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Nutrition & Metabolism

Xue Tang, Renqiang Yu, Qin Zhou, Shanyu Jiang, Guowei Le
Background: γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and reported to maintain the redox homeostasis and insulin secretion function of pancreatic β cells. This study tested the hypothesis that GABA maintains cellular redox status, and modulates glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β and antioxidant-related nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) nuclear mass ratio in the H2 O2 -injured RINm5F cells. Methods: RINm5F cells were treated with/without GABA (50, 100 and 200 μmol/L) for 48 h and then exposed to 100 μmol/L H2 O2 for 30 min...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Navid Abedpoor, Farzaneh Taghian, Kamran Ghaedi, Iman Niktab, Zahra Safaeinejad, Farzaneh Rabiee, Sommayeh Tanhaei, Mohammad Hossein Nasr-Esfahani
Background: Previous studies have revealed the inductive effect of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) catabolism on fatty acid oxidation and metabolism, especially in muscle cells. In the present investigation, we have attempted to address whether a combination of BCAAs supplement consumption with aerobic exercise could elaborate the expression of PPAR γ, Pgc-1α and Fndc5 genes in gastrocnemius muscle and heart tissue of male C57BL/6 mice. Methods: Thirty-six young male mice with an average weight of 18 ± 2 g were selected...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Yanqiang Geng, Qiugang Ma, Zhong Wang, Yuming Guo
Background: The effects of vitamin D on the immune function of laying hens are not well understood. This study investigated the effects of vitamin D3 (VD3 ) on laying performance and immunological functions in laying hens under Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Methods: In experiment one, 360 Jinghong-1 strain layers (32 weeks) were randomly divided into four groups with six replicates per group and 15 hens per replicate. Hens were fed a basal diet supplemented with different levels of VD3 (0; 500; 1500; or 3000 IU VD3 /kg of diet) for 10 weeks to determine laying performance, egg quality, and other parameters...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Qi Zhao, Hui Shen, Kuan-Jui Su, Ji-Gang Zhang, Qing Tian, Lan-Juan Zhao, Chuan Qiu, Qiang Zhang, Timothy J Garrett, Jiawang Liu, Hong-Wen Deng
Background: Individuals' peak bone mineral density (BMD) achieved and maintained at ages 20-40 years is the most powerful predictor of low bone mass and osteoporotic fractures later in life. The aim of this study was to identify metabolomic factors associated with peak BMD variation in US Caucasian women. Methods: A total of 136 women aged 20-40 years, including 65 subjects with low and 71 with high hip BMD, were enrolled. The serum metabolites were assessed using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Leila Sadat Bahrami, Seyed Hashem Sezavar Seyedi Jandaghi, Leila Janani, Mina Pahlavan, Seyed Mostafa Arabi, Homa Sadeghi, Mohammadreza Vafa
Background: The aim in this study was to investigate the effect of vitamin D (25(OH)D3 ) supplementation on heat shock protein 60 (HSP 60) and other inflammatory markers (IL-17, TNF-α, PAB) in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods: In this double-blind, randomized clinical trial, we recruited 80 male and female patients aged 30-60 with CHD and 25(OH)D3 serum levels < 30 ng/ml from Rasool-e-Akram Hospital in Tehran, Iran. Serum levels of HSP 60 as primary outcome, and 25(OH)D3, IL-17, TNF-α, PAB, lipid profiles and parathyroid hormone (PTH) as secondary outcomes were measured at baseline and post-intervention...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Julie K Bray, Gabriel S Chiu, Leslie K McNeil, Morgan L Moon, Robyn Wall, Albert E Towers, Gregory G Freund
Background: Reducing caloric intake is a proven intervention for mitigating and modulating morbidities associated with overnutrition. Caloric restriction is difficult to affect clinically, therefore, dietary interventions that ameliorate the adverse consequences of overnutrition in the presence of a high-calorie diet would be of value. Methods: Mice were fed an obesogenic diet containing 60% fat + 10% cellulose (HFC), or a control diet containing 10% fat + 10% cellulose (LFC) for 12 wks...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Rosângela Maria Lopes Sousa, Nathalee Liberal Xavier Ribeiro, Bruno Araújo Serra Pinto, Jonas Rodrigues Sanches, Mariana Uchôa da Silva, Caio Fernando Ferreira Coêlho, Lucas Martins França, José Albuquerque de Figueiredo Neto, Antonio Marcus de Andrade Paes
Background: Consumption of added sugars has been considered a worldwide public health concern by its association with metabolic syndrome and its comorbidities. Meanwhile, current studies have suggested high-protein diets to promote weight loss and improved metabolic outcomes. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the effects of long-term high-protein diet (HPD, 34.3% protein) intake on high-sucrose-fed rats. Methods: Weaned male Wistar rats were randomized into two groups: rats fed a standard chow (CT/CT, 10% sucrose) or rats fed a high-sucrose diet (HSD, 25% sucrose) for a 20-week observational period...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Ana Paula Santos Rodrigues, Lorena Pereira Souza Rosa, Erika Aparecida Silveira
Background: Previous intervention studies have reported the association of the PPARG2 Pro12Ala (rs1801282) and IL6 -174G > C (rs1800795) polymorphisms with weight loss; however, their results are inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the effect of the PPARG2 Pro12Ala and IL6 -174G > C polymorphisms on body weight, body composition and metabolic parameters after a 12-week nutritional intervention with a traditional Brazilian diet and extra virgin olive oil supplementation in severely obese patients...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Irene Cantero, Itziar Abete, Josep Maria Del Bas, Antoni Caimari, Lluís Arola, M Angeles Zulet, J Alfredo Martinez
Background: Obesity and comorbidities such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are major public health burdens. Alterations in lipid metabolism are involved in hepatic diseases. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of weight loss on lysophospholipid (LP) metabolism and liver status in obese subjects as well as to provide new evidence regarding the interaction of LP metabolism as a key factor in the onset and management of obesity-related diseases such as liver damage...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Pegah Khaloo, Mitra Hasheminia, Maryam Tohidi, Hengameh Abdi, Mohammad Ali Mansournia, Fereidoun Azizi, Farzad Hadaegh
Background: To examine the impact of changes in all lipid measures including total cholesterol (TC), log-transformed triglycerides (Ln-TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), non-HDL-C, TC/HDL-C and Ln TG/HDL-C, over an approximate 3 year duration, on incident type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Methods: A total of 5474 participants, mean age 41.3 years, without prevalent diabetes at baseline or the first follow-up were entered into the study...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Rafaella Cristhine Pordeus Luna, Mayara Karla Dos Santos Nunes, Mussara Gomes Cavalcante Alves Monteiro, Cássia Surama Oliveira da Silva, Rayner Anderson Ferreira do Nascimento, Raquel Patrícia Ataíde Lima, Flávia Cristina Fernandes Pimenta, Naila Francis Paulo de Oliveira, Darlene Camati Persuhn, Aléssio Tony Cavalcanti de Almeida, Alcides da Silva Diniz, Cristina Wide Pissetti, Rodrigo Pinheiro Toledo Vianna, Flavia Emília Leite de Lima Ferreira, Maria da Conceição Rodrigues Gonçalves, Maria José de Carvalho Costa
Background: Excess weight is a strong risk factor for the development of dysglycaemia. It has been suggested that changes in the metabolism microRNAs, small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression, could precede late glycaemic changes. Vitamin E in turn may exert important functions in methylation and gene expression processes. This study aimed to determine the effect of α-tocopherol on glycaemic variables and miR-9-1 and miR-9-3 promoter DNA methylation in overweight women. Methods: A randomized, double-blind, exploratory, placebo-controlled study was conducted in overweight and obese adult women ( n  = 44) who ingested synthetic vitamin E (all-rac-α-tocopherol), natural source vitamin E (RRR-rac-α-tocopherol) or placebo capsules and were followed up for a period of 8 weeks...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Hao Wang, Ruying Hu, Huaidong Du, Bragg Fiona, Jieming Zhong, Min Yu
Background: Obesity has been identified as a major risk factor for a large number of chronic diseases. Understanding factors related to adolescent obesity is critical for prevention of chronic diseases. The associations between sleep duration and obesity among adolescents in the existing literature are controversial. Our study was designed to determine the prevalence of short sleep duration, and assess the association of sleep duration and obesity, among middle and high school students in Zhejiang, China...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Arrigo F G Cicero, Federica Fogacci, Martina Rosticci, Angelo Parini, Marina Giovannini, Maddalena Veronesi, Sergio D'Addato, Claudio Borghi
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/s12986-017-0214-2.].
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Robbi E Cardenas-Perez, Lizeth Fuentes-Mera, Ana Laura de la Garza, Ivan Torre-Villalvazo, Luis A Reyes-Castro, Humberto Rodriguez-Rocha, Aracely Garcia-Garcia, Juan Carlos Corona-Castillo, Armando R Tovar, Elena Zambrano, Rocio Ortiz-Lopez, Jennifer Saville, Maria Fuller, Alberto Camacho
Background: Maternal overnutrition including pre-pregnancy, pregnancy and lactation promotes a lipotoxic insult leading to metabolic dysfunction in offspring. Diet-induced obesity models (DIO) show that changes in hypothalamic mitochondria fusion and fission dynamics modulate metabolic dysfunction. Using three selective diet formula including a High fat diet (HFD), Cafeteria (CAF) and High Sugar Diet (HSD), we hypothesized that maternal diets exposure program leads to selective changes in hypothalamic mitochondria fusion and fission dynamics in male offspring leading to metabolic dysfunction which is exacerbated by a second exposure after weaning...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Huizi Li, Yinghua Liu, Xinsheng Zhang, Qing Xu, Yong Zhang, Changyong Xue, Changjiang Guo
Background: Bile acids play a pivotal role in cholesterol metabolism via the enterohepatic circulation. This study investigated the effects of medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs)/medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) on the reduction of bile acid absorption in the small intestine and the mechanisms of action in vivo and partially verified in vitro. Methods: Thirty-six C57BL/6 J mice with hypercholesterolaemia were randomly divided into 3 groups: fed a cholesterol-rich diet (CR group), fed a cholesterol-rich and medium-chain triglyceride diet (CR-MCT group) and fed a cholesterol-rich and long-chain triglyceride diet (CR-LCT group)...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Zheng Zhou, Bao Sun, Xiaoping Li, Chunsheng Zhu
Although genetic variations and environmental factors are vital to the development and progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), emerging literature suggest that epigenetics, especially DNA methylation, play a key role in the pathogenesis of T2DM by affecting insulin secretion of pancreatic β cells and the body's resistance to insulin. Previous studies have elucidated how DNA methylation interacted with various factors in T2DM pathogenesis. This review summarized the role of related methylation genes in insulin-sensitive organs, such as pancreatic islets, skeletal muscle, liver, brain and adipose tissue, as well as peripheral blood cells, comparing the tissue similarity and specificity of methylated genes, aiming at a better understanding of the pathogenesis of T2DM and providing new ideas for the personalized treatment of this metabolism-associated disease...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Eleni Pavlidou, Dimitris Petridis, Maria Tolia, Nikolaos Tsoukalas, Antigoni Poultsidi, Aristeidis Fasoulas, George Kyrgias, Constantinos Giaginis
Background: Many studies have been performed over time in order to determine the reliability of metabolic rate prediction equations. Purpose: To evaluate the agreement, in terms of bias, absolute bias and accuracy between metabolic rate prediction equations and measured metabolic rate using indirect calorimetry system (IC), investigating also the factors affecting this agreement. Methods: The anthropometric features of 383 Caucasian participants of all Body Mass Index (BMI) classes were recorded and Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR) was measured by using the IC Fitmate portable device...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Hang Li, Xia Li, Sheng Yuan, Yalei Jin, Jinping Lu
Background: Nut consumption has been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, its role in the prevention of metabolic disorders, such as metabolic syndrome (Mets) and overweight/obesity, remains controversial. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis to determine the association of nut consumption with Mets and overweight/obesity. Methods: Eligible studies were identified by searching the PubMed and Embase databases and by reviewing the references of relevant literatures...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Elisabet Forsum, Birgitta Janerot-Sjöberg, Marie Löf
Background: Physical activity is associated with health in women. Published MET-values (MET: metabolic equivalent of task) may assess physical activity and energy expenditure but tend to be too low for subjects with a high total body fat (TBF) content and therefore inappropriate for many contemporary women. The MET-value for an activity is the energy expenditure of a subject performing this activity divided by his/her resting energy expenditure, often assumed to be 4.2 kJ/kg/h. Relationships between TBF and MET have been little studied although overweight and obesity is common in women...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Chao Yang, Lihua Li, Ligang Yang, Hui Lǚ, Shaokang Wang, Guiju Sun
Background: Until now, little research concerning the lipid-lowering and anti-obesity functions of garlic oil and onion oil has been performed. The objective of this study was to explore the effects of garlic oil and onion oil on serum lipid levels in hyperlipidemia model rats, to provide a scientific basis for the prevention of hyperlipidemia through a dietary approach, and to explore the potential health benefits of garlic and onion. Method: Ninety-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into eight groups based on their body weight and serum levels of triglycerides (TG) and total cholesterol (TC)...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
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