate-free diet in men with type 2 diabetes. The 72-hour time period was used because it is the time required for the major metabolic adjustments to a lack of food to be instituted. As part of that study, ghrelin and leptin responses were monitored. METHODS: Twenty-four-hour total ghrelin and overnight fasting leptin concentrations were determined in males with type 2 diabetes when ingesting a standard, mixed meal diet (control), followed by a carbohydrate-free diet for 72 h or were starved for 72 h, using a crossover design...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
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