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Nutrition & Metabolism

Pegah Khaloo, Mitra Hasheminia, Maryam Tohidi, Hengameh Abdi, Mohammad Ali Mansournia, Fereidoun Azizi, Farzad Hadaegh
Background: To examine the impact of changes in all lipid measures including total cholesterol (TC), log-transformed triglycerides (Ln-TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), non-HDL-C, TC/HDL-C and Ln TG/HDL-C, over an approximate 3 year duration, on incident type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Methods: A total of 5474 participants, mean age 41.3 years, without prevalent diabetes at baseline or the first follow-up were entered into the study...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Rafaella Cristhine Pordeus Luna, Mayara Karla Dos Santos Nunes, Mussara Gomes Cavalcante Alves Monteiro, Cássia Surama Oliveira da Silva, Rayner Anderson Ferreira do Nascimento, Raquel Patrícia Ataíde Lima, Flávia Cristina Fernandes Pimenta, Naila Francis Paulo de Oliveira, Darlene Camati Persuhn, Aléssio Tony Cavalcanti de Almeida, Alcides da Silva Diniz, Cristina Wide Pissetti, Rodrigo Pinheiro Toledo Vianna, Flavia Emília Leite de Lima Ferreira, Maria da Conceição Rodrigues Gonçalves, Maria José de Carvalho Costa
Background: Excess weight is a strong risk factor for the development of dysglycaemia. It has been suggested that changes in the metabolism microRNAs, small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression, could precede late glycaemic changes. Vitamin E in turn may exert important functions in methylation and gene expression processes. This study aimed to determine the effect of α-tocopherol on glycaemic variables and miR-9-1 and miR-9-3 promoter DNA methylation in overweight women. Methods: A randomized, double-blind, exploratory, placebo-controlled study was conducted in overweight and obese adult women ( n  = 44) who ingested synthetic vitamin E (all-rac-α-tocopherol), natural source vitamin E (RRR-rac-α-tocopherol) or placebo capsules and were followed up for a period of 8 weeks...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Hao Wang, Ruying Hu, Huaidong Du, Bragg Fiona, Jieming Zhong, Min Yu
Background: Obesity has been identified as a major risk factor for a large number of chronic diseases. Understanding factors related to adolescent obesity is critical for prevention of chronic diseases. The associations between sleep duration and obesity among adolescents in the existing literature are controversial. Our study was designed to determine the prevalence of short sleep duration, and assess the association of sleep duration and obesity, among middle and high school students in Zhejiang, China...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Arrigo F G Cicero, Federica Fogacci, Martina Rosticci, Angelo Parini, Marina Giovannini, Maddalena Veronesi, Sergio D'Addato, Claudio Borghi
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/s12986-017-0214-2.].
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Robbi E Cardenas-Perez, Lizeth Fuentes-Mera, Ana Laura de la Garza, Ivan Torre-Villalvazo, Luis A Reyes-Castro, Humberto Rodriguez-Rocha, Aracely Garcia-Garcia, Juan Carlos Corona-Castillo, Armando R Tovar, Elena Zambrano, Rocio Ortiz-Lopez, Jennifer Saville, Maria Fuller, Alberto Camacho
Background: Maternal overnutrition including pre-pregnancy, pregnancy and lactation promotes a lipotoxic insult leading to metabolic dysfunction in offspring. Diet-induced obesity models (DIO) show that changes in hypothalamic mitochondria fusion and fission dynamics modulate metabolic dysfunction. Using three selective diet formula including a High fat diet (HFD), Cafeteria (CAF) and High Sugar Diet (HSD), we hypothesized that maternal diets exposure program leads to selective changes in hypothalamic mitochondria fusion and fission dynamics in male offspring leading to metabolic dysfunction which is exacerbated by a second exposure after weaning...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Huizi Li, Yinghua Liu, Xinsheng Zhang, Qing Xu, Yong Zhang, Changyong Xue, Changjiang Guo
Background: Bile acids play a pivotal role in cholesterol metabolism via the enterohepatic circulation. This study investigated the effects of medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs)/medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) on the reduction of bile acid absorption in the small intestine and the mechanisms of action in vivo and partially verified in vitro. Methods: Thirty-six C57BL/6 J mice with hypercholesterolaemia were randomly divided into 3 groups: fed a cholesterol-rich diet (CR group), fed a cholesterol-rich and medium-chain triglyceride diet (CR-MCT group) and fed a cholesterol-rich and long-chain triglyceride diet (CR-LCT group)...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Zheng Zhou, Bao Sun, Xiaoping Li, Chunsheng Zhu
Although genetic variations and environmental factors are vital to the development and progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), emerging literature suggest that epigenetics, especially DNA methylation, play a key role in the pathogenesis of T2DM by affecting insulin secretion of pancreatic β cells and the body's resistance to insulin. Previous studies have elucidated how DNA methylation interacted with various factors in T2DM pathogenesis. This review summarized the role of related methylation genes in insulin-sensitive organs, such as pancreatic islets, skeletal muscle, liver, brain and adipose tissue, as well as peripheral blood cells, comparing the tissue similarity and specificity of methylated genes, aiming at a better understanding of the pathogenesis of T2DM and providing new ideas for the personalized treatment of this metabolism-associated disease...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Eleni Pavlidou, Dimitris Petridis, Maria Tolia, Nikolaos Tsoukalas, Antigoni Poultsidi, Aristeidis Fasoulas, George Kyrgias, Constantinos Giaginis
Background: Many studies have been performed over time in order to determine the reliability of metabolic rate prediction equations. Purpose: To evaluate the agreement, in terms of bias, absolute bias and accuracy between metabolic rate prediction equations and measured metabolic rate using indirect calorimetry system (IC), investigating also the factors affecting this agreement. Methods: The anthropometric features of 383 Caucasian participants of all Body Mass Index (BMI) classes were recorded and Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR) was measured by using the IC Fitmate portable device...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Hang Li, Xia Li, Sheng Yuan, Yalei Jin, Jinping Lu
Background: Nut consumption has been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, its role in the prevention of metabolic disorders, such as metabolic syndrome (Mets) and overweight/obesity, remains controversial. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis to determine the association of nut consumption with Mets and overweight/obesity. Methods: Eligible studies were identified by searching the PubMed and Embase databases and by reviewing the references of relevant literatures...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Elisabet Forsum, Birgitta Janerot-Sjöberg, Marie Löf
Background: Physical activity is associated with health in women. Published MET-values (MET: metabolic equivalent of task) may assess physical activity and energy expenditure but tend to be too low for subjects with a high total body fat (TBF) content and therefore inappropriate for many contemporary women. The MET-value for an activity is the energy expenditure of a subject performing this activity divided by his/her resting energy expenditure, often assumed to be 4.2 kJ/kg/h. Relationships between TBF and MET have been little studied although overweight and obesity is common in women...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Chao Yang, Lihua Li, Ligang Yang, Hui Lǚ, Shaokang Wang, Guiju Sun
Background: Until now, little research concerning the lipid-lowering and anti-obesity functions of garlic oil and onion oil has been performed. The objective of this study was to explore the effects of garlic oil and onion oil on serum lipid levels in hyperlipidemia model rats, to provide a scientific basis for the prevention of hyperlipidemia through a dietary approach, and to explore the potential health benefits of garlic and onion. Method: Ninety-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into eight groups based on their body weight and serum levels of triglycerides (TG) and total cholesterol (TC)...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Janaiya S Samuels, Rangaiah Shashidharamurthy, Srujana Rayalam
Background: Obesity alters adipose tissue metabolic and endocrine functioning, leading to an increased adiposity and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Various phytochemicals have been reported to contribute to the beiging of white adipose tissue in order to ameliorate obesity by increasing thermogenesis. Here, we show that the prenylated chalcone, xanthohumol (XN), induces beiging of white adipocytes, stimulates lipolysis, and inhibits adipogenesis of murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes and primary human subcutaneous preadipocytes and these effects are partly mediated by the activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Yinzhi Zhang, Shihai Zhang, Wutai Guan, Fang Chen, Lin Cheng, Yantao Lv, Jun Chen
Background: Lactose synthesis rate is an important factor in milk production and quality in mammals. Understanding the lactose synthesis mechanism is crucial for the improvement of milk quantity and quality. However, research on the temporal gene changes regarding lactose synthesis during the whole lactation is still limited. The objective of this study was to determine gene expression profiles related to lactose synthesis in sows during lactation, and further identify the critical steps or key factors in the lactose synthesis pathway...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Maryam Akbari, Vahidreza Ostadmohammadi, Reza Tabrizi, Moein Mobini, Kamran B Lankarani, Mahmood Moosazadeh, Seyed Taghi Heydari, Maryam Chamani, Fariba Kolahdooz, Zatollah Asemi
Objective: This systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to determine the effect of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) supplementation on the inflammatory markers among patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and related disorders. Methods: We searched the following databases until November 2017: PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Three reviewers independently assessed study eligibility, extracted data, and evaluated risk of bias of included primary studies...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Noureddin Soltanian, Mohsen Janghorbani
Background: To compare the effects of baked flaxseed versus those who received a placebo on constipation symptom scores, weight, glycemic and lipid control in constipated patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods: In a single-blinded, randomized controlled trial, 53 constipated patients with T2D with body mass index (BMI) 20.5-48.9 kg/m2 received either 10 g of flaxseed pre-mixed in cookies twice per day or placebo cookies for 12 weeks. The constipation symptom scores, BMI, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and lipid profile were determined at the beginning and end of 4, 8, and 12-week period...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Mari Johannessen Walquist, Svein Kristian Stormo, Bjarne Østerud, Edel O Elvevoll, Karl-Erik Eilertsen
Background: Long-chain n3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n3-PUFA) are well known for their anti-inflammatory activity and their impact on cardiovascular disease. Cold-pressed whale oil (CWO) has half the amount of LC n3-PUFA compared to cod liver oil (CLO). Still, there has been observed more pronounced beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease markers from intake of CWO compared to intake of CLO in human intervention studies. Extracts from CWO deprived of fatty acids have also been shown to display antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects in vitro...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Qi-Ying Song, Xiang-Rui Meng, Anke Hinney, Jie-Yun Song, Tao Huang, Jun Ma, Hai-Jun Wang
Background: The meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies identified several waist-hip ratio (WHR) related loci in individuals of European ancestry. Since the pattern of fat distribution and the relationship between fat distribution and glucose metabolism disturbance in Chinese are different from those in Europeans, the present study aimed to explore the individual and cumulative effects of WHR-related loci on glycemic phenotypes in Chinese children. Methods: A total of 2030 children were recruited from two independent studies...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Milan Holeček
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs; valine, leucine, and isoleucine) are essential amino acids with protein anabolic properties, which have been studied in a number of muscle wasting disorders for more than 50 years. However, until today, there is no consensus regarding their therapeutic effectiveness. In the article is demonstrated that the crucial roles in BCAA metabolism play: (i) skeletal muscle as the initial site of BCAA catabolism accompanied with the release of alanine and glutamine to the blood; (ii) activity of branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKD); and (iii) amination of branched-chain keto acids (BCKAs) to BCAAs...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Youping Zhou, Shengjie Yu, Can Cai, Li Zhong, Huihong Yu, Wei Shen
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate how the signaling pathway downstream of mTOR/S6K1 contributes to the regulation of SREBP-1c expression during lipogenesis in HepG2 cells. Methods: The model of steatosis was established using human hepatocytes HepG2 and inducting them with sodium palmitate. mTOR, S6K1 and LXRα were inhibited by rapamycin, PF-4708671 and siRNA-LXRα, respectively. After a variety of different treatment, the levels of intracellular triglycerides, the accumulation of lipid droplets and the expression levels of related genes were detected...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Fan Yang, Yanyan Dai, Cuiting Min, Xiaonan Li
Background: Postnatal overfeeding activates tissue glucocorticoid (GC) activity by up-regulating 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1) and increasing sensitivity to high-fat (HF) diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of postnatal overfeeding on GC regulation and lipogenesis in the liver and to observe the impact of GC on hepatocyte lipid metabolism. Methods: In vivo , Male Sprague-Dawley rat pup litters were adjusted to litter sizes of three (small litter, SL) or ten (normal litter, NL) on postnatal day 3 and then given standard chow from postnatal week 3 (W3) to W13...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
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